You are on page 1of 100

This is to certify that Rekha Mishra, Dayanand Bachhrawan P. G.

College,
Bachhrawan ,Raebareli a student of M.Ed (2015-2017) of C.S.J.M. University,
Kanpur has completed her dissertation entitled “ A Comparative study of the
Adjustment between B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non – Aided college of Lucknow
District under my supervision, which is her own work, to the best of my knowledge
and belief and has not been submitted anywhere else .
Supervisor

Date

Dr. Hare Krishna

Assistant professor

Department of M.Ed D.B. P. G. College

Bachhrawan , Raebareli( U.P.)

1
Pin Code-229301

I, Rekha Mishra hereby declare that the dissertation entitled “ A


comparative study of the adjustment between B.Ed trainees of the Aided
and Non-Aided colleges of Lucknow district for M.Ed degree of
Chatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur for the sessional year
2015-2017 is my own work. It has been completed under the able
supervision of Dr. Hare Krishna.

Researcher-
Date

Rekha Mishra,
M.A.[English], B.Ed ,M.Ed
students [2015-2017]
Place- D.B. P.G. College
Bachhrawan,Raibareli
2
Pin Code-(229301)

The researcher study is that A Comparative study of the


Adjustment between B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non –
Aided colleges . You may heard someone say that
somebody just does not adjust to situation or somebody
facing problem in adjustment .Adjustment is a necessary
characteristic to be able to live peacefully in this world.
Adjustment problem starts right form the birth of and
continuous till death ,various situations arise at home
,school ,colleges and workshop where we need to give up
a little of our demands and accept with a present .
Adjustment is a process of arriving at a balanced state
between the need of individual and their satisfaction
,home and school play pivotes role in the adjustment in a
individual. The research findings presented in this
dissertation attempts the answer some of the important
questions about the social adjustment and emotional.
What is the Adjustment? Which types of Problem
create due to Malaadjustment? How does the B.Ed
trainees adjust themselves according to the society? And
which type of adjustment ability have the B.Ed trainees of
the aided and non-aided colleges?
3
These are some questions which inspire to
investigator to investigate.The data collection of research
project was analyzed with the help of hand calculator and
simple statistics.

No creation in this world is a solo effort , neither is this


dissertation . From the person who makes Xerox copies of
the draft to the binder , everyone has a role . In particular ,
I would like to think :
God for his love and blessings. I express my indebtedness
and appreciation to a number of persons and institutions
on this study.
My supervisior , Dr. Hare Krishna for his personal
cooperation and kind consideration at all times that have
gone a long way in the successful completion of my work.
The incharge of the department Dr.Pramod Kumar Bajpai,
whom inspiration made me enable for completed the
research work .
The Principal of the Dayanand Bachhrawan Post
Graduate College Dr. Ram Naresh for providing us a
decent academic atmosphere.
4
To the authorities and staff of M.Ed Department : Mr.
Rajesh Kumar Yadav , Mr. Arun Kumar Dube , Mr. Soorya
Prakash Gupta ,Dr. Ajay Kumar , Mr. Manoj Kumar
Sriwastawa, Mr. Ram Chandra (clerk of M.Ed and B.Ed
Department) for their support and useful advice and all the
respected teachers .
To the library stuff of my college- Mrs. Bavita Jhha and Mr.
K.P. Singh,
To the principals of Navyug,Kanya Vidyalaya, P.G. college
Rajendra Nagar, Sri jai Narain P.G.
college,Lucknow(K.K.C.), Mahesh Prasad Degree College
Mohanlalganj (LKO), Dr. Rajendra Prashad Memorial
Degree colleges Rajajipuram (LKO) for permitting me to
utilize the school student as my research sample.

I express my greatly indebtedness to my father Mr. Tej Narayan


Mishra and my mother Mrs. Suman Mishra, whom inspiration
made me enable for completed the research work, Without their
blessings, I could not be able to perform successfully in this task.

My sincere appreciation to my relatives and friends .Mr. Sanjeet


Kumar Mishra, Mr. Vijay Kumar Panday(my elder brother), My
sister Mrs. Renu Pandey, Mrs. Geeta Mishra(my Bhabhi).My
sweet nieces : Miss Kashish Mishra , Vashu Mishra , Tejashawi
Mishra ,Tanu Pandey and Tejashaw Pandey for their love and
support.
5
My college friends : Miss Khushboo Singh , Mrs. Kavita Tiwari ,
Mrs. Kamini Tiwari , Mrs. Anita Nishad , Mrs. Deepali Singh ,Miss
Sangeeta Verma ,Miss Uma Devi Miss.Priyanka Mishra and all
my dear classmates for their emotional encouragement and
constant support.
I am also indebtedness to numerous scholars , and publisher
whom I have quoted here and there in this study . I am also
thankful to Mr. Anand Kumar ,Ankit Verma, And Lalit Verma,
(computer typist) without their sincere work this research study
could not be presented in an attractive form.

Invetigator

Rekha Mishra

6
1. Certificate Page. 1
2. Declration Page. 2
3. Preface Page. 3
4. Acknowledgement Page. 4
5. Introduction Page. 6-19
6. Survey of the Related Page. 21-31
Literature
7 Research Design Page. 32-42
8. Explanation and Analysis of Page. 43-70
The Data
9. Result and Conclusion Page. 71-77
10. Appendix Page. 78-82
11. Bibliography Page. 83-86
12. Table Page. 45-48
13. Graph presentation Page. 64-66

7
First Chapter

8
1.1 Introduction

1.2 Need and Importance of the study

1.3 Relevance of the study

1.4 Statement if the study

1.5 Definitions of the term used in problem

1.6 Objectives of the study

1.7 Hypothesis of the study

1.8 Limitations of the study

9
Introduction
There is a great controversy in regard to the meaning
and definition of the term, education Divergent view s have
been expressed by scholars from Socrates and Plato upto
present day.

According to Socrates
“Education means the bringing out of the ideas of
universal validity which are talent in the mind of every
man”

According to Addison
“When education works on noble mind, it draws out to
view every talent and perfection.” Education has such a
bread sense that its canvas cannot be limited within the
definition of two or three lines. Although various thinkers of
different ages have tried to define the term, yet their
definitions are only partly true and touch only the coast of
the ocean.
The word ‘education’ has a very wide cannotation and
it is very difficult to give its precise definition . A biologist, a
priest a psychologist, a statesman, a teacher, a speaker
and even an artisan, all of them are supposed to be
having intelligence that will give widely different definitions
the word ‘Education’ is derived from Latin word
10
educatum. The alphabet ‘E’ indicates from internal and
‘Duca’ stand for ‘to lead out’, to drawout, or to bring up.”
Education is not only a lantern or a torch which enlightens
only the internal capacities of a child but it has certain
originality also. It cultivates certain values in life certain
moral force is generated through education. A child learns
a lot of facts and figures from his parents and
environments. This knowledge is quite new to him and is
unique in nature. Thus the etymological view point does
not explain the education in its true sense. That’s why
Sirayan

Define the term ‘Education’ in the following


words:
“Education is worth just the difference it makes in the
activities of the individual what has been educated.
Education must be given only with the right of self-
realization. In the social environment, an individual must
get opportunities to develop his personality. Education
helps us how to remove the problems which are present
in our life .When we see the present senerio there are
many problems creamed in the society. Just like a
maladjustment, Curruption etc.
The problem of adjustment is a vital problem of the
morden world. This problem is a matter of such a
widespread concern that books, magazines, scientific,
11
journals etc. Dealing with abjustment problems are
appearing more and more. It is common knowladge that
the present century is marked by widespread instability
and anxiety today we are facing a more complex world
which taxes our adjustive capacities and we are feeling
difficulty in achieving a sense of harmony with the
environment. The present century is characterized by
psychological disorder and disturbed interpersonal
relationship. Modren life seems to produce maladjusted
individuals at a faster rate. Kaplan (1959)
observes: “mental disorders are today the number one
public health problem of the nation. They effect more
people and more families than any other single disorder,
and evidence indicates that maladjusted individuals are
being producted at a faster rate than facilities to take care
of them can be provided.”
The problem of adjustment, being faced by our
adolescents, needs serious consideration. It has been
rightly estimated that 18th century was characterized by
enlightenment, the 19th century by progress and
development whereas the 20th century is characterized by
anxiety and conflict.
Mental illness, alcoholism, juvenile, delinquency, drug
addiction, suicides, broken marriages and crime have
become so common that the prevention of serious mal-
adjustment is essential, not only for the individual, but for
12
the community at lagre. Students at the school and collage
level softer from irritability, worries, disturbed inter-
personal relationship, resentment towords authority,
worries over health and so on which are indicative of the
lack of optimum state of adjustment So mental illness is
not confined to people admitted in institutions; it also
reaches into the home, into the school and it can be found
among collage students and teachers. Thus it is a
common knownladge for the behavioural scientists in
general that the problem of adjustment is of immense
importance for all of us and they feel that students must de
helped in developing good emotional, social,
health,home,and other types of adjustment besides the
intellectual development It there is something wrong with
any aspect of adjustment of the pupil, he cannot benefit
from college education in spite of his best efforts.
Some psychologists have approached adjustment from
quite a different angle of integration of separate responses
or acts.

Coleman (1960) states: “The progress by which an


organism attempts to meet the demands placed upon it by
its own nature and by its environment is called
adjustment.”

13
Madigan (1962) states: “If the conflicts are solved
to satisfy the individual’s needs within the tenets approved
by society, the individual is considered abjusted.”

Glanz and walston (1958) “Adjustment is the


process of meeting life’s problems and is personality and
the self-concept aspect of personality in action”
An individual may be called adjusted at one time but
he may be maladjusted at another time in the same social
complex. He may be adjusted to one aspect of life and not
to another, for example, he may be emotionally adjusted
but socially maladjusted. Criteria against which adjustment
is evaluated either as good or bad are provided by a
particular cultural context, based on its value systems.
And this value system naturally differs from one culture to
another, or from one generation to another.
That’s why a number of problems in the life of an
individual. Among those problem, the problem of
adjustment in various aspects of life is very significant.
The most favourable point is that the vocational
adjustment leads to all other adjustments like social
adjustment, leisure and moral adjustment, economic
adjustment, emotional adjustment etc
Emotional adjustment is the most important for the
society because it is the roof of personality adjustment and
physical, mental, intellectual, moral and aesthetical

14
adjustment are possible only when emotional adjustment
is made.
Social Adjustment requires that the individuals
should achieve a reasonable compromise between his
drive for self- realization and the demands of the society in
which he lives. He should establish a satisfying contact
with the other members of his group. His outlook on life
should be socially oriented.
It is a common knowledge for the behavioural
scientists in general that the problem of adjustment is of
immense importance for all of us and they feel that student
must be helped in developing good emotional, social
health, home and other types of adjustment besides the
intellectual development. In this way adjustment is most
important for the human being.

15
1.1 Need and importance of the study
‘In dog eat dog era’ the word of Adjustment is so need
for human beings because without Adjustment human
being is not able to do anything. In a developing
democracy like ours, much socio- economic progress will
depend open the healthy adjustment of our student-
community at large. Every now and then we listen about
students- community at large .Every now and then we
listen about students agitation, picketing, disturbances in
different parts of the country which not only effect the
community life, but the individuals students progress and
achievements. Seeing for this Adjustment is the most
important for human being. And its study also important.
Present study is a dynamic society .The needs of
human beings are increasing tremendously which needs
to be fulfilled .Everybody in the society is in the race of
competition .This poses the serious threat to the
adjustment of the individuals particularly to the
adolescents , college ,students .The problem of
adjustment is a crucial problem of the modern world
.That’s why the term adjustment in this study mostly refers
to the degree of capacity by which an individuals tries to
cope with inner tensions ,needs ,conflicts ,frustration and
is simulaneouly able to bring coordination between his
inner demants and those imposed by the outer world.

16
A well adjusted person establishes a harmonious,
stable and satisfying relationship with the environment. He
meets his needs and fulfils his desires with the resources
available in the environment from the viewpoint of his own
welfare and that of others. He has realistic self-
perception, and appraises his own abilities as well as
limitations realistically. That’s why the study of adjustment
is most important.
At this point of discussion it seems proper to evaluate
maladaptive reactions in its own from .The individuals who
have developed unhealthy reaction patterns find it difficult
to adjust effectively either with the internal or external
demands. Their behavior becomes disturbing to
themselves and to the society both. Seeing this the study
of Adjustment is so need and also important of the human
beings.
Adjustment is the process of meeting life’s problems,
and is personality and the self-concept aspect of
personality in action. A well adjusted person has
essentially positive attitude towards self and others .He
has feeling of dignity and integrity worth and selt-
actualization. In this way we can say that the study of
Adjustment between B.ED trainees of Aided and Non
Aided collages is so need for human beings because
owing to this study we are able to check that how to B.Ed
trainees mould themselves according to society And also
17
check that either B.Ed trainees are able to Adjust
themselves according to society or not.
However this study has been done by many
researcher but there was no study done by any one in the
district of Lucknow. That’s why the study of Adjustment
Between B.Ed trainees of Aided and non-Aided collages
has been done by the researcher. If a person is not able to
mould themselves according to society it means he can’t
to do anything .In this way we can say that this study helps
them that how to mould themselves according to society

18
1.2 Relevance of the study
Seeing the present scenario the study of Adjustment is
most important. Owing to this study there will many people
able to Adjust themselves according to society and also
situation .In future owing to this study people, teachers,
students, youngers, elders, society, departments,
principles, government, non government, and community
of large will able to adjust their- selves. Seeing this point
and also seeing the future this study will valid for all
people and students. That’s why the study of adjustment is
the most important for the human being .

1.3 Statement of the Problem


Statement of the problem is that:-
“A comparative study of the Adjustment between
B.ED trainees of Aided and Non Aided collage.”

1.4 Definitions of the term used in


problem
Adjustment
When a person does not able to adjust himself
according to situation and society, it means at that time he
needs to guidance of Adjustment .There are many
psychologists, defined to adjustment in own words.

19
Coleman was the great psychologist in 1960 and says
about Adjustment in own words like that:
“The process by which an organism attempts to need
the demand placed upon it by its own nature and by its
environment is called Adjustment.”

B.Ed Trainees
Education has a lot of responsibilities among which one
major responsibility is to make a child not only human
resource but human in real sense. Gandhi ji has quoted
education as a process of drawing the best from a child.
But in the formal settings this process is through study of
various subjects, development of skills from the
interaction in the class. In this relation teacher training
plays a vital role. Kothari and Shelat in university News
(June 2009)have stated that the B.Ed programme duration
should be of at least three semesters NCTE (2008) has
designed two years regular B.Ed programme where three
semesters are for theory and practical and last and the
fourth semesters is meant for intership in secondary or
senior secondary school.

Aided Colleges
Aided colleges that gets grants from central government
and the government of their respective states. Espescially
20
the salary of the teachers of these schools is provided by
government and the aided colleges only take the fees
stipulated by the government.

Non-Aided colleges
Non- Aided colleges that do not get grants from
central government or the government of the state .The
salary of the teachers of these schools is arranged from
the fees given by the students and other resources and
the non-aided colleges take heavy fees from the students.

1.5 Objectives of the study


Aims or objectives are the most important for any
study because without aims we are not able to get our
result.By objectives we are able to reach our way easily.
That’s why there are some objectives are made by her for
her study these are:-
(1) To study of the Adjustment ability between B.Ed
trainees of Aided and Non-Aided colleges.
(2) The study of the emotional Adjustment between
B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non- Aided colleges.
(3) The study of the social Adjustment between B.Ed
trainees of Aided and Non-aided colleges.
21
1.6 Hypothesis of the study
A hypothesis is used in an experiment to define the
relationship between two variables. The purpose of a
hypothesis is to find the answer to a question. A
formalized hypothesis will force us to think about what
results we should look for in an experiment. That’s why
Kerlinger says in own words in 1990 is that:-
“A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the
relation between two or more variables. Hypothesis are
always in declarative sentence from and they relate either
generally or specifically variables to variables.”
In the prosed study used the ‘Null hypothesis’
Kerlinger: foundations of behavioural Research, 1986
P.17
A Null Hypothesis is a type of hypothesis used in
statistics that proposes that nostatistical significance exits
in a set of given observations .The null hypothesis
attempts to show that no variation exists between
variables or that a single variable is no different than its
mean. It is presumed to be true until statistical evidence
nullifies it for an alternative hypothesis.
A null Hypothesis merely states that in an
experimental situation or even in non- experimental
situation, whenever things are enumerated or measured, it
22
is assumed, that nothing but the law change are operating
in a free and unrestricted manner.

H.E. Garrett, 1985 also says about null


hypothesis is that-
“Null hypothesis asserts that there is no true difference
between two population means and that the difference
found between sample means is, therefore, accidental
and unimportant.
(1) There exists no significant difference between
Adjustment ability of B.Ed trainees of the Aided and
Non-Aided colleges
(2) There exists no significant difference between
emotional Adjustment of B.Ed Trainees of the Aided
and non Aided colleges
(3) There exists no significant difference between
social Adjustment of B.Ed trainees of the Aided and
Non-Aided colleges

23
1.7 Limitations
Limitation in research is the lack of adequate
information on a given subject due to variables. Limitation
in research most often applies to academic research,
however, there is limitation to all forms of research
because it is impossible to control all variables. For
example, a study conducted in only one city and involving
only women has limitations that indude gender, sample
size and location. Additionally, all research is limited by
the perception of the researcher.
(1) The proposed study will limited only to Lucknow
district with respect to area.
(2) The proposed study will concern only with Aided and
Non –Aided colleges of higher levels .
(3) The proposed study will limited only for B.Ed trainees.
(4) Only study of emotional and social Adjustment.

24
Second Chapter

25
26
Survey of the related literature
A literature review is an evaluative report of information
found in the literature related to your selected area of study .The
review should describe ,summarise ,evaluate and clarify this
literature .It should give a theoretical base for the research and
help you determine the nature of your research .Works which are
irrelevant should be discarded and those which are peripheral
should be looked at critically.
A literature review is more than the search for information
,and goes beyond being a descriptive annotated bibliography . All
works included in the review must be read, evaluated and
analysed ,but relationship between the literature must also be
identified and articulated ,in relation to your field of research.
In writing the literature review ,the purpose is to convey to
the reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a
topic ,and what their strengths and weakness are. The literature
review must be defined by a guiding concept .It is not just a
descriptive list of the material available or a set of summarise.
PURPOSE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
The purpose of the literature reiew is to provide a critical
written account of the current state of research on a selected
topic.
1-Identifies areas of prior scholarship .
2-Places each source in the context of its contribution to the
understanding of the specific issue ,area of research ,or theory
under reiew.
3-Describes the relationship of each source to the others that you
have selected.

27
4-Identifies new ways to interpret ,and shed light on any gaps in
,previous research.
5-Points the way forward for further research.
The review should give a theoretical base for the research
and help you determine the nature of your research. Works which
are irrelevant should be discarded and those which are peripheral
should be looked at critically. It is the most important part of your
repeat as it gives you a direction in the area of your research. It
helps you set a goal for your analysis. In the proposed study there
are following survey of the related literature-:
(1) Khan, M.A. 1976, effect of parental deprivation on
personality Adjustments (with special references to
Denitrified tribes of up) Ph.D. , Psy, Agra, University,
1976, page no. 387.
The objectives were (i) to assess the effect of parental
deprivation on personality adjustment among deprived and
undeprived children. (ii) to evaluate the level of adjustment
among the parentally deprived and undeprived children (iii) to find
out the main areas of Adjustment among the level of Adjustment
among the partially and fully deprived children(iv) to compare the
partially and fully deprived children (v) to make a comparative
study of the achievement scores of parentally deprived and
undeprived children.
The findings were-: (i) There was a significant differential
on the level of Adjustment (2) There was no significant differecant
difference in respect of level of adjustment between the partially
and fully deprived children. (3) Parentally deprived and
undeprived children. (5) Children who belong to the rural
community who were less adjusted in comparison to the children
who were located in urban areas.

28
(2) Kumar; K; 1980 some personality correlates of academic
adjustment Ph.D. , Psy, Bihar university.
The main aims of the study were-: (i) to develop a tool for
measuring level of academic adjustment of college student and
(ii) to ascertian the relationship between certain personality
dimensions and academic adjustment of college going students
The major findings were-:
(1) The AAI was sufficiently reliable and valid for measuring
academic adjustment of college students (2) The AAI was
capable of yielding six area scores (inventory score) (3)
The academic adjustments of the male student. (4) No
significant difference between the English and Hindi
version of the EPI was observed. (5) The introvert student
had better academic adjustment than the extravert
students. (6) the normal (or stable) students had better
academic adjustment than the neurotic (or unstable)
students.
(3) BHATIA; K.T. 1984; The emotional, Personal and
social problem of Adjustment of adolescents
under Indian condition with special
references to values of life; Ph.D, edu. Bombay
University.
The aims of the study were-:
(i) To enquire into the social and personal background
of the junior and senior college going students of
greater Bombay.
(ii) To study the nature of problem faced by adolescents
of both sexes in their personal relationship in the
college.
(iii) To find out the nature of the problem that
adolescents faced in their daily lives relating to the
29
social personal and emotional adjustment at home
and at college. (iv) To find out the attitudes of
adolescents towards their country. (v) To obtain the
views of adolescents about intercommunal marriages
and dowry system.
The major findings of the study were-:
(1) Normal students were better adjusted than orphans.
(2) Sex, grade and religion had no effect on the difference
in adjustment of both the groups.
(3) The self- concept of normal students was better than
that orphans.
(4) The self- concept of normal students was better than
that of orphans.

(4-) KUMAR; S. A. 1985, 'Comparative study of the


interests' needs and adjustments problem of gifted
and average children', Ph.D. Education Delhi University.

The objectives of the study were (1) to ascertain the


incidence of the gifted in the some schools. (2) to
ascertain the interest needs and adjustment problems
of the gifted; and (3) to compare the interest; needs and
adjustment problems of the gifted with those of the
average children.
The major findings of the study were (1) The gifted
children constituted 12 person of Delhi school
population. (2) the gifted children were highly interested
in scientific and medical areas. (3) the average children
were highly interested in literary and medical areas. (4)
the average boys were highly interested in scientific,
medical literary, technical and sports areas. (5) both the

30
groups did not differ in their interests in the literary and
medical areas, agriculture, crafts and household work.

(5) SUNDARARAJAN, S. AND VYAKULA MARY,


S.(1992) attempted to study the adjustment problem
of high school pupils as related to certain variables
like gender, type of school etc.
The major findings of the study were) as follows-:
(1) The various categories of the sample have satisfactory
levels of adjustments in the 3 area viz; emotional,
social, and educational.
(2) There was no significant difference between the social
educational adjustment of adolescent boys and girls
studying in government and private schools.
(3) There was significant difference between the
Educational sdjustment of adolescents boys and girls
studing in government and private schools.

(6) SUNDARARAJAN, S AND ANJANEYULU. T. S. R.


(1993) carried out a study to know the adjustment
problems of high school pupils in and around
secunderabad city.
The finding of the study were-:
(1) In respect of total adjustment, there was no significant
difference between the boys and girls living in urban
and rural areas.
(2) There was no significant difference in the emotional and
social adjustment of boys as whole.
(3) There found no significant difference between the
emotional social and educational adjustment of girl as a
whole.

31
(4) No significant difference was found between girls when
they are grouped into urban and rural in respect of all
the areas of adjustment and the same was the case
when the boys and girl in term of their localities are
considered.

(7) RATHAIAH LAVU AND BHASKARA RAO D. (1994)


studied the achievement and Adjustments of
intermediate students in residential and non-
residential junior colleges.
Major finding of the study were-:
(1) The students studying in residential colleges were with high
achievement, whereas those studying in non residential colleges
were with average achievement.
(2) The association between achievement and adjustment was
significant and positive in both residential and non- residential
college students.
(3) The association between achievement and adjustment was
high and positively significant.
(4) There was a significant and positive association between
achievement and adjustment in the students of residential and
non- residential junior colleges.
(5) The association between adjustment and achievements in
boys and girls was positively significant.
(8) BAJPAI [1999]
In this study ‘Effect of caste Belongingness of adjustment of High
school girls ‘ he found that-

32
1-In general caste high school girls are significantly higher then
other categories girls on the dimensions of healthy ,home social
and overall adjustment .
2-The backward class is significantly higher then ST group in
home ,social and overall adjustment .
3-The SC girls arenot significantly higher then ST girls.
(9) KASINATH, H.M. (2000)
Carried out a study to know the students adjustment and its
relation to organizational climatewith respect to emotional, social,
educational and total adjustment of Jawahar Navodaya
Vidyalays.
He concluded that-:
(1) Gender and area did not make any influence on the
adjustment of adolescents studying in JNVS.
Boys and girls differed significantly in their emotional
adjustment and do not differ significantly in their social and
educational adjustment.
(10) BUNKER L.N. (2002)
Studied the feelings of insecurity and adjustment problems
among juvenile delinquents and non-delinquents.

The major finding of the study were-:


(1) That the male- Juvenile delinquents were more insecured
than non-juvenile delinquents.

33
(2) The feeling of insecurity were more among female juvenile
delinquents as compared with their counterparts.
(3) Both male and female juvenile delinquents had greater
adjustments problem regarding their home, health, social,
emotional and education areas from their counter parts.
(11) RAJU, M. V. R. (2005) made a study to examine the
adjustment of hostel students.
The significant results obtained from the statistical
analysis were-:
(1) Hostel students in the age group of 25 years and above
adjusted better than age group below 25 years in crisis
dimension.
(2) Indian students adjustment was better in room, hostel,
mates, servants, and financial dimensions than foreign
students, whereas foreign students were better in spiritual
adjustment than Indian students.
(3) The students pursuing professional course adjustment
better to their hostel than the students of arts course.
(12) Henry, N.J. Berg. C.A. smith T.W. Florsheim. P. (2007)
to study examined age differences in positive (e.g. warm) and
negative (e.g. hostile) characteristics of marital inferactions
between middle- aged and order couples and whether these
characteristics were differentialy associated with marital
satisfaction by age.
Spouses perception of partners positive and negative
behaviour during marial interaction was assessed in general
and following disagreement and collaborative tasks. Trained
observers coded spouses positive and negative behavior
during interactions order individual reported higher marital
satisfaction and perceived their spouse’s behavior as less
negative in general and more positive across all contexts

34
perceptions of their partners positive and negative behaviour
independently predicted marital satisfaction for both age
groups across contexts. Perceptions of partners negative
behaviour independently predicted marital satisfaction for both
age groups across contexts. Perceptions of partners negative
behaviour in general and of both positive and negative
behaviour in the disagreement task were more closely
associated with marital satisfaction for older spouses than for
middle aged spouses. Results point to the importance of
positive and negative characteristics in marital functioning
across age cohorts and indicate that such characteristics may
be context, dependent .Findings suggest that in some
contexts, both positive and negative characteristics are more
salient for older adults.
(13) Pandey, R, Tulika, A. (2010)
Suggests that emotional intelligence (EI) is a factor of
paramount importance in adjustment to like. It is believed that
couples with high EI are good at understanding each other’s
emotions and feelings which, in turn, enhances marital
adjustment and happiness in their life. This study examined the
relationship of EI with martial adjustment and health of spouse.
Thirty two married couples completed a set of self- report
questionnaires consisting measures of- emotional intelligence,
marital adjustment, health and well –being . Person’s
coefficients of correlations. Revealed that marital adjustment
was correlated positively with the measures of general health
and well – being. Scores on various dimensions of EI were also
found significantly correlated with the measure of subjective
well – being. It was also observed that high EI of a spouse was
positively associated with one’s own marital adjustment ,as well
as that of their partner .However ,this pattern og relation was
not observed for the measures of health and well –being
except that wife’s satisfaction with her life that was positively

35
related with her that of her spouse For other dimensions of
health and well –being ,the general observation of his study
was that wife’s EI was singificantly related with the husband’s
health and well –being whereas the husband’s health and well
– being correlated significantly with the EI of wife. The
implications of the findings in understanding matrial adjustment
and spousal health have been discussed.
(14)- GARDIA ALOK AND SHANDILYA SHUETA [2010]
founded that there are positive and significant correlation
between adjustment . Sense of responsibility and scientific
attitudes among adolescents .The study also draws differences
among adolescents in adjustment, sense of responsibility and
scientific attitudes with respect to gender educational institude
and level of study.
(15) Anxiety in adolescents Browne and Mirinda (2011)
Browne and Mirinda mediated the relationship between anxiety
and somatic complaints in adolescents. The study was
conducted with 617 school students, with the age range of 12-
18 years old. The students were administered with back
Anxiety inventory and somatic symptom inventory. The result
indicated with 65% of the adolescents who had high anxiety
reported somatic problems. The students mostly suffered from
recurrent abdominal pain and headaches. The physical
discomfort was mostly during the anxiety accuring situations
such as during a class room presentation or when attending
any particular examination A path model was constructed, with
the use of structural equation modeling to create an emotional
awareness and its connectedness with the bodily symptoms in
the adolescents. However it did not help in reducing the
somatic complaints , as the model did not show any direct
relationship between the emotional awareness and the somatic
complaints. The adolescents were then given rational emotive
therapy to treat their anxiety Once when the anxiety symptoms
36
was controlled, it was an alarming finding that the adolscents
did not suffer any major somatic problem.
16) Shi, Mejigoard and Simon(2012)
Assessed the association between acculturation and
recreational computer use among Latino Adolescents school
students in califormia. A total of 665 Adolescent Girls (315) and
boys (350) with the age range of 13-15 years were selected for
the study. The students were assessed through survey method
recording their recreational business. The result reported that
80% of the students spent all their recreational time with
computers. The results further revealed that spending time with
computers decreased their socialization and physical activity and
increased obesity. Therefore the sample was divided into two
groups ie, 50% of the sample was selected for the experimental
group was involved in physical activity such as sports by
minimizing their computer usage by 80% for 30 days, whereas
the control group was not involved in any physical activity and
were allowed to continue their normal routine with computers the
result summarized that the experimental group and 50% of the
students were for the control group . The experimental group was
involved in physical activity such as sports by minimizing their
usage by 80% for 30 days, whereas the control group was not
involved in any physical activity and were allowed to continue
theire normal routine with computers .The results summarized
that the experimental group had shed a moderate amount of
their body weight and also had improved their socialization on the
contrary the control group did not show any difference in their
socialization as well.

37
38
Third
Chapter

39
3.1 Research Design
Descriptive Method
3.2 Population
3.3 Sample and Sampling
3.4 Clarification of Variables
3.5 Tool
3.6 Administration of the Tool
3.7 Method of Statistics

40
(3.1) RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in
collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in
the research problem research study defines the study. The
design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlational,
semi-experimental, Experimental, review, meta-analytic and sub-
type (e.g. descriptive – longitudinal case study), research
problem, hypothesis, independent and dependent variables,
experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods
and a statistical analysis plan. Research design is the framework
that has been created to find answer to research questions. It is a
pre-planned sketch for the explanation of a problem .It is the first
step to take and the whole research. Study will conduct on the
basic of this research design .It gives us a due that how the
further process would be taking place and how would be the
research study carry into classification ,interpretation and
suggestions .This is a guideline for the whole work.
Some of the researcher and sociologists has given their
definitions-
Vimal Shah “Research design is a plan of study whether
controlled or uncontrolled and subjective as well as objective.”
Miller-“research design is a planned sequence of the entire
process involved in the conducting of as research study.”
DESCRIPTIVE METHOD
Descriptive method is used in the present study a brief description
of the descriptive method is being presented in the following lines-
:
Descriptive research method is a study designed to depict the
participants in an accurate way More simply put, descriptive
research is all about describing people who take part in the study.
41
The three Basic types of Descriptive research Method-:
1- Observational Method
2- Case study method
3- Survey method
One of them the survey research method is used in the present
study.
The survey research method
The present study was carried through descriptive survey method
,which has been in education as most popular and widely used
method. It helps to explain educational phenomena in terms of the
conditions or relationship that exists ,opinions that are held by the
students ,teachers, parents and experts , processes that are
going on effects that are evident or trends that are
developing.Because of the apparent case and directions of this
method a researcher can gather informations in terms of
individuals opinion about some issues by a simple questionnaire
.At times ,descriptive survey is the only means through which
opinion attitudes , suggestions for emprovement of educational
practices and instructions and other data can be obtained.
The survey is present oriented research. It is suitable for
problems in which the researcher believes that although the data
needed to resolve his research question do not exists, the setting
in which those data could be generated to exists. The
researcher’s approach then is to go to those settings, administer
appropriate data collection devices (tools) and analyse the data in
the sense that the setting are known and the date required
reasonably well defined by the statement of the research problem
. The survey approach is more structured for the researcher then
the historical approach. How even, surveys have their own
problems, the difficult problems of instrument development data
collecting tools.

42
Many research problems require systematic collection of data
from population through the use of personal interview or other
data gathering tools. These studies are usually called surveys
especially when they are concerned with large widly diversed
groups of people.
[3.2] POPULATION
A population is the number of all the organizes of the same group
or species, which live in a particular geographical area and have
the capability of interbreeding. This is the reason why researchers
rely on sampling techniques. A research population is also known
as a well – define collection of individuals or objects known to
have similar characteristics.
In Lindquist: Statistical analysis in educational research:
“ Population is a group of individuals or observations which can
be easily identijied.”
The present study deals with the Adjustment of the B.ED Trainees
of Aided and Non Aided colleges of Lucknow district. There are
thirty Five B.Ed colleges of Lucknow district. One of them six
Aided colleges and twenty nine is the Non –Aided colleges.
[3.3] Sample and Sampling
Samlpe
In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a
data sample is a set of data collected and by a defined procedure.
The element of a sample are known as sample points, sampling
units or observations. The sample size is that5 in the proposed-
100 students of B.ED trainees of aided and Non- Aided colleges
of Lucknow district.

Aided colleges of B.Ed number of students


43
Trainees
1-Navyug Kanya Vidyalaya 25
P.G. college Rajendra Nagar,
Lucknow
2-Sri Jai Narain P.G. college 25
Lucknow (K.K.C.)
Non- Aided colleges of Number of students
B.Ed Trianees
1- Mahesh Prasad Degree 25
College Mohanlalganj.LKO
2- Dr. Rajendra Prashad 25
Memorial Degree colleges
Rajajipuram LKO
Total students 100

SAMPLING
Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a
predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger
population A sampling frame is the group of people from which
you will draw your sample. There are two types of sampling.
Types of sampling

44
Probability sampling
Non probabilitySampling
= Simple random Sampling
=Quata sampling

= Incidental sampling
=Stratified random Sampling
=Purposive sampling

=systematic sampling
=Area or cluster Sampling
=snowball sampling

=saturation sampling

= Dense sampling
Probability sampling
A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that
utilies some from of random selection In order to have a random
selection method you must set up some process or procedure
that assures that the different units in your population have equal
probability of being chosen. There are three types of probabilities
sampling like that Simple Rrandom Sample, Stratified Random
Sampling and Cluster Sampling
One of them the simple Random sampling procedure was used
by the researcher in the present study.

45
A simple Random sampling is a subset of a statistical population
in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of
being chosen.
Thus the 4 B.Ed colleges which are run by government – aid, and
non – government –aid also. 25-25 student were taken from each
school by Sample Random Sampling procedure. Thus the total
number of sample selected for the study is 25*4=100
[3.4] Clarification of Variables
Variable is a symbol that represents a quantity in a mathematical
expression as used in many sciences. Variables a symbolic name
associated with a value and whose associated value may be
changed. In research science variables refer to factors or
conditions that can change during the course of any experiment.
“By a variable , therefore ,we mean anything that we can observe
any of such a nature that each single observation can be
classified into one of a number of mutually exclusive class.”
There are three types of variables
Variables

Independent Dependent
Relevant
Variables Variables
Variables
Independent variables
46
An independent variables is the presumed cause of the
dependent variable, and the dependent variable, is the presumed
effect of independent variables.
“An Independent variable is that factor manipulated by the
experimenter in his attempt to ascertain its relationship to an
observed Phenomenon.”
In this way we can say that variables which are manipulated by
the researcher .In the present study B.Ed trainees is the
Independent variable.

Dependent variables
A dependent variables is what you measure in the experiment
and what is affected during the experiment. The dependent
variable responds to the independent variable. It is called
dependent because it ‘ depend ’ on the independent variables.
“ The dependent variable is that which is observed and recorded
by the experimenter.”
In this way we can say that dependent variable is one about
which we make a prediction. In the present study the dependent
variable is that Adjustment.
Relevant Variables
Investment certificates are characterized by the presence of
combinations of different options in each instrument. It is called
the control variable controlled variables because it control the
effect which is happen of the dependent variables in the present

47
study the relavant variables is that individuals problems, college
atmosphere, time , place and mentality of the people.

[3.5] TOOL
Anything that becomes a means of collecting information for your
study is called a research tool or a research instrument.
Revised Adjustments Inventory (RAI 1999) is used for the
presents study. This scale was constructed by Mr. Pramod
Kumar. (Department of psychology) Sardar Patel University
Vallabh Vidya Nagar.
RELIABILITY
The spilt half reliability (correlating the odd- even items) of the test
for the applying the Spearman Frown Formula for doubling the
test length is found to be 83(n- 108) with an index of reliability of
1993.
The test retest reliability of the inventory is found to be .81 highly
significant at 0.01 level of confidence.
VALIDITY
Only highly diagonostic items are included in the inventory
following items analysis (3) the upper and the lower 25% served
as criteria groups (2) the co efficiently of correlation of the
inventory with Asthana: S Hindustani Adjustment inventory is
found to be 0.71 (n= 108) (4)

[3.6] Administration of the tool


First of all the researcher give to the her introduction to select
students and after that the tool Revised Adjustment Inventory
48
(RAI) 1999 constructed by Pramod Kumar was distributed by the
researcher the purpose of the inventory is frankly explained to the
subject. It is assured that his replies would be kept confidential .
The subject is reguested to read the instructions carefully and to
ask the tester if there is any confusion in the understanding of the
instructions before starting. It is emphasized that no item has to
be omitted and there is nothing ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ about these
items. There is no time limit for the inventory.

[3.7] Method of statistics


In the present investigation following statistical techniques were
employed.
MEAN
The mean of a distribution is commonly understood as the
arithmetic average. It is perhaps the most familiar, most frequently
used and well understood average. The mean of a set of
observation or scores is obtained by dividing the sum of the
scores by the total number of values. There are many formulas to
find mean of a distribution. In this study the following formula is
used.
∑𝑥
M=
𝑛

Where, m= mean
∑ =sigma which
Means summnation
X= number of observations
N= Total population
Standard Deviation (SD)

49
Standard deviation is defined as squire root of the mean of the
squared deviations of different scores from the mean In statistics
the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter
sigma or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantity
the amount of variation of a set of data values. A low standard
deviations indicates that the data points tend to be close to the
mean of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the
standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out
over a wider range of values.
Standard deviation
∑ 𝑑2
SD=√
𝑁
Where
=Standard Deviation
∑= sigma which means summation.
D= Deviation of various classes from assumed mean
N= Total frequency
Standard Error (SED)
The standard error of the mean can be seen to depict the
relationship between the dispersion of individual observations
around the population mean (the standard deviation), and the
dispersion of sample means around the population mean (the
standard error.) Different samples drawn from that same
population would in general have different values of the sample
mean, so there is a distribution of sampled mean (with its own
mean and variance) The relationship with the standard deviation
is defined such that, for a given sample size, the standard error

50
equal the standard deviation divided by the square root of the
sample size.
S12 S22
𝑆𝐸𝐷 = +
n1 n2

When= n1 and n2 ≥ 30
SED= standard error of different
S1= standard deviation of the first sample
S2= Standard deviation of the second sample
N1= Number of candidates in the first sample
N2= number of candidates in the second sample
CRITICAL RATIO (C.R.)
A critical ratio or CR found by dividing the difference between the
sample means by its standard error. This operation reduces the
obtained difference to a score and enables us to measure it off
along the base line of the sampling distribution of differences.

𝑀1 ~𝑀2
C.R.= (𝑆 )2 (𝑆 )2
√ 1 + 2
𝑛1 𝑛2

C.R. = critical Ratio.


M1= Mean of the first group .
M2= mean of the second group.
S1= standard deviation of the first sample.

51
S2= standard deviation of the sample.
N1= Number of the candidates in the first sample.
N2= Number of the candidates in the second sample.

Chapter
Fourth
52
4.1 Analysis of the data
4.2 Statistical analysis of the all hypothesis
4.3 Bar graph presentation of the all hypothesis

53
4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
Analysis of the data ,also known as Data analysis or Data
Analytics ,is a process of inspecting ,cleansing
,transforming and modeling data with the goal of
discovering useful information ,suggesting conclusions
,and supporting decision –making data analysis has
multiple facets and approaches , encompassing diverse
techniques under a variety of names ,in different business
,science and social science domains.
In this way we can say that the process of evaluating data
using analytical and logical reasoning to examine each
component of the data provided .This form of analysis is
just one of the many steps that must be completed when
conducting a research experiment. Data form various
sources is gathered ,reviewed and then analyzed to form
some sort of finding or conclusion .There are a variety of
specific data analysis method some of which include data
mining ,text analytics and data visualizations.

54
16)STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST
HYPOTHESIS
AIDED COLLEGES
Table No-1
S.N. of B.E.D. Score of D=y-m d2
Trainces adjustment ability
1 24 - 2.38 5.6644
2 21 - 5.38 28.9444
3 30 3.62 13.1044
4 20 - 6.38 40.70
5 24 - 2.38 5.66
6 23 - 3.38 11.42
7 21 -5.38 28.94
8 19 -7.38 54.46
9 23 -3.38 11.42
10 24 -2.38 5.66
11 38 11.62 135.02
12 31 4.62 21.34
13 29 2.62 6.86
14 29 2.62 6.86
15 24 -2.38 5.66
16 25 -9.38 87.98
`17 20 -6.38 40.70
18 36 9.62 92.54
19 26 -0.38 0.14
20 16 -10.38 107.74
21 24 -2.38 5.66
22 15 -11.38 129.50
23 33 6.62 43.82
24 21 -5.38 28.94
25 38 11.62 135.02
26 38 12 144
27 23 -3.38 11.42
55
28 24 -2.38 5.66
29 25 -1 1
30 31 4.62 21.34
31 37 10.62 100
32 34 7.62 58.06
33 37 10.62 112.78
34 32 5.62 31.58
35 8 -18 324
36 26 0.38 0.14
37 27 0.72 0.51
38 34 7.62 58.06
39 31 4.62 21.34
40 29 2.62 6.86
41 40 13.62 185.50
42 17 -9.38 87.98
43 9 -17.38 302.06
44 21 -5.38 28.94
45 28 1.62 2.62
46 22 -4.38 19.18
47 27 0.62 0.38
48 24 -2.38 5.66
49 36 9.62 92.54
50 25 -1.38 1.90

N=50 M1=1319 Ed2=1252.03


∑𝑥
Mean =
𝑁
M=1319
50
MI = 26.38

S.D. = 1252.03
50
56
SD = 25.0406

SD = 5.004

Non – Aided Colleges


Table No-2
S.N. of B.E.D. Score of d =x-m d2
Trainces adjustment
ability
1 28 -1.06 1.1236
2 35 5.4 29.16
3 40 10.04 100.80
4 22 -7.06 49.84
5 28 -1.06 1.12
6 33 3.94 15.52
7 36 6.94 48.16
8 37 7.94 63.04
9 29 -0.06 0.003
10 18 -11.06 122.32
11 24 -5.06 25.60
12 29 -0.06 0.003
13 36 6.94 48.16
14 36 6.94 48.16
15 37 7.94 63.04
16 34 4.94 24.40
17 36 6.94 48.16
18 40 10.94 119.68
19 32 2.94 8.64
20 35 5.94 35.28
21 35 5.94 35.28
22 21 -8.06 64.96
23 38 8.94 79.92
57
24 25 -4.06 16.48
25 23 -6.06 36.72
26 18 -11.06 122.32
27 23 -6.05 36.60
28 10 -19.06 363.28
29 28 -1.06 1.12
30 22 -7.06 49.84
31 19 -10.06 101.20
32 34 4.94 24.40
33 31 1.94 3.76
34 32 2.94 8.64
35 22 -7.06 49.84
36 21 -8.06 64.96
37 21 -8.06 64.96
38 22 -7.06 49.84
39 23 -6.06 36.72
40 29 -0.06 0.06
41 32 2.94 8.64
42 31 1.94 3.76
43 21 -8.06 64.96
44 28 -1.06 1.12
45 18 -11.06 122.32
46 32 2.94 8.64
47 25 -4.06 16.48
48 14 -15.06 226.80
49 25 -4.06 16.48
50 21 -8.06 64.96
N2=50 M2 =1453 ∑d2 =2357.40

58
Mean = ∑X
N
M1 = 1453
50
M2 = 29.06

S2 or S.D. = ∑d2
N
SD = 2357.40
50
SD = 47.148
SD = 6.87
D= S1 2 S2 2
n1 n2

𝜎D = (5)2 (6.9)2
50 50
𝜎D = 25 47.61
50 50
𝜎D = 72.61
50

59
= 1.45

= 1.2

CR = m 1∽ m 2

𝜎D

CR = 26.38 ∽ 29.06

1.21

= 2.68

1.2

= 2.215

CR value = 2.215

60
Statistical analysis of the second hypothesis
Aided Colleges
Table No-3
S.N. of B.E.D. Score of Emotional d =x-m d2
Trainces adjustment
1 20 1.04 1.08
2 17 -1.96 3.84
3 26 7.04 49.56
4 16 -2.96 8.76
5 19 0.04 0.16
6 18 -0.96 0.92
7 16 -2.96 8.76
8 13 -5.96 35.52
9 15 -3.96 15.68
10 17 -1.96 3.84
11 28 9.04 81.72
12 23 4.04 16.32
13 22 3.04 9.24
14 22 3.04 9.24
15 16 -2.96 8.76
16 18 0.96 0.92
17 13 -5.96 35.52
18 26 7.04 49.56
19 20 1.04 1.08
20 11 -7.96 63.36
21 15 -3.96 15.68
22 11 -7.96 63.36
23 24 5.04 25.40
24 18 -0.96 0.92
25 28 9.04 81.72
26 28 9.04 81.72
27 18 0.96 0.92
28 19 0.04 0.16
61
29 20 1.04 1.08
30 24 5.04 25.40
31 27 8.04 64.64
32 25 6.04 36.48
33 27 -8.04 64.64
34 26 7.04 49.56
35 7 -11.96 143.04
36 16 -2.96 8.76
37 17 -1.96 3.84
38 25 6.04 36.48
39 24 5.04 25.40
40 22 3.04 9.24
41 31 12.04 144.96
42 10 -8.96 80.28
43 7 -11.96 143.04
44 15 -3.96 15.68
45 22 3.04 9.24
46 14 -4.96 24.60
47 19 0.04 0.0016
48 17 -1.96 3.84
49 16 -2.96 8.76
50 19 0.04 0.0016
N1=50 M1=948 D2=8760.6

62
Mean = ∑X
N
M2 = 948
50
M2 = 18.96

SD = ∑d2
n
SD = 8760.6
50

= 175.21
S1 = 13.24

63
Non Aided Colleges
Table No-4

s.no. of Bed Score of D=(X-M) D2


Trainings Emotional
Adjustment
1 14 -6.2 38.44
2 17 -3.2 10.24
3 9 -11.2 125.44
4 22 1.8 3.24
5 15 -5.2 27.04
6 18 -2.2 4.84
7 25 4.8 23.04
8 23 2.8 7.84
9 24 3.8 14.44
10 18 -2.2 4.84
11 14 -6.2 38.44
12 15 -5.2 27.04
13 14 -6.2 38.44
14 18 -2.2 4.84
15 25 4.8 23.04
16 25 4.8 23.04
17 22 1.8 3.24
18 14 -6.2 38.44
19 23 2.8 7.84
20 11 -9.2 84.64
21 23 2.8 7.84
22 19 -1.2 1.44
23 9 -11.2 125.44
24 20 -0.2 0.04
25 16 -4.2 17.64
26 22 1.8 3.24
27 27 6.8 46.24
64
28 30 9.8 96.04
29 14 -6.2 38.44
30 18 -2.2 4.84
31 23 2.8 7.84
32 27 6.8 46.24
33 28 7.8 60.84
34 20 -0.2 0.04
35 14 -6.2 38.44
36 19 -1.2 1.44
37 21 0.8 0.64
38 28 7.8 60.84
39 26 5.8 33.64
40 28 7.8 60.84
41 24 3.8 14.44
42 26 5.8 33.64
43 30 9.8 96.04
44 23 2.8 7.84
45 26 5.8 33.64
46 27 6.8 46.24
47 14 -6.2 38.44
48 24 3.8 14.44
49 18 -2.2 4.84
50 24 3.8 14.44
N2=50 M2=1010 D2=1033.82

65
Mean = ∑X
N
M1 = 1010
50
M2 = 20.02

S2 or S.D. = ∑d2
N
SD = 1033.84
50
SD = 20.68

S2 = 4.55
𝜎D = S1 2 S2 2
n1 n2

𝜎D = (13.24 x 13.24) (4.55 x 4.55)


50 50
𝜎D = 3.506 0.42

66
= 3.926
= 1.99

CR = m 1∽ m 2

𝜎D

CR = 18.96 ∽ 20.2

1.99

= 0.623 CR value = 0.623

67
Statistical analysis of the third hypothesis

Aided Colleges
Table No-5
S. N. Of B.Ed Score of Social Adjustment D=(X-M) D2
Trainees
1 3 -3.72 13.83
2 10 3.28 10.75
3 10 3.28 10.75
4 5 -1.72 2.95
5 5 -1.72 2.95
6 5 -1.72 2.95
7 7 0.28 0.078
8 10 3.28 10.75
9 9 2.28 5.19
10 10 3.28 10.75
11 6 -0.72 0.51
12 1 -5.72 32.71
13 10 3.28 10.75
14 10 3.28 10.75
15 9 2.28 5.198
16 7 0.28 0.078
17 7 0.28 0.078
18 9 2.28 5.19
19 7 0.28 0.078
20 2 -4.72 22.27
21 6 -0.72 0.51
22 6 -0.72 0.51
23 8 1.28 1.6384
24 8 1.28 1.6384
25 7 0.28 0.078
26 4 -2.72 7.39
68
27 4 -2.72 7.39
28 4 -2.72 7.39
29 4 -2.72 7.39
30 5 -1.72 2.95
32 5 -1.72 2.95
33 5 -1.72 2.95
34 6 -0.72 0.51
35 8 1.28 1.6384
36 7 0.28 0.078
37 10 3.28 10.75
38 8 1.28 1.6384
39 7 0.28 0.078
40 7 0.28 0.078
41 8 1.28 1.6384
42 7 0.28 0.078
43 7 0.28 0.078
44 10 3.28 10.75
45 6 -0.72 0.51
46 5 -1.72 2.95
47 9 2.28 5.19
48 4 -2.72 7.39
49 9 2.28 5.19
50 10 3.28 10.75
N1= 50 M1 =336 D2=
267.65
Mean = ∑X
N
M1 = 336
50
M1 = 6.72

69
S.D. ∑d2
N

SD = 267.65
50
SD 5.353

S1 = 2.32
Non Aided College
Table No-6
S.n. of B.ed Score of social D=(X-M) D2
Trainees adjustment
1 6 -0.96 0.92
2 8 1.04 1.08
3 10 3.04 9.24
4 8 1.04 1.08
5 8 1.04 1.08
6 10 3.04 9.24
7 9 2.04 4.16
8 9 2.04 4.16
9 9 2.04 4.16
10 4 -2.96 8.76
11 5 -1.96 3.84
12 8 1.04 1.08
13 8 1.04 1.08
14 10 3.04 9.24
70
15 9 2.04 4.16
16 10 3.04 9.24
17 10 3.04 9.24
18 10 3.04 9.24
19 9 2.04 4.16
20 9 2.04 4.16
21 8 1.04 1.08
22 7 0.04 0.16
23 8 1.04 1.08
24 7 0.04 0.16
25 7 0.04 0.16
26 4 -2.96 8.76
27 6 -0.96 0.92
28 1 -5.96 35.52
29 6 -0.96 0.92
30 7 0.04 0.16
31 1 -5.96 35.52
32 9 2.04 4.16
33 8 1.04 1.08
34 8 1.04 1.08
35 4 -2.96 8.76
36 7 0.04 0.16
37 6 -0.96 0.92
38 6 -0.96 0.92
39 5 -1.96 3.84
40 4 -2.96 8.76
41 7 0.04 0.16
42 9 2.04 4.16
43 7 0.04 0.16
44 5 -1.96 3.84
45 7 0.04 0.16
46 9 2.04 4.16
47 6 -0.96 0.92
71
48 5 -1.96 3.84
49 5 -1.96 3.84
50 0 0 0
N2= 50 M2 =348 D2= 240.13

Mean = ∑X
N
M1 = 348
50
M2 = 6.96

S2 or S.D. ∑d2
N
SD = 240.13
50
SD 4.8026
SD = 2.19
𝜎D = S1 2 S2 2
n1 n2

𝜎D = (2.32*2.32) (2.19*2.19)
50 50

72
𝜎D = 0.108 + 0.095

= 0.203
= 0.450

CR = m1∽ m2

𝜎D

CR = 6.72 ∽ 6.96

0.45

= 0.535

CR value = 0.534

73
Bar Graph Presentation of the First Hypothesis
Table No-7

S.n. Items Mean Sd


1 Aided Colleges 26.38 5.004
2 None Aided 29.06 6.87
Colleges

30
29.09 N.A.C.
26.38
25
20
15
10
5
0

25
20
15
A.C.
10
6.87
N.A.C.
5.004
5
0
74
Bar Graph Presentation of the Second Hypothesis
Table No-8

S.N. Items Mean SD


1 Aided Colleges 18.96 13.24
2 Non Aided 20.2 4.55
Colleges

30
25
20
13.24
15
10
5
4.55
0

25
20.2
20
18.96
15
10
5
0

75
Bar Graph Presentation of the Third Hypothesis
Table No-9

S.N. Items Mean S.D.


1 Aided Colleges 6.72 2.32
2 Non Aided 6.96 2.19
Colleges

30 N.A.C
25
20
15
10
6.96
6.72
5
0

25
20
15
10
5
2.32
2.19
0
76
4.3.TESTING OF THE
HYPOTHESIS-
The data thus collected was analysed using relevant statistical
techniques like analysis of central tendency mean, SD SED and
critical ratio [CR] etc. to find out whether differences in the
independent variables accounted for significant differences in the
dependent variable.
The usual levels of significance o.o5 and o.o1 were employed to
test the significance of the obtained valves.

Ho1
There exits no significant difference between adjustment Ability of
B.E.D. trainees of the aided and Non-Aided colleges
Table No-10

S.n. N Mean S.D. CR SED Df Significant


level
Aided 50 26.38 5.004 0.05=1.98
college significant-
(rejected)
Non 50 29.06 6.87 2.215 1.21 98 0.01=2.63
Aided insignificant
Colleges (Accepted)

 0.05 = 1.98 (significant)


 0.01 = 2.63 (insignificant)
By using relevant statistical techniques the researcher has found
the mean score for aided colleges is 26.38 while mean score for

77
non-aided colleges is 29.06 and SD score for aided colleges is
5.004 while SD score for non-aided colleges is 6.87. The
calculated CR value is 2.215 and SED value is that = 1.21 98 df
value is on the significant level in 0.05 is that= 1.98 and
0.01=2.63.

Hence significant level in 0.05 is less than the CR value while the
significant level in 0.01 is more than the CR value .Then we can
say that the CR value is less on the 0.01=2.63 and CR value is
more on the 0.05=1.98 . So the null hypothesis mentioned above
is significant level on the 0.05 =1.98 is significant .That’s why on
the 0.05 significant level the mentioned hypothesis is rejected and
the null hypothesis is significant level on the 0.01 =2.63 is
insignificant . That’s why on the 0.01 significant level the
mentioned hypothesis is accepted.
In this way we can say that there is significant on the 0.05 level
and insignificant on the 0.01 level .Thus the signicant difference
between B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non –Aided colleges on
the significant level of 0.05 and there exists no significant
difference between B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non –Aided
colleges on the significant level of 0.01.

Ho2
Table No-11

78
There exists no significant difference between emotional
adjustment of B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non- Aided
colleges.
S.n. N Mean S.D. C.R. Sed Df Significant level
Aided 50 18.96 13.24 0.005= 1.98
Colleges insignificant(accepted
Non 50 20.2 4.55 0.623 1.99 98 0.01=2.63 ingnificant
Aided (Accepted)
Colleges

By using relevant statistical techniques the researcher has found


the mean score for emotional adjustment of Aided colleges is
18.96, while mean score for emotional adjustment of Non-Aided
colleges is 20.2, and SD score for emotional adjustemt of Aided
colleges is 13.24 and SD score for emotional adjustment of Non-
Aided colleges is 4.55 The calculated CR value is= 0.623 and
SED value is that =1.99. 98 df value is on the significant levelin
0.05 is that =1.98 and 0.01= 2.63.
Hence, significant level in 0.05 and 0.01 both are more than the
CR value .Hence CR value is less than both significant level. So
the Null hypothesis mentioned above is accepted because CR
value is less than both significant level .
In this way we can say that there exists no significant difference
between Emotional adjustment of B.Ed trainees of the Aided and
Non-Aided colleges .
HO3
There exists no significant difference between social adjustment
of B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non-aided colleges.
Table No-13
79
Sn N Mean S.D. CR Sed Df Significant level
Aided 50 6.72 2.32 0.05=1.98
colleges insignificant(accepted)

None 50 6.96 2.19 0.534 0.450 98 0.01=2.63 insignificant


Aided (Accepted)
college

By using relevant statistical techniques the researcher has found


the mean score for social adjustment of Aided colleges is 6.72
while mean score for social adjustment of Non-Aided colleges is
6.96 and SD score for social adjustment of Aided colleges is 2.32
while SD score for social adjustment of Non –Aided colleges is
2.19 .The calculated CR value is 0.534 and SED value is
that0.450 .98 df value is on the signicant level in 0.05 is that =
1.98 and 0.01 =2.63 .
Hence, significant level on 0.05 and 0.01 both are more than the
CR value=0.534. Hence CR value is less than both significant
level . So the Null hypothesis mentioned above is accepted
because CR value is less than both significant level . In this way
we can say that there exists no significant difference between
social adjustment of B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non – Aided
colleges

80
Chapter
Fifth

81
5.1- RESULT AND CONCLUSION
5.2- EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION
5.3- SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDIES

82
5.1-RESULT AND CONCLUSION
Result and conclusion are two terms used in thesis or dissertation
writing and surveys or experiments respectively .Conclusion
forms the end part of a thesis or a dissertation .On the other hand
results form the end part of a survey or a chemical experiments.
This is one of the main differences between conclusion and
results.
Conclusion aims at the brifing of the research
findings of the researcher . It should be short and concise . It
should contain concise and short paragraphs. A conclusion
should not contain long paragraphs . On the other hand results
can be statistical in composition and sometimes descriptive too. If
they are descriptive in nature then they can contain long
paragraphs too.
It is said that a dissertation or a thesis should never be submitted
without a conclusion. In other words, conclusion forms a very
important part of a research thesis. On the other hand results of a
survey or a chemical experiment prove the validity of the
experiments or the survey as the case may be. For doing any
work the problem must be happen because with problem the
researcher is not able to do any research work .
That’s why the problem has been selected by the researcher is
that” A Comparative study of the Adjustment between B.Ed
trainees of Aided and Non –Aided colleges “.
The study is two types of management [Aided and Non –Aided
colleges .]

83
After testing the all hypothesis the researcher has found that in
first hypothesis that the significant level of 0.05 = 1.98 is
significant and 0.01 =2.63 is insignificant , because the significant
level in 0.05 is less than the CR value while the significant level in
0.01 is more than the CR value .
That’s why in the first hypothesis there is significant on the 0.05
level and insignificant on the 0.01 level . Thus the significant
difference between B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non – Aided
colleges on the significant level og 0.05 and there exists no
significant difference between B.Ed trainees of the Aided and Non
–Aided colleges on the significant level of 0.01. In 0.05 significant
level the hypothesis is rejected and in 0.01 significant level the
hypothesis is accepted.

In the second hypothesis the significant level of 0.05


and 0.01 both are more than the CR value=0.623 . Hence
CR value is less than both significant level.
So the hypothesis that there exists no significant
difference between emotional adjustment of B.Ed trainees
of the Aided and Non-Aided colleges was accepted.
After testing the third hypothesis the researcher has found
that in the third hypothesis the significant level of 0.05 and
0.01 both are also more than the CR value=0.534 . Hence
CR value is less than both significant level.
So the Null hypothesis that there exists no
significant difference between social adjustment of B.Ed
trainees of the Aided and Non-Aided colleges.
84
In this way after getting the result we
conclude that about all hypothesis just like in the Ist
hypothesis.There exists no significant between adjustment
ability of B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non-Aided colleges
was rejected because the researcher got enough
difference between B.Ed trainees of Aided and Non-Aided
colleges. That’s why we can say that one of these [B.Ed
trainees of Aided and Non-Aided colleges] is able to adjust
themself according to the situation and also society. In the
second hypothesis the researcher has got there is no
difference between emotional adjustment of B.Ed trainees
of aided and non-aided colleges.That’s why the second
hypothesis is accepted it means the B.Ed trainees of aided
and Non-Aided colleges both have the ability of emotional
adjustment and they are able to mould themselves
according to the situations.
In the third hypothesis also the researcher has
found that there is no significant difference between social
adjustment of B.Ed trainees of aided and Non-Aided
colleges. That’s why the third hypothesis as also
accepted.
5.2-Educational Implication
Every scientific research study bears some educational
implications.The present research study applied in nature
has some important educational implications.the study has
revealed the comparative study of B.Ed trainees of the
85
Aided and Non –Aided colleges .Findings of the study are
significant for the class teachers , sociologists ,
economists , psychologists , philoshers and educational
planners . the study is also helpful in the personality
development of the students by bringing the ability to
adjust themselves according to any situations .Also this
study will help the teachers , psychologists and
educational planners in building and adopting special
educational measures for rectification of unwanted
behavior in college students and motivethem towards their
goal in life . The following are the educational implications
of the study-
1- In the study investigator has found that the B.Ed
trainees of aided and non –aided colleges are able to
adjust themselves according to the situation and also the
society . The reason behind this may be the environment
of the colleges. The teachers should pay attention of the
B.Ed trainees and also provide that situations in which
they can adjust themselves.
2- In the study the investigator has found that the B.Ed
trainees of aided and non –aided colleges both have the
quality of social adjustment ,this means a harmonious
relationship with the students and teachers, proper
understanding of social needs, requirements and group
goals , and meeting effectively to the social requirements
of the home ,peer groups , culture and the community.
86
3- In the problem solving method ,students try to find out
the soluationof many problems and also they try to adjust
themselves according to the situations by which their
adjustment ability get improved.
4- In the school , students should be provided the
opportunities to play games by which students can
increases their social adjustment .
5- Curriculum should be planned , and transacted in such
a way that it should fulfill psychological and social needs
of students . Need fulfillment leads to better adjustment .
6- Evaluation should be rigid cum flexible . Too much
subjectivity and unreliability should be avoided . Numerical
marking should be avoided and grades should be given to
students . Due to law marks ,students lose confidence in
their lifewhich then affects their mental health . The word
fail should not be used by the teachers.
7- The researcher has found that the teachers develop in
youngsters a sense self respect and self-esteem by
complements for work well done.
8- A technique of group discussion and other curricular
activities can be organized in the classroom activities . It
will increase the adjustment of the B.Ed and other trainees
.

87
9- Owing to this study the school ,colleges and other
welfare agencies like that –Aganwadi ,Adults Education
programme can be helpful for this study and also they can
adjust themselves according to situations.
10- Because of this study the fields trips and educational
tours can be arranged by the teachers once in month or
whenever time permits . This experience will correlate with
the lessons . Hence the students can get a direct and
purposeful experience and it will increase the adjustment
level of the students.

5.3- Suggestions for Further research/studies


In the light of the results of the present study and keeping
in view the limitations of the study, it is necessary to have
more research in this area because adjustment is the most
important part of the human life without adjustment they
are not able to do anythink. There are following
suggestions for undertaking further research studies may
be laid in the continuity of the present study.-
1- The present study was conducted on B.Ed college two
aided and two Non-Aided districts of Lucknow only and the
same study may be conducted in other districts of U.P.

88
2- A study may be carried out to find the economic and
family adjustment level of the other students.
3- A comparative study may be conducted to study and
compare the adjustment of B.E.D. trainees of aided and
Non-Aided colleges among students at different levels of
education and in different types of instituations.
4- Research may be undertaken to study the adjustment
as a function of behavior pattern and personality profile of
the individuals.
5- An evaluative study may be conducted to see the effect
of co-curricular and curricular programmes on the
adjustment level of B.E.D. trainees or secondary school
students.
6- A study may be carried out to find the impact of home
and school/ college environment on adjustment levels of
the college going students.
7- A study may be carried out to find the impact of political
and educational on the adjustment levels of the high-
school students.
8- A comparative study may be conducted to study and
compare the adjustment between slums areas and urban
areas.
9- A comparative study may be conducted to study and
compare the adjustment between various categories.
89
10- A comparative study may be conducted to study and
compare the adjustment between the power and rich
groups.
11- A comparative study can be conduced on adjustment
problems of tribal and non –tribal students .
12- This study can also be undertaken for the adjustment
of professional and non-professional students.
13- the study can be conducted on the basic of
comparison of adjustment problems of scheduled caste
students.

90
`

NAME OF THE STUDENTS

91
AIDED COLLEGES
Sri Jai Narain P.G. College Lucknow (K.K.C)
S.N. of Bed Trainees Name of the Score of the
students students
1 Amisha jaiswal 24
2 Rahul singh 21
3 Vishnu kumar dwedi 30
4 Sugam kumar dubey 20
5 Amit kumar gupta 24
6 Sudha verma 23
7 Sandeep kumar 21
8 Om prakash yadav 19
9 Neelam panday 23
10 Dinesh kumar 24
11 Sarvind kumar 38
12 Aman Sharma 31
13 Aman preet 29
14 Om prakash 29
15 Dinesh kumar 24
16 Deeleep kumar 25
yadav
17 Mamta devi 20
18 Neemam panday 36
19 Sharda tiwari 26
20 Ankur verma 19
21 Nitin kumar 24
22 Aneet gupta 15
23 Ashish kumar 33
24 Surya pratap singh
25 Sushmita mishra

92
Navyug Kanya Vidyalaya P.G. College Rajendra Nagar
Lucknow
S .N. Bed Trainees Name Of The Score Of The
Students Students
26 Shivlika Bajpai 21
27 Ankita Yadav 38
28 Pradipta Singh 38
29 Monika Yadav 23
30 Maneesh Kumar 24
31 Tuba Razi 25
32 Preeti Kanaujiya 31
33 Shashi Prabha 37
34 Anil Singh 34
35 Anjali Verma 37
36 Aqsa Jai 32
37 Nirmala Devi 8
38 Shikha Awasthi 26
39 Priyanka Verma 27
40 Savi Nahid 34
41 Bhavna Singh 31
42 Archana Gautam 29
43 Harshita Tiwari 40
44 Heena Fatima 17
45 Pooja Gupta 9
46 Renu Panday 21
47 Shikha Srivastava 28
48 Akanksha Patel 22
49 Anupama Rani 27
50 Rakhi Verma 24

93
Non Aided Colleges
Mahesh Prasad Degree College Mohanlalgang Lucknow
S.N. Of B.Ed Name Of The Score Of The
Trainees Students Students
1 Rishi Kumar 28
2 Rahul Sharma 35
3 Rohit Kumar 40
4 Ankit Pandey 22
5 Madav Mohan 28
Mishra
6 Shree Kumar 33
7 Sriyanshv 36
Vishvkarma
8 Parneet Bagga 37
9 Tina Mehra 29
10 Kapil Dev Singh 18
11 Shvbham Tiwari 24
12 Durgesh Kumar 29
13 Nitin Singh 36
14 Ratnesh Kumar 36
Singh
15 Uday Pratap Maurya 37
16 Ali Dev Khan 34
17 Guddi Visht 36
18 Vandana Singh 40
19 Priya Verma 32
20 Ankit Verma 35
21 Mansij Srivastava 35
22 Rohit Singh 21
23 Vivek Singh 38
24 Shashi 25
94
25 Puneet Bhatia 23

Dr, Rajendra Prashad Memorial Gegree College


Rajajipuram Lucknow
S.N. Of B.Ed Name Of The Score Of The
Trainees Students Students
26 Sayama Haphit 18
27 Sukanya Verma 23
28 Arti Kashyap 10
29 Nidhi Arya 28
30 Abha Chopra 22
31 Varsha 19
32 Anjali Shukla 34
33 Umarika Khan 31
34 Shilpi Saxena 32
35 Goarv Sharma 22
36 Ruguiya Fatima 21
Khan
37 Tasneem Fatima 21
38 Radhika Kumara 22
39 Sarita Devi Maurya 23
40 Preeti Gavtam 29
41 Priya Sriwastava 32
42 Hansa Tiwari 31
43 Pooja Jaisawal 21
44 Preeti Saxena 28
45 Nisha 18
46 Menaka Singh 32
47 Pratibha Panday 25
95
48 Naishi Trivedi 14
49 Pinki Gupta 25
50 Mandakini Mishra 21

96
97
1. Hussain; Shamshad; 'Human Adjustment Measures And Findings' National
Psychological Corporation; 4/230, Kacheri Ghat, Agra - 282004, India.
Page No. 4, 5, 6.
2. Eysenck; H.J.; W.J. Arnold And R.Meili; 'Encyclopedia Of Psychology
Fontana; Collins; 1975.
3. Singh; Arun Kumar; 'Psychological, Sociological And Techniques And
Research In The Education; Moti Lal Banarasi Das. Page No. 50.
4. KHAN, M.A., Effect Of Parental Deprivation On Personality Adjustment
(With Special References To Denotified Tribes Of UP) Ph.D., Psy, Agra
University, 1976, Page No. 387.
5. KUMAR; K; Some Personality Correlates Of Academic Adjustment Ph.D.,
Psy, Bihar University 1980, Page No. 387.
6. BHATIA; K.T. 'The Emotional, Personal And Social Problems Of Adjustment
Of Adolescents Under Indian Condition With Special References To Values
Of Life; Ph.D., Edu. Bombay University 1984.Page No. 347.
7. KUMAR; S. A. Comparative Study Of The Interests' Needs And Adjustments
Problem Of Gifted And Average Children, Ph.D. Education Delhi University
1985. Page No. 388.
8. 'Booch Survey; (1983-88, Volume-I) 'Forth Survey Of Research In
Education, National Counseling Of Educational Research And Training
(1983-88) Volume -I
9. Brown; C.W. & Ghiselli; E.E., 'Scientific Method In Psychology' New York;
Mcgraw, Hill; 1955.
10.Verma; M. 'Introduction To Educational And Psychological Research;
Mumbai; Asia Publishing House; 1965.

98
11. Swami Priyakant M.A. Made A Study On The Adjustment Anxiety Self
Cocept And Intelligence Of Orphan As Compored To Nomnal
Students,(1989)

12.Sundararajan S And Vyakula Maty S Attempted To Study The Adjustment


Problems Of High School Publis As Telated To Certain Variables Like
Gender Type Of School Etc.(1992)
13.Kasinath H,M. Carried Out A Study To Know The Students Adjustment And
Its Relation To Organizational Dimate With Respect To Emotional With
Respect To Emotional Social Educational And Total Adjustment Of
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalays
14.Bunker L.N. Studied The Feelings Of Insecurity And Adjustment Problems
Among Juvenile Delinquents And Non Delinquents.
15.Garret E. Henry , Statistics In Psychology And Education Surjeet
Publications 7-K, Kolhapur Toad Kala Nagar Delhi – 110007 , India
16.- Gupta Dr, S,P. Modern Measurement And Evalvation Sharda Pustak
Bhawan Allahabad
17.3- Gupta Dr, S.P. Gupta Dr, Alka Statistics Methods Sharda Pustak
Bhawan Allahabad.
18.- Http://En.M Wikipedia.Org/Wiki, Research Design .
19.- Http://En.M Wikipedia.Org/Wiki, Popelation.
20.- Http://En.M Wikipedia.Org/Wiki, Data Analysis.
21.- Bach Survey (1983-88)Fifth Survey Of Research In Education National
Counseling Of Educational Research And Training .
22.- Booch Survey (1979) , Second Survey Of Research In Education Baroda
Society For Educational Research And Development.
23.- Sharma R.A. Research Methods In Psychology Ninod Pustak Mandir Agra
(1983).

99
1. Journals
24.Journal Of Indian Psychological Abstrach (2002),
25.Journal Of India Psychological Abstrach (2003),
26.Journol Of Prachi September (2003),
27.Indian Journal Psychometry and Education Publication- Patna, IP and
Education. R.A. 2000
28.Prachi Journal Psycho-cultural Dimensinos Publications Prachi Pscycho-
cultural/Research Association Market. 2008.

100