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Guidelines for Effective

Component Engineering

Technical Report
Guidelines for Effective Component
Engineering

1011896

Final Report, December 2005

EPRI Project Manager


R. Chambers

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE


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CITATIONS

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This report describes research sponsored by EPRI.

The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:

Guidelines for Effective Component Engineering. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2005. 1011896.

iii
REPORT SUMMARY

Background
The increase in utility mergers, subsequent changes in organizational structures, and the loss of
seasoned engineering expertise throughout the nuclear power industry have prompted many plant
managers to evaluate the benefits and need for component engineers (CEs). In 2004, the EPRI
Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) was asked to study the CE function in light
of these recent industry trends and provide a current analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and
interfaces that could ultimately lead to improved equipment reliability.

Objectives
• To present a compilation of data regarding the roles, responsibilities, organizational structure,
and interfaces of CEs at nuclear power plants
• To define common functions and responsibilities of CEs
• To identify and describe options of various organizational structures employing other
personnel to fulfill these roles
• To identify the pros and cons of the various approaches being used in the industry, including
successful and unsuccessful approaches
• To evaluate the CE’s interfaces with the maintenance, operations, outage planning, design
engineering, and procurement organizations and examine the ways their roles integrate with
the plant operations and processes

Approach
In cooperation with interested NMAC members, utility engineers formed a task group to
identify key issues regarding the roles and responsibilities of CEs at nuclear power plants and
provide input into the preparation of the guidance set forth in this report. Development of the
report was closely coordinated with industry representatives and key organizations to ensure
consistency with current industry-wide guidance and lessons learned. Proven practices and
techniques were identified during this effort, and the results are compiled in this report.

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Results
This report provides a mission statement, presents key CE functions that add value, and discusses
desirable skills and performance attributes for CE staffing. The focus of the report provides
guidance for establishing effective interface of the CE function with both internal and external
organizations. In addition, the report offers guidance for determining appropriate engineering
outputs provided by the CE. Finally, the report presents the licensee with examples of component
health reporting presented at the corporate, site, and unit levels; typical benefits of the CE
function; and industry-wide lessons learned.

EPRI Perspective
The information contained in this guideline represents a significant collection of human
performance information (including techniques and good practices) related to CEs in their
support of various work activities common at nuclear power plants. Assemblage of this
information provides a single point of reference for plant engineering and maintenance
personnel, both presently and in the future. Through the use of this guideline and in close
conjunction with the industry guidance provided by the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations,
EPRI members should be able to significantly improve and consistently implement the processes
associated with the CE function, both at the site and at corporate levels. This will subsequently
help members achieve improved reliability and sustainable availability of the components for
which the CE is responsible.

Keywords
Component engineer
Engineering roles
NMAC
Reliability
Availability

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

EPRI wishes to acknowledge the members of the Task Advisory Group:


Mike Altizer, Southern Nuclear Operating Co.
Marty Bridges, EPRI EMC
William Michael Carwile, Duke Energy Corp.
Ray Chambers, EPRI EMC
Bob Creswell, Bruce Power, Inc.
Ray Dufresne, Hydro-Quebec
Randy Glisson (Chairman), Southern Nuclear Operating Co.
Daryl Gruver, Progress Energy, Inc.
George Hamrick, Duke Energy Corp.
Cliff Harrison, American Electric Power Service Corp.
Earl Hemmila, Nuclear Management Company
Masao Honjin, Tokyo Electric Power Service Co., Ltd.
Larry Huey, Southern Nuclear Operating Co.
Richard Klimczak, Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
Kevin Kuhn, Southern Nuclear Operating Co.
Jacques Langlois, Hydro-Quebec
Susan McCarthy, American Electric Power Service Corp.
Horst Paetzold, Ontario Power Generation, Inc.
Gary Paterson, Ontario Power Generation, Inc.
Anthony Tramontana, Public Service Electric & Gas Co.
Mike Tulay, Sequoia Consulting Group, Inc.
Neil Wilmshurst, EPRI PSE
Don Wilson, Ontario Power Generation, Inc.
Rex Yance, Southern Nuclear Operating Co.
In addition, EPRI acknowledges the contribution of Mike Tulay in the preparation of this report.

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................1-1
1.1 Purpose and Scope .....................................................................................................1-1
1.2 Background..................................................................................................................1-1
1.3 Use and Implementation of This Technical Report ......................................................1-2
1.4 Problem Definition .......................................................................................................1-2
1.4.1 Organizational Interface Problems......................................................................1-3
1.4.2 Staffing Problems................................................................................................1-4
1.4.3 Strategic Planning Problems...............................................................................1-4
1.4.4 Problems with Information Exchanges and Engineering Output
Documents .......................................................................................................................1-4
1.4.5 Problems Related to External Organizations ......................................................1-5
1.5 Summary of Perceived and Actual Benefits of Component Engineering.....................1-5
1.5.1 Corporate Level...................................................................................................1-5
1.5.2 Multi-Unit Site Level ............................................................................................1-5
1.5.3 Unit Level ............................................................................................................1-6
1.6 Report Structure and Content Overview ......................................................................1-6
1.6.1 Basic Premises ...................................................................................................1-6
1.6.2 Structure and Content of the Report ...................................................................1-6
1.7 Glossary of Terms and Acronyms................................................................................1-7
1.7.1 Industry Definitions and Nomenclature ...............................................................1-7
1.7.2 Acronyms ............................................................................................................1-8
1.8 Relationship with EPRI NMAC and to Other EPRI Reports.........................................1-9
1.9 Key Points....................................................................................................................1-9

2 COMPONENT ENGINEERING FUNCTIONS ........................................................................2-1


2.1 Functional Overview and Mission Statement...............................................................2-1
2.1.1 Functional Overview............................................................................................2-1
2.1.2 Mission Statement...............................................................................................2-2

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2.2 Key CE Functions That Add Value ..............................................................................2-2
2.2.1 Develop and Facilitate Execution of Long-Range Component
Maintenance Strategies....................................................................................................2-2
2.2.2 Provide Component Expertise/Oversight ............................................................2-3
2.2.3 Monitor and Improve Component Health ............................................................2-4
2.2.4 Provide Technical Oversight to Off-Site Vendors Refurbishing
Components .....................................................................................................................2-4
2.2.5 Develop, Implement, and Maintain Component-Oriented Programs ..................2-5
2.3 Components Most Often Assigned to a CE .................................................................2-5
2.3.1 Mechanical Components.....................................................................................2-6
2.3.2 Electrical Components ........................................................................................2-6
2.3.3 Instruments and Controls ....................................................................................2-7

3 COMPONENT SPECIALIST SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES, AND STAFFING ...............................3-1


3.1 CE Position Summary..................................................................................................3-1
3.2 Expertise and Experience Level ..................................................................................3-1
3.3 Competencies and Skills..............................................................................................3-2
3.4 Typical Qualifications for Engineering Support Personnel...........................................3-3
3.5 Staffing and Placement................................................................................................3-4
3.5.1 Corporate or Fleet-Wide Staffing ........................................................................3-5
3.5.2 Per-Unit Staffing..................................................................................................3-6

4 ORGANIZATIONAL INTERFACES AND OUTPUTS.............................................................4-1


4.1 Operations and Maintenance Interfaces ......................................................................4-2
4.1.1 Preventive/Corrective Maintenance Organizations .............................................4-3
4.1.2 Predictive Maintenance Organizations................................................................4-4
4.1.3 Plant Operations .................................................................................................4-4
4.2 Engineering Interfaces .................................................................................................4-5
4.2.1 Systems Engineering ..........................................................................................4-6
4.2.2 Design Engineering.............................................................................................4-6
4.2.3 Procurement Engineering and the Supply Chain ................................................4-7
4.3 Other Plant Interfaces ..................................................................................................4-7
4.3.1 Training Organization..........................................................................................4-8
4.3.2 Work Planning.....................................................................................................4-9
4.4 Interfacing with Organizations External to the Utility....................................................4-9
4.4.1 Refurbishment Service Suppliers......................................................................4-10

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4.4.2 Component Manufacturers................................................................................4-10
4.4.3 Industry Users Groups ......................................................................................4-11
4.5 Program Interfaces ....................................................................................................4-11
4.6 Component Engineering Outputs and Deliverables...................................................4-12

5 COMPONENT HEALTH REPORTS.......................................................................................5-1


5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................5-1
5.1.1 Integration of Component Health Reports...........................................................5-2
5.1.2 Key Attributes/Content of a Component Health Report ......................................5-2
5.1.3 Data for Component Health Reports...................................................................5-3
5.1.3.1 Data Requirements ..........................................................................................5-3
5.1.3.2 Data Sources ...................................................................................................5-3
5.1.3.3 Data Capture Requirements ............................................................................5-4
5.1.4 Data Trending and Analysis for Component Health Reports ..............................5-4
5.2 Determining Appropriate Component Attributes ..........................................................5-5
5.2.1 Component Failure Modes..................................................................................5-5
5.2.2 Component Degradation Mechanisms................................................................5-5
5.2.3 Component Degradation Mechanism Indicators .................................................5-5
5.3 Component Health Report Content and Format Examples .........................................5-6
5.3.1 Fleet-Wide Component Health Reports ..............................................................5-6
5.3.2 Multi-Unit Component Health Reports ..............................................................5-10
5.3.3 Single, Large-Unit Component Health Reports.................................................5-15

6 BENEFITS AND LESSONS LEARNED .................................................................................6-1


6.1 Benefits of Maintaining a Component Engineering Organization ................................6-1
6.1.1 Corporate Level...................................................................................................6-1
6.1.2 Multi-Unit Site Level ............................................................................................6-1
6.1.3 Unit Level ............................................................................................................6-2
6.2 Lessons Learned .........................................................................................................6-2

7 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................7-1
7.1 Industry Guidance........................................................................................................7-1
7.2 EPRI Technical Reports...............................................................................................7-1
7.3 Utility Procedures.........................................................................................................7-2

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A COMPILATION OF KEY POINTS ........................................................................................ A-1
A.1 Key O&M Cost Points ................................................................................................. A-1
A.2 Key Technical Points .................................................................................................. A-2
A.3 Key Human Performance Points................................................................................. A-3

B TRANSLATED TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................. B-1


Français (French) ................................................................................................................. B-2

日本語 (Japanese) ............................................................................................................... B-9


Español (Spanish) .............................................................................................................. B-17

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 Problem Areas Necessitating the CE Function ........................................................1-3


Figure 1-2 Scope and Content of This Report ...........................................................................1-7
Figure 4-1 Overview of Organizational Interfaces for the Site-Level CE....................................4-1
Figure 4-2 Operations and Maintenance Interfaces for the CE. ................................................4-3
Figure 4-3 Engineering Interfaces for the CE ............................................................................4-5
Figure 4-4 Training and Work-Planning Interfaces for the CE ...................................................4-8
Figure 4-5 External Interfaces for the CE ..................................................................................4-9
Figure 5-1 Uses for Component Health Reports........................................................................5-1
Figure 5-2 Exelon Component Line Indicator Matrix..................................................................5-7
Figure 5-3 Exelon Component Line Health................................................................................5-8
Figure 5-4 Exelon Semiannual Motor Report.............................................................................5-9
Figure 5-5 Exelon Trending Example ......................................................................................5-10
Figure 5-6 Comanche Peak Component Status Summary Definitions ....................................5-11
Figure 5-7 Example of Comanche Peak’s Component Status Report .....................................5-12
Figure 5-8 Comanche Peak Large Motors Status....................................................................5-13
Figure 5-9 Comanche Peak Large Motors Corrective Actions.................................................5-14
Figure 5-10 Comanche Peak Large Motors Long-Term Maintenance Plan.............................5-15
Figure 5-11 Callaway Component Health Summary for Transformers ....................................5-16

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1 Overview of the CE Function .....................................................................................2-1


Table 2-2 Typical Mechanical Components...............................................................................2-6
Table 2-3 Typical Electrical Components ..................................................................................2-6
Table 2-4 Typical Instruments and Controls .............................................................................2-7
Table 3-1 Typical Expertise and Experience Levels of Component Engineer ...........................3-1
Table 3-2 Typical ESP Qualification ..........................................................................................3-3
Table 3-3 Typical Corporate/Fleet-Level Staffing of Component Engineers..............................3-6
Table 3-4 Typical Site Staffing of Component Engineers on a Per-Unit Basis ..........................3-6
Table 4-1 Summary of Component Engineering Outputs and Deliverables ............................4-12

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1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this guideline is to describe the function of component engineers (CEs) at nuclear
power plants by considering their roles and responsibilities, as well as their position in and
interface with organizational structures. Specific objectives of developing this guideline are as
follows:
• Define common functions and responsibilities of CEs
• Identify and describe options of various organizational structures that employ other personnel
to fulfill these roles
• Identify the pros and cons of the various approaches being utilized in the industry, including
both successful and unsuccessful approaches
• Evaluate the CE’s interface with the maintenance, operations, outage planning, design
engineering, and procurement organizations; and identify how their role integrates with the
plant operations and processes, such as the following:
– Equipment reliability programs
– Predictive monitoring programs
– Preventive maintenance programs
– Component health monitoring programs (includes examples of component health reports)
– Component aging management
– Maintenance task selection and prioritization
– Plant staffing/shifts

1.2 Background

The benefits of and need for the CE function are being realized by many nuclear power utilities.
This need is a result of several factors, including the increase in utility mergers, subsequent
changes in organizational structures, aging nuclear plants, and the loss of seasoned engineering
expertise throughout the industry. In 2004, the EPRI Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center
(NMAC) was asked to study the CE function in light of these recent industry trends and provide
a current analysis of the CE’s roles, responsibilities, and interfaces that could ultimately lead to
improved equipment reliability.

1-1
Introduction

1.3 Use and Implementation of This Technical Report

The purpose of this guideline is to describe the function of CEs at nuclear power plants by
considering their roles and responsibilities as well as their position in and interface with
organizational structures. The information in this report is presented as guidance and should be
applied in that manner. In some cases, the guidance will validate existing CE organizations and
their functions. In other cases, the information will provide guidance and direction for
establishing or re-establishing a CE organization. In these latter cases, the licensee may choose,
through a gap analysis, to identify needs and target areas for improvements. Once that is done,
the information may be adapted to meet plant-specific needs and conditions.

1.4 Problem Definition

There continues to be many dynamics within the nuclear power industry that affect the efficiency
and effectiveness of both engineering and maintenance organizations. Many utilities have
undergone multiple reorganizations in recent years, some of which have resulted in either the
establishment or elimination of the CE role/position. Complicating this issue are the differing
roles and responsibilities that CEs assume, depending on the level at which they perform their
duties (that is, corporate, site, or unit level).

Licensees identified a number of problem areas and related issues that prompted either the
establishment of the CE function or a clarification of CE roles and responsibilities. The problem
areas are illustrated in Figure 1-1.

1-2
Introduction

Figure 1-1
Problem Areas Necessitating the CE Function

1.4.1 Organizational Interface Problems

Organizational interface problems are a primary concern for the CE organization, and these
problems are the main contributor to ineffectiveness. Organizational interface problems include
the following:
• Poor definition of roles and responsibilities among corporate-level engineers with component
expertise and system engineers/CEs at the various sites
• Lack of clarity between the CE’s role versus the roles of procurement, design, and system
engineering organizations
• Lack of acceptance of CEs by systems engineering organizations
• Lack of ownership of issues between systems engineers and CEs
• Limited influence by CEs due to reporting through several organizational layers
• Lack of a single point of contact for component-related issues
• Lack of organizational performance indicators

1-3
Introduction

1.4.2 Staffing Problems

Staffing difficulties plague many engineering organizations, not only in terms of numbers but
also in depth of technical expertise. The following are some examples of staffing issues facing
the CE organization:
• High turnover rate of engineering personnel
• Difficulty of gaining component-specific expertise in a resource-thin environment, thus
requiring CEs to have to handle many types of components within their discipline
• The aging plant workforce that characterizes engineering organizations
• The lead time necessary to develop component expertise, which causes some to “stagnate”
within the organization
• The hesitancy of management to move/promote CEs because of their unique technical
expertise

1.4.3 Strategic Planning Problems

Closely related to the staffing problem is the difficulty many CEs experience in not being able to
contribute to strategic planning and/or prioritize their work activities. There are several
contributors to this problem, as shown in the following examples:
• Program and long-term planning is limited due to emergent work support
• Time for program improvement is insufficient (too busy dealing with day-to-day issues)
• Component issues are not well integrated with the plant’s focus on equipment reliability
• Component long-range plans are not implemented (that is, for lack of budget or management
support)

1.4.4 Problems with Information Exchanges and Engineering Output Documents

Communicating information about components continues to be a major stumbling block to


efficient use of the CE. This information exchange is twofold as it includes both the efficiency
with which component information is gathered and the way in which information is compiled
and communicated to others. Examples of this problem area include the following:
• Lack of component health reports that are useful and that do not duplicate system health
reports
• Poor access to quality component information for maintenance activities
• Poor prioritization of design changes to affect and improve equipment reliability

1-4
Introduction

1.4.5 Problems Related to External Organizations

Problems often arise for the CE in his or her interactions with external organizations, such as
equipment manufacturers and service/refurbishment vendors. The following are examples of
these types of problems:
• Poor quality of equipment refurbishment provided by some vendors
• No single point of contact for potential equipment manufacturers to assist in developing
specifications for replacement components

1.5 Summary of Perceived and Actual Benefits of Component


Engineering

Benefits contributed by the CE function depend on the organizational structure of the utility. The
benefits noted in the following paragraphs are grouped for CEs on corporate, multi-site, and
single-unit levels.

1.5.1 Corporate Level


The primary benefit of the CE function at the corporate level is that the CE organization provides
a fleet overview approach to component purchases and repairs, enabling standardization of
responsibilities, improved efficiency, and reduced costs.

1.5.2 Multi-Unit Site Level

At the multi-unit site level, the component engineering function provides the following benefits:
• Work with craft labor to resolve in-progress issues
• Work with planning teams to resolve upcoming or scheduled component issues
• Serve as a single point of contact for component issues, including troubleshooting of failures
and root-cause/failure analyses
• Focus on component long-range planning
• Develop subject matter expertise on site at the level of the component-specific vendor
• Offer consistent preventive maintenance (PM) implementation for like components
• Serve as the primary interface with vendors
• Offer consistent interface with maintenance organizations
• Provide component expertise at the site level, rather than at the corporate level, which
facilitates better response to critical component issues
• Develop specialized technical expertise in each major component

1-5
Introduction

1.5.3 Unit Level

At the single-unit site level, the component engineering function provides the following benefits:
• Focus on common components across all systems
• Increase knowledge of the component group
• Provide more uniform treatment for maintenance and repair
• Provide long-term vision for component health
• Offer centralized information and expertise on components
• Focus on improving reliability on a component level (versus a broader focus on the
integrated system as by system engineers)
• Take a proactive approach toward improving component reliability and reduce operations
and maintenance (O&M) costs

1.6 Report Structure and Content Overview

1.6.1 Basic Premises

The terms component specialist and component engineer are used interchangeably throughout
the nuclear power industry. The title of component engineer does not imply that the individual
assigned CE responsibilities must, in all cases, have an engineering degree. Likewise, the use of
the title component specialist does not imply that the individual is less qualified than a
component engineer. For consistency, however, this report uses the term component engineer
(and acronym CE). The recommended skills and attributes of a typical CE, as listed in this
report, are provided for illustration only and should not be interpreted as minimum requirements
for qualification or certification purposes. Instead, the licensee should use this information as a
benchmark for use within each plant’s specific organizational structure and technical programs.
In actuality, only in rare cases will any one individual exemplify all of the characteristics
described in this guideline.

1.6.2 Structure and Content of the Report

Figure 1-2 illustrates the general structure and content of this technical report. The figure
identifies key sections in the report that provide guidance to licensees for effectively addressing
CE issues.

1-6
Introduction

Figure 1-2
Scope and Content of This Report

Section 2 provides a mission statement and presents key CE functions that add value. Section 3
discusses desirable skills and performance attributes for CE staffing. The focus of the report is
Section 4, which provides guidance for establishing effective interface, both with internal and
external organizations. This section also offers guidance for determining appropriate engineering
outputs to be provided by the CE. Section 5 provides the licensee with several examples of
component health reporting, presented at the corporate, site, and unit levels. Typical benefits and
industry-wide lessons learned are presented in Section 6, and Section 7 is a list of the numerous
reference and source materials used during the development of this report.

1.7 Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

1.7.1 Industry Definitions and Nomenclature

Component Engineer: An engaged, professional, well-trained individual who takes proactive and
effective measures to improve equipment reliability, reduce costs, and prevent plant challenges
due to component failures.

Component Health Report: A document used to communicate the status of a given component
(or group of like components) installed at a nuclear power plant.

1-7
Introduction

Engineering Program: A program created to enable an engineering organization to carry out its
assigned engineering responsibilities (generally highly technical or complex in nature).

Program: An organized set of activities, directed toward a common purpose or goal, in order for
an organization to carryout its responsibilities. A program generally is used to accomplish
routine tasks that are highly complex or tasks where success relies upon a high level of
coordination between numerous organizations. The key attributes of a program include a
mission, an owner (single point of contact), a defined sequence of activities and tasks, clearly
identified responsibilities for those performing the tasks (stakeholders), and indicators to monitor
program performance, health, and effectiveness. Key program attributes are generally
documented in a plan or procedure.

Program Health Report: A document used to communicate the status of a given program at a
nuclear utility, site, or power plant.

System Health Report: A document used to communicate the status of a given operating system
installed at a nuclear power plant.

1.7.2 Acronyms
AOV air-operated valve
ASHR automated station health report
CE component engineer/engineering (also know as component specialists)
CHIP component health indicator program
CHR component health review
ERP equipment reliability process
ESP engineering support personnel
INPO Institute of Nuclear Power Operations
IST in-service testing
MOV motor-operated valve
MW megawatt
NEI Nuclear Energy Institute
NMAC Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center
O&M operations and maintenance
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PM preventive maintenance
PMP performance monitoring plan
PWR pressurized water reactor

1-8
Introduction

SME subject matter expert


SNUPPS standardized nuclear unit power plant system
TR technical report

1.8 Relationship with EPRI NMAC and to Other EPRI Reports

The development of this report was made possible through the close working relationship
between the utility CE community and EPRI NMAC. During the development of this report, a
number of EPRI products were identified that already provide detailed guidance regarding some
CE functions, outputs, and organizational structures. These existing EPRI reports were primarily
used as source material to ensure consistency of applied guidance among licensees. They include
the following:
• Guideline for System Monitoring by System Engineers, report TR-107668
• Key Information for Replacing Components at Nuclear Power Plants, report 1011857
• NMAC Post-Maintenance Testing Guide, Revision 1, report 1009709
• System and Equipment Troubleshooting Guideline, report 1003093
• System, Component, and Program Health Reporting, report 1009745
• The Maintenance Engineer Fundamentals Handbook: An EPRI Course, report TR-106853

1.9 Key Points

Throughout this report, key information is summarized in Key Points. Key points are bold,
lettered boxes that succinctly restate information covered in detail in the surrounding text,
making the key points easier to locate.

The primary intent of a key point is to emphasize information that will allow individuals to take
action for the benefit of their plant. The information included in these key points was selected by
NMAC personnel, consultants, and utility personnel who prepared and reviewed this report.

The key points are organized according to the three categories: O&M Costs, Technical, and
Human Performance. Each category has an identifying icon, as shown next.

1-9
Introduction

Key O&M Cost Point


Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase, operating, or
maintenance costs.

Key Technical Point


Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.

Key Human Performance Point


Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order
to prevent injury or damage or to ease completion of the task.

Appendix A lists all key points in each category. The listing restates each key point and
references its location in the body of the report. By reviewing this listing, readers can determine
if they have taken advantage of key information that the writers of this guide believe would
benefit their power plants.

1-10
2
COMPONENT ENGINEERING FUNCTIONS

2.1 Functional Overview and Mission Statement

2.1.1 Functional Overview

The role of the CE can be analogous to a specialized medical practitioner. By contrast, the
system engineer can be thought of as a general practitioner. As a doctor (for example,
cardiologist or ophthalmologist) specializes in keeping specific organs healthy, so also the CE
specializes in keeping certain components healthy. For some time, many plant sites have not
recognized or appreciated the need for the specialization of CEs. But as nuclear plants are aging,
components (like aging bodies) tend to go wrong, wear out, and break down. Thus the need
arises for the kind of attention a CE can offer.

Table 2-1 provides an overview of the CE function using a medical model analogy. As illustrated
in the table, the overall goal centers on the health of the component, both short and long term.

Table 2-1
Overview of the CE Function

Functional Overview of the Comparative Analogy with the


Component Engineer Functions of a General Medical Practitioner
Develop and facilitate execution of long-range Recommend diets, exercise regimens, activities to
component maintenance strategies (Ref. Section maintain good health, and suggest which activities to
2.2.1). avoid that may cause long-term illnesses like cancer,
heart attack or stroke
Provide component expertise/oversight during Diagnose illnesses and prescribe treatment or
troubleshooting, root-cause analyses, and medication to cure the illness.
corrective action (Ref. Section 2.2.2).
Monitor and improve component health (Ref. Administer routine check-ups.
Section 2.2.3).
Provide technical oversight to off-site vendors Conduct or assist with surgery to correct a problem
refurbishing components (Ref. Section 2.2.4). not curable with medication.

Develop, implement, and maintain component- Recommend life styles and activities that minimize
oriented programs (Ref. Section 2.2.5). the risk of illness.

2-1
Component Engineering Functions

2.1.2 Mission Statement

During the development of this report, a number of licensees suggested developing a mission
statement for the CE function(s). The following general statement summarizes the primary
mission of the CE organization at a nuclear power plant:

To have engaged, professional, well-trained, component engineers who take proactive


and effective measures to improve equipment reliability, reduce O&M costs, and prevent
plant challenges due to component failures.

2.2 Key CE Functions That Add Value

As noted in Table 2-1, this report categorizes five key functions of the CE that can add value to
an organization at either the corporate or site level. A description of each major function is
provided in following sections.

2.2.1 Develop and Facilitate Execution of Long-Range Component Maintenance


Strategies

Key Human Performance Point


One of the key functions of a CE is to assist with the development and
execution of long-range maintenance strategies for various components
within their scope of responsibility.

The following long-range maintenance strategies to be developed are driven by the Institute of
Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) AP-913:
• Preventive Maintenance: Assist with the identification of PM activities and their
recommended frequencies
• Predictive Maintenance: Assist in developing predictive maintenance plans using current
technologies and industry-wide guidance for periodicity
• Obsolescence: Provide input regarding anticipated obsolescence, recommended actions, and
potential sources of suitable alternative components or assemblies
• Aging Management: Provide life-cycle management input regarding the anticipated life
expectancy of the component, as well as input on repair versus replacement analyses
• Condition Monitoring: Assist maintenance and system engineering personnel with
component-specific monitoring requirements to optimize component reliability and
performance

2-2
Component Engineering Functions

The CE can also play an important role in suggesting and developing improvement initiatives for
various components because of his or her technical expertise and knowledge of component
performance issues.

Another area where the CE can contribute to long-range strategies is in the development of a
critical spares inventory and/or potential source list. In particular, the CE can identify and
recommend replacement items, assist in developing bills of materials, and help identify potential
sources for obtaining the spare/replacement items in the supply chain.

One of the difficulties of development of critical spares inventory is the need to maintain both a
short-term and a long-range focus. Many times, the CE must spend far too much time on
emergent issues and is thus unable to devote the time necessary for long-term, strategic planning.
The guidance provided in Section 4 of this report, which discusses how the CE interfaces with
the maintenance and systems engineering organizations, can assist the CE in maintaining both
the short-term and long-range focus.

2.2.2 Provide Component Expertise/Oversight

As plants and their components age, problems inevitably arise.

Key Human Performance Point


The CE can provide valuable assistance, both proactively and reactively, to
address emergent and immediate component performance issues.

Proactively, the CE should provide technical expertise and support to the maintenance and
operations organizations. This support may include the following:
• Coordinating with the equipment manufacturer to establish appropriate preventive and
predictive maintenance activities, including the required frequency for performing those
activities
• Working with maintenance personnel to assist in the performance of preventive and
predictive maintenance
• Optimizing preventive and predictive maintenance, scope, and frequency, based on feedback
received from the maintenance organization
• Assisting operations personnel with technical input regarding the component’s design and
performance parameters

When addressing performance problems occurring with a given component, the CE provides
assistance in leading or supporting the following activities:
• Troubleshooting the component performance problem, identifying probably causes, and
recommending actions to return the component to service

2-3
Component Engineering Functions

• Performing root-cause analyses of component performance problems


• Recommending corrective action for components that are not performing as designed

Similarly, the CE should provide technical expertise to other engineering organizations. This
support may include the following:
• Recommending design modifications, component refurbishment, or replacement
• Creating or reviewing design modification packages
• Developing or reviewing refurbishment specifications
• Preparing and evaluating bids for replacement components
• Developing purchase requisitions and/or specifications

2.2.3 Monitor and Improve Component Health

Key Human Performance Point


An ongoing function of the CE is to monitor and improve component health.

The CE, in concert with the equipment manufacturer and the system engineer, should perform
the following activities in this ongoing role:
• Establish monitoring criteria specific for each component.
• Evaluate maintenance history and work requests.
• Prepare component health reports and implementations as prescribed in the report. (Section 5
provides additional guidelines on preparing component health reports and indicates ways the
guidelines should be used as building blocks for system health reports.)
• Review, share, and disseminate operating experience.

2.2.4 Provide Technical Oversight to Off-Site Vendors Refurbishing Components

Cases inevitably will arise with aged components where refurbishment is necessary. It could be
more cost effective to have refurbishment performed by an off-site vendor. When this scenario
arises, the CE should perform the following functions:
• Assist with vendor selection, qualification, procurement of services, and supply chain
management
• Prepare technical refurbishment specifications
• Determine unique and critical refurbishment activities
• Establish quality control activities (vendor surveillance, witness/hold points, and so on)
• Perform vendor surveillance, observation, and repair/refurbishment activities (using existing
utility processes and means for documentation)

2-4
Component Engineering Functions

Key Human Performance Point


Care should be taken to use established processes for conducting vendor
oversight activities to ensure that personnel visiting the manufacturer’s
facility are adequately trained to perform these activities and that appropriate
briefings are conducted prior to overseeing the vendor’s work.

2.2.5 Develop, Implement, and Maintain Component-Oriented Programs

Because of regulations, industry-operating guidance, or economies of scale, some CE


organizations are managed through a separate technical program, either at the unit, site, or
corporate level. The CE may, in fact, be designated as the owner of one or more of these
programs, depending on the organizational structure at the plant site. The program-driven
components managed by a CE will often include the following:
• Air-operated valves (AOVs)
• Motor-operated valves (MOVs)
• Relief valves
• Check valves
• Pumps
• Heat exchangers
• Cable (aging management)
• Motors
• Breakers

Section 2.3 provides more detail regarding the components most commonly assigned to a CE as
well as the components more typically addressed through a broader program.

2.3 Components Most Often Assigned to a CE

During the development of this report, licensees indicated that a wide range of components either
had been at one time or was currently assigned to a CE for performing related responsibilities.
Tables 2-2, 2-3, and 2-4 list various components that may have a CE assigned to maintain and
manage their health. Each table also indicates whether there is a high, medium, or low likelihood
that a particular type/group of equipment would be assigned to a CE.

2-5
Component Engineering Functions

2.3.1 Mechanical Components

Table 2-2 lists typical mechanical components and the likelihood that licensees would assigned
them as a CE responsibility.

Table 2-2
Typical Mechanical Components

High Likelihood of CE Medium Likelihood of Low Likelihood of CE Typically Addressed


Assignment CE Assignment Assignment Through a Program and
Managed by Others
AOVs Cranes Piping Manual valves
supports/snubbers
MOVs Piping Mechanical joints Turbines

Check valves Pressure vessels Chillers and compressors


Relief valves Tanks Fans
Valve packing Overhead doors/hatches Steam generators

Heat exchanger Cooling towers


Pumps Strainers and screens

2.3.2 Electrical Components

Table 2-3 lists typical electrical components and the likelihood that licensees would assign them
as a CE responsibility.

Table 2-3
Typical Electrical Components

High Likelihood of Medium Likelihood Low Likelihood of Typically Addressed


CE Assignment of CE Assignment CE Assignment Through a Program and
Managed by Others
Electric motors Cables Motor-generator sets Switchgear
Breakers Relays Lighting Emergency generators
Transmitters Connectors Transformers
Motor control centers Generators
Batteries
Chargers and inverters
Power supplies

2-6
Component Engineering Functions

2.3.3 Instruments and Controls

Table 2-4 lists typical instruments and controls and the likelihood that licensees would assign
them as a CE responsibility.

Table 2-4
Typical Instruments and Controls

High Likelihood of CE Medium Likelihood of Low Likelihood of CE Typically Addressed


Assignment CE Assignment Assignment Through a Program
and Managed by
Others
Solenoid valves Recorders Monitors
Controllers

2-7
3
COMPONENT SPECIALIST SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES, AND
STAFFING

The following section characterizes typical skills, experience, and performance attributes of the
CE at a nuclear power plant. These characteristics should not be interpreted as minimum
requirements for qualification or certification purposes but rather as a benchmark for use within
each licensee’s plant-specific program. Only in rare cases will any one individual exemplify all
of the characteristics described below.

3.1 CE Position Summary

As noted in Section 2, the primary roles of the CE can be summarized in the following five areas
of responsibility:
• Develop and facilitate execution of long-range component maintenance strategies
• Provide component expertise/oversight during troubleshooting, root-cause analysis, and
corrective action
• Monitor and improve component health
• Provide technical oversight to off-site vendors who are refurbishing components
• Develop, implement, and maintain component-oriented programs

3.2 Expertise and Experience Level

Table 3-1 describes typical expertise and experience levels for a CE.

Table 3-1
Typical Expertise and Experience Levels of Component Engineer

Component Engineer

Completion of applicable apprenticeship program or five (5) years applicable trade experience and a high
school diploma or equivalent; OR
Two (2) years experience in maintenance, engineering, or nuclear plant operations with an A.A.S. degree
in engineering or related physical science; OR

One (1) year experience in maintenance, engineering, or nuclear plant operations with a B.S. degree in
engineering or related physical science.

3-1
Component Specialist Skills, Attributes, and Staffing

3.3 Competencies and Skills

The following describes skills and competencies common among many individuals performing
the CE functions described in the previous sections. These characteristics should not be
interpreted as minimum requirements for qualification or certification purposes, but rather as a
benchmark for use within each licensee’s plant-specific program.
• Communication skills
– Good verbal skills for communicating component conditions and work activities
– Good rapport with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and for interfacing with
component refurbishment vendors
– Ability to collaborate and coordinate with numerous internal and external organizations
• Technical competencies and skills
– Has knowledge of component design parameters, design characteristics and margins,
equipment manufacturing capabilities, component operations and maintenance, and
equipment reliability
– Uses operating experience effectively
– Supports industry initiatives regarding component(s)
– Is skilled at troubleshooting component problems
– Is recognized as a subject matter expert (SME) and serves as the single point of contact
for assigned component/line of components
– Has good problem solving skills
– Can effectively analyze root cause of equipment failures
• Human performance competencies and skills
– Is engaged, professional, knowledgeable, and specialized
– Interfaces with numerous organizations within the utility to ensure that roles and
responsibilities are respected and understood
– Has good business acumen
– Is trusted by maintenance and operations
• Planning/organization competencies and skills
– Takes strong ownership in area of expertise
– Maintains focus on long-range equipment reliability goals while simultaneously
addressing emergent component performance issues
– Retains a long-term focus for the health of the component

3-2
Component Specialist Skills, Attributes, and Staffing

3.4 Typical Qualifications for Engineering Support Personnel

The CE’s qualifications and level of engineering support personnel (ESP) training will vary from
plant to plant. Table 3-2 provides an example of the scope of ESP training usually available for
CEs and lists those areas of ESP training that they typically need. Once again, these should not
be interpreted as minimum requirements for qualification or certification purposes, but rather as
a benchmark for use within each licensee’s plant-specific program.

Table 3-2
Typical ESP Qualification
(Courtesy of PG&E Diablo Canyon)

Knowledge Title Mechanical Electrical/I&C


Component Engineer Component Engineer
Organizational familiarization X X
NRC interface X X
Problem identification and resolution X X
Cause analysis process X X
Operability determination X X
Procedure program X X
Procedure commitment database X X
Processing of work orders X X
Clearance process
Post-maintenance and modification X X
test
Investigation and troubleshooting X X
process
Methods to evaluate system
performance

Methods to evaluate component X X


performance
MOV program X
AOV program X
Check valve program X

3-3
Component Specialist Skills, Attributes, and Staffing

Table 3-2 (cont.)


Typical ESP Qualification
(Courtesy of PG&E Diablo Canyon)

Knowledge Title Mechanical Electrical/I&C


Component Engineer Component Engineer
Valve packing program X
Safety and relief valve program X
Rotating equipment X
In-service testing program X X
In-service inspection program X X
Maintenance Rule X X
Preventive maintenance program X X
Predictive maintenance program X X

Additional, position-specific training relevant to the CE’s position may be necessary on a


continuing basis. Specialty areas that could require additional training include the following:
• Performing vendor oversight activities
• Input for developing specifications
• Analyzing trend data
– AOV/MOV testing analysis
– Motor current analysis
– Checworks TM analysis
– Failure modes and effects analysis
– Statistical analysis
– Check valve analysis
• Implementing AP-913
• Initiating component-specific maintenance activities (level of awareness)
• Performing case studies (using operating experience and developing lessons learned)

3.5 Staffing and Placement

A series of surveys were administered during the course of this project, and quantitative results
were obtained from licensee feedback related to current staffing levels of full-time employees
performing CE functions. Survey responses were received from 13 different respondents
representing 16 different nuclear plant sites. The surveys compiled information at three different
levels—corporate, site, and unit—according to the organizational structure of each respondent.

3-4
Component Specialist Skills, Attributes, and Staffing

The survey questions were asked regarding staffing for each discipline (for example, mechanical,
electrical, I&C). The questions were as follows:

Please indicate the current staffing at the corporate level (if applicable) of full-time
equivalent component engineers/specialists.

Approximately what percentage of these individuals’ time is dedicated to the plant sites
and spends the majority of their time at the nuclear sites?

Approximately what percentage of the individuals noted in the question above is assigned
to both nuclear and fossil sites and spends the majority of their time at those sites?

Please list any component(s) to which only one CE is assigned and who has fleet-wide
responsibility. (Example: steam turbines as a single component assignment, and has fleet-
wide assignment for all turbines)

Please indicate the current staffing at the site level of full-time equivalent component
engineers/specialists

On a per-unit basis, please indicate the number of full-time equivalent component


specialists? (We are attempting to develop a staffing support level per unit.)

Please list any component(s) to which only one component specialist assigned and who
has site-wide responsibility.

The resulting staffing estimates are provided for illustrative purposes only and should be used
only as a benchmark for establishing the CE position or adjusting current staffing levels. To
better convey the variance among responses, the collective results in each category provide both
an average as well as a range of responses.

3.5.1 Corporate or Fleet-Wide Staffing

Key O&M Cost Point


The results of the surveys suggest that the CE function performed at the
corporate or fleet level is mostly concerned with standardizing engineering
processes associated with specific components, lending support to sites as
needed, and developing long-range component health plans.

3-5
Component Specialist Skills, Attributes, and Staffing

The average staffing of CEs, by discipline (at the corporate or fleet level), is shown in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3
Typical Corporate/Fleet-Level Staffing of Component Engineers

Approximate Average
Staffing Level Range of Staffing Levels
Mechanical component engineers 8 4 to 12
Electrical component engineers 2 1 to 6
I&C component engineers 1 1 to 2

3.5.2 Per-Unit Staffing

Key O&M Cost Point


The results of the surveys suggest that the CE function performed at a
particular site tends to focus primarily on the short-range or emergent health
of respective components in support of equipment reliability and PM
activities.

The staffing of CEs, both on site and on a per-unit basis, is shown (by discipline) in Table 3-4.

Table 3-4
Typical Site Staffing of Component Engineers on a Per-Unit Basis

Approximate Average
Staffing Level Range of Staffing Levels
Mechanical component engineers 4 1 to 8
Electrical component engineers 2 1 to 8
I&C component engineers 1 1 to 3

3-6
4
ORGANIZATIONAL INTERFACES AND OUTPUTS

The CE’s organizational interfaces at a typical nuclear power plant site are illustrated (in general
terms) in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1
Overview of Organizational Interfaces for the Site-Level CE

The figure illustrates the following primary points regarding the typical interfaces for the CE:
• CEs tend to interface mostly with maintenance organizations, whereas system engineers tend
to interface more with operations.
• CEs are responsible for a given component that cuts across many systems, and thus their
interfaces tend to be more horizontal.

4-1
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

• At the site level, the CE indirectly contributes to long-range planning through, most likely,
the system engineering organization to the ER Board, Health Committee, Budget Review,
Change Control, and so on.

Although not shown on the figure, three other important points about the CE function are noted:
• In larger utilities (with multiple sites), CEs at the sites are often relieved, to some degree, of
long-range planning issues. The CE at the corporate level tends to focus more on long-range
issues, whereas the site- or plant-level CEs are allowed to focus more on day-to-day
component performance.
• Interfaces with programs will depend on where the program resides within the
utility/site/unit. In some cases, the program manager may, in fact, be the CE, as noted in
Section 3 of this report.
• To optimize the effectiveness of how the CE interfaces with other organizations, the licensee
should consider using various organizational performance measures (emergent versus long-
term issues, amount of time spent among sites, training time versus technical support time,
outage support versus long-range planning, and so on).

4.1 Operations and Maintenance Interfaces

Figure 4-2 illustrates key interfaces between the CE and field personnel from the operations and
maintenance organizations. Because these two organizations have frequent contact with the
components, the CE should seek feedback on a regular basis regarding component performance
problems. The figure shows the need for two-way information exchanges between each of these
groups and the CE. In some plants, interfaces between the CE and field personnel are viewed as
being more important than interfaces between the CE and other engineering organizations. In
those cases, the CE would more likely be assigned to the maintenance rather than to the
engineering organization.

4-2
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

Figure 4-2
Operations and Maintenance Interfaces for the CE.

(Licensees should ensure that procedures clearly identify these roles and responsibilities to
ensure the most effective use of CE personnel.)

4.1.1 Preventive/Corrective Maintenance Organizations

Key Technical Point


The CE’s interface with the preventive/corrective maintenance organization
is an ongoing relationship that directly affects equipment reliability through
consistent and effective maintenance activities.

The CE should be seen as a valuable source of information to make preventive and corrective
maintenance instructions more effective, timely, and current, based on his or her knowledge of
the component design, functionality, and failure mechanisms. The CE should also be the lead
interface when a component performance problem has been identified as needing
troubleshooting/corrective maintenance.

4-3
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

The CE can offer technical expertise to maintenance personnel about the troubleshooting and
repair of the component, which should lead to a more effective resolution (elimination of
rework) for component problems. The CE should factor in the operating experience of field
personnel when revising maintenance procedures, work instructions, and life-cycle plans. In
many cases, field observations of actual conditions are important for making feedback processes
most effective.

The CE should also be receptive to learning about component performance problems from the
PM organization, using their input to assess maintenance activities and their frequencies. In
addition, the CE should seek feedback regarding the overall effectiveness of the performed
maintenance and determine its impact on the reliability of the equipment.

4.1.2 Predictive Maintenance Organizations

Key Human Performance Point


The CE should provide condition monitoring guidance to the predictive
maintenance organization as a means of identifying and assessing component
health.

Any changes in condition monitoring techniques, including the application of new technologies,
should also be shared with the predictive maintenance group.

The CE should obtain condition monitoring data (short-term) and component performance
trending data (long-term) from the predictive maintenance organization. The data, which will
serve as input for component health reports, are valuable because they assess component health
based on the age of the equipment. This can be a valuable input tool for assisting evaluating the
remaining life of the component and for life-cycle planning.

4.1.3 Plant Operations

Key Human Performance Point


The plant operations organization should have a close working relationship
with the CE because they form an important channel for sharing equipment
performance data and condition monitoring results.

The CE can offer technical expertise to the operators about the design and functionality of the
component, which should lead to more effective operation of the equipment. Reciprocally, the
CE should factor in the operating experience from the field personnel when revising maintenance
procedures, work instructions, and life-cycle plans.

4-4
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.2 Engineering Interfaces

Figure 4-3 illustrates a number of key interfaces with engineering organizations at a typical plant
site.

Figure 4-3
Engineering Interfaces for the CE

4-5
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.2.1 Systems Engineering

Key Technical Point


The interface between the CE and the systems engineer can be made more
effective given the understanding that the system engineer has a more
vertical view of the plant (that is, one particular operating system), whereas
the CE has a more horizontal view (for example, one group of components,
like a pump, installed in many different operating systems).

The CE should seek feedback regarding component performance from all system engineers
responsible for systems containing their particular component. In the ideal scenario, the
component performance feedback obtained from various system engineers should be consistent
with the feedback received from the operations and/or maintenance organizations.

After compiling component health and performance data across various plant systems, CEs
should prepare the necessary component health reports and share the trends and issues with the
appropriate system engineer(s).

4.2.2 Design Engineering

Key O&M Cost Point


Given the broad component health and performance data available to them,
the CE should provide recommendations regarding possible design
modifications and enhancements to improve equipment reliability or extend
component life.

Once a design modification has been approved, the CE should work closely with the design
engineer, along with input from component manufacturer(s), regarding the scope and application
of the design modifications proposed. In some cases, the CE may be required to seek out
potential component manufacturers if the decision has been made to replace an existing
component with a suitable alternative. If so, the CE also may be asked to recommend a particular
type or model component (for example, gate valve versus globe valve). They should also provide
input to the modification package to ensure the replacement component will be suitable for the
intended application(s) and to help determine whether the replacement component will adversely
affect any design margins.

Once a design modification package has been developed, the CE may be required to manage or
oversee the implementation of the modification or, as a minimum, review the design
modification package to ensure technical accuracy.

4-6
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.2.3 Procurement Engineering and the Supply Chain

The CE’s interface with the procurement engineering organization is similar in scope to that of
design engineering, except in most cases, the issues will apply to replacement parts/assemblies
rather than to the entire component.

Key O&M Cost Point


The CE should be a key contributor to establishing critical spares and
completing bills of materials for his or her scope of components. The CE
should also play a role in recommending qualified vendors for refurbishing
existing components and potential suppliers of new replacement components
to the procurement engineering organization.

The CE should work closely with the procurement engineer in developing the necessary
procurement documents (such as purchase requisitions and specifications) as well as quality
controls (manufacturing surveillance plans, receiving inspection plans, witness/hold point test
and inspection plans, and acceptance criteria).

The CE should also seek feedback from the procurement engineering organization (and possibly
through the vendor quality assurance group) regarding the current capabilities of a given
refurbishment vendor or equipment manufacturer. This interaction should ensure that only
qualified suppliers are considered for bid or are given subsequent purchase orders to furnish
replacement items or refurbishment services.

4.3 Other Plant Interfaces

Figure 4-4 shows two other key interfaces with organizations at the plant site: training and work
planning.

4-7
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

Figure 4-4
Training and Work-Planning Interfaces for the CE

4.3.1 Training Organization

Key O&M Cost Point


To support the plant’s ongoing training of maintenance and operations
personnel, the CE should be sought out as the SME regarding the component
design and functionality as well as the primary resource for recommending
the type and scope of component-related training relevant to operations and
maintenance personnel.

Through continuous training, the CE has an excellent channel for sharing plant-specific
component performance trends as well as related maintenance activities needed to improve
equipment reliability and extend component life.

At many sites, the CE is the individual who develops and conducts the training. The CE should
also consider the use of equipment manufacturers or maintenance/troubleshooting specialists to
assist with training when appropriate.

4-8
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.3.2 Work Planning

Key O&M Cost Point


Once maintenance has been approved, either through standing procedures or
for execution during an outage, the CE should work closely with the
maintenance planning organization to assist in preparing the necessary work
packages and maintenance work instructions.

Because of their level of technical expertise with the component group, CEs are often the most
appropriate individuals to establish, define, or revise the work scope and to recommend
performance testing and acceptance criteria. The CE should also seek feedback through the work
planning organization regarding the effectiveness of the maintenance. In some cases, this
feedback is more appropriate than feedback coming directly from the maintenance organization.

4.4 Interfacing with Organizations External to the Utility

Figure 4-5 describes key interfaces the CE should develop with organizations external to the
utility. These include industry users groups, refurbishment service suppliers, and component
manufacturers.

Figure 4-5
External Interfaces for the CE

4-9
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.4.1 Refurbishment Service Suppliers

As components age, they often need to be refurbished, either to extend their life or as an
alternative to wholesale replacement with another component.

Key O&M Cost Point


The CE should be the key contributor to defining the refurbishment work
scope, preparing the specification and work instructions for the vendor,
recommending testing/verification activities to ensure that the refurbishment
was performed correctly, and establishing the appropriate performance and
testing acceptance criteria that the vendor must achieve.

The CE should develop a means to capture refurbishment information so it can be applied


generically, as appropriate, for the broadest application possible throughout the component line.
The CE should seek feedback from the refurbishment vendor regarding the accuracy,
effectiveness, and workability of the specification and work instructions so improvements can be
made to future refurbishment activities.

4.4.2 Component Manufacturers

As noted in the preceding section, the CE should be the primary point of contact between the
manufacturer of a replacement component and the power plant.

Key O&M Cost Point


The CE should recommend potential equipment suppliers to the design and
procurement engineering organizations (as appropriate) as soon as possible
after the decision has been made to replace an existing component that is no
longer performing in accordance with design requirements.

The CE, in concert with the design engineering organization (or procurement), should prepare
the bid specification and the request for proposal. Through these activities, the CE (working
closely with design engineering and maintenance planning) should provide potential equipment
manufacturers with plant-specific design parameters, as well as demolition/installation
specifications should the manufacturer also be required to install the component.

Key Technical Point


Once a component manufacturer has been selected and has furnished the
equipment, the CE should ensure that all necessary technical information
associated with the hardware is provided, that the technical information is
accurate and current, and that it is incorporated into appropriate plant
procedures.

4-10
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

The preceding key point may include making recommendations of spare/replacement items and
maintaining replacement component/part design information. The CE should seek out
component manufacturers for industry-wide component performance data, PM enhancements,
and obsolescence information in preparation for equipment changes.

4.4.3 Industry Users Groups

Industry users groups can be another valuable source of operating experience for a given line of
components. Typically, users groups are a resource for keeping abreast of industry
developments, which may include the following:
• New technologies associated with the component
• Common failure mechanisms and their causes
• New or enhanced PM techniques
• Suitable replacement items (components, subcomponents, and parts) due to obsolescence
• New regulatory requirements or industry operating guidelines
• Modification experiences and lessons learned
• Early warning of component degradation

4.5 Program Interfaces

As noted in Section 2 of this report, because of regulations, industry operating guidelines, or


economies of scale, certain component groups are typically managed through a separate
technical program at the unit, site, or corporate level.

In Section 1, a program is defined as an organized set of activities directed toward a common


purpose or goal in order for an organization to carryout its responsibilities. A program generally
is used to accomplish routine tasks that are highly complex or tasks wherein success is reliant
upon a high level of coordination between numerous organizations. The key attributes of a
program include a mission, an owner (single point of contact), a defined sequence of activities
and tasks, clearly identified responsibilities for those performing the tasks (stakeholders), and
indicators to monitor program performance, health, and effectiveness. Key program attributes are
generally documented in a plan or procedure.

An engineering program is created to enable an engineering organization to carry out its assigned
responsibilities. They are generally highly technical or complex in nature. A program health
report is a document that communicates the status of a given program at a nuclear utility, site, or
power plant.

The CE may in fact be designated as the manager for one or more of these programs, depending
on the organizational structure of at the plant site. If this is not the case, however, the CE should
ensure that there are sufficient means for communicating component information to the program
manager and that the program supports continued, reliable, equipment performance.

4-11
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

4.6 Component Engineering Outputs and Deliverables

As shown on Figures 4-2 through 4-5, there are number of outputs that the CE may be required
to deliver to a wide range of recipients. Table 4-1 summarizes these output documents and
identifies those organizations most likely to contribute information and receive the final product.

Table 4-1
Summary of Component Engineering Outputs and Deliverables

Component Engineering Organizations Contributing Organizations Typically


Output/Deliverable Information to Generate the Receiving and Using the Output
Output Document Document
Condition monitoring plans Predictive maintenance, Predictive maintenance
and guidance component manufacturer
Revisions to preventive Maintenance, operations, systems Preventive maintenance
maintenance procedures engineering, design engineering

Component health reports Maintenance, operations, systems Systems engineering, plant health
engineering board, fleet component health
board
Root-cause analyses Maintenance, operations, systems Maintenance, operations, systems
engineering, design engineering, engineering, design engineering
component manufacturer

Component life-cycle Maintenance, operations, systems Systems engineering, plant health


management plan engineering, design engineering board, fleet component health
board, plant financial board
Component Maintenance, systems Refurbishment vendor,
purchase/repair/refurbishment engineering, design engineering, procurement engineering
specifications component manufacturer,
procurement engineering
Outage scope list Maintenance, systems Outage work scope planning
engineering, design engineering board, outage planners and
schedulers
On-line work schedule review Maintenance, systems Work planning, maintenance
engineering, design engineering,
operations
Troubleshooting Maintenance, operations, systems Maintenance
instructions/guides/plans engineering, component
manufacturer

4-12
Organizational Interfaces and Outputs

Table 4-1 (cont.)


Summary of Component Engineering Outputs and Deliverables

Component Engineering Organizations Contributing Organizations Typically


Output/Deliverable Information to Generate the Receiving and Using the Output
Output Document Document
Maintenance work Maintenance, work planning Maintenance, work planning
instructions and procedures
Replacement component Design engineering, procurement Procurement engineering
equivalency evaluations engineering, component
manufacturer
Training material Maintenance, operations, systems Training organization
engineering, design engineering,
component manufacturer

4-13
5
COMPONENT HEALTH REPORTS

5.1 Introduction

EPRI report 1009745, System, Component, and Program Health Reporting, provides valuable
guidance and examples for the CE when communicating the current status of a given component.
It also describes ways in which a licensee can effectively integrate reporting at the program,
system, and component levels.

As illustrated on Figure 5-1, component health reports can feed into either a system or program
health reporting process. In many cases, the information is provided directly to the plant’s
Equipment Reliability Review Board.

Figure 5-1
Uses for Component Health Reports

5-1
Component Health Reports

A component health report is a document used to communicate the status of a given component
(or group of like components) installed at a nuclear power plant. The user of this report should
recognize the various dynamics associated with maintaining component health versus those
associated with maintaining the health of a given program. Typically, component health focuses
on component-specific parameters that can be measured, such as those illustrated in the examples
that follow. Program health, on the other hand, may be measured by totally different and non-
technical parameters, such as adherence to budgets, planning schedules, resources, and so on.

Key Technical Point


Component health may be acceptable for the present, but program health
may be on the verge of going bad.

5.1.1 Integration of Component Health Reports

Component health reports should be integrated into the overall plant improvement initiatives,
equipment reliability efforts, and the budgeting process. The CE, who is the individual most
likely preparing the reports, should recommend that the component health reports be used as
input to these other processes through the interfaces described in Section 4. In some cases, plant
procedures may need to be revised in order to use component health reporting to its fullest
advantage, and the CEs may not be able to facilitate those changes by themselves.

Component health reports should target the most appropriate components that add value to the
site’s equipment reliability and life-cycle management processes. Again, the CE should provide
input and recommendations regarding the scope of components for which health reports are
prepared and used.

5.1.2 Key Attributes/Content of a Component Health Report

The content of a component health report will vary from one utility to the next. The content is
often dictated by the capabilities of each utility’s information technology and related processes.
In general, however, a component health report should include the following information:
• Component identification
• Current component condition, as found by measuring selected component degradation
mechanism indicators (see Section 5.2.3)
• Current component operating status
• Plant-specific (and general industry) operating history and experience
• Subjective types of input (that is, anticipated failures based on age and/or CE experience)
• Grading criteria and metrics for health reports (see Section 5.3 for examples)
• Recommendations for improving component conditions (corrective actions)

5-2
Component Health Reports

5.1.3 Data for Component Health Reports

EPRI report 1009745 provides the following guidance regarding data requirements, data sources,
and data-capture requirements.

5.1.3.1 Data Requirements

Once functions, failure modes, and degradation mechanisms are known, the CE should prepare a
plan that addresses development and acquisition of the required data.

The failure modes, degradation mechanisms, and indicator analyses determine data requirements.
Once the CE identifies which failure modes need to be detected or monitored, he or she should
compile a list of data required to compare to a list of available data. This process will determine
which failure modes can actually be monitored. It is highly unlikely that all the required data will
be available for all the monitoring tasks specified. Where data are unavailable, the CE may have
to later make adjustments to the plan, based on the probability of detecting those failure modes
initially. Plan adjustments may include replacing optimum monitoring tasks with less effective
monitoring regimens.

The EPRI PM Basis Database is a good source for identifying a component’s failure-mode
probabilities. Calculations can be performed in the PM Basis Database that can assist in
determining the final maintenance strategy.

5.1.3.2 Data Sources

There are two categories of data that can be used in monitoring programs—direct and indirect.
The following paragraphs discuss these categories.

Direct Data: Direct data are typically live plant data with a measurable mechanical or electrical
property. Data can come from on-line systems, operator rounds, or routine collections. Examples
of direct data are pressure, temperature, and vibration measurements. Direct data can be gathered
from many sources, such as the following:
• Plant computer
• Predictive maintenance routines
• In-service testing programs
• Thermal performance programs
• System walk-downs

Indirect Data: In contrast to direct data, indirect data sources are typically programmatic. The
following sources can provide indirect data:
• Operating experience
• Maintenance feedback

5-3
Component Health Reports

• Historical review of logs


• Work order review
• Condition reports
• Refurbishment reports from vendors

While indirect data are not as real-time as direct data sources, they can often be a valuable
element of effective monitoring and reporting.

5.1.3.3 Data Capture Requirements

The CE should establish a standard procedure defining the purpose and requirements for data
capture. The procedure should include the following:

• Collection of direct and indirect data sources, including the scope of the data collection
activities and the organizational requirements necessary to support the data collection

• The hardware and software tools necessary to support direct and indirect data collection
activities

• The required qualifications, skill sets, and subject matter expertise necessary to execute and
support the data collection activities

5.1.4 Data Trending and Analysis for Component Health Reports

EPRI report 1009745 provides the following guidance regarding data trending and analysis:

A competent staff must be in place for trending and analyzing acquired data. (Data
cannot provide benefit without trending and analysis.) Established, standard protocols
and formats must be employed for trending and for ensuring that data are acquired,
trended, and analyzed at the appropriate frequency to identify degradation early.

The scope of trending and analysis is typically determined by the recommended


frequencies and scope of equipment monitoring. These are derived within the
maintenance basis or other maintenance optimization efforts. The EPRI PM Basis
Database is a good source for identifying monitoring tasks and frequencies at the
component level.

As noted previously, it is vital that those engaged in trending and analysis are trained for
the roles they are undertaking and that they have detailed guidance on actions to take
when adverse trends are identified.

5-4
Component Health Reports

5.2 Determining Appropriate Component Attributes

EPRI report 1009745 states in part:

As with system issues, the structured development of a monitoring program requires a


full understanding of component functions, the potential degradation mechanisms, and
the precursor indicators of those mechanisms.

When implementing a system or component health program, the first step is to


understand the required function of the equipment being considered. Once function is
understood, the impact of degradation or loss can be recognized and a plan to monitor for
such degradation can be developed.

5.2.1 Component Failure Modes

Component failure modes affect components such as pumps, motors, breakers, and valves. These
failure modes are typically a result of failures of subcomponents (the parts/assemblies within the
components). Examples of failure modes of subcomponents include bearings, seals, shafts, valve
stems, valve disks, rotors, and insulation. The EPRI PM Basis Database should assist in
proactively identifying component failure modes, degradation mechanisms, indicators, and
failure probabilities.

5.2.2 Component Degradation Mechanisms

Degradation mechanisms can usually be detected with one of several technology options. Some
detection methods may be direct; some indirect (such as monitoring a second-level parameter).
In most cases, it will be possible to monitor identified degradation mechanisms.

Failure modes for the degradation mechanism for components may often appear similar to
degradation mechanisms for the system, primarily because all systems are made up of
components. However, the monitoring plan should be built with a specific hierarchy—system
functions at the top, working down to the subcomponent level. The top-level view will keep the
overall objective of the system in mind without that view being clouded by the subcomponent
problems; therefore, the plan does not lose sight of the important system functions.

5.2.3 Component Degradation Mechanism Indicators

Component degradation mechanism indicators are often quantifiable and dynamic; that is, they
have some measurable mechanical or electrical property. By measuring these indicators, the
analyst can begin to identify a degradation mechanism that may indicate the onset of a failure
mode within the component. Some examples of indicators include the following:
• Vibration signature
• Lubricating oil analysis
• Infrared signature

5-5
Component Health Reports

• NDE techniques (such as ultrasonic or eddy current)


• Acoustics
• In situ inspection (unusual noise, smell, or motion)
• Pressure readings
• Electrical testing
• Current signature analysis

5.3 Component Health Report Content and Format Examples

Component health report content and format will vary, depending on the level at which they are
used and the size of the nuclear utility. Presented in this section are three examples of component
health reports—one for a multi-site (fleet) utility, one for a multi-unit site, and one for a single-
unit site. The examples noted below are extracts from EPRI report 1009745.

5.3.1 Fleet-Wide Component Health Reports

Within Exelon Nuclear, CEs at the corporate offices and plant sites are assigned the task of
monitoring the health of components across the entire fleet. One of the main objectives of these
component experts is to perform component cross-system trending.

Component trends, reported quarterly, focus on reviewing the direct and indirect data by
component type, regardless of the system. This data review can identify issues that may have
gone unnoticed in system reviews. When taking an aggregate view (across all systems) of both
the direct and indirect data for a component line, the CE can identify low-level issues much
earlier than with a typical system perspective.

For example, five systems may have mechanical seal problems affecting horizontal centrifugal
pumps, but this issue may represent only one mechanical seal problem per system. The system
engineer may not do anything about the seal problem other than writing a corrective maintenance
work order. However, viewing the same data as five mechanical seal problems, the CE will
investigate the causes and, if possible, take action to prevent further problems rather than wait
for many occurrences within one system.

The previous example addresses only one site. However, consider the power of a similar
approach across multiple sites, such as the 17 units of the Exelon Nuclear fleet. In addition to
performing the component reviews, corporate CEs were able to examine the fleet data, which
provided them with more opportunities to identify adverse conditions within the components.
These CEs were responsible for adjusting the maintenance strategies for the components
throughout the fleet, based on the results of their reviews.

To support the component reviews, Exelon developed a suite of tools know as the Component
Health Indicator Program (CHIP). One module within this suite is the Component Health Review
(CHR) tool. This application continuously retrieves all of the required data and facilitates

5-6
Component Health Reports

continuous review by the component experts. All data are live, and every field has drill-down
capability. The user does not have to leave the tool in order to review trends, document the
analysis and recommendations, and update the performance indicators.

Figure 5-2 presents an example of the component line indicator matrix within the Exelon CHR
tool. The columns represent live feeds from the various direct and indirect data sources, which
are being recorded for each monitored component line at each site. This screen facilitates a
consolidated understanding of the health of the particular product line across every station within
the Exelon fleet.

Figure 5-2
Exelon Component Line Indicator Matrix
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-7)

Figure 5-3 is an example of the Exelon Nuclear fleet-wide view of the actual component health
for all components at all stations. Because these fields are live, the user can click on an item to
learn more.

5-7
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-3
Exelon Component Line Health
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-8)

Figure 5-4 presents a sample motor report that includes a disposition of all adverse trends for the
specific direct and indirect data sources, as well as an overall assessment of all data sources.
Actions to address these issues are also documented.

5-8
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-4 Exelon Semiannual Motor Report


(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-9)

Figure 5-5 shows an automated performance indicator sample that is updated automatically as
the CE populates the fields daily in the reporting section. The sample indicator is tracking a
particular failure trend code directly from the site’s work-management system.

5-9
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-5
Exelon Trending Example
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-10)

5.3.2 Multi-Unit Component Health Reports

Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, owned by TXU Power, is a twin-unit, four-loop
pressurized water reactor (PWR) by Westinghouse, with Siemens turbine generators. Unit 1
entered commercial operation in August 1990 and Unit 2 in August 1993.

Station performance has been exceptional over the years, but due to the recent motor failures, the
organization has implemented improvement initiatives within the station equipment reliability
program. The equipment reliability process (ERP) is supported by processes and procedures in
support of system engineering, the maintenance effectiveness monitoring program, and the PM
program. The Comanche Peak equipment reliability program was benchmarked by the Nuclear
Energy Institute (NEI) in 2002.

Figure 5-6 shows the ratings definitions used by Comanche Peak within their component
monitoring program. Note that colors indicate both overall ratings and trends for that particular
component. Green trends upward or improving, white trends neutral, and red trends downward or

5-10
Component Health Reports

degrading. The color coding of trending, used throughout Comanche Peak’s program, can be
seen in the figures that follow. In summary, the color codes are:
• Red – Not Acceptable
• Yellow – Needs Improvement
• White – Acceptable
• Green – Excellent

In addition to color codes, TXU has established minimum criteria to achieve a color. The
following example notes the criteria for green (excellent):
• No operations concerns issued during the quarter
• No temporary modifications due to degraded equipment
• No lost MW/hr-generation caused by component issues
• No maintenance workarounds
• Meets criteria for “white”

Figure 5-6
Comanche Peak Component Status Summary Definitions
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-11)

5-11
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-7 shows an example of overall status for all plant components. Note that the status for
each component is color coded, and the trends on top of the status blocks are also color coded.
Further, the report is grouped by responsibilities, and an overall status for each group is
presented. This particular example shows Teams 1, 2, and 3. Any of the component types that
have a red status cause the overall responsible group’s status to go to yellow.

Figure 5-7
Example of Comanche Peak’s Component Status Report
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-12)

5-12
Component Health Reports

As the system users drill down into a particular system, they can review the justification for the
status (see Figure 5-8). In addition, system users can view the corrective action plan, with a
matrix and status for each of these plans. This report also uses color codes.

Figure 5-9 presents the in-depth listing of corrective actions for the sample component. This
portion of the report discusses any issues pertaining to those corrective actions and reviews both
actions that have been taken and outstanding activities required to close out the action or issue.

Figure 5-10 shows an additional item contained in the component reporting tool. This figure
depicts the long-term issues and/or maintenance plan for a particular component. The example
discusses large motor maintenance in great detail and presents a maintenance plan for all large
motors.

Figure 5-8
Comanche Peak Large Motors Status
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-13)

5-13
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-9
Comanche Peak Large Motors Corrective Actions
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-14)

5-14
Component Health Reports

Figure 5-10
Comanche Peak Large Motors Long-Term Maintenance Plan
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-15)

5.3.3 Single, Large-Unit Component Health Reports

Callaway Plant, owned by AmerenUE (a subsidiary of St. Louis-based Ameren Corporation) is


located 100 miles west of St. Louis, Missouri. Callaway is a standardized nuclear unit power
plant system (SNUPPS) single-unit, using a Westinghouse, four-loop PWR and a General
Electric turbine generator. The Callaway Plant was declared fully operational on
December 19, 1984.

Callaway Plant uses an automated station health reporter (ASHR), which is a real-time,
electronic monitoring tool. ASHR uses performance monitoring plans (PMPs) to monitor the
health of systems, components, and programs. PMPs are similar to system health reports, as they
identify symptoms of degradation before failure occurs.

5-15
Component Health Reports

Each PMP contains goals or metrics, performance monitoring, health color, health risks, health
risk ranking, and corrective actions. Figure 5-11 is the display for transformers. The display
inputs are customized for use in the component program.

Figure 5-11
Callaway Component Health Summary for Transformers
(From EPRI Report 1009745, Figure 3-29)

5-16
6
BENEFITS AND LESSONS LEARNED

6.1 Benefits of Maintaining a Component Engineering Organization

The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the actual and perceived benefits of
maintaining an integrated and involved component engineering organization. Since benefits
depend on the organizational structure of the utility, they are grouped for corporate, multi-site,
and single-unit level.

6.1.1 Corporate Level

At the corporate level, the primary benefits of the CE function are as follows:
• Provides a fleet overview
– Establishes consistent processes
– Applies consistent evaluation/resolution of issues
– Develops consistent, long-range strategies for component reliability
• Standardizes responsibilities and improving efficiency
• Reduces costs by adopting a fleet approach to component purchases and repairs

6.1.2 Multi-Unit Site Level

At the multi-unit site level, the primary benefits of the CE function include the following:
• Works with craft labor to resolve in-progress issues
• Provides assistance with planning to resolve issues that are coming up or on schedule
• Protects system engineers so they can focus on performance monitoring and system long-
term planning
• Serves as the single point of contact for component issues, including troubleshooting of
failures and root-cause failure analysis
• Provides better focus on component long-range planning
• Develops on-site, subject matter expertise at the level of the component-specific vendor
• Develops consistent vendor contacts
• Implements consistent PM for like components

6-1
Benefits and Lessons Learned

• Serves as primary interface with vendors


• Serves as consistent interface with maintenance organization
• Provides procurement support
• Serves as a single organization to specify testing
• Reduces costs by predicting equipment performance
• Develops component expertise at the site level, not at the corporate level, which facilitates
better response to critical component issues
• Develops specialized technical expertise in each major component

6.1.3 Unit Level

At the single-unit level, the CE function offers the following primary benefits:
• Greater focus on common components across all systems
• Better knowledge of the component group
• More uniform treatment for maintenance and repair
• Longer-term vision of component health
• Centralized information and expertise on components
• Greater focus on improving component reliability (versus the system focus of system
engineers)
• Greater proactive improvement of component reliability to reduce O&M costs

6.2 Lessons Learned

Utilities that have maintained the CE function have not done so without problems along the way.
Lessons have been learned regarding the use of the CE function at nuclear power plants, which
should be helpful to those utilities considering adopting this type of organizational structure. The
lessons-learned serve as the basis for the following recommendations:
• The CE should be the go-to person when there are questions/issues with the component
• The CE must be able to retain focus on long-range issues and should not get bogged down in
day-to-day issues only
• The CE should be proactive to look for ways to improve equipment reliability
• The CE is effective when knowledgeable of industry initiatives, operating experience, and
current technologies
• The CE should remain the primary interface with OEMs and third-party organizations

6-2
Benefits and Lessons Learned

• Communication is key to ensuring that all interfaces are effective


• The CE must be knowledgeable of component health (current and future, and that knowledge
must be integrated vertically into the plant decision-making processes, corrective actions,
pending modifications, improvements, status improvements, and so on)
• The CE should be rewarded for being proactive and preventing component problems, not
solely for fixing problems reactively

6-3
7
BIBLIOGRAPHY

7.1 Industry Guidance

Equipment Reliability Process Description, Revision 1. INPO, AP-913, November 2001.

Industry-Wide Equipment Reliability Benchmarking. NEI, September 2002.

7.2 EPRI Technical Reports

Guidance for Developing and Implementing an On-Line Maintenance Strategy. EPRI, Palo Alto,
CA: 2004. 1009708.

Guidelines for Application of the EPRI Preventive Maintenance Basis. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
2000. TR-112500.

Guideline for System Monitoring by System Engineers. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1996. TR-107668.

Guidelines for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety-Related


Applications. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1988. NP-5652.

Key Information for Replacing Components at Nuclear Power Plants. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
2005. 1011857.

Maintenance Work Package Planning Guidance. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2005. 1011903.

Metrics for Assessing Maintenance Effectiveness. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2003. 1007604.

NMAC Post-Maintenance Testing Guide, Revision 1. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1009709.

Preventive Maintenance Basis Database, Version 5.1.1. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1010919.

Project Management Guidance when Replacing Components at Nuclear Power Plants – Project
Overview. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2005. 1011857.

System and Equipment Troubleshooting Guideline. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2002. 1003093.

System, Component, and Program Health Reporting. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1009745.

7-1
Bibliography

The Maintenance Engineer Fundamentals Handbook: An EPRI Course. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
1996. TR-106853.

7.3 Utility Procedures

Roles and Responsibilities for Program and Component Engineers, Entergy Nuclear FitzPatrick,
LLC.

7-2
A
COMPILATION OF KEY POINTS

A.1 Key O&M Cost Points

Key O&M Cost Point


Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase, operating, or
maintenance costs.

Referenced Page Number Key Point


Section
3.5.1 3-5 The results of the surveys suggest that the CE function performed at
the corporate or fleet level is mostly concerned with standardizing
engineering processes associated with specific components, lending
support to sites as needed, and developing long-range component
health plans.
3.5.2 3-6 The results of the surveys suggest that the CE function performed at a
particular site tends to focus primarily on the short-range or emergent
health of respective components in support of equipment reliability and
PM activities.
4.2.2 4-6 Given the broad component health and performance data available to
them, the CE should provide recommendations regarding possible
design modifications and enhancements to improve equipment
reliability or extend component life.
4.2.3 4-7 The CE should be a key contributor to establishing critical spares and
completing bills of materials for his or her scope of components. The
CE should also play a role in recommending qualified vendors for
refurbishing existing components and potential suppliers of new
replacement components to the procurement engineering
organization.
4.3.1 4-8 To support the plant’s ongoing training of maintenance and operations
personnel, the CE should be sought out as the SME regarding the
component design and functionality as well as the primary resource for
recommending the type and scope of component-related training
relevant to operations and maintenance personnel.

A-1
Compilation of Key Points

4.3.2 4-9 Once maintenance has been approved, either through standing
procedures or for execution during an outage, the CE should work
closely with the maintenance planning organization to assist in
preparing the necessary work packages and maintenance work
instructions.
4.4.1 4-10 The CE should be the key contributor to defining the refurbishment
work scope, preparing the specification and work instructions for the
vendor, recommending testing/verification activities to ensure that the
refurbishment was performed correctly, and establishing the
appropriate performance and testing acceptance criteria that the
vendor must achieve.
4.4.2 4-10 The CE should recommend potential equipment suppliers to the
design and procurement engineering organizations (as appropriate) as
soon as possible after the decision has been made to replace an
existing component that is no longer performing in accordance with
design requirements.

A.2 Key Technical Points

Key Technical Point


Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.

Referenced Page Number Key Point


Section
4.1.1 4-3 The CE’s interface with the preventive/corrective maintenance
organization is an ongoing relationship that directly affects equipment
reliability through consistent and effective maintenance activities.
4.2.1 4-6 The interface between the CE and the systems engineer can be made
more effective given the understanding that the system engineer has a
more vertical view of the plant (that is, one particular operating
system), whereas the CE has a more horizontal view (for example,
one group of components, like a pump, installed in many different
operating systems).
4.4.2 4-10 Once a component manufacturer has been selected and has furnished
the equipment, the CE should ensure that all necessary technical
information associated with the hardware is provided, that the
technical information is accurate and current, and that it is
incorporated into appropriate plant procedures.
5.1 5-2 Component health may be acceptable for the present, but program
health may be on the verge of going bad.

A-2
Compilation of Key Points

A.3 Key Human Performance Points

Key Human Performance Point


Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order
to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task.

Referenced Page Number Key Point


Section
2.2.1 2-2 One of the key functions of a CE is to assist with the development and
execution of long-range maintenance strategies for various
components within their scope of responsibility.
2.2.2 2-3 The CE can provide valuable assistance, both proactively and
reactively, to address emergent and immediate component
performance issues.
2.2.3 2-4 An ongoing function of the CE is to monitor and improve component
health.
2.2.4 2-5 Care should be taken to use established processes for conducting
vendor oversight activities to ensure that personnel visiting the
manufacturer’s facility are adequately trained to perform these
activities and that appropriate briefings are conducted prior to
overseeing the vendor’s work.
4.1.2 4-4 The CE should provide condition monitoring guidance to the predictive
maintenance organization as a means of identifying and assessing
component health.
4.1.3 4-4 The plant operations organization should have a close working
relationship with the CE because they form an important channel for
sharing equipment performance data and condition monitoring results.

A-3
B
TRANSLATED TABLE OF CONTENTS

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES

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ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

B-1
Translated Table of Contents

RÉSUMÉ

Objectifs
• Présenter une compilation des données concernant les rôles, les responsabilités, la structure
d'organisation, et les interfaces des CEs des centrales nucléaires
• Définir des fonctionnements et des responsabilités communes des CEs
• Identifier et décrire les options des diverses structures d'organisation employant d’autres
personnels pour accomplir ces rôles
• Identifier le pour et le contre des diverses approches employées dans l'industrie, y compris
des approches couronnées de succès ou d’échecs
• Evaluer les interfaces des CE avec l'entretien, le fonctionnement, la planification, les arrêts,
l'ingénierie de conception, et les organismes d’achat et examiner les voies et les rôles intégrés
avec au fonctionnements et aux procédés de la centrale

B-2
Translated Table of Contents

TABLE DES MATIERES

1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1-1


1.1 But et portée .................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.2 Fond .............................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.3 Utilisation et application de ce rapport .......................................................................... 1-2
1.4 Définition du problème .................................................................................................. 1-2
1.4.1 Problèmes d'organisation d’interfaces.................................................................... 1-3
1.4.2 Problèmes de personnel ........................................................................................ 1-4
1.4.3 Problèmes de planification stratégique .................................................................. 1-4
1.4.4 Problèmes d’échanges de l'information et des documents d'ingénierie ................1-4
1.4.5 Problèmes liés aux organismes externes .............................................................. 1-5
1.5 Résumé des avantages perçus et réels de l'ingénierie de composants ....................... 1-5
1.5.1 Niveau du bureau-chef .......................................................................................... 1-5
1.5.2 Niveau Multi-Unités de site .................................................................................... 1-5
1.5.3 Ensemble des niveaux .......................................................................................... 1-6
1.6 Structure et synthèse du rapport .................................................................................... 1-6
1.6.1 Fondamentaux ....................................................................................................... 1-6
1.6.2 Structure et contenu du rapport.............................................................................. 1-6
1.7 Glossaire des conditions et des acronymes .................................................................. 1-7
1.7.1 Définitions et nomenclature d'industrie .................................................................. 1-7
1.7.2 Acronymes ............................................................................................................. 1-8
1.8 Rapports avec EPRI NMAC et avec d’autres rapports EPRI ........................................ 1-9
1.9 Points clés ..................................................................................................................... 1-9

2 FONCTIONNEMENTDE L’INGENIERIE .............................................................................. 2-1


2.1 Rapport fonctionnel de synthèse et mission .................................................................. 2-1
2.1.1 Synthèse fonctionnelle .......................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.2 Mission .................................................................................................................. 2-2
2.2 Fonctionnements principaux de la CE et valeur ajoutée ............................................... 2-2

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2.2.1 Développer et faciliter l'exécution des stratégies de maintenance à long


terme ... ........................................................................................................................... 2-2
2.2.2 Fournir l'expertise/la direction................................................................................. 2-3
2.2.3 Contrôler et améliorer la santé des composants .................................................... 2-4
2.2.4 Fournir le contrôle technique des intervenants de reconditionnement des
composants .................................................................................................................... 2-4
2.2.5 Développer, mettre en application, et mettre à jour les régimes des
composant-Installés ........................................................................................................ 2-5
2.3 Composants le plus souvent attribués à un CE ............................................................ 2-5
2.3.1 Composants mécaniques ...................................................................................... 2-6
2.3.2 Composants électriques ........................................................................................ 2-6
2.3.3 Instruments et contrôles ........................................................................................ 2-7

3 QUALIFICATIONS, ATTRIBUTS, PERSONNEL ................................................................. 3-1


3.1 Résumé de position de la CE ........................................................................................ 3-1
3.2 Expertise et expérience de niveau ................................................................................ 3-1
3.3 Compétences et qualifications ...................................................................................... 3-2
3.4 Qualifications types pour le personnel de support d'ingénierie ..................................... 3-3
3.5 Personnel et postes ....................................................................................................... 3-4
3.5.1 Personnel services centraux ................................................................................. 3-5
3.5.2 Personnel site ........................................................................................................ 3-6

4 INTERFACES D'ORGANISATION ....................................................................................... 4-1


4.1 Interfaces de fonctionnements et de maintenance ........................................................ 4-2
4.1.1 Organisation de maintenance préventive/corrective ............................................. 4-3
4.1.2 Organisation prédictive d'entretien ........................................................................ 4-4
4.1.3 Fonctionnement de centrale .................................................................................. 4-4
4.2 L'ingénierie connecte .................................................................................................... 4-5
4.2.1 Technicien de systèmes ........................................................................................ 4-6
4.2.2 Ingénierie de conception ....................................................................................... 4-6
4.2.3 Ingénierie de fourniture et de la chaîne d'approvisionnements ............................. 4-7
4.3 Autres interfaces avec la centrale .................................................................................. 4-7
4.3.1 Organisme de formation ........................................................................................ 4-8
4.3.2 Planification du travail ............................................................................................ 4-9
4.4 Se connecter par interface aux organisation externes au service ................................. 4-9
4.4.1 Fournisseurs de services de rénovation .............................................................. 4-10

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4.4.2 Constructeurs ....................................................................................................... 4-10


4.4.3 Groupes d'usagers d'industrie ............................................................................. 4-11
4.5 Interfaces .................................................................................................................... 4-11
4.6 Liverables d'ingénierie ................................................................................................. 4-12

5 ETATS CONSTITUTIFS DE LA SANTE DE COMPOSANTS ............................................. 5-1


5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 L'intégration de la santé des composants .............................................................. 5-2
5.1.2 Attributs clefs/contenu d'un état constitutif de santé .............................................. 5-2
5.1.3 La caractéristique pour la santé d’un composant ................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.1 Données de conditions ................................................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.2 Points d'émission ........................................................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.3 Conditions de saisie de données ................................................................... 5-4
5.1.4 Tendances et analyse des caractéristiques de la santé d’un composant .............. 5-4
5.2 Détermination des attributs appropriés de composant .................................................. 5-5
5.2.1 Modes de défaillance constitutifs ........................................................................... 5-5
5.2.2 Mécanismes constitutifs de dégradation ............................................................... 5-5
5.2.3 Indicateurs constitutifs des mécanismes de dégradation ...................................... 5-5
5.3 Exemples constitutifs du contenu et du format d'état de santé ..................................... 5-6
5.3.1 la santé constitutive Flotte-Complète .................................................................... 5-6
5.3.2 La santé constitutive Multi-site ............................................................................ 5-10
5.3.3 Rapports de santé des grands systèmes et systèmes individuels ...................... 5-15

6 AVANTAGES ET LEÇONS APPRIS ................................................................................... 6-1


6.1 Avantages de mettre à jour l’organisation d'ingénierie .................................................. 6-1
6.1.1 Niveau service centraux ......................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.2 Niveau site multi unités........................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.3 Niveau une unité .................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2 Leçons apprises ............................................................................................................ 6-2

7 BIBLIOGRAPHIE ................................................................................................................. 7-1


7.1 Conseils Industriels ....................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Rapports techniques d'EPRI ......................................................................................... 7-1
7.3 Procédures des services ............................................................................................... 7-2

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A COMPILATION DES POINTS CLES .................................................................................. A-1


Remarques principales du coût de fonctionnement et maintennace .................................. A-1
Remarques techniques principales .................................................................................... A-2
Facteur humain .................................................................................................................. A-3

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LISTE DE FIGURES

Figure des domaines problématiques rendant nécessaire le fonctionnement de la CE .......... 1-3


Figure la portée et le contenu de cet état ................................................................................ 1-7
Figure la synthèse des interfaces d'organisation pour le CE au niveau du site ...................... 4-1
Figure les fonctionnements et les interfaces d'organisation d'entretien pour le CE
................................................... ....................................................................................... 4-3
Figure les interfaces d'organisation de l'ingénierie pour le CE ................................................ 4-5
Figure les interfaces d'organisation de la formation et du Travail-Planification pour le CE ..... 4-8
Figure les interfaces d'organisation externes pour le CE ......................................................... 4-9
Figure que les utilisations des indicateurs de santé du matériel .............................................. 5-1
Figure Matrice d’Exelon indicateur de ligne de composant ...................................................... 5-7
Figure Matrice d’Exelon indicateur de santé de composant ..................................................... 5-8
Figure Exelon indicateur de moteur ......................................................................................... 5-9
Figure Exelon indicateur de tendance ................................................................................... 5-10
Figure les définitions sommaires du rapport d’état de composants de Comache Peak .........5-11
Figure exemple rapport d’état de composants de Comache Peak ......................................... 5-12
Figure mode des moteurs de Comache Peak ........................................................................ 5-13
Figure Action corrective pour les gros moteurs de Comache Peak ....................................... 5-14
Figure Maintenance à long terme des gros moteurs de Comache Peak ................................ 5-15
Figure Rapport de santé des composants des transformateurs de Callaway......................... 5-16

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LISTE DE TABLEAUX

Synthèse du fonctionnement de la CE ..................................................................................... 2-1


Composants mécaniques types................................................................................................ 2-6
Composants électriques types.................................................................................................. 2-6
Instruments types et contrôles .................................................................................................. 2-7
Niveaux types d'expertise et d'expérience d’ingénieur système ............................................... 3-1
Qualification type ESP .............................................................................................................. 3-3
Personnel typique des services centraux ................................................................................ 3-6
Personnel typique de l’unité...................................................................................................... 3-6
Résumé des deliverables de l'ingénierie ................................................................................ 4-12

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レポートの概要

目的
• 機器エンジニアの役割、責任、組織構造および機器エンジニアの原子力発電所内の
他の部署との関係を示すこと

• 機器エンジニアの共通的機能そして責任を定義すること

• これらの役割を達成するために他の専門家を任用する様々な組織構造のオプション
を明らかにし記述すること

• 成功例、不成功例を含み、産業界で、用いられる様々なアプローチの長所、短所を
明らかにすること

• 保全、運転、停止計画、設計工学および調達組織と機器エンジニアとの関係を評価
し、機器エンジニアの役割がプラント運転およびプロセスと統合する方法を検討す
ること

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目次

1はじめに.................................................................................................................................. 1-1

1.1目的およびスコープ ........................................................................................................ 1-1

1.2背景 ................................................................................................................................. 1-1

1.3この技術レポートの使用とプラント適用........................................................................ 1-2

1.4問題の定義 ...................................................................................................................... 1-2

1.4.1組織内の連絡調整の問題 ......................................................................................... 1-3

1.4.2社員確保の問題 ....................................................................................................... 1-4

1.4.3戦略的計画の問題.................................................................................................... 1-4

1.4.4情報交換およびエンジニアリングの成果としての図書の問題 ............................... 1-4

1.4.5外部組織に関連した問題 ..........................................................................................1-5

1.5機器エンジニアの認知された実際の利点の概要............................................................. 1-5

1.5.1会社レベル............................................................................................................... 1-5

1.5.2複数ユニットのサイトのレベル .............................................................................. 1-5

1.5.3ユニットレベル ....................................................................................................... 1-6

1.6レポートの構造および内容の概要 .................................................................................. 1-6

1.6.1基本的な前提 ........................................................................................................... 1-6

1.6.2レポートの構造と内容............................................................................................. 1-6

1.7略称と専門用語集............................................................................................................ 1-7

1.7.1産業界の定義および専門語 ..................................................................................... 1-7

1.7.2略称 ......................................................................................................................... 1-8

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1.8 EPRI NMACと他のEPRIレポートとの関係 ....................................................................1-9

1.9キーポイント................................................................................................................... 1-9

2機器エンジニアの機能 ............................................................................................................ 2-1

2.1機能概要および ミッションステートメント ................................................................... 2-1

2.1.1機能概要 .................................................................................................................. 2-1

2.1.2ミッションステートメント ..................................................................................... 2-2

2.2価値を付加する機器エンジニアの役割 ............................................................................2-2

2.2.1長期的機器の保全戦略の開発、適用、促進 .............................................................2-2

2.2.2機器の専門知識/監視の提供 .....................................................................................2-3

2.2.3機器の健康状態の監視、改善...................................................................................2-4

2.2.4オフサイトで機器を改修しているベンダーに対する技術的監視の提供 ................. 2-4

2.2.5機器に関するプログラムの開発、実行、維持..........................................................2-5

2.3最も頻繁に機器エンジニアに割り当てられる機器 ......................................................... 2-5

2.3.1機械的機器............................................................................................................... 2-6

2.3.2電気機器 .................................................................................................................. 2-6

2.3.3計装および制御 ....................................................................................................... 2-7

3機器専門家の技能、属性、および配置................................................................................... 3-1

3.1機器エンジニアの役割の概要.......................................................................................... 3-1

3.2専門知識および経験のレベル.......................................................................................... 3-1

3.3専門性および技能............................................................................................................ 3-2

3.4エンジニアリングを支える専門家(ESP)の認定 ...............................................................3-3

3.5機器専門家の配置............................................................................................................ 3-4

3.5.1会社か複数プラント単位での機器専門家の配置 ..................................................... 3-5

3.5.2ユニットごとの機器専門家の配置........................................................................... 3-6

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4組織間の関係および発信情報の種類 ...................................................................................... 4-1

4.1運転及び保全の関係 .........................................................................................................4-2

4.1.1予防保全/事後保全の組織 ........................................................................................ 4-3

4.1.2予知保全の組織 ....................................................................................................... 4-4

4.1.3プラント運転 ........................................................................................................... 4-4

4.2エンジニアリング組織との関係 .......................................................................................4-5

4.2.1システムエンジニア ................................................................................................ 4-6

4.2.2設計エンジニア ....................................................................................................... 4-6

4.2.3調達エンジニアおよびサプライチェーン................................................................ 4-7

4.3他のプラントとの関係 .....................................................................................................4-7

4.3.1トレーニング組織.................................................................................................... 4-8

4.3.2作業計画 .................................................................................................................. 4-9

4.4電力外部組織との関係 .................................................................................................... 4-9

4.4.1改修サービス提供者 .............................................................................................. 4-10

4.4.2機器メーカ............................................................................................................. 4-10

4.4.3産業界のユーザ・グループ ................................................................................... 4-11

4.5プログラム間の連絡 .......................................................................................................4-11

4.6機器エンジニアの発信する情報と提供品 ..................................................................... 4-12

5機器のヘルスレポート ............................................................................................................ 5-1

5.1はじめに .......................................................................................................................... 5-1

5.1.1機器ヘルスレポートの統合 ......................................................................................5-2

5.1.2機器ヘルスレポートのキーとなる属性/内容 ........................................................... 5-2

5.1.3機器ヘルスレポートのデータ...................................................................................5-3

5.1.3.1データ要件 ....................................................................................................... 5-3

5.1.3.2データソース ................................................................................................... 5-3

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5.1.3.3データ収集の要件 ............................................................................................ 5-4

5.1.4機器ヘルスレポートのためのトレンドデータおよび分析........................................5-4

5.2適切な機器の属性の決定................................................................................................. 5-5

5.2.1機器の故障モード.................................................................................................... 5-5

5.2.2機器の劣化メカニズム............................................................................................. 5-5

5.2.3機器の劣化メカニズムの指標.................................................................................. 5-5

5.3機器ヘルスレポートの内容およびフォーマットの例...................................................... 5-6

5.3.1複数プラントに対する機器ヘルスレポート ............................................................ 5-6

5.3.2複数ユニットの機器ヘルスレポート ......................................................................5-10

5.3.3単一の大規模ユニットの機器ヘルスレポート........................................................5-15

6利点および教訓....................................................................................................................... 6-1

6.1機器エンジニア組織を維持する利点............................................................................... 6-1

6.1.1会社レベル............................................................................................................... 6-1

6.1.2複数ユニットのサイトのレベル .............................................................................. 6-1

6.1.3ユニットレベル ....................................................................................................... 6-2

6.2教訓 ..................................................................................................................................6-2

7文献......................................................................................................................................... 7-1

7.1産業界のガイダンス ........................................................................................................ 7-1

7.2 EPRIの技術レポート...................................................................................................... 7-1

7.3電力会社の手順 ............................................................................................................... 7-2

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Aキーポイントのまとめ .......................................................................................................... A-1

A.1 O&Mに関するキーポイント.......................................................................................... A-1

A.2技術的なキーポイント ................................................................................................... A-2

A.3ヒューマンファクタに関するキーポイント................................................................... A-3

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図のリスト

図1-1機器エンジニア機能を必要とする問題 ............................................................................ 1-3

図1-2このレポートのスコープおよび内容................................................................................ 1-7

図4-1サイトレベルの機器エンジニアの組織間の連絡の概要 ................................................... 4-1

図4-2機器エンジニアのための運転及び保全との関係.............................................................. 4-3

図4-3機器エンジニアとエンジニアリング組織との関係 .......................................................... 4-5

図4-4機器エンジニアとトレーニングおよび作業を計画する組織との関係 ............................. 4-8

図4-5機器エンジニアと外部組織との関係................................................................................ 4-9

図5-1機器ヘルスレポートの使用 .............................................................................................. 5-1

図5-2 Exelon ヘルスレポート 機器表示マトリックス ......................................................... 5-7

図5-3 Exelon 機器健康状態 .................................................................................................... 5-8

図5-4 Exelon 半年ごとのモーターレポート ........................................................................... 5-9

図5-5 Exelon トレンドの例 ................................................................................................. 5-10

図5-6 コマンチピーク 機器の現状評価概要の定義 ................................................................. 5-11

図5-7コマンチピーク機器の状態報告の例.............................................................................. 5-12

図5-8 コマンチピーク 大型モーターの現状............................................................................ 5-13

図5-9 コマンチピーク大型モーター是正処置 ......................................................................... 5-14

図5-10 コマンチピーク大型モーター長期的な保全計画......................................................... 5-15

図5-11キャラウェイ 変圧器の機器のヘルス概要 ................................................................. 5-16

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テーブルのリスト

テーブル2-1機器エンジニア機能の概要 ................................................................................... 2-1

テーブル2-2典型的な機械的機器 .............................................................................................. 2-6

テーブル2-3典型的な電気機器.................................................................................................. 2-6

テーブル2-4典型的な計装および制御 ....................................................................................... 2-7

テーブル3-1機器エンジニアの典型的な専門知識および経験のレベル..................................... 3-1

テーブル3-2典型的な工学を支える専門家(ESP)の認定 ........................................................... 3-3

テーブル3-3機器エンジニアの典型的な会社/複数ユニットレベルでの配置 ............................ 3-6

テーブル3-4ユニット単位の機器エンジニアの典型的な配置 ................................................... 3-6

テーブル4-1機器エンジニアの発信する情報と提供品の概要 ................................................. 4-12

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RESUMEN DEL REPORTE

Objetivos
• Para presentar una compilación de datos con respecto a los papeles, las responsabilidades, la
estructura orgánica, y a los interfaces de CEs en las instalaciones de energía nuclear
• Para definir funciones y responsabilidades comunes de CEs
• Para determinar y describir opciones de las varias estructuras orgánicas que emplean otro
personal para satisfacer estos papeles
• Para determinar los pros y contra de las varias estrategias que son utilizadas en la industria,
incluyendo estrategias acertadas y fracasadas
• Para evaluar los interfaces del CE con el mantenimiento, las operaciones, la formulación de
planes de la interrupción, la ingeniería de diseño, y las organizaciones de obtención y
examinar las maneras que sus papeles se integren con las operaciones y los procesos de
instalación

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CONTENIDO

1 INTRODUCCIÓN .................................................................................................................. 1-1


1.1 Propósito y Alcance........................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 Antecedentes ................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.3 Uso y Implementación de este Reporte Técnico ........................................................... 1-2
1.4 Definición de Problema ................................................................................................. 1-2
1.4.1 Problemas Organizacionales del Interfaz .............................................................. 1-3
1.4.2 Problemas de Emplear Personal............................................................................ 1-4
1.4.3 Problemas de la Formulación de Planes Estratégicos .......................................... 1-4
1.4.4 Problemas con Intercambios de Información y Documentos de Rendimiento
de Ingeniería ................................................................................................................... 1-4
1.4.5 Problemas Relacionados con las Organizaciones Externas ................................. 1-5
1.5 Resumen de Ventajas Percibidas y Reales de la Ingeniería de Componentes ............ 1-5
1.5.1 Nivel de Corporación ............................................................................................. 1-5
1.5.2 Nivel Multi-Unit del Sitio ......................................................................................... 1-5
1.5.3 Nivel de la Unidad .................................................................................................. 1-6
1.6 Estructura del Reporte y Reseña del Contenido ............................................................ 1-6
1.6.1 Premisas Básicas .................................................................................................. 1-6
1.6.2 Estructura y Contenido del Reporte ...................................................................... 1-6
1.7 Glosario de Términos y de Siglas ................................................................................. 1-7
1.7.1 Definiciones y Nomenclatura de la Industria ......................................................... 1-7
1.7.2 Siglas ..................................................................................................................... 1-8
1.8 Relación con EPRI NMAC y otros Reporte de EPRI ..................................................... 1-9
1.9 Puntos Dominantes ....................................................................................................... 1-9

2 FUNCIONES DE INGENIERÍA DE COMPONENTES........................................................... 2-1


2.1 Reseña Funcional y Declaración de la Misión .............................................................. 2-1
2.1.1 Reseña Funcional .................................................................................................. 2-1
2.1.2 Declaración de la Misión ....................................................................................... 2-2

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2.2 Funciones Dominantes del CE que Agregan Valor ....................................................... 2-2


2.2.1 Desarrolla y Facilita Ejecución de las Estrategias de Mantenimiento de
Componentes de Largo Alcance ......................................................................................2-2
2.2.2 Proveer Supervisión/Especialización de Componentes ......................................... 2-3
2.2.3 Vigile y Perfeccione la Salud del Componente ...................................................... 2-4
2.2.4 Ofrece- Supervisión Técnica a los Vendedores Fuera de Sitio que Restauran
Componentes ................................................................................................................. 2-4
2.2.5 Desarrollar, Implementar y Mantener los Programas Componente-
Orientados ...................................................................................................................... 2-5
2.3 Componentes Asignados Más a Menudo a un CE ....................................................... 2-5
2.3.1 Componentes Mecánicos ...................................................................................... 2-6
2.3.2 Componentes Eléctricos ........................................................................................ 2-6
2.3.3 Instrumentos y Controles........................................................................................ 2-7

3 ESPECIALISTAS DE COMPONENTES CON HABILIDADES, ATRIBUTOS, Y


EMPLEO DE PERSONAL........................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1 Resumen de la Posición de CE ..................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Especialización y Nivel de Experiencia .......................................................................... 3-1
3.3 Capacidades y Habilidades ........................................................................................... 3-2
3.4 Calificaciones Típicas para el Personal de Apoyo de Ingeniería .................................. 3-3
3.5 Empleo de Personal y Colocación ................................................................................ 3-4
3.5.1 Empleo de Personal por Compañía o por Alta Cantidad........................................ 3-5
3.5.2 Empleo de Personal Por-Unidad ........................................................................... 3-6

4 INTERFACES Y RENDIMIENTOS ORGANIZACIONALES ................................................. 4-1


4.1 Interfaces de Operaciones y de Mantenimiento............................................................. 4-2
4.1.1 Organizaciones del Mantenimiento Preventivo/Correctivo .................................... 4-3
4.1.2 Organizaciones de Mantenimiento Profético ......................................................... 4-4
4.1.3 Operaciones de la Planta ....................................................................................... 4-4
4.2 Interfaces de Ingeniería.................................................................................................. 4-5
4.2.1 Ingeniería de Sistemas .......................................................................................... 4-6
4.2.2 Ingeniería de Diseño ............................................................................................. 4-6
4.2.3 Ingeniería de Obtención y de la Cadena de Abastecimiento ................................ 4-7
4.3 Otras Interfaces de Plantas............................................................................................ 4-7
4.3.1 Organización del Entrenamiento ........................................................................... 4-8
4.3.2 Formulación de Planes de Trabajo ........................................................................ 4-9

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Translated Table of Contents

4.4 Interconexión con las Organizaciones Externas a la Compañía ................................... 4-9


4.4.1 Surtidores de Servicio de Restauración .............................................................. 4-10
4.4.2 Fabricantes de Componentes ............................................................................. 4-10
4.4.3 Grupos de Usuarios de la Industria ..................................................................... 4-11
4.5 Interfaces del Programa ............................................................................................... 4-11
4.6 Rendimientos de Ingeniería de Componentes y Entregables ...................................... 4-12

5 REPORTES DE SALUD DE COMPONENTE ....................................................................... 5-1


5.1 Introducción ................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 Integración de el Reporte de Salud del Componente ............................................ 5-2
5.1.2 Atributos/Contenido Claves de un Reporte de Salud de Componente ...................5-2
5.1.3 Datos para Reporte de Salud de Componente ..................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.1 Requisitos de para los Datos ......................................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.2 Fuentes de Datos .......................................................................................... 5-3
5.1.3.3 Requisitos de Captura de Datos .................................................................... 5-4
5.1.4 Análisis y Análisis de Tendencia de Datos para Reporte de Salud de
Componente .................................................................................................................... 5-4
5.2 Determinando Atributos Apropiados del Componente .................................................. 5-5
5.2.1 Modos de Fallo de Componentes .......................................................................... 5-5
5.2.2 Mecanismos de Componentes de Degradación .................................................... 5-5
5.2.3 Indicadores de Componentes de Mecanismo de Degradación ............................. 5-5
5.3 Ejemplos de Formato y de Contenido y del Reporte de Salud del Componente ............5-6
5.3.1 Reportes de Salud del Componente de Flota-Ancha ............................................. 5-6
5.3.2 Salud del Componente de Varias Unidades......................................................... 5-10
5.3.3 Reporte de Salud de Componente de Unidad Larga, Simple .............................. 5-15

6 VENTAJAS Y LECCIONES APRENDIDAS ......................................................................... 6-1


6.1 Ventajas de Mantener una Organización de Ingeniería de Componente ...................... 6-1
6.1.1 Al Nivel de Corporación.......................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.2 Nivel de Sitio de Varios Niveles.............................................................................. 6-1
6.1.3 Nivel de Unidad ..................................................................................................... 6-2
6.2 Lecciones Aprendidas ................................................................................................... 6-2

7 BIBLIOGRAFÍA ..................................................................................................................... 7-1


7.1 Guía de la Industria ....................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Reportes Técnicos de EPRI .......................................................................................... 7-1

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Translated Table of Contents

7.3 Procedimientos de Companias ...................................................................................... 7-2

A COMPILACIÓN DE PUNTOS DOMINANTES .................................................................... A-1


A.1 Puntos Dominantes del Costo de O&M ........................................................................ A-1
A.2 Puntos Técnicos Dominantes ...................................................................................... A-2
A.3 Puntos de Rendimiento Humano Dominante ............................................................... A-3

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Translated Table of Contents

LISTA DE FIGURA

Figura 1-1 Problemas en Áreas Necesitando la Función de CE .............................................. 1-3


Figura 1-2 Contenido y Alcance de Este Reporte..................................................................... 1-7
Figura 4-1 Reseña de los Interfaces Organizacionales para el CE de Nivel de Sitio .............. 4-1
Figura 4-2 Operaciones e Interfaces de Mantenimiento para el CE ........................................ 4-3
Figura 4-3 Interfaces de Ingeniería para el CE ........................................................................ 4-5
Figura 4-4 Interfaces de Formulación de Trabajo y Entrenamiento para el CE ....................... 4-8
Figura 4-5 Interfaces Externos para el CE .............................................................................. 4-9
Figura 5-1 Usos de Reportes de Salud de Componentes ...................................................... 5-1
Figura 5-2 Matriz Indicadora de Línea de Componente de Exelon ........................................ 5-7
Figura 5-3 Salud de Línea de Componente de Exelon ........................................................... 5-8
Figura 5-4 Reporte de Motor Semestral de Exelon ................................................................ 5-9
Figura 5-5 Ejemplos de Análisis de Tendencia de Exelon...................................................... 5-10
Figura 5-6 Definiciones de Resumen de Estado de Componentes de Comanche Peak ....... 5-11
Figura 5-7 Ejemplo del Reporte de Estado de Componentes de Comanche Peak ............... 5-12
Figura 5-8 Estado de Motores Grandes de Comanche Peak ................................................ 5-13
Figura 5-9 Acciones Correctivas de los Motores Grandes de Comanche Peak .................... 5-14
Figura 5-10 Plan de Mantenimiento de Largo Plazo de Motores Grandes de Comanche
Peak ................................................................................................................................ 5-15
Figura 5-11 Resumen de Salud de Componentes de Callaway para Transformadores......... 5-16

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Translated Table of Contents

LISTA DE TABLAS

Tabla 2-1 Reseña de la Función del CE .................................................................................. 2-1


Tabla 2-2 Típicos Componentes Mecánicos............................................................................. 2-6
Tabla 2-3 Típicos Componentes Eléctricos .............................................................................. 2-6
Tabla 2-4 Típicos Instrumentos y Controles ............................................................................. 2-7
Tabla 3-1 Típicos Niveles de Experiencia y de Especialización del Ingeniero de
Componentes.................................................................................................................... 3-1
Tabla 3-2 Típica Calificación de ESP ....................................................................................... 3-3
Tabla 3-3 Típico Empleados de Nivel Grande/de Corporación de Ingenieros de
Componentes.................................................................................................................... 3-6
Tabla 3-4 Típico Empleo de Personal de Ingenieros de Componentes Por Unidad................. 3-6
Tabla 4-1 Resumen de los Rendimientos de Ingenieros de Componentes y Entregables..... 4-12

B-23
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