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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Multiobjective Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters on


Al5052/Sic/Gr Hybrid MMC Using Grey Fuzzy
U. Munuswamy1, T. Pratheep Reddy2
1,2S.V.College of Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India – 517501.

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Abstract - In this study, Grey integrated fuzzy is used for
multi-objective optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge The best quality and good functionality of the product,
Machining parameters, which converts the multi responses depends on selecting the suitable, optimal process
into a single fuzzy grade. Based on fuzzy grade, optimal parameters and its levels. Generally, Taguchi method is used
combination of parameters are determined. L27 orthogonal to optimize the single response characteristics of process
array is used for Design of experiments. Maximum Material parameters to achieve high quality [4], which is not suitable
removal rate and Minimum surface roughness were chosen as for present scenario in industries. At present, handling multi-
the objectives. In this study Al5052/Sic/Gr Hybrid MMC is response characteristics are an interesting and challenging
considered as the target material for Wire Electrical discharge research. Grey relational analysis is used to determine the
Machining, because of high corrosion resistance, good optimal parameters by converting multi responses into
mechanical strength and relatively low cost. The process single response (grey relational grade) [5].
parameters viz., pulse on time, pulse off time, Peak Current
and wire feed were optimized with consideration of Grey Fuzzy logic theory, evolved as a new technique and attracts
Relational Grade. The confirmation run, results shows that the many researchers [6] in recent times, as an effective way of
better quality is achieved by the optimal combination of solving the complex problems which consists of uncertain
process parameters.) and vague information. Many researchers observed that grey
integrated fuzzy [7] system improves the system
Key Words: Al5052/Sic/Gr Hybrid MMC; WEDM; performance, by minimizing the error in prediction. ANOVA
Multiobjective Optimization; Grey Relational Analysis; is carried out to determine the percentage of contribution of
Fuzzy Logic; Grey Fuzzy. each factor on the response of the system.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP/OUTPUT MEASUREMENT


1. INTRODUCTION Al5052/SiC/Gr Hybrid MMC is used as target material in the
present study as shown in Fig 1. Experiments were
Aluminium based Metal matrix composites possess many conducted by choosing a brass wire of 0.25 mm dia as
advantages such as low density, better mechanical electrode and distilled water as dielectric fluid. The
properties and economical compared to pure metals for real experiments were conducted as per the design of
time applications in aerospace, structural, marine, industrial, experiments shown in Table 2. In this study three process
chemical and architecture [1]. Among the various useful parameters with three levels are chosen for machining. The
aluminium alloys, Al5052 is typically characterized by Process parameters and its levels are shown in Table 1. Full
properties such as good corrosion resistance to seawater, factorial design was chosen for experimentation, i.e., 33 = 27
very good weldability and cold formability. AMC properties runs for accurate results.
can be tailored by incorporating hard ceramic phase such as
SiC, Al2O3, B4C, TiC, TiB2, MgO, TiO2 and BN to a relatively soft
matrix. At present, hybrid metal matrix composites are of
intense studies [2]. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
(WEDM) is an unconventional manufacturing process, used
to machine the metals with high precision using thermal
energy, makes advantage in the manufacture of parts with
complex shapes and hard material [3]. WEDM has been
widely used in many industries, which requires high
precision and quality. The research in WEDM processing has
been focused on rapid machining with best quality.
Manufacturing industries applies various methodologies to Fig -1: Work Pieces
identify the effect of machining parameters on material
removal rate and surface roughness, which are the most
important objectives in the manufacturing.

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1320
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table -1: Process parameters and their levels 3. GREY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS:

Levels
S. No. Process parameters Grey relational analysis is applied to optimize process
1 2 3 Units parameters having multi-responses through grey relational
1 Pulse-on time (ON) 10 15 20 µs grade. The use of GRA includes the following steps:
1. Conduct the experiments as per plan of experiments.
2 Pulse-off time (OFF) 10 15 20 µs
2. Transform the experimental results into signal-to-
3 Pulse current 2 4 6 A noise ratio.
3. Normalize the values of signal-to-noise ratio.
Table -2: Design of Experiments and Responses
4. Perform the grey relational generating and calculate
Expt. Pulse On
Pulse Pulse
MRR Ra the grey relational coefficient.
Off Current
No A (mm3/min) (μm)
B C
1 15 10 2 13.38 5.6
5. Calculate the grey relational grade by averaging the
grey relational coefficient.
2 15 15 2 14.46 5.54

3 15 15 4 14.129 5.45
3.1 Normalization:
4 20 10 6 15.432 5.78
Convert the original sequences to a set of comparable
5 10 20 2 15.129 5.47
sequences by normalizing the data. Depending upon the
response characteristic, three main categories for
6 20 15 2 15.947 5.56 normalizing the data is as follows:
7 15 20 2 16.53 5.4

8 10 10 4 16.527 5.52

9 10 10 2 16.135 5.46

10 20 20 6 12.202 5.57

11 20 10 4 11.884 6.14

12 15 20 6 11.913 5.85

13 10 15 6 12.328 5.9 3.2 Grey relational coefficient and grey relational


grade
14 15 20 4 12.328 5.68
Grey relational coefficient and grey relational grade: Grey
15 10 20 4 13.148 5.93
relation coefficient (αij) is calculated for each of the
16 20 20 4 14.151 6.23
performance characteristics, which expresses the
relationship between ideal and actual normalized
17 10 15 4 12.586 5.98 experimental results, as shown in “Eq.(4).”
18 20 10 2 13.295 5.55

19 15 15 6 9.117 5.67

20 20 20 2 8.894 5.83

21 20 15 4 8.952 5.94 Grey relational grade can be calculated by taking the


average of is the weighted grey relational coefficient and
22 10 20 6 9.784 5.74 defined as follows:
23 20 15 6 9.761 6.04

24 10 10 6 10.073 5.7

25 15 10 4 10.825 5.59

26 10 15 2 10.454 5.76

27 15 10 6 10.454 6.35

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table -3: Grey Relational grades 4. DETERMINATION OF OVERALL FUZZY GRADE:

Grey Relational Grey


Expt. MRR Ra Normalized values Fuzzy defines the relationship between system input and
Coefficients Relational
No desired outputs in linguistic form. A fuzzy logic unit
MRR Ra MRR Ra Grades
comprises a fuzzifier, membership functions, a fuzzy rule
1 13.38 5.6 0.5875 0.7895 0.548 0.704 0.626 base, an inference engine and a defuzzifier as shown in “Fig.
1”.
2 14.46 5.54 0.7289 0.8526 0.648 0.772 0.710

3 14.129 5.45 0.6856 0.9474 0.614 0.905 0.759

4 15.432 5.78 0.8562 0.6000 0.777 0.556 0.666

5 15.129 5.47 0.8165 0.9263 0.732 0.872 0.802

6 15.947 5.56 0.9237 0.8316 0.868 0.748 0.808


Fig -2: Fuzzy Logic Unit
7 16.53 5.4 1.0000 1.0000 1.000 1.000 1.000

8 16.527 5.52 0.9996 0.8737 0.999 0.798 0.899

9 16.135 5.46 0.9483 0.9368 0.906 0.888 0.897

10 12.202 5.57 0.4332 0.8211 0.469 0.736 0.603

11 11.884 6.14 0.3916 0.2211 0.451 0.391 0.421

12 11.913 5.85 0.3954 0.5263 0.453 0.514 0.483

Fig -3: Fuzzy structure


13 12.328 5.9 0.4497 0.4737 0.476 0.487 0.482

14 12.328 5.68 0.4497 0.7053 0.476 0.629 0.553 In this study, grey relation coefficient of Material removal
rate (MRR) and surface roughness(SR) has been taken as
15 13.148 5.93 0.5571 0.4421 0.530 0.473 0.501 fuzzy inputs using triangular membership functions form
and grey relation fuzzy grade (MPCI) as output for finding out
16 14.151 6.23 0.6884 0.1263 0.616 0.364 0.490 optimal process parameters. The input and output ‘fuzzy set’
has been defined in the range between 0 and 1. The desired
17 12.586 5.98 0.4835 0.3895 0.492 0.450 0.471
output is targeted on maximizing grey relation fuzzy grade.
The fuzzy inputs are uniformly assigned into five fuzzy
18 13.295 5.55 0.5763 0.8421 0.541 0.760 0.651
subsets – very low (VL), low (L), medium (M), High (H) and
very High (VH) grade, as shown in “Fig. [4-5]”. Unlike the
19 9.117 5.67 0.0292 0.7158 0.340 0.638 0.489
input variables, the output variable is assigned into relatively
nine subsets i.e., very very low (VVL), very low (VL), Low (L),
20 8.894 5.83 0.0000 0.5474 0.333 0.525 0.429
medium low (ML), medium (M), medium high (MH), high (H),
very high (VH), very very high (VVH), as shown in “Fig.6.”
21 8.952 5.94 0.0076 0.4316 0.335 0.468 0.402

22 9.784 5.74 0.1166 0.6421 0.361 0.583 0.472

23 9.761 6.04 0.1135 0.3263 0.361 0.426 0.393

24 10.073 5.7 0.1544 0.6842 0.372 0.613 0.492

25 10.825 5.59 0.2529 0.8000 0.401 0.714 0.558

26 10.454 5.76 0.2043 0.6211 0.386 0.569 0.477

27 10.454 6.35 0.2043 0.0000 0.386 0.333 0.360


Fig -4: Fuzzy input - MRR

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

0.9237 0.8316 0.840


6.

1.0000 1.0000 0.962


7.

0.9996 0.8737 0.892


8.

0.9483 0.9368 0.869


9.

Fig -5: Fuzzy input – SR 10.


0.4332 0.8211 0.6268

0.3916 0.2211 0.2981


11.

0.3954 0.5263 0.464


12.

0.4497 0.4737 0.4467


13.

0.4497 0.7053 0.5585


14.

0.5571 0.4421 0.4996


15.
Fig -6: Fuzzy output - MPCI
0.6884 0.1263 0.3994
16.

The relationship between the two fuzzy inputs are defined 0.4835 0.3895 0.4307
17.
in the form of if-then fuzzy rules as listed in Table 4.
0.5763 0.8421 0.7226
18.
Table - 4: Fuzzy Rules
0.0292 0.7158 0.3723
19.

0.0000 0.5474 0.2787


Grey relational coefficients of MRR 20.
Rules
0.0076 0.4316 0.2166
VL L M H VH 21.

0.1166 0.6421 0.3777


VL VVL VL L ML M 22.
Grey relational coefficients of SR

0.1135 0.3263 0.2292


L VL L ML M MH 23.

0.1544 0.6842 0.4063


M L ML M MH H 24.

0.2529 0.8000 0.5329


H ML M MH H VH 25.

0.2043 0.6211 0.4056


VH M MH H VH VVH 26.

0.2043 0.0000 0.122


27.

Table -5: Fuzzy output - MPCI From the Table 3 and 5, it is confirmed that Experiment
number 7 shows the optimal parameters for better surface
finish and MRR, i.e., Pon – 15 μs, Poff –20 μs and Current – 2A
Fuzzy Inputs Fuzzy Output
corresponding to Table 2.
Expt. No
MRR SR (MPCI)

0.5875 0.7895 0.701


1.

0.7289 0.8526 0.788


2.

0.6856 0.9474 0.799


3.

0.8562 0.6000 0.737


4.

5.
0.8165 0.9263 0.840 Fig -7: Optimal parameters

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

5. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: 6. CONFIRMATION RUN:

ANOVA is performed to identify the process parameters of After determining the optimal combination of parameters,
WEDM that significantly affect MPCI’s. This is accomplished the last phase is to verify the MRR, surface roughness by
by separating the total variability of the grey fuzzy grades, conducting the confirmation experiment. The A2B3C1 is an
which is measured by the sum of the squared deviations from optimal parameter combination of the machining process by
the total mean of the grey fuzzy reasoning grade, into Grey integrated fuzzy logic. The confirmation test is carried
contributions by each machining process parameters and the out with the optimal parameter combination A2B3C1, and the
error. An ANOVA table consists of sums of squares, results are tabulated in Table 7, and the fuzzy grade is
corresponding degrees of freedom, the F-ratios, and the increased by 10%. It is clear that the MRR and SR increased
contribution percentages of the machining factors. These greatly with the optimal parameters.
contribution percentages can be used to assess the
importance of each factor for the interested MPCI. Table -7: Confirmation Test Results

Type Initial Optimal/Predicted Experimental


Table -6: Analysis of Variance
Level combination A2B3C1 A2B3C1 A2B3C1

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Seq MS %Contribution


MRR (mm3/sec) 16.53 16.56

Pulse on 2 0.05897 0.05897 0.029483 4.031723242


SR (μm) 5.4 5.36

Pulse off 2 0.03215 0.03215 0.016073 2.198065156


MPCI 0.962 0.962 0.966

Current 2 0.39900 0.39900 0.199498 27.27925341

Pulse on *
4 0.22967 0.22967 0.057419 15.70232113
7. CONCLUSION:
Pulse off

Pulse on *
 The effect of process parameters i.e. pulse on-time, pulse
4 0.26867 0.26867 0.067169 18.36871432 off-time, Pulse current on response variables such as material
Current
removal rate, surface roughness has been thoroughly studied.
Pulse off *
4 0.02631 0.02631 0.006578 1.798789868
Current
 The levels of significance of process parameters for each
Pulse on *
response variable has been investigated using ANOVA.
Pulse off * 8 0.44788 0.44788 0.055985 30.62113288
Current
 Pulse on and Pulse current were found to be the most
Error 0
significant factors influencing all responses investigated for
both the experiment sets.
Total 26 1.46265 1.46265 100

 The A2B3C1 is an optimal parameter combination of the


machining process by Grey coupled fuzzy logic.
The relative effect among the control factors for the MPCI’s
can be verified by using the ANOVA so that the optimal
combinations of the machining factors can be accurately  The fuzzy grade is increased by 10%. It is clear that the
determined. From Table 6. it is evident that the control MRR and SR increased greatly with the optimal parameters.
factors PULSE ON and CURRENT have the most significant
effects on the MPCI. Moreover, the variance due to the noise REFERENCES
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© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1324
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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