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Nanotubes through a Porous Medium

*Department of Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Patna Campus, Bihar, India

#Department of Mathematics, Shri Venkateshwara University, Gajraula, U.P., India

1aktiwaria@gmail.com, 2rizvi.fauzia766@gmail.com, 3jahn4us@yahoo.com

Abstract- The Mathematical Model for Marangoni Convection MHD Flow of Carbon Nanotubes through a Porous

Medium with radiation is investigated in this paper. Two types of CNTs, namely, single- and multi-wall CNTs are used with

water, kerosene oil as base fluids. The empirical correlations are used for the thermo-physical properties of CNTs in terms

of the solid volume fraction of CNTs. The governing equations in the form of partial differential equations have been

converted into ordinary differential equations through similarity transformations, which is then solved by using the function

“bvp4c’’ of MATLAB. Numerical consequences are acquired for the surface-temperature gradient or the heat transfer rate,

and also on the temperature profiles for the volume fraction of nanofluids, constant exponent, thermal radiation parameter,

skin friction, and Nusselt numbers and these acquired results are further plotted on graphs and depicted in tables for analysis.

INTRODUCTION

Marangoni convection which is induced by the deviation of the surface tension gradients has vital use in the fields of welding

and crystal expansion [Wang (1)]. It happens when the surface tension of an interface (generally liquid-air) governed by the

concentration of a species or on the temperature distribution. In the case of temperature dependence, the Marangoni effect

is also named as thermo-capillary convection. The Marangoni effect is of primary significance in the fields of welding, crystal

growth and electron beam melting of metals. Nazar et al [2] analyzed Marangoni-driven boundary layer flow in nanofluids

and it was observed that nanoparticles with low thermal conductivity have better enhancement on heat transfer. Many

researchers have examined Marangoni convection in various geometry [3-6]. Radiation effect on Marangoni convection

boundary layer flow of a nanofluid was taken into consideration by Arifin et al [7] and it was observed that the enhancement

in thermal radiation parameter lowers the heat transfer rate at the surface.

A nanofluid is a liquid containing a dispersion of sub-micron solid particles through a distinctive length scale of order 1-

100nm. Fluids having elements with dimension less than 100 nm are accepted as Nanofluid. The base fluid or dispersing

medium can be present as aqueous or non-aqueous. Nanoparticles are made up of numerous materials such as Oxide,

Ceramics, Nitride Ceramics, etc. Convective heat transfer in Nanofluid is a matter of consideration in the field of Science

and Engineering. Modern heat-transfer industries are dependent upon high performance heat-transfer accessories. Maxwell

[8] was the first scientist to present the idea of improving heat and mass transfer performance of fluid, with the insertion of

solid particles. Many authors [9-11] did numerical analysis on natural convective heat-transfer in Nanofluid.

Nanofluids have attained an enormous interest owing to their place in the heat transfer processes of real life engineering

applications, as discussed in the publication by Das et al [12] and Wang [13]. Nanofluid perception was first coined by Choi

[14] who showed that the adding up of a small amount (less than 1% by volume) of nanoparticles to conventional heat

transfer liquids enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid up to approximately two times. The effect of free convective

heat transfer from a vertical surface to a saturated porous medium with an arbitrary varying surface temperature was analyzed

by Gorla and Zinolabedini [15].

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

The physical features namely visco elasticity of the fluid, suction and three dimensional flow and magnetic field was studied

by TakharandNath [16]. The Hankel-Padeexpansion method to study nanofluid MHD boundary layer flows was used by

Abbasbandy and Ghehsareh[17].Kuznetsov and Geng[18] analysed the effect of solid particles in a dilute suspension

containing gyrolactic micro-organism. The written work on nanofluid has been reconsidered by Trisakri and Wongwise [19].

These reviews examined the work done on convective transport in nanofluids. Nanofluids are described by enhanced thermal

conductivity; a phenomenon observed by Masuda et al [20].

By a porous medium, we mean a material consisting of a solid matrix with an interconnected void. The interconnectedness

of the pores allows the flow of one or more fluids through the material. Examples of natural porous are sandstone and

limestone. Fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media is a subject of interest for last several decades because of the

numerous applications of flow through porous medium, such as storage of radioactive nuclear waste, separation processes

in chemical industries, filtration, geothermal extraction, fibre insulation etc.Vafai [21], Pop and Ingham [22], Ingham and

Pop [23] and Bejanet al. [24].Yih [25,26] examined coupled heat and mass transfer by free convection over a truncated cone

in porous media.

The suspension of nanoparticles contained by the base fluid is not enough to improve the thermal conductivity alone, since

the size and shape of particles also matter. Murshed et al[27] considered the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and he

perceived that the CNT provide around six times improved thermal conductivity as equated to other materials at the room

temperature. The CNT are the allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Carbon Nanotubes, long, thin cylinders

of carbon, were revealed in 1991 by SumioIijima. These are huge macromolecules that are distinctive for their size, shape,

and significant physical properties. They can be supposed of as a sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into

a cylinder. These interesting structures have sparked much excitement in recent years and a large amount of research has

been devoted to their understanding. Currently, the physical properties are still being discovered and questioned had

arguments about. Nanotubes have a very wide range of electronic, thermal , and to do with

structure properties that change depending on the different kind of nanotubes (formed by its distance across

circle, length, and chirality , or twist). The three main types of CNT are, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double

wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and multiple wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Carbon nanotubes have an undergone

growth tensile strength than steel and Kevlar. Their strength comes from the sp² bonds between the specific carbon atoms.

This bond is even durable than the sp³ bond found in diamond. Under high pressure, individual nanotubes can bond

together, trading some sp² bonds for sp³ bonds.

This provides the chance ofproducing long nanotube wires. carbon nanotubes are notmerely strong, they are also elastic.

We can pushstrongly on theendbit of a nanotube and cause it to bend without damaging tothe nanotube and the nanotu

be will give in to its first form when the force is took off. Nadeem et al[28] analyzed convective heat transfer in MHD slip

flow over a stretching surface in the presence of CNT and they found that the engine oil based CNT have higher skin friction

and heat transfer rate as compared to water based CNT.

Consider the two-dimensional laminar Marangoni convection boundary layer flow in water based nanofluid having copper,

titanium, alumina and silver nanoparticles. The interface temperature is supposed to exist as power-law function of the

distance along the interface. We consider a Cartesian coordinate system( , ), where and are the coordinates measured

laterally and along the interface respectively. The governing equations for the steady boundary layer flow for a nanofluid

in non-dimensional form can be written as:

+ =0 (1)

( )

+ = − − (2)

+ = − (3)

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

= 0, = ( ), = at = 0

⟶ ( ), ⟶ at → ∞. (4)

The last condition of equation (4) represents the Marangoni condition at the interface, having considered for the surface

tension the linear relation

= [1 − ( − )] (5)

Where = − > 0, the temperature coefficient of the surface is tension, and is the constant surface tension at the

origin. The directions of the driving actions influenced upon the orientation of the temperature gradients in

nanofluid,∆ .[29]

is the radiative heat flux, is the kinematic viscosity,μ =( ) .

is the dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid, =

(1 − ) + is the density of the nanofluid,

= is the thermal diffusivity with is the thermal conductivity of the fluid,

( ) =( ) (1 − ) + ( )

The radiative heat flux under rosseland approximation [30] has the form:

∗

− (6)

∗

where and are the mean absorption coefficient and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.

We assume that the temperature difference within the flow is sufficiently small such that can be expressed as a linear

function of temperature. Hence expanding in Taylor series about and neglecting higher order terms, we get

≅4 −3 (7)

Using equations (6) and (7), equation (3) reduces to:

+ = + (8)

Following Golia and Viviani [31], introducing the following similarity transformations

( )

( , )= ′( ) (9)

( )

( , )= [(2 − ) ( ) − (1 + ) ( )] (10)

( , )= −ℎ ( ) (11)

( )

= / (12)

Where , and ℎ are constants. If we takeℎ = 1, then , have the following unique values:

/

/

= (13)

/

/

= (14)

The transformed ordinary differential equations are the following

.

− (1 − ) 1− + ′ − + + ′ =0 (15)

−( )

1− + − =0 (16)

(0) = 0, (0) = −1 − , (0) = 0

(∞) = 1, (∞) = 0 (17)

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Where = is the Prandtl number, = is the parameter of radiation, = , = are the magnetic

and porosity parameter

METHODS OF SOLUTION

The set of non-linear differential equations (15)-(16) with boundary conditions (17) constitute a two–point boundary value

problem. These highly non-linear differential equations cannot be solved analytically. As a result, these equations are solved

by the software MATLAB function “bvp4c”. The function has three vital variables: the name of the M-file enumerating an

ordinary differential equation system of the design, the term of the M-file computing the boundary values, and an initial

approximation of the outcome arranged with the MATLAB function “bvpinit”. The variables are defined as:

= , = , = , = ′′′ (18)

= , = , = ′′ (19)

= , = , = ′′ (20)

Using (18), (19) and (20), the equations (15) - (16) can be written as

.

− (1 − ) 1− + + − − = 0 (21)

−( )

1− + =0 (22)

Bvp4c implements a collocation method for the solution of BVPs subject to general nonlinear, two-point boundary

condition. The approximate solution is a continuous function that is a cubic polynomial on each subinterval of a mesh. It

satisfies the differential equations at both ends and the midpoint of each subinterval and also its boundary conditions. The

solver then estimates the error of the numerical solution on each subinterval. If the solution does not fulfill the tolerance

criteria, the solver adapts the mesh and repeats the procedure.

The Mathematical Model for Marangoni Convection MHD Flow of Carbon Nanotubes through a Porous Medium with

radiation is investigated in this paper. Two types of CNTs, namely, single- and multi-wall CNTs are used with water, kerosene

oil as base fluids. Table2shows computational values of − ′′(0) and − ′(0) and with different values for .

Table 1: Thermophysical properties of different base fluids and CNTs (Hone [32]; Antar et al. [33]; Oztop and

Abu-Nada [34]; EbrahimniaBajestan and Niazmand [35]; Bejan [36])

Water Kerosene oil SWCNT MWCNT

997 783 2600 1600

4179 2090 425 796

0.613 0.145 6600 3000

Fig1(a) and fig 1(b) exhibits variation in solid volume fraction on temperature profile. The temperature profile decreases

with increase in .This happens due to the existence of solid nano-particles which leads to further thinning of the velocity

boundary layer thickness.

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

Fig2 (a) and fig 2(b) are for variation in radiation parameter on temperature profile for water based CNT and kerosene

based CNT. The temperature profile increases with the increase in radiation parameter . This reality make known the

result that the increase in value of for given and means a declination in Rosseland absorptivity . According to

equations (3) and (6), the divergence of the radiative heat flux increases as decreases which in turn increase the rate of

heat transferred to the fluid and therefore the fluid temperature rises and thermal layer also rises with rise in .

Fig3 (a) and fig 3(b) are for variation in constant exponent . Figures itself show that the temperature profile increases with

increase in and it is also noticed that there is an increment in thermal boundary layer thickness as well

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES ISSN NO: 2394-8442

REFERENCES

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