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# Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 6e

by
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli

Solved Problems

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Chapters
Chapter 1 Introduction: Waves and Phasors
Chapter 2 Transmission Lines
Chapter 3 Vector Analysis
Chapter 4 Electrostatics
Chapter 5 Magnetostatics
Chapter 6 Maxwell’s Equations for Time-Varying Fields
Chapter 7 Plane-Wave Propagation
Chapter 8 Wave Reflection and Transmission
Chapter 10 Satellite Communication Systems and Radar Sensors

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Chapter 1 Solved Problems

Problem 1-4
Problem 1-7
Problem 1-15
Problem 1-18
Problem 1-20
Problem 1-21
Problem 1-24
Problem 1-26
Problem 1-27
Problem 1-29

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Problem 1.4 A wave traveling along a string is given by

## y(x,t) = 2 sin(4πt + 10πx) (cm),

where x is the distance along the string in meters and y is the vertical displacement. Determine: (a) the direction of wave
travel, (b) the reference phase φ0 , (c) the frequency, (d) the wavelength, and (e) the phase velocity.
Solution:
(a) We start by converting the given expression into a cosine function of the form given by (1.17):
 π
y(x,t) = 2 cos 4πt + 10πx − (cm).
2
Since the coefficients of t and x both have the same sign, the wave is traveling in the negative x-direction.
(b) From the cosine expression, φ0 = −π/2.
(c) ω = 2π f = 4π,
f = 4π/2π = 2 Hz.
(d) 2π/λ = 10π,
λ = 2π/10π = 0.2 m.
(e) up = f λ = 2 × 0.2 = 0.4 (m/s).

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Problem 1.7 A wave traveling along a string in the +x-direction is given by

## y1 (x,t) = A cos(ωt − β x),

where x = 0 is the end of the string, which is tied rigidly to a wall, as shown in Fig. (P1.7). When wave y1 (x,t) arrives at the
wall, a reflected wave y2 (x,t) is generated. Hence, at any location on the string, the vertical displacement ys will be the sum
of the incident and reflected waves:
ys (x,t) = y1 (x,t) + y2 (x,t).
(a) Write down an expression for y2 (x,t), keeping in mind its direction of travel and the fact that the end of the string
cannot move.
(b) Generate plots of y1 (x,t), y2 (x,t) and ys (x,t) versus x over the range −2λ ≤ x ≤ 0 at ωt = π/4 and at ωt = π/2.

## Figure P1.7: Wave on a string tied to a wall at x = 0 (Problem 1.7).

Solution:
(a) Since wave y2 (x,t) was caused by wave y1 (x,t), the two waves must have the same angular frequency ω, and since
y2 (x,t) is traveling on the same string as y1 (x,t), the two waves must have the same phase constant β . Hence, with its
direction being in the negative x-direction, y2 (x,t) is given by the general form

## ys (x,t) = y1 (x,t) + y2 (x,t) = A cos(ωt − β x) + B cos(ωt + β x + φ0 ).

Since the string cannot move at x = 0, the point at which it is attached to the wall, ys (0,t) = 0 for all t. Thus,

## ys (0,t) = A cos ωt + B cos(ωt + φ0 ) = 0. (1.2)

(i) Easy Solution: The physics of the problem suggests that a possible solution for (1.2) is B = −A and φ0 = 0, in which case
we have
y2 (x,t) = −A cos(ωt + β x). (1.3)
(ii) Rigorous Solution: By expanding the second term in (1.2), we have

## A cos ωt + B(cos ωt cos φ0 − sin ωt sin φ0 ) = 0,

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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or
(A + B cos φ0 ) cos ωt − (B sin φ0 ) sin ωt = 0. (1.4)
This equation has to be satisfied for all values of t. At t = 0, it gives

A + B cos φ0 = 0, (1.5)

## and at ωt = π/2, (1.4) gives

B sin φ0 = 0. (1.6)
Equations (1.5) and (1.6) can be satisfied simultaneously only if

A=B=0 (1.7)

or
A = −B and φ0 = 0. (1.8)
Clearly (1.7) is not an acceptable solution because it means that y1 (x,t) = 0, which is contrary to the statement of the problem.
The solution given by (1.8) leads to (1.3).
(b) At ωt = π/4,
 
π 2πx
y1 (x,t) = A cos(π/4 − β x) = A cos − ,
4 λ
 
π 2πx
y2 (x,t) = −A cos(ωt + β x) = −A cos + .
4 λ

## Figure P1.7: (b) Plots of y1 , y2 , and ys versus x at ωt = π/4.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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At ωt = π/2,

2πx
y1 (x,t) = A cos(π/2 − β x) = A sin β x = A sin ,
λ
2πx
y2 (x,t) = −A cos(π/2 + β x) = A sin β x = A sin .
λ
Plots of y1 , y2 , and y3 are shown in Fig. P1.7(c).

## Figure P1.7: (c) Plots of y1 , y2 , and ys versus x at ωt = π/2.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.15 A laser beam traveling through fog was observed to have an intensity of 1 (µW/m2 ) at a distance of 2 m
from the laser gun and an intensity of 0.2 (µW/m2 ) at a distance of 3 m. Given that the intensity of an electromagnetic wave
is proportional to the square of its electric-field amplitude, find the attenuation constant α of fog.
Solution: If the electric field is of the form

## I(x,t) ≈ [E0 e−αx cos(ωt − β x)]2

≈ E02 e−2αx cos2 (ωt − β x)

or
I(x,t) = I0 e−2αx cos2 (ωt − β x)
where we define I0 ≈ E02 . We observe that the magnitude of the intensity varies as I0 e−2αx . Hence,

## at x = 2 m, I0 e−4α = 1 × 10−6 (W/m2 ),

at x = 3 m, I0 e−6α = 0.2 × 10−6 (W/m2 ).

I0 e−4α 10−6
= =5
I0 e−6α 0.2 × 10−6
e−4α · e6α = e2α = 5
α = 0.8 (NP/m).

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.18 Complex numbers z1 and z2 are given by

z1 = −3 + j2
z2 = 1 − j2

Determine (a) z1 z2 , (b) z1 /z∗2 , (c) z21 , and (d) z1 z∗1 , all all in polar form.
Solution:
(a) We first convert z1 and z2 to polar form:
p −1

z1 = −(3 − j2) = − 32 + 22 e− j tan 2/3
√ ◦
= − 13 e− j33.7
√ ◦ ◦
= 13 e j(180 −33.7 )
√ ◦
= 13 e j146.3 .

√ −1
z2 = 1 − j2 = 1 + 4 e− j tan 2
√ ◦
= 5 e− j63.4 .

√ ◦ √ ◦
z1 z2 = 13 e j146.3 × 5 e− j63.4
√ ◦
= 65 e j82.9 .

(b) √ ◦ r
z1 13 e j146.3 13 j82.9◦
∗ = √ ◦
= e .
z2 5e j63.4 5
(c)
√ ◦ ◦
z21 = ( 13)2 (e j146.3 )2 = 13e j292.6
◦ ◦
= 13e− j360 e j292.6

= 13e− j67.4 .

(c)
√ ◦ √ ◦
z1 z∗1 = 13 e j146.3 × 13 e− j146.3
= 13.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.20 Find complex numbers t = z1 + z2 and s = z1 − z2 , both in polar form, for each of the following pairs:
(a) z1 = 2 + j3, z2 = 1 − j3,
(b) z1 = 3, z2 = − j3,
(c) z1 = 3∠ 30◦ , z2 = 3∠−30◦ ,
(d) z1 = 3∠ 30◦ , z2 = 3∠−150◦ .
Solution:
(d)

## t = z1 + z2 = 3∠30◦ + 3∠−150◦ = (2.6 + j1.5) + (−2.6 − j1.5) = 0,

s = z1 − z2 = (2.6 + j1.5) − (−2.6 − j1.5) = 5.2 + j3 = 6e j30 .

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.21 Complex numbers z1 and z2 are given by

z1 = 5∠−60◦ ,
z2 = 4∠45◦ .

## (a) Determine the product z1 z2 in polar form.

(b) Determine the product z1 z∗2 in polar form.
(c) Determine the ratio z1 /z2 in polar form.
(d) Determine the ratio z∗1 /z∗2 in polar form.

(e) Determine z1 in polar form.
Solution: ◦
z1 5e− j60 ◦
(c) = ◦ = 1.25e− j105 .
z2 4e j45

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.24 If z = 3e jπ/6 , find the value of ez .
Solution:

= 2.6 + j1.5

## ez = e2.6+ j1.5 = e2.6 × e j1.5

= e2.6 (cos 1.5 + j sin 1.5)
= 13.46(0.07 + j0.98)
= 0.95 + j13.43.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.26 Find the phasors of the following time functions:
(a) υ(t) = 9 cos(ωt − π/3) (V)
(b) υ(t) = 12 sin(ωt + π/4) (V)
(c) i(x,t) = 5e−3x sin(ωt + π/6) (A)
(d) i(t) = −2 cos(ωt + 3π/4) (A)
(e) i(t) = 4 sin(ωt + π/3) + 3 cos(ωt − π/6) (A)
Solution:
(d)

## i(t) = −2 cos(ωt + 3π/4),

Ie = −2e j3π/4 = 2e− jπ e j3π/4 = 2e− jπ/4 A.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.27 Find the instantaneous time sinusoidal functions corresponding to the following phasors:
(a) Ve = −5e jπ/3 (V)
(b) Ve = j6e− jπ/4 (V)
(c) Ie = (6 + j8) (A)
(d) I˜ = −3 + j2 (A)
(e) I˜ = j (A)
(f) I˜ = 2e jπ/6 (A)
Solution:
(d)

Ie = −3 + j2 = 3.61 e j146.31 ,

i(t) = Re{3.61 e j146.31 e jωt } = 3.61 cos(ωt + 146.31◦ ) A.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 1.29 The voltage source of the circuit shown in Fig. P1.29 is given by

## vs (t) = 25 cos(4 × 104t − 45◦ ) (V).

Obtain an expression for iL (t), the current flowing through the inductor.

## Figure P1.29: Circuit for Problem 1.29.

Solution: Based on the given voltage expression, the phasor source voltage is

Ves = 25e− j45 (V). (1.9)

## The voltage equation for the left-hand side loop is

R1 i + R2 iR2 = vs (1.10)

## For the right-hand loop,

diL
R2 iR2 = L , (1.11)
dt
and at node A,
i = iR2 + iL . (1.12)
Next, we convert Eqs. (2)–(4) into phasor form:

## R1 Ie+ R2 IeR2 = Ves (1.13)

R2 IeR2 = jωLIeL (1.14)
Ie = IeR2 + IeL (1.15)

## Upon combining (6) and (7) to solve for IeR2 in terms of I,

e we have:

jωL
IeR2 = I. (1.16)
R2 + jωL

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Substituting (8) in (5) and then solving for Ie leads to:
jR2 ωL e e
R1 Ie+ I = Vs
R2 + jωL
 
jR 2 ωL
Ie R1 + = Ves
R2 + jωL
 
R1 R2 + jR1 ωL + jR2 ωL
I
e = Ves
R2 + jωL
 
R 2 + jωL
Ie = Ves . (1.17)
R1 R2 + jωL(R1 + R2 )

## Combining (6) and (7) to solve for IeL in terms of Ie gives

R2
IeL = I.
e (1.18)
R2 + jωL
Combining (9) and (10) leads to
  
R2 R2 + jωL
IeL = Ves
R2 + jωL R1 R2 + jωL(R1 + R2 )
R2
= Ves .
R1 R2 + + jωL(R1 + R2 )

Using (1) for Ves and replacing R1 , R2 , L and ω with their numerical values, we have
30 ◦
IeL = 25e− j45
20 × 30 + j4 × 104 × 0.4 × 10−3 (20 + 30)
30 × 25 ◦
= e− j45
600 + j800

7.5 − j45◦ 7.5e− j45 − j98.1◦
= e = j53.1◦ = 0.75e (A).
6 + j8 10e
Finally,

## iL (t) = Re[IeL e jωt ]

= 0.75 cos(4 × 104t − 98.1◦ ) (A).

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Chapter 2 Solved Problems

Problem 2-5
Problem 2-16
Problem 2-34
Problem 2-45
Problem 2-48
Problem 2-64
Problem 2-75

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Problem 2.5 For the parallel-plate transmission line of Problem 2.4, the line parameters are given by: R0 = 1 Ω/m,
L = 167 nH/m, G0 = 0, and C0 = 172 pF/m. Find α, β , up , and Z0 at 1 GHz.
0

## Solution: At 1 GHz, ω = 2π f = 2π × 109 rad/s. Application of (2.22) gives:

p
γ = (R0 + jωL0 )(G0 + jωC0 )
= [(1 + j2π × 109 × 167 × 10−9 )(0 + j2π × 109 × 172 × 10−12 )]1/2
= [(1 + j1049)( j1.1)]1/2
q 1/2
j tan−1 1049 j90◦ ◦
= 2
1 + (1049) e × 1.1e , ( j = e j90 )

◦ 1/2
h ◦
i
= 1049e j89.95 × 1.1e j90
◦ 1/2
h i
= 1154e j179.95

= 34e j89.97 = 34 cos 89.97◦ + j34 sin 89.97◦ = 0.016 + j34.

Hence,

α = 0.016 Np/m,

ω 2π f 2π × 109
up = = = = 1.85 × 108 m/s.
β β 34
R + jωL0 1/2
 0 
Z0 =
G0 + jωC0
◦ 1/2
1049e j89.95

= ◦
1.1e j90
◦ 1/2
h i
= 954e− j0.05

= 31e− j0.025 ' (31 − j0.01) Ω.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 2.16 A transmission line operating at 125 MHz has Z0 = 40 Ω, α = 0.02 (Np/m), and β = 0.75 rad/m. Find the
line parameters R0 , L0 , G0 , and C 0 .
Solution: Given an arbitrary transmission line, f = 125 MHz, Z0 = 40 √Ω, α = 0.02 Np/m,
p and β = 0.75 rad/m. Since Z0
is real and α 6= 0, the line is distortionless. From Problem 2.13, β = ω L0C 0 and Z0 = L0 /C 0 , therefore,

β Z0 0.75 × 40
L0 = = = 38.2 nH/m.
ω 2π × 125 × 106
p
Then, from Z0 = L0 /C 0 ,
L0 38.2 nH/m
C0 = 2
= = 23.9 pF/m.
Z0 402

From α = R0 G0 and R0C 0 = L0 G0 ,

√ R0 √ 0 0
r r
L0
R0 = R0 G0 = RG = αZ0 = 0.02 Np/m × 40 Ω = 0.6 Ω/m
G0 C0
and
α 2 (0.02 Np/m)2
G0 = = = 0.5 mS/m.
R0 0.8 Ω/m

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 2.34 A 50-Ω lossless line is terminated in a load impedance ZL = (30 − j20) Ω.

## (a) Calculate Γ and S.

(b) It has been proposed that by placing an appropriately selected resistor across the line at a distance dmax from the load
(as shown in Fig. P2.34(b)), where dmax is the distance from the load of a voltage maximum, then it is possible to
render Zi = Z0 , thereby eliminating reflection back to the end. Show that the proposed approach is valid and find the
value of the shunt resistance.

Solution:
(a)

## ZL − Z0 30 − j20 − 50 −20 − j20 −(20 + j20) ◦

Γ= = = = = 0.34e− j121 .
ZL + Z0 30 − j20 + 50 80 − j20 80 − j20
1 + |Γ| 1 + 0.34
S= = = 2.
1 − |Γ| 1 − 0.34

(b) We start by finding dmax , the distance of the voltage maximum nearest to the load. Using (2.70) with n = 1,

−121◦ π λ
 
θr λ λ λ
dmax = + = + = 0.33λ .
4π 2 180◦ 4π 2

Applying (2.79) at d = dmax = 0.33λ , for which β l = (2π/λ ) × 0.33λ = 2.07 radians, the value of Zin before adding the

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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shunt resistance is:
 
ZL + jZ0 tan β l
Zin = Z0
Z0 + jZL tan β l
 
(30 − j20) + j50 tan 2.07
= 50 = (102 + j0) Ω.
50 + j(30 − j20) tan 2.07

Thus, at the location A (at a distance dmax from the load), the input impedance is purely real. If we add a shunt resistor R in
parallel such that the combination is equal to Z0 , then the new Zin at any point to the left of that location will be equal to Z0 .
Hence, we need to select R such that
1 1 1
+ =
R 102 50
or R = 98 Ω.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Problem 2.45 The circuit shown in Fig. P2.45 consists of a 100-Ω lossless transmission line terminated in a load with
ZL = (50 + j100) Ω. If the peak value of the load voltage was measured to be |VeL | = 12 V, determine:
(a) the time-average power dissipated in the load,
(b) the time-average power incident on the line,
(c) the time-average power reflected by the load.

## Figure P2.45: Circuit for Problem 2.45.

Solution:
(a)
ZL − Z0 50 + j100 − 100 −50 + j100 ◦
Γ= = = = 0.62e j82.9 .
ZL + Z0 50 + j100 + 100 150 + j100
The time average power dissipated in the load is:
1
Pav = |IeL |2 RL
2
2
1 VeL
= RL
2 ZL
1 |VeL |2 1 50
= 2
RL = × 122 × 2 = 0.29 W.
2 |ZL | 2 50 + 1002

(b)
i
Pav = Pav (1 − |Γ|2 )
Hence,
i Pav 0.29
Pav = 2
= = 0.47 W.
1 − |Γ| 1 − 0.622
(c)
r
Pav = −|Γ|2 Pav
i
= −(0.62)2 × 0.47 = −0.18 W.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 2.48 Repeat Problem 2.47 using CD Module 2.6.
Solution:

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
c Prentice Hall
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 2.64 Use CD Module 2.7 to design a quarter-wavelength transformer to match a load with ZL = (100 − j200) Ω
to a 50-Ω line.
Solution: Figure P2.64(a) displays the first solution of Module 2.7 where a λ /4 section of Z02 = 15.5015 Ω is inserted at
distance d1 = 0.21829λ from the load.
Figure P2.64(b) displays a summary of the two possible solutions for matching the load to the feedline with a λ /4
transformer.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Problem 2.75 Generate a bounce diagram for the voltage V (z,t) for a 1-m–long lossless line characterized by Z0 = 50 Ω
and up = 2c/3 (where c is the velocity of light) if the line is fed by a step voltage applied at t = 0 by a generator circuit with
Vg = 60 V and Rg = 100 Ω. The line is terminated in a load RL = 25 Ω. Use the bounce diagram to plot V (t) at a point
midway along the length of the line from t = 0 to t = 25 ns.
Solution:
Rg − Z0 100 − 50 50 1
Γg = = = = ,
Rg + Z0 100 + 50 150 3
ZL − Z0 25 − 50 −25 −1
ΓL = = = = .
ZL + Z0 25 + 50 75 3
From Eq. (2.149b),
Vg Z0 60 × 50
V1+ = = = 20 V.
Rg + Z0 100 + 50
Also,
l l 3
T= = = = 5 ns.
up 2c/3 2 × 3 × 108
The bounce diagram is shown in Fig. P2.75(a) and the plot of V (t) in Fig. P2.75(b).

## Figure P2.75: (a) Bounce diagram for Problem 2.75.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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Figure P2.75: (b) Time response of voltage.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics 2010
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