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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Effect of operating parameters and antioxidant additives with biodiesels to MARK


improve the performance and reducing the emissions in a compression
ignition engine – A review

Senthil Ramalingam , Silambarasan Rajendran, Pranesh Ganesan, Mohan Govindasamy
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering Villupuram, Anna University, Chennai, India

A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T

Keywords: It is an overwhelming argument that the use of biodiesel in diesel engine causes slight decrease in performance
Biodiesel and reduction in exhaust emissions but at the expense of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. In order to improve
Operating parameters the performance without sacrificing the advantage in terms of exhaust emissions, it is essential to vary the
Antioxidant additives and diesel engine engine operating parameters such as compression ratio (CR), injection pressure (IP) and injection timing (IT).
Nowadays, treatment of biodiesel with antioxidant additive is a promising approach to reduce the NOx emission
because it reduces the hydrogen free radicals, which is responsible for prompt NOx formation during
combustion process. Hence, in the present review a detailed study has been carried out with the operating
parameters and antioxidant additives used in biodiesel operated diesel engine so that its performance can be
improved and exhaust emissions were reduced.

1. Introduction (HC), NOx, smoke etc. which cause damage to the environment and to
the living medium present in the atmosphere. In order to meet out the
1.1. General present scenario, biodiesel usage will substitute the fossil fuel moder-
ately.
In developing countries like India, transportation is vital for
everyday activities and in the growth of economic condition. There 1.2. Internal combustion engine
are different modes of transportation such as road, water, air etc., in
which fossil fuels are used abundantly. Besides transportation sector, IC engine is a heat engine where the combustion of air fuel mixture
the fossil fuels are used in power generation agricultural equipment occurs inside the combustion chamber that produces high temperature
and even in mine locomotives. In India, the consumption of petroleum and high gas pressure. This gas pressure pushes the piston over a
derived fuel is about 30 million tons in the year 2015. During the last distance and transforms the chemical energy into thermal energy
six decades, crude oil consumption rate in India have increased 16 which is used for performing the mechanical work. The size and design
times because of faster rate of vehicle population, industrial growth and of the engine varies according to the application and the requirements.
agricultural development. Due to increasing usage of petroleum Several researches targeted to increase the efficiency of IC engines
derived fuels, the cost of the crude oil is increased with the demand. since it is used in many applications. In practice all the engines are
India spends thousands of crores to import the crude oil for different compromised by their properties such as efficiency, weight, exhaust,
application and it leads to lowering the Indian economy. noise, heat, power etc. If the efficiency of the engine is high, then it will
The biodiesel is produced from different sources and it may either give better fuel economy and thereby reduces fuel consumption and
from conventional or non-conventional sources. Some biodiesel blends operating cost.
can be directly used in engines without any modification, and some
requires slight modifications like piston-cylinder coating, injection 1.2.1. Compression ignition engine
advance etc., to obtain the same performance to that of fossil fuel. Among the spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI)
Further, in internal combustion (IC) engines there is an increase engines, the CI engine plays a vital role since 80–90% of application
the exhaust emission such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon of IC engines are used with CI engines. These engines are the major


Corresponding author.
E-mail address: drrs1970@gmail.com (S. Ramalingam).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.026
Received 20 October 2016; Received in revised form 14 July 2017; Accepted 10 August 2017
1364-0321/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

contributors to cause environmental impacts and threat to the living Table 1


medium while emitting polluted gases. These are NOx, CO, HC, CO2, Projected demand for petrol and diesel and biofuel requirements.
smoke and particulate matter and it may either directly or indirectly
Year Petrol Diesel Biodiesel blending requirement
cause various issues on environment and living medium. Demand Demand
(MT) (MT) (MT)
1.3. Biodiesel
@5% @10% @20%

Based on the various research reports, vegetable oils cannot be used 2006–07 10.07 52.32 2.62 5.23 10.46
directly in CI engine as they have more free fatty acids, phospholipids, 2011–12 12.85 66.91 3.35 6.69 13.38
sterols, water and other impurities. These contents are responsible for 2016–17 16.40 83.58 4.18 8.36 16.72
high viscosity, high flash point, lower volatility, higher cloud, and pour
point. The higher viscosity of vegetable oil leads to low thermal
efficiency, high smoke, and carbon residue. Many methods are adapted only fulfill 25–30% of national consumption and rest we are importing
so for, like transesterification, pyrolysis and emulsification to reduce from other countries. In these circumstances biofuels are going to play
certain properties of biodiesel. Among these, transesterification seems an important role in meeting India's growing energy needs. Projected
to be a suitable process to produce biodiesel from vegetable oil and it requirement of biofuel for blending under different scenario are given
enhances the fuel properties similar to diesel fuel. in Table 1.
As biodiesel contains more oxygen, emissions of CO, HC and smoke India's demand for petroleum products is likely to rise from 97.7
can be decreased to a large extent thereby making the environment million tonnes in 2001–02 to around 139.95 million tonnes in 2006-
greener. Despite these advantages, biodiesels have some disadvantages 07, according to projections of the (Tenth Five-Year Plan). The plan
too, like higher viscosity and lower calorific value that have negative document puts compound annual growth rate (CAGR) at 3.6% during
effects on performance, combustion and emission of the engine. The CI the plan period. Domestic crude oil production is likely to rise
engines are designed to utilise the diesel as fuel. So they must be marginally from 32.03 million tonnes in 2001–02 to 33.97 million
modified to an extent that they accept the biodiesel fuel. Researchers tonnes by the end of the (10th plan period (2006–07)). India's self-
are keen to increase the engine operating parameters such as compres- sufficiency in oil has consistently declined from 60% in the 50 s to 30%
sion ratio, fuel injection timing, and fuel injection pressure to adapt the currently. Same is expected to go down to 8% by 2020 (Bureau of
biodiesel in CI engine. Energy Efficiency, 2011). Final energy consumption is the actual
Nowadays, many researchers are conducting experiments using energy demand at the user end. This is the difference between primary
vegetable oil based biodiesel like, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, energy consumption and the losses that takes place in transport,
rape seed oil, palm oil, cotton seed oil, line seed oil, corn oil, sesame oil, transmission and distribution and refinement. The actual final energy
etc., in CI engines. These vegetable oils are edible and so, it may not be consumption (past and projected) is given in Table 2. As per the
wise and practical. Government of India's vision document 2020, cultivating 10 million
Certain non-edible oils have been used in CI engines, and many hectares with Jatropha would generate 7.5 million tonnes of fuel a year,
non-edible oils are still to be used, such as neem oil, rubber seed oil, creating year round jobs for five million people.
pongamia oil, nerium oil etc. These non-edible oils are available in
plenty in India. 1.3.3. Producer of biodiesel
Biodiesel produced from non-edible oils have more advantages Biodiesel is now being produced locally in India for use in
when used in CI engines, but on the performance point of view it is stationary engines and large or slow engines like those in trains, trucks
lower than that of diesel fuel due to its low calorific value and higher and tractors. Biodiesel-blends are being used to run state transport
viscosity [2]. corporation buses in Karnataka. The University of Agriculture Sciences
at Bangalore has identified many elite lines of Jatropha curcas and
1.3.1. Sources of biodiesel Millettia pinnata (Pongamia tree). Castor already a well-established
Typical raw materials of biodiesel are rapeseed oil, canola oil, crop in India with several very high yielding varieties in the market. For
soybean oil, sunflower oil and palm oil. Beef and sheep tallow and example, the government of Karnataka has distributed several million
poultry oil from animal sources and cooking oil are also sources of raw saplings of Pongamia to farmers for planting along borders of farmland
materials. There are various other biodiesel sources: almond, andiroba and in waste lands. Large-scale plantations have been initiated in
(Carapa guianensis), babassu (Orbignia sp.), barley, camelina North-East India and Jharkhand by D1 Williamson Magor Bio Fuel
(Camelina sativa), coconut, copra, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), Limited, a joint venture between D1 Oils of U.K. and Williamson Magor
Cynara cardunculus, fish oil, groundnut, Jatropha curcas, karanja of India. The hilly areas of the North-East are ideal for growing hardy,
(Pongamia glabra), laurel, Lesquerella fendleri, Madhuca indica, low-maintenance plants [59].
microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), oat, piqui (Caryocar sp.), poppy seed,
rice, rubber seed, sesame, sorghum, tobacco seed, and wheat. Various 1.3.4. Oxidation stability
oils have been in use in different countries as raw materials for The oxidation of fatty acid chain is a complex process proceeded by
biodiesel production owing to its availability. Soybean oil is commonly a variety of mechanisms. Oxidation of biodiesel is due to the unsatura-
used in United States and rapeseed oil is used in many European tion in fatty acid chain and presence of double bonds in the molecule
countries for biodiesel production, whereas, coconut oil and palm oils
are used in Malaysiaand Indonesia for biodiesel production. In India Table 2
and southeast Asia, the Jatropha tree (Jatropha cursas), Karanja Demands for commercial energy for fuel consumption.
(Pongamia pinnata), and Mahua (M. indica) is used as a significant
Source Units 1994-95 2001-02 2006-07 2011-12
fuel source [4].
Electricity Billion Units 289.36 480.08 712.67 1067.88
1.3.2. Bio-diesel scenario in India Coal Million Tonnes 76.67 109.01 134.99 173.47
The India's energy demand is expected to grow at an annual rate of Lignite Million Tonnes 4.85 11.69 16.02 19.70
Natural Gas Million Cubic 9880 15,730 18,291 20,853
4.8 per cent over the next couple of decades. Most of the energy
Meters
requirements are currently satisfied by fossil fuels coal, petroleum Oil Products Million Tonnes 63.55 99.89 139.95 196.47
based products and natural gas. Domestic production of crude oil can

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S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

which offers high level of reactivity with O2, especially, when it is placed glycerol and that the cost of Biodiesel fuel can be lowered if a Biodiesel
in contact with air/water. The primary oxidation products of double plant has its own glycerol recovery facility. With the increase in global
bonds are unstable allylic hydro peroxides which are unstable and human population, more land may be needed to produce food for
easily form a variety of secondary oxidation products [49]. human consumption (indirectly via animal feed). So insufficient land
The oxidation of fatty acid chain is a complex process proceeded by may also increase the production cost of Biodiesel plants. The problem
a variety of mechanisms. Auto oxidation of fatty acid methyl ester is a already exists in Asia where vegetable oil prices are relatively high. The
free radical chain reaction and the chain reaction proceeds by three same trend will eventually happen in the rest of the world. This is the
steps initiation, propagation and termination. potential challenge to Biodiesel production. Biodiesel can be used most
effectively as a supplement to other energy forms. Biodiesel is
RH +I• → R• + IH (1)
particularly useful in mining and marine situations where lower
In the initiation step Eq. (1) initiator radicals (I•) react with the pollution levels are important. Biodiesel also can lower US dependence
fatty acid methyl ester substrate (RH) and abstracts a hydrogen from a on imported petroleum based fuel [62].
carbon atom of the fatty acid chain, to form a new fatty acid radical R•
(carbon free radical). The initiator radical is formed by different 1.5. Motivation
mechanism. Eq. (2) Thermal dissociation of hydroperoxides (ROOH)
present as impurities at the elevated temperature. During storage the India's import of crude oil is likely to go up to 92% of total fuel
metals (M) present in the fuel as contamination will initiate the requirement by the year 2020 based on the current growth rate and
decomposition of fatty acid ester by catalyzing the reaction and it is available new domestic sources. Because of this, India has started using
given Eq. (3) biodiesel partially in the automobile sector and railways. But the
biodiesel is not available uniformly and sufficiently throughout the
ROOH → RO• + OH• (2) country, since it is derived from the plants and the particular plants are
not available all over India. So, biodiesel is used in limited quantity.
ROO + M2+ → RO• + OH• + M3+ (3) These factors make a thrust to find out a substitute fuel for diesel and
biodiesel production will definitely build the economy of the Nation.
Sometimes oxidation also initiated by light which is called photo
Currently India utilizes 13% of world's oil seed cultivated and produce
oxidation of fatty acid esters [49].
nearly about 18% of world's oil seed with different types. Therefore,
In the propagation step the carbon free radical will react with the
production of biodiesel will viable and it can be substituted for diesel
diatomic oxygen and forms peroxy radical at a higher rate and will not
fuel in the upcoming years.
allow any alternative reaction. The peroxy radical is reactive and
These background gives the idea to undertake the research study to
quickly abstract hydrogen from another carbon radical and form hydro
identify and to solve the fuel crisis, when the fossil fuels completely
peroxide. The newly formed carbon free radical will react further with
deplete in nature. Further it is planned to develop biodiesel in the
the diatomic oxygen and propagates the chain reaction. This addition
particular region, with respect to the availability of biodiesel sources.
of peroxyl radical with oxygen will continues at a faster rate since it is a
This review enhances the idea to use the biodiesel by modifying the
self-sustaining chain reaction.
existing CI engines and thereby reducing the pollutions.
R·+O2 → ROO· (4)
1.6. Objective
ROO·+ RH → ROOH + R· (5)
The objective of the review is to identify the non-fossil renewable
Termination of the chain reaction will occur only if the two free fuels which will performing better than conventional diesel engine in
radicals reacts to form a stable product as shown in the Eqs. (6) and terms of performance, emission and combustion characteristics with-
(7). out any modification. The main drawbacks in using biodiesel are
R·+ R·→ R-R (stable product) (6) increasing NOx emission and reduction in performance of the engine.
These drawbacks can be overcome by changing the operating para-
meter such as Compression Ratio (CR), Injection Pressure (IP) and
ROO·+ ROO·→ Stable products (7)
Injection Timing (IT) to improve the performance and by using
antioxidant additives to reduce the NOx emission.
1.4. Economical study
2. Influence of operating parameters and antioxidant
Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its additives on working characteristics of biodiesel operated
environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable diesel engine
resources. The remaining challenges are its cost and limited availability
of fat and oil resources. There are two aspects of the cost of Biodiesel, In the recent years efforts have been made by many researchers to
the costs of raw material (fats and oils) and the cost of processing. The use biodiesel as alternate fuel to the CI engines. It has many advantages
cost of raw materials accounts for 60–75% of the total cost of Biodiesel especially for agriculture based countries like India, because it allows
fuel. the replacement of diesel fuel by biodiesel in full or as a blend. This
In terms of production cost, there also are two aspects, the literature survey will bring out the use of biodiesel for CI engines, based
transesterification process and by-product (glycerol) recovery. A con- on the extensive studies made by various researchers. The extensive
tinuous transesterification process is one choice to lower the produc- review is made in the following broad areas.
tion cost. The foundations of this process are a shorter reaction time
and greater production capacity. The recovery of high quality glycerol is 1. Different biodiesels used in CI engine.
another way to lower production cost. Because little water is present in 2. Biodiesel with varying operating parameters such as CR, IP and IT.
the system, the Biodiesel glycerol is more concentrated. Unlike the 3. Biodiesel with additives.
traditional soap glycerol recovery process, the energy required to
recover Biodiesel glycerol is low due to the elimination of the 2.1. Influence of different biodiesels used in CI engine
evaporation process. This implies that the cost of recovering high
quality glycerol from Biodiesel glycerol is lower than that of soap The current status of different biodiesels and history behind the

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S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

biodiesel used in a CI engine are given in this section. Further, the capacity.
study is mainly focused on biodiesel production, problems with Kumar et al. [3] have reported that most of the non-edible seed
vegetable oils, fuel properties, performance, combustion and emission trees grown in wasteland do not compete with food crop for limited
characteristics while using in CI engines. growing regions.
Ali et al. [23] have found that the properties of neem biodiesel such
2.1.1. Historical background as density, kinematic viscosity and calorific value were lie within the
Production of biodiesel is not a new concept, since its usage was standards biodiesel properties (ASTM).
there in every year of 1895. In 1900, Rudolf Diesel developed the first Silitonga et al. [61] have observed that the properties of Ceiba
engine running with vegetable oil (ground nut oil). During the early pentandra methyl ester are lie within the recommended biodiesel
stages of the diesel engine development, strong interest was shown in standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). They have suggested that
the use of vegetable oil as a fuel but this was declined in the late 1950s biodiesel–diesel blends will improve the properties of biodiesel such as
after the supply of petroleum products. However, during the early viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value and oxidation stability.
1970s crude oil shortage made it to go for alternate fuel. At present, Atabani et al. [4] have found that the physical and chemical
vegetable oil has been started using in some countries in order to properties of biodiesel produced from any non-edible feedstock such
replace a part of petroleum based diesel fuel. Biodiesel is now being as Jatropha curcas, pongamia pinnata, madhuca indica etc are within
produced locally in India for use in stationary engines and also in the limits of ASTM and DIN EN specifications,
mobile application such as in trains, trucks and tractors.
2.1.3. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of
2.1.2. Biodiesel production, transesterification and properties biodiesel
The straight vegetable oils are used as fuel along with diesel in a CI Humke and Barsic [25] have observed that the CO, HC and PM of
engine. The primary problems associated with the use of straight soybean vegetable oil were increased by 2–20 g/kWh, 1–2 g/kWh and
vegetable oils on CI are high fuel viscosity and poor volatility. 1–2 g/kWh respectively when compared to that of diesel. Further, they
Transesterification of vegetable oils provides a significant reduction have found that the BTE and NOx were lowered 1–2% and 1–2 g/kWh
in viscosity and thereby enhancing the physical and chemical proper- respectively than that of diesel.
ties of vegetable oil to improve the engine performance. The transes- Raheman and Phadatare [47] have found that the CO, smoke and
terification process involves reaction of vegetable oils with alcohols NOx of karanja methyl ester (KME) blend up to B40 were reduced by
such as methanol or ethanol in the presence of a catalyst at about 70 °C 80%, 50% and 26%, respectively. Further, they have reported that the
to give the ester and its product. The properties will be almost similar brake power output increased 6% for B40.
to diesel fuel after the transesterification of vegetable oils. The biodiesel Sukumar Puhan et al. [65] have found that the CO and NOx
production, transesterification and properties are given in detailed emissions for mahua oil methyl ester (MOME), mahua oil ethyl ester
manner in the upcoming section. (MOEE), mahua oil butyl ester (MOBE) were lower and CO2 emission
Fukuda et al. [24] have concluded that the transesterification was slightly higher than that of diesel. They have concluded that the
process has been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production. MOME can be used as potential substitute for diesel fuel when
Demirbas [5] has studied the properties of biodiesel derived from compared to that of other esters on the basis of performance and
vegetable oils through catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical transes- emission characteristics.
terification methods. It has been also found that the methyl and ethyl Saravanan et al. [57] have found that the BSEC of rice bran oil was
esters of vegetable oils have several superior advantages than that of higher than that of all blends at all loads and 25% rice bran oil blend
other renewable fuels. with diesel shows that the properties are very close to that of diesel.
Huzayyin et al. [26] have reported that a slight increase in BSFC, They have concluded that the 25% rice bran oil blend with diesel shows
reduction in NOx and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil when lower viscosity, better combustion and lesser emission than that of
compared to that of gas oil. other blends of rice bran oil.
Sharma et al. [59] have reported that developing countries were not Rakopoulos et al. [48] have found that the CO and smoke emissions
self-sufficient in the production of edible oils. Hence, they have were reduced and there is no variation in HC emission but NOx
emphasized the usage of a number of non-edible oils such as jatropha, emission was increased with vegetable oil blends than that of the diesel
karanja, mahua, rubber seed, neem, polanga etc. fuel. They have reported that the engine performance with vegetable oil
Moser [13] has discussed about the influence of biodiesel over other blend or biodiesel was similar to that of the neat diesel fuel.
fuels, alternate for biodiesel and important fuel properties such as Lin et al. [6] have found that the VOME shows higher BSFC, higher
kinematic viscosity, flash point, fire point, density, heating value and cetane number and higher oxygen content. They have also found that
cetane number. VOME produces the same engine power and reduction of EGT, smoke
Samios et al. [56] have reported that the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl and HC emissions with a slight increase in NOx emission when
esters) was analyzed by standard techniques to find out high quality compared to that of diesel fuel.
and purity of biodiesel products. Saravanan et al. [58] have found that the CO and HC emission for
Miao et al. [68] have reported that the oil could be converted into mahua ester were lowered by 26% and 20% respectively than that of
biodiesel directly by one-step trifluoroacetic acid catalyze process diesel. They have concluded that the NOx emission was lesser by 4% for
without high temperature and pressure conditions. They have con- mahua methyl ester when compared to that of diesel.
cluded that the present procedure is a simple method for biodiesel Buyukkaya [18] have found that the rapeseed biodiesel produces
production because of its short reaction time with high conversion rate. lower smoke and higher BSFC compared to that of diesel fuel. They
Prafulla and Deng [44] has observed that the transesterification have also found that the CO emission for B5 and B100 fuels were found
process gives yields of about 90–95% for Jatropha curcas, 80–85% for to be 9% and 32% lower than that of diesel respectively and NOx
pongamia, 80–95% for canola, and 85–96% for corn, using potassium emission was higher.
hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst. Qi et al. [45] have observed that the reduction of CO and smoke
Leung has been found that the biodiesel varies in colour between emission were found for soybean biodiesel and its blends at full load
golden and dark brown depending on the production of feedstock and when compared to that of diesel. They have reported that the NOx
also immiscible with water. emission was slightly higher for biodiesel and its blends than that of
Singh et al. have observed that the transesterification process is a diesel.
low cost method due to its shorter reaction time and greater production Soo-Young No [63] has observed that the use of jatropha, karanja,

778
Table 3
Effect of biodiesel-diesel blends on engine performance and emissions.

Type of engine and test conditions Feed stock of biodiesel Performance Emission References
S. Ramalingam et al.

(Compared to diesel) (Compared to diesel)

BTE BSFC HC CO NOx smoke

Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Soybean biodiesel Decrease – Increase Increase Decrease Increase Humke and Barsic [25]
1–2%) (2–20 g/KWh) (1–2 g/KWh) (1–2 g/KWh) (1–2 g/KWh)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Karaja methyl ester Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Raheman and
(B40) (80%) (50%) Phadatare [47]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Mahua methyl ester (MOME), Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Sukumar Puhan et al.
Mahua ethyl ester (MOEE), Mahua [65]
butyl ester
(MOBE)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 2000 rpm Vegetable Oils Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Rakopoulos et al. [48]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Rice bran oil Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Saravanan et al. [57]
(25, 50% and 75%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Vegetable oil methyl ester (VOME) Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Lin et al. [6]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Mahua oil methyl ester Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Saravanan et al. [58]
(20%) (20%) (26%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Rape seed oil Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Buyukkaya [18]
(B5 and B100)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Soybean biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Qi et al. [45]
CRDI engine at 1500 rpm Jatropha biodiesel, Karaja, Mahua, Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Soo-Young No [63]
Lineseed, Rubber seed, Cotton seed and
neem oil

779
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Vegetable oil methyl ester (VOME) Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Jinlin Xue et al. [31]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Jatropha biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Chauhan et al. [11]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Jatropha methyl ester Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Mofijur et al. [37]
(B10 and B30) (3.84 & 10.25%) (16 & 25%) (3 & 6%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Ceiba pentandra biodiesel (CPB10) Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Silitonga et al. [61]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Karaja biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Chauhan et al. [12]
(3–5%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Malaysian alexardrion laurel oil Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Rizwanul Fattah et al.
(ALB10 and ALB20) (9.26% and (15.12% and (2.12% and (7.78% and [53]
17.04%) 26.84%) 8.32%) 13.28%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Brassica juncea Methyl ester Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sanjid et al. [54]
(B10 and B20) (4–8%) (19%) (42%) (9–12%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Biodiesel-diesel blends Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Lahane and
(1.4–22.8%) Subramanian [64]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Almond and palm biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Abu-Hamdeh et al. [41]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Camelina biodiesel (B7 and B100) Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Özçelik et al. (2015)
(B7–12 to 21% (B7–37.5% (B7–17.6%
B100–25 to 56%) B100–68.8%) B100–58%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Palm biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Mosarof et al. [38]
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine at 1500 rpm Palm, Mustard and Calophyllum Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sanjid et al. [55]
biodiesel (7–12%) (23–43%) (45–68%) (9–17%)
single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled and naturally Soya soap stock based acid oil biodiesel Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Tripathi and
aspirated direct injection automotive diesel engine Subramanian [69]
with rated power output of 5.59 kW
single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) Ricardo waste fish oil biodiesel Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase (1.9– – Gharehghani et al. [70]
E6 diesel engine (5.2–27%) (11.6–70%) 12.8%)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788
S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oil in CI engine 2.1.3.1. Summary. Table 3 depicts the engine performance such as
shows reduction in HC, CO and PM emissions and higher NOx brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption
emission. They have reported that the diesel engine without any (BSFC), exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emissions such
modification can run successfully for 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel as hydro carbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen
fuel. (NOx), and smoke of biodiesel fuel engine as compared to that of diesel
Chauhan et al. [11] have found that the BTE of Jatropha biodiesel engine.
and its blends was lower than that of diesel and BSFC was found to be
higher than that of diesel. They have also found that the HC, CO and
smoke emissions of Jatropha biodiesel and its blends were lower than
2.2. Influence of operating parameters
that of diesel whereas NOx emission was higher.
Mofijur et al. [37] have found that the reduction in BP for Jatropha
The experiments were conducted with biodiesel using different
methyl ester (B10 and B20) were 4.67% and 8.86% respectively when
operating parameters such as compression ratio (CR), injection pres-
compared to that of B0. They have also found that the BSFC increases
sure (IP) and injection timing (IT) which are commonly used to
with the increase in percentage of biodiesel. They have reported that
improve the performance and to reduces some of the exhaust emissions
the reduction of HC emission for B10 and B20 was 3.84% and 10.25%
in CI engines. The effect of operating parameters on performance,
and CO emission was 16% and 25% respectively when compared to that
combustion and emission summarized and given elaborately as follows.
of B0. They have concluded that the NOx emission of B10 and B20 was
reduced by 3% and 6% respectively when compared to that of B0.
Silitonga et al. [61] have found that the BSFC for Ceiba pentandra 2.2.1. Compression ratio (CR)
(CPB10) was higher than that of diesel. They have reported that CO, Muralidharan and Vasudevan [40] have found that the BTE of
HC and smoke were reduced for all biodiesel blends. They have also waste cooking oil (B40) is slightly higher than that of standard diesel at
reported that the NOx and CO2 emission were increased when higher CR whereas the SFC was lower. They have also found that the
compared to that of diesel. EGT decreases at higher CR and HC, CO and NOx emissions were
Chauhan et al. [12] have reported that the BTE was 3–5% lower for found to be higher with increase of CR.
karanja biodiesel and its blends than that of diesel. They have found Kassaby et al. have reported that increase in CR, resulted increase
that the UBHC, CO, CO2 and smoke were lower for karanja biodiesel in BTE 18.39%, 27.48%, 18.5%, and 19.82% for waste oil blends such
than that of diesel. They have also found that the NOx emission of as B10, B20, B30, and B50 respectively. The HC and CO emissions
karanja biodiesel and its blend was higher than that of diesel. were reduced by 52% and 37.5% and NOx emission was increased by
Fattah et al. [52] have observed that the CO, HC and smoke 36.84% when CR was increased from 14 to 18. They have observed that
emission for Alexandrian laurel oil (ALB10 and ALB20) were reduced increase of CR decreases the ignition delay period by 13.95%.
by 15.12–26.84%, 9.26–17.04% and 7.78–13.28% respectively. They Hirkude and Padalkar Atul [28] have observed that increase of CR,
have reported that the NOx emission for ALB10 and ALB20 were higher increases BSFC and improves the engine efficiency for all waste fried oil
about 2.12% and 8.32% when compared to that of neat diesel. blends. They have also observed that PM and CO emissions were
Sanjid et al. [54] have reported that 10% and 20% Brassica juncea decreased while NOx emission and EGT were increased with an
biodiesel blends showed 4–8% higher BSFC and 9–13% lower brake increase of CR from 14.5 to 17.5.
power compared to that of diesel. They have also reported that the NOx Rath et al. [51] have reported that the reduction in BSFC and EGT
emission for 10% and 20% biodiesel blends were increased by 9% for K10 were obtained as 0.33 kg/kWh and 317.94 ℃ respectively at
and12% and HC and CO emissions were lowered by 19% and 42% full load with CR of 18. They have concluded that the BTE for K10 is
respectively when compared to that of diesel at full load. 26.58% at CR of 18 under full load than that of diesel and K20.
Abu-Hamdeh et al. [41] have concluded that the almond biodiesel Jose et al. [34] have found that the maximum efficiency of the
showed lower BSFC, higher BTE, higher EGT and reduction in CO, NOx engine while using rubber seed biodiesel as fuel was 35.96% at CR of
and PM. 20. They have seen that lower EGT, CO and NOx emission while
Engin Özçelik et al. have found that the BSFC is increased by increasing the CR.
12.21% for camelina biodiesel B7 fuel and 56.25% for B100. They have Miraculas et al. [1] have seen that NOx emission increases with CR
reported that the HC emission of B7 and B100 fuel were decreased and higher biofuel blends but reduces CO and HC emissions.
37.5% and 68.8% respectively when compared to that of diesel fuel. It
is observed that the NOx emission of B7 and B100 fuel were found to be 2.2.2. Injection pressure (IP)
higher by 17.6% and 58.8% when compared to that of diesel fuel. Sayin and Canakci [17] have seen that the BSFC, BSEC and BTE of
Mosarof et al. [38] have found that the palm oil produces better COME at IP of 24 MPa canola oil methyl esters-diesel blends (COME)-
engine performance, higher SFC and shorter ignition delay. They have diesel blends showed improved performance and reduction in exhaust
seen that the palm oil reduces HC, CO, CO2 and smoke emissions emissions but NOx emission is higher.
considerably except NOx emission. Gumus et al. [35] have reported that the CO and HC emissions were
Sanjid et al. [55] have conducted experiments using palm (PB), found lower by 1.33 g/kWh and 0.03 g/kWh for B100 at IP of 24 MPa
mustard (MB) and calophyllum biodiesel (CB). They have also found respectively. They have also reported that the NOx emission were
that 7–12% increase in BSFC and 4.1–7.7% decrease in brake power 2.04 g/kWh, 1.76 g/kWh, 0.95 g/kWh and 1.91 g/kWh for B100 at 18,
when compared to that of diesel. They have also found that the HC 20, 22 and 24 MPa IP respectively. They have concluded that the
emission was lowered by 23–43%, CO emission was lowered by 45– maximum BTE was observed for B100 at 24 MPa whereas lower BSFC
68% and NOx emission was increased by 9–17%. was observed for B100 at 24 MPa.
Xue et al. (2015) have found that the use of biodiesel gives Shehata et al. [60] have reported that the highest BTE and the
substantial reduction in PM, HC and CO emissions along with the lowest BSFC were achieved for soybean biodiesel (S20) and corn
imperceptible power loss, increase in fuel consumption and increase in biodiesel (C20) at IP of 200 bar. They have concluded that at IP of
NOx emission on conventional diesel engine without any modification. 200 bar, peak pressure was higher than that of C20 and S20 blended
Lahane and Subramanian [64] have concluded that the CO, HC and fuels.
smoke emissions were decreases with all biodiesel– diesel blends Öztürk [19] has been seen that the 5% canola oil–hazelnut soap-
except NOx emission and it increases in the range of 1.4–22.8% with stock biodiesel mixture biodiesel blend did not affect the BSFC and
all biodiesel–diesel blends. BTE, whereas 10% biodiesel blend had a negative effect on BSFC and

780
Table 4
Effect of operating parameters on engine performance and emissions.

Type of engine and test Feed stock of biodiesel Type of operating Performance Emission References
conditions parameter
S. Ramalingam et al.

(Compared to diesel) (Compared to diesel)

BTE BSFC EGT HC CO NOx Smoke

Ricardo E6 engine Mahua biodiesel Increase in CR, IP and Decrease Increase – – – – – Raheman and Ghadge [46]
Advanced IT
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Ethanol blended diesel fuel Advanced IT Decrease Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase – Sayin and Canakci [15]
at 1500 rpm (10–50%) (10–50%) (5–15%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Methanol diesel blended fuel Advanced IT Decrease Increase – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sayin and Canakci [15]
at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Jatropha methyl ester Increase in CR, IP and Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Jindal et al. [29]
at 1500 rpm Advanced IT
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Karanja methyl ester Increase in CR, IP and Increase Increase – Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Jindal [30]
at 1500 rpm Advanced IT (8.2%) (2.94%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Waste cooking oil Increase in CR Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Increase Increase – Muralidharan et al. (2011)
at 1500 rpm (B40) 18–22)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Jatropha biodiesel Advanced IT Increase Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Ganapathy et al. [22]
at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Biodiesel Increase in CR, IP and Increase Increase – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sayin and Gumus [16]
at 1500 rpm (B100) Advanced IT
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Canola oil methyl ester Increase in IP Increase Increase Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sayin and Canakci [17]
at 1500 rpm (18–24 MPa)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Biodiesel-diesel blend Increase in IP Increase Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase – Gumus et al. [35]
at 1500 rpm (B100) (18–24 MPa) (1.33 g/Kwh) (0.33 g/Kwh) (1.91 g/Kwh)

781
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Corn and Soybean biodiesel Increase in IP Increase Decrease – – – – – Shehata et al.
at 1500 rpm (C20 and S20) (180–200 bar)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Canola oil-hazelnut soap stock Increase in IP – – – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Gumus et al. [35]
at 1500 rpm biodiesel mixture
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Waste oil Increase in CR Increase – – Decrease Decrease Increase – Kassaby and Nemitallah [36]
at 1500 rpm 14–18)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Waste fired oil Increase in CR Increase Increase Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease – Jagannath Hirkude et al.
at 1500 rpm 14.5–17.5)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Karaja oil-diesel blend Increase in CR Increase Increase Increase – – – – Rath et al. [51]
at 1500 rpm (K10 and K20) 16–18)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Rubber seed biodiesel Increase in CR Increase – Decrease – Decrease Decrease – Jose et al. [34]
at 1500 rpm (20)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Synthetic fuel blend Advanced IT Increase Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Wamankar et al. (2014)
at 1500 rpm (11.9%) (6.4%) (23%) (13.5%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Biodiesel Increase in CR, IP and Increase Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Kumar et al. [42]
at 1500 rpm (B40) Advanced IT
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel Increase in CR – – – Decrease Decrease Increase – Miraculas et al. [1]
at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Biodiesel-diesel blend Increase in IP Decrease Decrease – Decrease Decrease Decrease – Imtenan et al. [27]
at 1500 rpm (9%) (18%) (50%) (50%) (28%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Biodiesel blend Advanced IT – Increase – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Panneerselvam et al. [43]
at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine fish oil biodiesel Advanced IT Increase Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Sakthivel [72]
at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel engine Karanja biodiesel Increase in CR Increase Decrease – Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Sivaramakrishnan [71]
at 1500 rpm
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S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

BTE. It has been indicated that the 5% biodiesel blend gives lower HC, Kumar et al. [42] have concluded that the combination of CR 18:1,
CO and smoke emissions at full load but there is a slight increase in IP 240 bar and IT 26 °CA showed significant improvement in BTE,
NOx, while 10% biodiesel blends gives slight increase in HC and smoke BSFC and reduced exhaust emissions when compared to that of diesel
emissions at all loads and there is no significant change in CO emission. with standard values of CR, IP and IT.
Imtenan et al. [27] have found that while increasing IP, 18%
reduction of BSFC and 9% reduction of BTE were achieved. They have 2.2.4.1. Summary. Table 4 depicts the effect of operating parameters
concluded that more than 50% of HC and CO emissions reduction were such as compression ratio (CR), injection pressure (IP) and injection
observed and 28% of reduction in NOx emission were achieved with timing (IT) on engine performance and emissions of biodiesel fuel
increasing IP. engine as compared to diesel engine.

2.2.3. Injection timing (IT)


Sayin and Canakci [14] have observed that the CO and HC
2.3. Antioxidant additives
emissions of ethanol blended diesel fuel were reduced by 10–70%
and 10–45% respectively, while NOx emission was increased by 5–
Biodiesel contain unstable unsaturated hydrocarbons that will
15%. They have also observed that the retarded IT (21° and 24 °CA
polymerise and form gums. The gums are carried forward into the
bTDC) increases NOx and CO2 emissions and decreases HC and CO
fuel system will clog the fuel filters and injectors. Oxygen oxidizes the
emissions when compared to that of original IT (27 °CA bTDC). They
fuels and inhibits a chain of oxidation reactions can result in formation
have concluded that retarded and advanced IT gave negative results on
of hydro peroxides (ROOH) and peroxides (ROOR`). They are highly
BTE and BSFC at all loads and speeds.
oxidizing agent's results in oxidation metals in the fuel system and it
Sayin and Canakci [15] have seen that the increase of BSFC, NOx
also suppress the combustion quality of the fuel. Such problems can be
and CO2 emissions and decrease of BTE, smoke, CO and HC emissions
avoided by adding antioxidant chemicals with the fuel.
were observed with increasing amount of methanol in the fuel mixture.
Many recent researches have reported that the use of antioxidant
They have found that the advanced IT decreases the smoke, HC and CO
fuel additives can reduce the NOx emission from biodiesel fueled CI
emissions and increase of NOx and CO2 emissions when compared to
engine effectively. Antioxidant will suppress the oxidation of unsatu-
that of original IT for all test conditions. They have concluded that
rated fuels at the double bond sites by terminating the liberation of free
retarded IT decreases the NOx and CO2 emissions and increases the
radicals. Free radicals play a major role in the formation of prompt
smoke, HC and CO emissions when compared to that of original IT at
NOx during the combustion of biodiesel. Addition of antioxidants can
all test conditions.
possibly inhibit the participation of these free radicals in the sequence
Ganapathy et al. [22] have found that advanced IT 5 °CA showed
of NOx forming reactions. Antioxidant additives like L-ascorbic acid,
reduction in BSFC, CO, HC and smoke emissions and increase in BTE
butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroxylquinoline
and NO emission with jatropha biodiesel.
(TBHQ), butylatedhydroxyl toluene (BHT) and 2-ethyl Hexylnitrate
Wamankar et al. have seen that advanced IT of 26 °CA bTDC shows
(EHN) serve the dual purpose of increasing the antioxidant stability of
the BTE for synthetic fuel CB10 was higher by 6.4% while the BSFC was
biodiesel and reducing the NOx emission [20,67].
found to be lower by 11.9% than that of the original IT. They have
concluded that the advanced IT of 26 °CA bTDC showed, that of 23%
higher NOxand smoke emission was lowered by 13.5% than that of 2.3.1. Influence of antioxidant additive using biodiesels
original IT. Biodiesel usage in diesel engine shows reduced performance and
PanneerSelvam et al. [43] have observed that the advancement of increased NOx emission. This is due to, when combustion chamber
IT increases the BTE and NOx whereas the HC, CO and smoke exceeds the critical temperature which makes molecules of oxygen and
emissions were decreases. They have found the retarded IT increases nitrogen to combine and causes to form NOx. Antioxidant additives is
the BSFC, HC, CO and smoke emissions and decreases the BTE and one of the effective method to control the NOx emission while using
NOx emission when compared to that of standard IT. biodiesel. The recent research works showed that antioxidant additive
is used in modern engine to suppress the NOx emission. The various
2.2.4. Combination of operating parameters using biodiesel types of antioxidant additives and its effect on NOx emission reduction
Raheman, Ghadge [46] have found that BSFC of B100 was reduced, are summarized and given elaborately in this section.
whereas BTE and EGT increases with the load at increasing CR and Hess et al. [33] have found that the addition of BHA is effectively
advancement of IT with mahua biodiesel. They have concluded that controlling the NOx emission for soya biodiesel, but the other anti-
pure mahua biodiesel can be used on the Ricardo engine at CR 20 and oxidants are not reducing the NOx emission.
IT 40 without affecting the engine performance. Ryu [32] has been found that the effectiveness of five antioxidants is
Jindal et al. [29] have observed that BSFC and BTE of jatropha in the order of TBHQ > PG > BHA > BHT > α-tocopherol. It has been
methyl ester (JME) at IP of 250 bar and at CR of 18 were improved by found that BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidant was decreased
10% and 8.9% respectively when compared to that of standard CR and compared to that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidant additive.
IP. They have concluded that combination of CR and IP with neat JME Varatharajan et al. [66] have stated that emission for 0.025%-m
showed lower HC and smoke emissions and EGT. concentration of p-phenylenediamine was reduced by 43.55% when
Sayin and Gumus [16] have concluded that the increase of IP, IT compared to other antioxidants additives at 0.025%-m concentration.
and CR proved decrease of HC, CO and smoke emissions considerably Further, it has been found that HC and CO emissions were slightly
while increase of NOx emission and increase in BTE and BSFC of the increased with the addition of antioxidant additive.
engine. Varatharajan and Cheralathan [67] maximum NO reduction for N,
Jindal [30] has found that at CR 18 and at IP 250 bar, the BSFC and N′-diphenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and N-phenyl-1, 4-phe-
BTE for neat karanja methyl ester (KME) were increased by 2.94% and nylenediamine (NPPD) additives were 9.35% and 4.06% respectively
8.2% respectively when compared to that of standard values. They have when compared to that of B20 at 75% load.
also found that at CR 18 and IP of 250 bar were showed significant Ileri and Koçar [20] have observed that the 2-ethylhexyl nitrate
reduction of HC, NOx, smoke and EGT than that of neat KME and (EHN) is a promising antioxidant additive for reducing NOx emission
diesel. They have concluded that higher CR and IP improves the at the expense of increasing the CO emission. They have also observed
performance and reduces the emission of CI engine fueled with neat that the highest NOx emission reduction was found at EHN followed by
KME. BHT and BHA.

782
S. Ramalingam et al.

Table 5
Effect of antioxidant additive on engine performance and emissions.

Type of engine and test Feed stock of biodiesel Type of antioxidant additive Performance Emission References
conditions
(Compared to diesel) (Compared to diesel)

BTE BSFC EGT HC CO NOx Smoke

Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Soyabean biodiesel BHA – – – – – Decrease – Hess et al. [33]
engine at 1500 rpm (1000 ppm)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Soyabean biodiesel Tert-Butylhydroquinone – Decrease – Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Ryu [32]
engine at 1500 rpm (TBHQ)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Soybean biodiesel N, N′-diphenyl−1, 4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and – – – – – Decrease – Varatharajan and Cheralathan
engine at 1500 rpm ( B20) N-phenyl−1, 4-phenylenediamine (NPPD) (9.31% and [67]
4.06%)
Land Rover turbocharged DI B20 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) – – – – Increase Decrease – Ileri and Koçar [20]
diesel engine
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel methyl ester of cottonseed L-ascorbic acid – – – Decrease Increase Decrease Increase Balaji et al. (2014)
engine at 1500 rpm oil (MECSO) (LA300) (23.62%) (9.31%)

783
(B100)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Canola oil biodiesel Wintron – – – Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Roy et al. [39]
engine at 1500 rpm
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel methyl ester of neem oil Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT 100) – – – Increase Increase Decrease Increase Balaji et al. (2014)
engine at 1500 rpm (MENO)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Canola oil biodiesel EHN – – – Increase Increase Decrease – Ileri and Koçar [21]
engine at 1500 rpm (1000 ppm)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Palm biodiesel (B20) BHA and BHT – – – Decrease Decrease Decrease – Rizwanul Fattah et al. [52]
engine at 1500 rpm (1000 ppm) (9.1–12%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Neem oil (MENO) P-Phenylendiamine – – – Decrease Increase Decrease Increase Balaji et al. (2014)
engine at 1500 rpm (31%) (35%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Neem oil (MENO) A-tocopherol acetate – – – Increase Increase Decrease Increase Balaji and Cheralathan [10]
engine at 1500 rpm (AT100) (25.95%)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel Calophyllum inophyllum BHT and MBEBP Increase Decrease – Increase Increase Decrease Increase Rashedul et al. [49]
engine at 1500 rpm biodiesel (25.95%)
(CB30)
Single cylinder, 4 stroke diesel lemongrass oil–diesel BHA and BHT Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Increase Decrease Increase Sathiyamoorthi and
engine at 1500 rpm blend Sankaranarayanan [73]
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S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

Roy et al. [39] have concluded that HC and CO emissions can be biodiesel could be used as alternative for diesel engine. From the
reduced effectively with the increase of biodiesel ratio in both analysis of literature review many researchers pointed out that various
biodiesel–diesel and biodiesel–diesel-additive blends at all load con- common biodiesels such as jatropha, mahua, karanja, neem and their
ditions. Whereas it has been found biodiesel–kerosene blends reduce derivatives etc. are used for diesel engines with little or no modifica-
the HC emission only. tions. Many of the researchers have proved that the biodiesel is an
Rashedul et al. [50] have antioxidant additives are more efficient to alternate for diesel after the transesterification of raw vegetable oil. It
reduce fuel consumption while oxygenated additives are less efficient to has been indicated that biodiesel cannot be substituted as a sole fuel in
reduce fuel consumption. They have concluded that the both metal CI engine. Since it deteriorates the performance and combustion
based and oxygenated additives are quite effective in controlling the characteristics which increase the NOx emission.
NOx emission. All the technical studies showed that 20% proportion of biodiesel
Balaji et al. [7] have reported that NOx emission of BHT100 with along with diesel will be the viable and feasible solution for substituting
methyl ester of neem oil (MENO) is reduced by 19.99% at full load biodiesel in the CI engine. It has been further reported that while using
condition when compared to that of neat biodiesel. They have found 20% biodiesel, the properties are almost equal to the diesel but while
that the HC, CO and smoke emissions for all antioxidant mixture were operating in a diesel engine it decreases the performance and increases
increased slightly. They have also found that there is no variation in the NOx emission.
BTE and BSEC with the addition of antioxidant additive in the Hence, most of the researchers have attempted to find out the
biodiesel. methods which will improve the performance and reducing the NOx
Ileri and Koçar [21] have reported that the EHN is a promising emission. From the literature survey, it has been proved that increasing
antioxidant additive effectively controlling the NOx emission at the the operating parameters and addition of antioxidant additives in
expense of increasing the CO and HC emissions. They have concluded biodiesel will be effective for improving the performance and reducing
that BHA is also capable of decreasing the NOx and HC emissions by the NOx emission.
2.73% and 39.12% respectively at 1000 ppm concentration when Therefore, in the present review discuss about the suitability of B20
compared to that of methyl ester of canola oil (B20) without additive. blend which is used in CI engine by varying operating parameters such
Fattah et al. [52] have observed that of NOx emission for BHA & as CR, IP and IT to improve the performance of the engine. Further, the
BHT antioxidants were reduced by 9.8–12.6% when compared to that NOx emission can be reduced with the addition of antioxidant additives
of palm biodiesel (B20). However, the CO and HC emissions were along with biodiesel.
reduced for both antioxidants additives by 8.6–12.3% and 9.1–12.0%,
respectively when compared to that of B20. 3. Experimental setup
Balaji et al. [8] have found that HC emission for methyl ester of
neem oil (MENO)+P200 is reduced by 31% at full load when compared The experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance and
to that of neat diesel, but CO2, CO and smoke emissions for all emission characteristics in a single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled,
concentrations found to be increased. They have concluded the brake DI diesel engine using neat biodiesels as a fuel. An eddy current
thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption is almost same with dynamometer is connected with this engine as a loading device at
increase the proportion of antioxidant additive. constant engine speed. AVL 5-gas analyzer and AVL 437 smoke meter
Balaji et al. [9] have studied the effect of antioxidant additive L- are used to determine the emission characteristics of the engine.
ascorbic acid on NOx emission in a methyl ester of cottonseed oil Pressure during combustion is measured using piezo electric pressure
(MECSO) operated in a diesel engine. The NOx and HC emissions for transducer and it is connected to the data acquisition system.
LA300 with MECSO were reduced by 9.31% and 23.62% respectively at
full-load condition when compared to that of neat biodiesel. Further, it 4. Testing procedure
is found that the CO and smoke emission were higher to all the
mixtures of antioxidant additive with MECSO when compared to that An engine to operate at different load conditions with a constant
of neat biodiesel. speed of 1500 rpm has been made and experiments are conducted to
Balaji and Cheralathan [10] have reported that the NOx emission evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of the DI diesel
for MENO + (A-tocopherol acetate) AT100 was reduced by 25.95% at engine. The engine is allowed to run for a few minutes until the exhaust
full load when compared to that of neat biodiesel. They have concluded gas temperature, the cooling water temperature, the lubricating oil
that HC, CO and smoke emissions were increased for antioxidant temperature, as well as the emission parameters have attained steady-
concentration, whereas there is no significant variation in BTE and state values. Initially the engine is fueled with diesel fuel and the engine
BSEC. allowed to run at different load conditions. Whenever operations such
Rashedul et al. [49] have studied the oxidation stability, combus- as changing fuel, the engine is allowed to run for at least 30 min for
tion, performance, and emission characteristics of Calophyllum in- each operation so as to attain steady state condition for particular mode
ophyllum fueled diesel engine using antioxidants. They observed that of operation.
the addition of BHT and MBEBP antioxidants to CB30 resulted All the parameters are continuously measured for 10 min and the
reduction in BSFC by 0.43% and 0.57%, respectively and increase in average results presented. The readings are taken until steady-state
BTE by 0.36% and 0.45% respectively when compared to that of neat condition is obtained and it is repeated thrice. The results of the three
biodiesel. The NOx emission for both BHT and MBEBP blends were tests are found to agree with one another within the experimental data
reduced by 5.91% and 5.27% respectively, but there was a significant that lie outside the probability of normal variations will incorrectly
increase of HC, smoke and CO emissions. offset the mean value, inflate the random error estimates. The
performance such as fuel consumption of 10 cc, exhaust gas tempera-
2.3.2. Summary ture and emission parameters such as HC, CO, smoke and NOx
Table 5 depicts the effect of antioxidant additive on engine emissions are measured.
performance and emissions of biodiesel fuel engine as compared to
diesel engine. 5. Best combination

2.4. Summary of the review of literature Form the literature survey, (20% proportion of biodiesel + 80% of
diesel) B20 used to run the CI engine without any major modification,
The literature study certainly proves beyond doubt that the but it has drawbacks of reduction of performance and increase of NOx

784
S. Ramalingam et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 775–788

Fig. 1. Variation of BTE with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the best Fig. 2. Variation of BSFC with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the best
combination. combination.

emission. Experimental results proved that the B20 is the viable


alternate for diesel except reduced performance and increase of NOx
emission. Form the review of literature shows that increasing operating
parameters such as higher CR, IP and IT have showed the improved
performance of the engine, while using B20. At the same time, the
above methods further increasing the NOx emission. Hence, the best
proportion B20 is added with antioxidant additive to reduce the NOx
emission. It has been seen from the different antioxidant additives
showed better reduction of NOx emission. It is also seen that other
emissions are also considerably reduced.
Hence, in this present review (B20), for increasing the operating
parameters and the antioxidant additives were combined (best combi-
nation) and its performance and emissions were plotted against the
brake power. The reasons for improvement in performance and
reduction in emission were discussed elaborately. Fig. 3. Variation of EGT with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the best
combination.

5.1. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) all loads. The reason for reduction in EGT is due to the lower heating
value of B20 which reduces combustion chamber temperature. It is
Fig. 1 shows the variation of BTE with BP for conventional diesel noted that the EGT is also lower for B20 than that of conventional
engine, B20 and the best combination. It is observed from the Fig. 1 diesel. This is due to presence of more oxygen present in the
that the BTE for best combination is lower than that of conventional combustion chamber.
diesel engine at all loads. But the BTE for best combination is higher
than that of B20.
This is due to B20 with additive and other operating parameters
5.4. Hydrocarbon emission (HC)
and leads to complete combustion than that of B20. Further, the reason
for reduction in BTE for B20 and the best combination is due to lower
Fig. 4 shows the variation of HC emission with BP for conventional
heating value and higher viscosity and density when compared to that
diesel engine, B20 and the best combination. It is found from the graph
of conventional fuel.
that HC emission is lower for the best combination than that of B20.
This is due to the combined effect of operating parameters and
5.2. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) antioxidant additive with more oxygen present in the biodiesel which
produces complete combustion.
Fig. 2 shows the variation of BSFC with BP for conventional diesel
engine, B20 and the best combination. It is found from the graph that
the BSFC decreases with brake power at all loads. The BSFC for the
best combination is less than that of the best combination. This is due
to B20 having and combined effect of optimum operating parameters
and antioxidant additive. This leads to complete and better combus-
tion.
Further, it is due to improving the fuel property with the addition of
antioxidant additives. It is seen from the Fig. 2, that the BSFC for
conventional engine is lower and this is due to superior properties than
that of B20, best combination.

5.3. Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)

Fig. 3 shows the variation of EGT with BP for conventional diesel


engine, B20 and the best combination. It is seen from the Fig. 3 that the Fig. 4. Variation of HC emission with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the
EGT for best combination is lower than that of conventional diesel at best combination.

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Fig. 5. Variation of CO emission with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the Fig. 7. Variation of Smoke emission with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the
best combination. best combination.

5.5. Carbon monoxide emission (CO) 6. Conclusion

Fig. 5 shows the variation of CO emission with BP for conventional The objective of this review is to study the effect of diesel engine
diesel engine, B20 and the best combination. It is observed from the operating parameters such as CR, IP and IT, antioxidant additives on
Fig. 5 that the CO emission for best combination is lower than that of the performance and emission behavior of the diesel engine. According
conventional diesel engine and B20 at all loads. This is due to to the results;
combined effect excess oxygen, optimum operating parameters and
antioxidant effect. Further, the excess oxygen, higher operating tem- • Most of the studies reports that the use of biodiesel will lead to loss
perature and presence of free radicals showed maximum reduction of in BTE due to the higher viscosity of the biodiesel that leads to poor
CO emission for the best combination. atomization of biodiesel compared to that of diesel.
• The BSFC of the biodiesel and its blends is higher than diesel due to
5.6. Oxides of nitrogen emission (NOx) the variation in heating value or calorific value of the biodiesel, to
overcome the variation in calorific value more quantity of fuel has to
Fig. 6 shows the variation of NOx emission with BP for conventional be injected to produce same power.
diesel engine, B20 and the best combination. It is seen from the Fig. 6 • The majority of studies have shown that HC, CO and Smoke
that the NOx emission for best combination is lower than that of emissions were significantly reduced, compared with diesel. The
conventional diesel engine and B20 alone at all loads. This is due to higher oxygen content of biodiesel and lower aromatic compounds
reduction in formation of free radicals by PPDA antioxidant addition in has been regarded as the main reasons.
the fuel. Further, the antioxidant additive has potential properties to • The majority of literatures agree that the NOx emissions will
trap the NOx emission in the combustion chamber. It is also under- increase when using biodiesel. The reason for the increase in NOx
stood that combining of biodiesel with operating parameters and emissions was higher oxygen content, higher cetane number, lower
antioxidant additive presence proved suppressing considerable amount compressibility and associated variation in fuel injection character-
of NOx in the exhaust. istics and higher in-cylinder gas temperature
• The most of researches showed that increase in operating para-
5.7. Smoke emission meters such as CR, IP and IT with B20 showed improved in BTE.
Further, the HC, CO and Smoke emissions were reduced but
Fig. 7 shows the variation of smoke emission with BP for conven- increase of NOx emission was observed with increase of CR, IP
tional diesel engine, B20 and the best combination. It is observed from and advanced IT.
the Fig. 7 that the smoke emission for the best combination is lower • The stability of most biodiesel was lower than the ASTM standard
than that of conventional diesel engine and B20 along at all loads. The limit minimum of 6 h induction period due to the presence of mono
combined effect of excess oxygen, optimum operating parameters and and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Further, it will be improved by the
antioxidant effect showed the maximum reduction of smoke. addition of suitable antioxidant additives.
• The antioxidants are also have effect in reducing the NOx emission
from the engine without affecting the engine performance and
emission characteristics. Further, the are also antioxidants will
reduce the prompt NOx emission rather than reducing the thermal
NOx. So, maximum of 10% reduction in NOx emission can be
achieved by the addition antioxidant with biodiesel.

Overall, biodiesel, especially for the blends with a small portion of


biodiesel (B20) with increase of operating parameters along with
antioxidant additives is technically feasible as an alternative fuel in
diesel engines with minor modifications to engine. For environmental
and economic reasons, their popularity may grow. However, more
researches and development in biodiesel resources and engine design
are needed.

Fig. 6. Variation of NOx emission with BP for conventional diesel engine, B20 and the
best combination.

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Scope for future research Eng 2013;56:625–30.


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