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# Calculus Expert

Pre-Algebra

## Numbers Product of primes Adding and subtracting Exponents

Number sets Least common multiple Multiplying and dividing Rules of exponents
Identity numbers Greatest common factor Relationship and numbers Power rule
Negative numbers Fractions
Opposite of a number Reducing, cancellation Decimals Radicals
Multiplication and division Division of zero Decimal arithmetic Multiplying and dividing
Multiplying and dividing Rounding
Factors and multiples Signs of fractions Scientific notation
Divisibility Reciprocals Ratio and proportion Powers of 10
Multiples Ratio and proportion Multiplying and dividing
Prime and composite Mixed numbers Unit price Estimating
Prime factorization Improper fractions Unit multipliers

Algebra 1

## Operations Subscripts Classifying functions Substitution

Associative property Variables on both sides (In)dependent variables Elimination
Commutative property Equations with parentheses Solving three ways
Transitive property Word problems into equations Inequalities
Distributive property Consecutive integers Trichotomy Polynomial basics
Binomial multiplication With negative numbers Addition
Identifying multiplication Like terms Graphing inequalities Multiplication
Symbols of inclusion Add/subtract like-terms Conjunctions Division
PEMDAS, order of operations Multiply/divide like-terms Multivariable multiplication
Understood 1 Graphing Multivariable division
Functions Cartesian coordinate system
Rules of equations Domain and range Slope Factoring
Evaluating expressions Functional notation Point-slope form Greatest common factor
Balancing equations Testing for functions Slope-intercept form Quadratic equations
Inverse operations Vertical line test Graphing linear equations Diﬀerence of squares
Sum of functions Completing the square
Simple equations Product of functions Systems of equations Quadratic formula
Simple equations Even, odd or neither 2-step problems Find a common denominator

Geometry

## Lines Quadrilaterals Circles, circumference Triangle congruence

Naming simple figures Measures of quadrilaterals SSS
Length of a line segment Measures of parallelograms Three-dimensional geometry ASA
Lines: slope/midpoint Nets/volume/surface area SAS
Parallel/perpendicular/neither Circles Prisms AAS
Distance between points Equation of a circle Pyramids HL
Midpoint of a segment Degree measure of an arc Cylinders Isosceles triangle theorem
Sketching the plane Arc length Cones CPCTC
Inscribed angles Spheres
Angles Vertex on, inside, outside Similarity
Measures of angles Tangent lines Pythagorean theorem Similar triangles
(Non)-adjacent angles Tangents and secants Pythagorean theorem Triangle similarity statements
Angles of transversals Intersecting chords Pythagorean inequalities Side-splitting theorem
Interior angles of polygons Midsegments of triangles
Exterior angles of polygons Area and perimeter Transformations Midsegments of trapezoids
Rectangles, area Translating figures
Triangles Rectangles, perimeter Rotating figures Logic
45-45-90 triangles Parallelograms, area Reflecting figures Conditionals, Euler diagrams
30-60-90 triangles Trapezoids, area Translation vectors Converses of conditionals
Perpendicular angle bisectors Triangles, area Arranging conditionals
Circumscribed and inscribed Triangles, perimeter Congruence
Interior angles of triangles Circles, area Congruent angles

Algebra 2

## Exponents and radicals Rational expressions Systems of equations Graphing circles

Powers of negative bases Polynomial long division Cramer’s rule Distance between points
Powers of fractions Reducing, cancellation Equations with subscripts Equation modeling
Zero as an exponent Adding/subtracting Uniform motion Model piecewise functions
Negative exponents Multiplying/dividing With quadratic equations Sketch story problems
Fractional exponents Rational zero theorem Number word problems Linear inequalities
Rationalize the denominator Age word problems Shift/stretch/shrink
Imaginary numbers System of three equations
Ratio and proportion Imaginary numbers Manipulating functions
Word problems Rationalize the denominator Factoring Combinations of functions
Chemical compounds Quadratic equations Composite functions
Fractions/decimals/percents Advanced equations Factoring by grouping Horizontal line test
Markup/markdown Direct, inverse variation Diﬀerence of cubes Inverse functions
Commission, interest Decimal equations Sum of cubes
Fractional equations Zero theorem Logarithmic functions
Complex fractions Abstract fractional equations Laws of logarithms
Multivariable equations Parallel, perpendicular lines
Distance, rate and time Graphing parabolas

Trigonometry

Angles and their measure Where its undefined The unit circle Sequence of transformations
Complement/supplement Trig functions given quadrant Finding sine and cosine Sketching transformations
Sketch in standard position Trig functions at the point Values for the angle Graphing combinations
Quadrant of the angle Reciprocal identities Values for the real number
Finding coterminal angles Angle of depression/elevation Completing a triangle Trig identities
Converting degrees, DMS Proving the trig equation Triangle side lengths Even-odd identities
Converting degrees, radians Reference angle theorem Sum-diﬀerence identities
Functions of negative angles The law of sines, cosines Terminal side of the angle Half-angle identities
Oriented arcs Oblique triangles Double-angle identities
Area of circular sectors Law of sines Graphing the trig functions Product-to-sum identities
Linear and angular velocity Law of cosines Period and amplitude Sum-to-product identities
Area of a triangle Sketching sine and cosine Proving the equation
Six circular functions Heron's formula Comparing sine and cosine Solutions in the interval
Domain and range Horizontal/vertical shifts

Precalculus

Inverse trig functions Graphing polar curves Writing as a parametric curve Imaginary, complex numbers
Inverse trig relations Graphing circles Imaginary numbers
Graphing inverse trig relations Graphing roses Analytic geometry Complex numbers
Inverse trig functions Graphing cardioids Single point or no points Algebraic operations
Finding values Graphing limacons Points equally distant Graphic representations
Graphing lemniscates Points unequally distant Polar complex numbers
Polar coordinates Intersection points Eccentricity and directrix Multiplying complex numbers
Convert polar to rectangular Polar region in the xy-plane Parabolas DeMoivre’s theorem
Convert rectangular to polar Ellipses Roots of complex numbers
Express points multiple ways Parametric curves Hyperbolas
Converting equations Sketching parametric curves Hyperbolic identities

## Limits & Continuity

Idea of the limit Combinations, composites Intermediate value theorem Infinite limits
Idea of the limit Limits of combinations Intermediate value theorem Limits at infinity
Limits of composites With an interval Crazy graphs
Formal definition of the limit Without an interval Trigonometric limits
One-sided limits Continuity Making functions continuous
Limits that don’t exist Types of discontinuities Solving limits
Precise definition of the limit Removable, nonremovable Substitution Squeeze theorem
Factoring Squeeze theorem
Conjugate method Limit of an inequality

Derivatives

## Definition of the derivative Chain rule Inverse hyperbolic derivatives Diﬀerentiability

Diﬀerence quotient Chain rule with power rule Vertical tangent lines
Definition of the derivative Chain rule with product rule Exponential, logarithmic Horizontal tangent lines
Chain rule with quotient rule Exponential derivatives Normal lines
Derivative rules Chain rule with trig functions Logarithmic derivatives Average rate of change
Power rule Logarithmic diﬀerentiation
Product rule Derivatives of trig functions Derivative of x x Implicit diﬀerentiation
Quotient rule Trigonometric derivatives Implicit diﬀerentiation
Reciprocal rule Inverse trig derivatives Equation of the tangent line
Tangent and normal lines
Hyperbolic derivatives Second derivatives
Tangent lines

Applications of Derivatives

## Optimization Linear approximation Maximize profit Newton’s method

Critical points Linear approximation Maximize revenue L’Hospital’s rule
Increasing and decreasing Estimating roots Maximize volume
First derivative test Linearization Minimize dimensions Physics
Concavity Minimize distance Position function
Second derivative test Related rates Minimize perimeter Vertical motion
Radius of the balloon Minimize product
Sketching graphs Price of the product Minimize sum Economics
Vertical asymptotes Water level in the tank Minimize surface area Marginal cost, revenue, profit
Horizontal asymptotes Observer and the airplane Minimize velocity
Slant asymptotes Ladder sliding down the wall Exponential growth, decay
Sketching graphs Derivative theorems Half life
Extrema on a closed interval Applied optimization Mean value theorem Compounding interest
Maximize area Rolle’s theorem Sales decline

Integrals

## Indefinite integrals Trapezoidal rule Integration by parts 2 times Trigonometric substitution

Indefinite integrals Simpson’s rule Integration by parts 3 times Setup
Properties of integrals With u-substitution With secant
Function given its derivative Error bounds Proving the reduction formula With sine
Initial value problems Midpoint rule error bound Tabular integration With tangent
Trapezoidal rule error bound With quadratic functions
Definite integrals Simpson’s rule error bound Partial fractions
Definite integrals Distinct linear factors Improper integrals
Area enclosed by the graph Fundamental theorem Distinct quadratic factors Infinity at the right edge
Even and odd functions Part 1 of the FTC Repeated linear factors Infinity at the left edge
Part 2 of the FTC Repeated quadratic factors Infinity at both edges
Riemann sums Net change theorem Rationalizing substitutions Discontinuous on the left
Summation notation Tough denominators Discontinuous on the right
Riemann sums U-substitution Finding the constants Discontinuous in the middle
Left, right, midpoints U-substitution Comparison theorem
In definite integrals Trigonometric integrals
Other approximation methods Trigonometric integrals Reduction formulas
Over and underestimation Integration by parts Hyperbolic integrals Reduction formulas
Limit process to find area Integration by parts Inverse hyperbolic integrals

Applications of Integrals

Area between curves Surface area of revolution Work done on elastic springs Economics
Upper and lower curves Surface area of revolution Work done to empty a tank Present and future value
Left and right curves Surface of revolution equation Work done by a variable force Single deposit
Sketching area Income stream
Dividing area into equal parts Volume of revolution Physics Consumer, producer surplus
Disks Moments of the system
Arc length Volume of the frustum Center of mass of the system Probability
Arc length for y=f(x) Washers Hydrostatic pressure Probability density functions
Arc length for x=g(y) Cylindrical shells Hydrostatic force
Vertical motion Biology
Average value Mean value theorem Rectilinear (horizontal) motion Cardiac output
Average value Mean value theorem Poiseuille’s law
Mean value theorem Geometry Theorem of Pappus
Work Centroids of plane regions
Work done to lift an object Area of the triangle

## Intro to parametric curves Area Convert to rectangular Area

Eliminating the parameter Area under one arc or loop Convert to polar Area bounded by one loop
Derivatives Arc length Distance between points Area between curves
Second derivatives Surface area of revolution Sketching polar curves Area inside both curves
Sketching parametric curves Volume of revolution Arc length
Polar curve calculus Surface area of revolution
Parametric curve calculus Introduction to polar curves Tangent lines
Tangent lines Polar coordinates Intersecting polar curves

## Sequences & Series

Introduction to sequences Repeating decimals Ratio and root tests Estimating definite integrals
Listing the first terms Ratio test Estimating indefinite integrals
Calculating the first terms Telescoping series Root test Binomial series
Formula for the general term Convergence Absolute convergence
Convergence of a sequences Sum of the series Conditional convergence Taylor series
Limit of a sequence Taylor series
Monotonic sequences Basic convergence tests Alternating series tests Taylor’s inequality
Bounded sequences Strategy for testing series Alternating series test
Limit vs. sum of the series Estimation theorem Maclaurin series
Partial sums Integral test Maclaurin series
Series of partial sums, terms p-series test Power series Sum of the series
Series of partial sums, sum nth term test Power series representation Estimating indefinite integrals
Power series multiplication Estimating definite integrals
Geometric series Comparison tests Power series division Evaluating limits
Geometric series test Comparison test Power series diﬀerentiation
Sum of the series Limit comparison test Radius of convergence
Converging series Error or remainder of a series Interval of convergence

Partial Derivatives

3D coordinate systems Distance between planes Chain rule Normal line to the surface
Plotting points in 3D Chain rule
Distance between points Cylinders, quadric surfaces Tree diagrams Optimization
Equation of the sphere Standard form of equations Critical points
Describing a region in 3D Sketching surfaces Implicit diﬀerentiation Second derivative test
Describing with inequalities Traces of the curve Implicit diﬀerentiation Local extrema, saddle points
Global extrema
Graphs and level curves Limits and continuity Directional derivatives Extreme value theorem
Sketch multivariable functions Multivariable domains In the direction of the vector
Sketch level curves Multivariable limits In the direction of the angle Applied optimization
Precise definition of the limit Maximize product reals
Lines and planes Multivariable discontinuities Linear approximation Maximize volume of a box
Vector equations Multivariable compositions Linear approximation Minimize distance
Parametric equations Linearization Points closest together
Symmetric equations Partial derivatives
Parallel, intersecting lines Two variables Gradient vectors Lagrange multipliers
Skew, perpendicular lines Three or more variables Gradient vectors 2 dimensions, 1 constraint
Equation of a plane Higher order Tangent planes 3 dimensions, 1 constraint
Intersecting lines and planes Maximum rate of change 3 dimensions, 2 constraints
Angle between planes Diﬀerentials
Distance between point/line Diﬀerential of the function Tangent planes, normal lines
Distance between point/plane Equation of the tangent plane

Multiple Integrals

## Approximating doubles Changing double to polar Triple integrals Changing to spherical

Midpoint rule Sketching area in polar Triple and iterated integrals Volume of the solid
Riemann sums Area in polar coordinates Average value
Volume in polar coordinates Volume of the solid Change of variables
Double integrals Express the integral six ways Jacobian in two variables
Average value Double integral applications Type I, II and III regions Jacobian in three variables
Double and iterated integrals Mass and center of mass Evaluating double integrals
Type I and II regions Moments of inertia Cylindrical coordinates Transformation equations
Surface area of the solid Radii of gyration Cylindrical coordinates Image of the set
Volume of the solid Changing to cylindrical
Change order of integration Approximating triple integrals Volume of the solid Triple integral applications
Midpoint rule Mass and center of mass
Double polar integrals Spherical coordinates Moments of inertia
Changing iterated to polar Spherical coordinates

Vectors

## Introduction to vectors Volume of the parallelepiped Maximum curvature Green’s theorem

Vector from two points Coplanar vectors Normal and osculating planes One region
Combinations of vectors Osculating circle Two regions
Sum of two vectors Vectors, space curves
Unit vector toward a vector Domain of the vector function Velocity and acceleration Curl and divergence
Angle from the x-axis Limit of the vector function Velocity, acceleration vectors Curl/divergence, vector field
Magnitude, resultant force Sketching the vector equation Tangential components Potential function
Projections of the curve Normal components
Dot products Equations of a line segment Parametric surfaces, areas
Dot product of two vectors Intersection of two surfaces Vector fields Points on the surface
Angle between two vectors Sketching vector fields Vector equation, surface
Orthogonal, parallel or neither Derivatives and integrals Gradient vector field Parametric representation
Acute angle between the lines Derivative of a vector function Tangent plane
Acute angles between curves Unit tangent vector Line integrals Area of the surface
Direction cosines and angles Parametric tangent line Line integral of a curve
Scalar equation of a line Integral of a vector function Line integral of a function Surface integrals
Scalar equation of a plane Conservative vector fields Surface integrals
Scalar and vector projections Arc length and curvature Potential function Oriented surfaces (flux)
Arc length Independence of path
Cross products Reparametrizing the curve Work done by the force field Stokes’, divergence theorem
Cross product of two vectors Unit tangent, unit normal Open/(simply)-connected Stokes’ theorem
Orthogonal vectors Curvature Divergence theorem

Diﬀerential Equations

## Introduction to DEs Logistic models 2nd-order homogeneous Laplace transforms

Sketching direction fields Population growth Distinct real roots Using the table
Logistic models Equal real roots Using the definition
Euler’s method Predator-prey systems Complex conjugate roots
Euler’s method Equilibrium solutions, stability Initial value problems Methods of Laplace
Boundary value problems Initial value problems
Separable DEs Exact DEs Working backwards Integration by parts
Separable DEs Exact DEs Linear (in)dependence Inverse transforms
Change of variable Initial value problems Step functions
Initial value problems 2nd-order nonhomogeneous
Mixing problems Linear DEs Undetermined coeﬃcients Advanced Laplace
Orthogonal trajectories Linear DEs Variation of parameters Dirac delta functions
Circuits Initial value problems Convolution integrals
Initial value problems Gamma, Beta functions