An Analytical Characterization of the Anisotropy of the Elastic Modulus of Misaligned Short Fiber Reinforced Polymers 1998 Composites Science and Technology

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An Analytical Characterization of the Anisotropy of the Elastic Modulus of Misaligned Short Fiber Reinforced Polymers 1998 Composites Science and Technology

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Printed in Great Britain

PII: S0266-3538(98)00033-5 0266-3538/98 $Ðsee front matter

ANISOTROPY OF THE ELASTIC MODULUS OF MISALIGNED

SHORT-FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMERS

Institute of Polymer Research Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany

Short-®ber-reinforced polymers (SFRP) are very attrac- ®nal components which are the important factors in

tive because of their ease of fabrication, relatively low determining the mechanical properties of SFRP. The

cost and mechanical properties which are superior to eects of the FLD and the FOD on mechanical prop-

those of relevant polymer resins. Owing to the partial erties such as strength and stiness of SFRP in the

orientation distribution of the ®bers in ®nal components, mold-¯ow direction have been studied by numerous

SFRP composites show direction-dependence, namely researchers.1±14

anisotropy in their mechanical properties. The ®ber- Owing to the partial ®ber orientation, short-®bre

length distribution (FLD) and the ®ber-orientation dis- composites will demonstrate, more or less anisotropy in

tribution (FOD) in SFRP composites play an important their mechanical properties. This inevitability of aniso-

role in determining the composite mechanical properties. tropy in the mechanical properties of short-®bre-rein-

In the present paper, the FLD and the FOD are modelled forced composites can lead to severe deterioration in the

with suitable probability density functions and the lami- total performance of the composites when their unfa-

nate analogy approach is used to derive the expression of vorable direction is highly loaded or under attack by the

the elastic modulus of SFRP as a function of any given environment. Recently, theoretical studies on the elastic

direction, the FLD and the FOD. The direction-depen- anisotropy of short-®ber composites have been receiving

dence, i.e. the anisotropy, of the elastic modulus of SFRP an increasing interest.15±19 Warner and Stobbs15 pro-

has been studied in detail by taking into consideration the posed a continuum-mechanics model based on the

eects of the FLD and the FOD. The present theory is Eshelby method to predict the variation in the elastic

applied to existing experimental results, and the agree- modulus of short-®ber composites with loading direc-

ment is found to be very satisfactory. # 1998 Elsevier tion. They studied a model system consisting of a ®nite

Science Ltd. All rights reserved volume fraction of ®bers, which are all of the same

aspect ratio (i.e. the same ®ber length) and in the same

Keywords: A. short-®ber composites, ®bre-length dis- direction, and the eects of the ®ber aspect ratio and the

tribution, ®bre-orientation distribution, anisotropy of ®ber volume fraction on the variation in the elastic

elastic modulus modulus of short-®ber composites as a function of the

loading direction were investigated. Dyer et al.16 also

used the Eshelby method to develop a theoretical

1 INTRODUCTION method of calculating bounds on the elastic constants

for unidirectional ®ber-reinforced composites by con-

Short-®ber-reinforced polymers (SFRP) are very attrac- sidering that the ®bers and the matrix both show trans-

tive because of their ease of fabrication, relatively low verse isotropy. Sayer17 carried out a theoretical analysis

cost and mechanical properties which are superior to on the elastic anisotropy of short-®ber-reinforced com-

those of relevant polymer resins. SFRP are often fabri- posites with ®bers of the same length by examing the

cated by the rapid, low-cost injection molding process, sensitivity of the elastic stiness tensor to the ®ber

and hence there are in general a ®ber-length distribution orientation. Pan18 presented a statistical analysis to

characterize the modulus anisotropy of short-®ber

*To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Advanced composites and studied the eect of the ®ber volume

Materials Research Center, School of Applied Science, fraction on the anisotropy of the elastic modulus by

Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singa- considering one planar and harmonic ®ber orientation

pore 639798. Fax: 0065 792 6559; e-mail: assyfu@ntu.edu.sg distribution. Dunn et al.19 proposed a relatively simple

1961

1962 S.-Y. Fu, B. Lauke

micromechanics model to predict the entire set of elastic 2.2 Fiber orientation distribution

constants of short-®ber composites for advancing the In order to describe the FOD, we adopt a spatial curvi-

understanding of the dependence of the anisotropical linear coordinate system where the orientation of a ®ber

elastic stiness tensor on microstructure, including ®ber in the composite can be de®ned uniquely by a pair of

concentration, shape (aspect ratio) and orientation dis- angles (,) (see Fig. 1). is de®ned as the angle a ®ber

tribution. The analytical results were given for some makes with the 1 axis (the 1 axis direction may be

special orientation distributions such as unidirectional, assumed to be the mold-¯ow direction or the normal

two-dimensional (2D) random and three-dimensional direction of a plane on which the ®ber orientation dis-

(3D) random ®ber alignment. tribution will be measured), while is de®ned as the angle

However, in the above studies and in all the literature the projection of the ®ber on to the 2±3 plane (the 2±3

that we have examined, no detailed study of the eects plane is the one whose normal is parallel to the 1-axis

of the FLD and the FOD on the direction-dependence direction) makes with the 2 axis. Provided is the angle of

of the elastic modulus of short-®ber composites, i.e. the one end of the ®ber with the 1 axis, then ÿ is the angle

anisotropy of the elastic modulus of short-®ber compo- of the other end of the ®ber with the 1 axis; similarly,

sites, has been carried out to date. As a part of our and + are the two angles of the projection of the two

research project, an analytical characterization of the ®ber ends on to the 2±3 plane with the 2 axis, respectively.

anisotropy of the elastic modulus of SFRP will be pre- A two-parameter exponential function to describe the

sented in this paper. As was done in our previous FOD g() was proposed previously,6,7,21 and the FOD

paper,7 the FLD and the FOD are modeled by suitable function can be given as follows

probability density functions and the laminate analogy

approach will be used to derive the expression of the
sin 2pÿ1
cos 2qÿ1

g

elastic modulus of SFRP as a function of the given max

direction (which may be the loading direction or that in
sin 2pÿ1
cos 2qÿ1 d
4

min

which the elastic modulus of SFRP is to be measured)

and the FLD and the FOD. The eects of the FLD and for 0 min max =2

the FOD on the variation in the elastic modulus of

SFRP with the direction, namely the anisotropy of the where p and q are the shape parameters which can be

elastic modulus, will be studied in detail in the present used to determine the shape of the distribution curves,

study. Finally, the theoretical results predicted by the and p1/2 and q1/2. g()d is the probability density

present theory are compared with existing experimental that the orientation of ®bers is between and +d. It

results.8,20 has been demonstrated that eqn (4) is a suitable prob-

ability density function for describing the FOD g().6,21

The mean ®ber orientation angle, mean, can be derived

2 THEORY from eqn (4) as

max

The FLD fucntion f (`) has been de®ned pre- min

viously,6,7,21,22 and it can be expressed as follows:

tively, and f (`) d` refers to the probability density that

the length of ®ber is between ` and `+d`. From eqn (1)

we can get the mean ®ber length (i.e. the number aver-

age ®ber length)

1

0

length (mode length), `mod, can be obtained by dier-

entiating eqn (1) and letting the resultant equation be

Fig. 1. De®nitions of the ®ber orientation angles and the

equal to zero (loading) direction angles and (the direction (,) may

be the loading direction or that in which the composite mod-

`mod 1=a ÿ 1= ab1=b 3 ulus will be measured).

Elastic modulus of misaligned short-®ber-reinforced polymers 1963

Dierentiating eqn (4) and letting the resultant equation of angles and +d, and +d is given by

be zero, we can get g(,)d

, where d

is the in®nitesimal solid angle and

sin d d 10

Equation (6) represents the most probable ®ber orien- The probability density distribution must satisfy two

tation angle (mode ®ber angle). The ®ber orientation physical conditions.24 First, one end of the ®ber is

coecient, f, can be de®ned as follows6,7,14,21,23 indistinguishable from the other end, so and must be

periodic:

max

g
; g
ÿ ;
11

f 2 g
cos2 d ÿ 1
7

min

Second, every ®ber must have a pair of orientation

angles and , so the integral over all possible direc-

For f=ÿ1, all ®bers lie perpendicular to the normal tions or the orientation space must be equal to unity:

direction of the 2±3 plane; f=0 corresponds to a 2D

random distribution or a symmetric distribution about

max max

the direction =/4; f=1 implies that all ®bers are g
; sin d d 1
12

aligned parallel to the 1-axis direction. min min

The cumulative distribution function of ®ber orienta-

tion () is then given by

where 0minmax and 0minmax2.

Since the probability of ®nding a ®ber in the in®nite-

G
g
d simal ranges of angles between and +d and between

min and +d is either equal to g(,)d

or equal to

max g()g()d d, then we can get

2pÿ1 2qÿ1

sin
cos d=
sin 2pÿ1
cos 2qÿ1 d

g
; g
g
= sin
13

min min

g() and g(). It can be easily veri®ed that the orienta-

G() is the cumulative percentage of the ®bers whose tion distribution function g(,) satis®es its periodic

orientation varies from min to . condition (eqn (11)) and its normalization condition

Equation (4) is the FOD function for in the range of (eqn (12)). Thus, the function g(,) deduced from g()

0 to /2, then that equivalent to eqn (4) in the range of and g() should also be a proper probability density for

from 0 to can be easily obtained by replacing cos a function pair of orientation angles (,).

with j cos j, where jj denotes the absolute value sign, Xia et al.2 also gave the formulae for the FOD

since the value of cos would be negative when is functions g() and g() in the ranges of 0 to for both

greater than /2. and :

Similarly to the de®nition of g(), we can de®ne an 0 0

orientation probability density function g() for the sin =22p ÿ1 cos =22q ÿ1

g 14

®ber orientation angle in the range of 0 to 2 as follows

max

2p0 ÿ1 2q0 ÿ1

sin =2 cos =2 d

min

j sin j2sÿ1 j cos j2tÿ1

g

max 0 0

j sin j2sÿ1 j cos j2tÿ1 d 9 sin =22s ÿ1 cos =22t ÿ1

min

g max

15

2s0 ÿ1 2t0

for 0 min max 2 2sin =2 cos =2 d

min

where s and t are shape parameters which determine the However, as stated above the FOD functions should

shape of the curves of FOD g(). And g()d is the satisfy the periodic condition and the normalization

probability density that the orientation of ®ber lies condition, then p0 must be equal to q0 , and s0 must be

between and +d. equal to t0 . It can be noted from Xia et al.2 that in fact

The probability density function for a pair of orien- that their experimental results demonstrated this. And

tation angles (,), also known as the orientation dis- the orientation distribution functions (eqns (14) and

tribution function g(,), is de®ned so that the (15)) de®ned by Xia et al.2 when p0 =q0 and s0 =t0 can be

probability of the ®ber lying in the in®nitesimal ranges easily seen to be our special cases.

1964 S.-Y. Fu, B. Lauke

2.3 Elastic modulus of SFRP in the direction (,) The transformed stiness constants, Q0 ij, are inte-

Consider a single misaligned ®ber of a length ` and a grated through the thickness of the laminate to obtain

pair of orientation angles (,) as de®ned in Fig. 1. For the overall laminate stiness matrix, A ij

a given direction (,) (see Fig. 1), which may be the

loading direction (or that in which the elastic modulus X

M

k1

between the ®ber axial direction (,) and the given

direction (,) from the following equation

where M represents the number of plies in the laminate,

cos cos cos sin sin cos ÿ 16 k is the serial index of the ply in the laminate, and hk is

the thickness fraction of the kth ply. Since the composite

In a similar way to the derivation for the composite has a continuous FOD and a continuous FLD then, as

elastic modulus in the mold-¯ow direction (=0,) described above, the kth ply can be considered to con-

(namely the 1-axis direction in Fig. 1),7 we can easily tain the ®bers of length between ` and `+d` and a pair

derive the expression for the composite elastic modulus of orientation angles between and +d and between

in any given direction (,). The SFRP composite is and +d. Thus, the summation in eqn (18) must be

simulated by a laminate and is assumed to be a stack of replaced by the corresponding integral:

plies, as in our previous paper, in deriving the expres-

sion for the elastic modulus of SFRP in the direction max

`max max

(=0,).7 The ®bers of length between ` and `+d` A ij Q0ij f `g g d` d d 19

and a pair of orientation angles between and +d

`min min min

and between and +d are supposed to be included

in the same ply. First, the stiness constants for each ply

are given with the laminate theory. Second, the stiness And m (=cos ) and n (=sin ) in eqn (17) can be

constants for each ply are integrated through the thick- transformed with eqn (16) into the functions containing

ness of the laminate to obtain the overall stiness con- and . Finally, we can get the elastic modulus of

stants of the simulated laminate. Third, the elastic SFRP in the direction (,):

modulus of SFRP can be obtained from the relation

between the stiness constants and the elastic modulus A 11 A 22 ÿ A 212

of the laminate. Ec ; 20

A 22

The transformation equation for a uniaxial ply

between the components of stiness matrix in the on-

axis system and that in the o-axis system can be given In the next section, the variation in the elastic modulus

by25 of SFRP in the direction (,), Ec(, ), with the

direction (,) (namely the anisotropy of the composite

8 0 9 8 4 9

> Q11 > > m n4 2m2 n2 4m2 n2 > elastic modulus) will be discussed in detail by taking

>

> >

> > > >

>

>

> Q022 >

> >

> n4 m4 2m2 n2 4m2 n2 >

> into account the eects of the FLD and the FOD.

>

> >

> >

> >

>

> > >

< Q0 = < m2 n2 >

=

12 m 2 n2 m 4 n4 ÿ4m2 n2

>

> Q 0 >

66 >

>

> m 2 n2 m 2 n2 ÿ2m2 n2 m2 ÿ n2 2 >> 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

>

> >

> >

> >

>

>

> Q16 >

0 >

> > >

> m3 n ÿmn3 mn3 ÿ m3 n 2 mn3 ÿ m3 n >>

>

> >

: 0 > ; > : >

; Since and ÿ are the two angles of the two ends of a

Q26 mn3 ÿm3 n m3 n ÿ mn3 3

2 m n ÿ mn 3

8 9 ®ber with respect to the 1 axis (see Fig. 1), we will only

> Q11 >

>

> > consider in the range of 0 to /2 and then the FOD

<Q > =

22 function g() (eqn (4)) in the angle range of 0 to /2 will

> Q12 >

> > be used. The elastic modulus of SFRP in the direction

>

: >

;

Q66 range (0/2, 02) will be evaluated in this

study, and the modulus in the other direction range (/

17

2, 02) can be obtained by the mirror sym-

metry, owing to the fact that the two ends of a ®ber are

where m=cos and n=sin . Note that here the de®ni- indistinguishable, and thus the modulus of SFRP in the

tions of m and n are dierent from those (m=cos and direction (,) should be equal to that in the direction

n=sin ) in the direction (=0,),7 because the angle (ÿ,+).

between the ®ber axial direction (,) and the direction The following data of the parameters are used

(,) is now equal to . {Qij} (i, j=1, 2, 6) is the sti- throughout the paper, unless noted specially:

ness matrix in the on-axis system and Qij have been Ef=82.7 GPa, Gf=27.6 GPa, f=0.22, Em=2.18 GPa,

de®ned in our previous work;7 {Q0 ij} (i, j=1, 2, 6) is the Gm=1.03 GPa, m=0.35, Vf=0.20, df=10 m,

stiness matrix in the o-axis system. `mean=3 198 mm (a=0 15 and b=1.5) and mean=9.46

. .

Elastic modulus of misaligned short-®ber-reinforced polymers 1965

02) is considered at ®rst. Since g() here is a con-

stant, the material property such as modulus would be

independent of the direction angle , this will be shown

in Figs 2±4 and 6±8.

The predicted elastic modulus of SFRP as a function

of both the direction angle and the ®ber volume

fraction Vf is shown in Fig. 2 for the unidirectional ®ber

alignment case (i.e. p=0.5, q=1 and mean=0 ), where

the direction angle is of any value. Figure 2 exhibits

that the elastic modulus of SFRP varies with the direc-

tion angle and the ®ber volume fraction. The elastic

modulus of SFRP possesses the maximum value at

=0 because in this direction where all ®bers are

oriented, the modulus decreases with the increase in

and approaches an approximate plateau for about

50 ; nonetheless, the data in Fig. 2 demonstrate that Fig. 3. The eect of the mean ®ber orientation angle mean on

there is a minimum in the modulus at =about 80 for the variation in the composite elastic modulus with the direc-

Vf=0.1, at =about 70 for Vf=0.2 and 0.3, and at tion angle for any value of .

=about 60 for Vf=0.4 and 0.5 (very slightly lower

than that at =90 ). This phenomenon was also oriented in this direction (when mean=57.32 , the ®bers

observed in Warner and Stobbs.15 Obviously, a higher are oriented randomly without any preferred direction

Vf value in the composite will result in a greater com- and, thus, it is observed that the composite is isotropic

posite modulus. Moreover, since the results in Fig. 2 are in the modulus). Moreover, the composite modulus is

obtained for any value of , the modulus is unrelated to independent of the direction angle because of

the direction angle since g() is a constant. g()=1/(2), this has been observed in Fig. 2 for the

Figure 3 depicts the elastic modulus of SFRP as a unidirectional ®ber-alignment case and will also be

function of the direction angle and the mean ®ber observed in Figs 4 and 6±8 but will not be restated.

orientation angle mean for any value of . It is shown in Figure 4 shows the eects of the mode ®ber orienta-

Fig. 3 that the composite modulus at a small (e.g. tion angle mod and the ®ber orientation coecient f on

about 30 ) decreases dramatically with the increase in the variation in the elastic modulus of SFRP with the

the mean ®ber orientation angle mean while the mod- direction angle , where mean=32.7 (p=0.5 and

ulus at a large (e.g. about 50 ) increases relatively q=1.0, p=0.75 and q=1.57 as well as p=4.0 and

slowly with the increase in mean. For the limit case of q=9.39, respectively). It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the

the 3D random ®ber alignment (see curve (g)) the com- mode ®ber orientation angle and the ®ber orientation

posite modulus maintains a constant for various , and coecient have an evident in¯uence on the variation in

thus the composite is isotropic in the modulus. In addi- the elastic modulus of SFRP with the direction angle .

tion, the composite modulus at =0 is the maximum,

since the ®bers when mean<57.32 are preferentially

Fig. 2. The composite elastic modulus versus the direction iation in the composite elastic modulus with the direction

angle for various ®ber volume fractions and any value of . angle for any value of .

1966 S.-Y. Fu, B. Lauke

When is small (e.g. about 28 ) or large (about 0.782 mm (a=5 and b=8.5), 0.466 (a=5 and b=2.5)

68 ), a smaller mode ®ber orientation angle or smaller and 0.200 mm (a=5 and b=1.0). Figure 7 reveals that

®ber orientation coecient corresponds to a larger when the mean ®ber length is relatively small (e.g.

elastic modulus; however, when is medium (about <about 1 mm, i.e. the ®ber aspect ratio is <about 100),

28 about 68 ), a smaller mode ®ber orientation a larger mean ®ber length leads to a higher composite

angle or smaller ®ber orientation coecient corresponds modulus at 60 , and the dierence in the composite

to a smaller elastic modulus. modulus between two cases of dierent mean ®ber

For the special case of mean=45 and f=0, the eect lengths decreases as increases, while when is com-

of the cumulative FOD (see Fig. 5) on the variation in paratively large (60 ), the modulus is insensitive to the

the elastic modulus with the direction angle is shown mean ®ber length. Moreover, the in¯uence of the mean

in Fig. 6. It reveals that a higher cumulative percentage ®ber length on the modulus weakens as the mean ®ber

G() at some angle (0 <<45 ) (see Fig. 5) corre- length increases. Furthermore, when the mean ®ber

sponds to a higher modulus at about 30 or at length is comparatively large, the mean ®ber length has

about 70 , while conversely to a lower modulus hardly any in¯uence on the modulus of SFRP.

when 30 70 (see Fig. 6). The eect of the mode ®ber length on the variation

The variation in the composite modulus with the in the elastic modulus of SFRP with the direction

direction angle is shown in Fig. 7 for various mean angle is depicted in Fig. 8 for the two cases of

®ber lengths: 6.667 mm (a=0.15 and b=1.0), 3.198 mm `mean=3.198 mm (a=0.3127 and b=1.0, a=0.15 and

(a=0.15 and b=1.5), 1.096 mm (a=0.15 and b=15), b=1.5, as well as a=0.0406 and b=2.5, respectively)

and `mean=0.309 mm (a=3.239 and b=1.0, a=5.0 and

b=1.5, as well as a=14.0 and b=2.5, respectively).

Figure 8 shows that larger mode ®ber lengths lead to a

for: (1) p=q=0.5; (2) p=q=1; (3) p=q=2.

Fig. 7. The eect of the mean ®ber length `mean on the varia-

tion in the composite elastic modulus with the direction angle

for any value of .

Fig. 6. The eect of the cumulative ®ber orientation distribu- Fig. 8. The eect of the mode ®ber length `mode on the varia-

tion G() on the variation in the composite elastic modulus tion in the composite elastic modulus with the direction angle

with the direction angle for any value of . for any value of .

Elastic modulus of misaligned short-®ber-reinforced polymers 1967

higher elastic modulus at <about 60 , while when to its maximum at =180 . Moreover, for the cases of

about 60 , the modulus is insensitive to both the mean60, it can be seen from Fig. 10 (b)±(d) that when

mean ®ber length and the mode ®ber length. is small (e.g. as shown in Fig. 10 (c), 0 about 70 )

For the case of g()=1/(2), the eects of the FLD or large (e.g. in Fig. 10(c), about 110 180 ), the

and the FOD on the variation in the modulus with the modulus increases with to a peak value and then

direction angle have been studied above. Another decreases with until the minimum value at =90 ,

important case, namely the planar FOD,2,3,20 will be whereas for about 70 <<about 110 , the composite

studied below; for this case g() and its integration modulus decreases with to its minimum at some cer-

should be eliminated from eqn (19). The results for the tain of a value within the range of 60 to 80 and then

latter case will be presented below. slightly increases as increases. Furthermore, Fig. 10

Figure 9 shows the eect of the ®ber volume fraction demonstrates that the variation in the elastic modulus of

on the variation in the modulus of SFRP with the SFRP with the direction (,) is symmetric about the

direction (,) (the modulus for 90 180 is not direction angle =90 .

given in the ®gure, since it can be obtained from that for Since the modulus is symmetric about =90 and the

0 90 because the modulus is symmetric about modulus is maximum when =0 and minimum when

=90 for the planar FOD case, which will be shown =90 when considered in the range of 0 to 90 , and

in Fig. 10). Figure 9 reveals that the composite modulus varies continuously with , for simplicity and without

varies also with as well as and Vf. Obviously, a loss of generality we will only evaluate the modulus at

higher Vf leads to a higher modulus. Moreover, Fig. 9 =0 and =90 in the following.

exhibts that the modulus is maximum when =0 and The variation in the modulus of SFRP with the

minimum when =90 except at =0 and 90 . direction angle for =0 and 90 is shown in Fig. 11

Figure 10 shows the variation in the elastic modulus for various mode ®ber orientation angles mod and ®ber

of SFRP with the direction (,) for various mean, orientation coecient f (mean=32.7 ), namely

namely (a) mean=0 (p=0.5 and q=1), (b) mod=0 (p=0.5 and q=1.0), mod=13.2 (p=0.75 and

mean=12.95 (p=0.6 and q=8), (c) mean=35.95 q=1.57) and mod=21.5 (p=4.0 and q=9.39). Figure

(p=0.6 and q=1) and (d) mean=45 (p=0.5 and 11 reveals that the mode ®ber orientation angle mod

q=0.5). Figure 10 exhibts the signi®cant in¯uence of the and ®ber orientation coecient f have an evident

mean ®ber orientation angle mean on the variation in in¯uence on the modulus variance of SFRP with the

the elastic modulus of SFRP with the direction (,). direction angle . At =0 , a smaller mode ®ber

Comparison of Fig. 10(a)±(d) reveals that the elastic orientation angle or a smaller ®ber orientation coe-

modulus increases with the decrease in the mean ®ber cient f corresponds to a higher modulus for

orientation angle mean when the direction angle is 0 about 10 or about 60 90 while for about

small while, when the direction angle is large, the 10 about 60 , a larger mode ®ber orientation angle

modulus decreases to some extent with the decrease in or a larger ®ber orientation coecient f corresponds to

the mean ®ber orientation angle mean. At =90 , for a higher modulus. At =90 , a smaller mode ®ber

the cases of a small mean ®ber orientation angle mean, orientation angle or a smaller ®ber orientation coe-

the composite modulus hardly varies with (see cient f corresponds to a higher modulus for about

Fig. 10(a) and (b)), while for the cases of large mean 60 , while when about 60 , the modulus is insensi-

®ber orientation angle, the modulus decreases with to tive to the mode ®ber orientation angle and ®ber orien-

its minimum at =90 and afterwards increases with tation coecient.

Figure 12 exhibits the eect of the cumulative FOD

on the variation in the modulus of SFRP with the

direction angle for =0 and 90 , where mean=45 .

It is shown in Fig. 12 that the cumulative FOD (see

Fig. 5) also has an evident in¯uence on the variation in

the composite modulus with the direction angles and

. When =0 , a lower cumulative percentage (higher

p and q) at some orientation angle smaller than 45

(i.e. 0 <<45 , as shown in Fig. 5) corresponds to a

higher modulus for about 18 about 72 , while for

about 18 or about 72 , a higher cumulative

percentage (lower p and q) corresponds to a higher

modulus. When =90 , a higher cumulative percentage

at <45 corresponds to a higher modulus for

about 60 , while for about 60 the modulus is

independent of the cumulative percentage. Moreover, it

Fig. 9. The eect of the ®ber volume fraction on the variation is shown in Fig. 12 that when =0 , the modulus is the

in the composite elastic modulus with the direction (,). maximum at =45 and is symmetric about =45 .

1968 S.-Y. Fu, B. Lauke

Fig. 10. The composite elastic modulus versus the direction (,) for various mean ®ber orientation angle mean: (a) mean=0 , (b)

mean=12.95 , (c) mean=35.95 and (d) mean=45 .

Fig. 11. The eects of mod and f for mean=32.7 on the Fig. 12. The eect of the cumulative ®ber orientation dis-

variation in the composite elastic modulus with the direction tribution G() on the variation in the composite elastic mod-

angle for =0 and 90 . ulus with the direction angle for =0 and 90 .

Figure 13 shows the eect of the mean ®ber length on leads to a higher elastic modulus for <about 80

the elastic modulus of SFRP as a function of the direc- while for about 80 the modulus is nearly insensitive

tion angles and , where Vf=0.40 and mean=35.95 to the mean ®ber length. As the mean ®ber length

(p=0.6 and q=1). Figure 13 exhibits that when the increases, the sensitivity of the modulus to the mean

mean ®ber length is small, a larger mean ®ber length ®ber length decreases, and the mean ®ber length has

Elastic modulus of misaligned short-®ber-reinforced polymers 1969

used in Fig. 16.

Fig. 13. The eect of the mean ®ber length on the variation of cos )/2 and g()=Abs(cos )3/2.663 will be used and

the composite elastic modulus with the direction angle for are shown in Fig. 15. Although the FODs of Abs(sin

=0 and 90 .

cos )/2 and Abs(cos )3/2.663 may not easily be met

practically, their use can eectively clarify the eect of

hardly any in¯uence on the modulus of SFRP when g() on the composite modulus. The eect of g() on the

`mean is large (e.g. about 1 mm). composite modulus is shown in Fig. 16, where p=0.6

Figure 14 shows the eect of the mode ®ber length on and q=1 for g() (mean=35.95 ). Figure 16(a) shows

the variation in the composite modulus with the direc- that the FOD g() does not in¯uence the modulus in the

tion angle for =0 and 90 . It is exhibited in Fig. 14 direction (=0 , =any value) but in¯uences the

that a larger mode ®ber length leads to a higher mod- modulus in other directions. The composite modulus for

ulus when is small (e.g. about 50 for =0 and the uniform random ®ber distribution for (g()=1/(2))

about 30 for =90 ), whereas when is large (e.g. is independent of the direction angle (Fig. 16(b)),

>about 50 for =0 and >about 30 for =90 ) the while the modulus for the other two cases is dependent

mode ®ber length has hardly any in¯uence on the mod- on . And the modulus for g()=1/(2) has a medium

ulus of SFRP. value when compared with those for from 0 to 90

The eects of the FOD g() and the FLD f(`) on for the other two cases. Moreover, it is of interest to

the anisotropy of the modulus of SFRP have been note that the curves (see Fig. 16 (b)) of the modulus of

studied above for the two important cases of the SFRP versus the direction angle are similar to the

uniform random ®ber distribution for (i.e. g()=1/ curves (see Fig. 15) of the corresponding g() versus .

(2)) and of the planar FOD. Now we study the Namely, when g()=1/(2), g() does not change

eect of the FOD g() on the modulus. The follow- with and also the modulus does not vary with ;

ing three FODs for : g()=1/(2), g()=Abs(sin on the other hand, when g()=Abs(sin cos )/2

and g()=Abs(cos )3/2.663, g() is the periodic

function of and the composite modulus as a function

of is also periodic.

RESULTS

results predicted by the present theory and the experi-

mental results8 of the composite moduli in the direction

=0 and /2 for the unidirectional ®ber alignment

case. Two mean ®ber lengths `mean=0.466 mm (a=5

and b=2.5) as well as `mean=3.198 mm (a=0.15 and

b=1.5)) and df=10 M are assumed and Ef=72.4 GPa,8

Gf=29.6 GPa,8 f=0.22,8 Em=2.8 GPa,8 Gm=1.17 Gpa,8

m=0.358 and Vf=0.50.8 Table 1 shows that the results

Fig. 14. The eect of the mode ®ber length `mode on the var- of the composite modulus for =0 and =/2 pre-

iation in the composite elastic modulus with the direction dicted by the present theory agree well with the

angle for =0 and 90 . experimental results. Also, the existing theoretical

1970 S.-Y. Fu, B. Lauke

(experimental results: circle points and theoretical results: solid

line).

experimental results concerning injection-molded short-

glass-®ber-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate)

(PET).20 The composite was divided into the surface

layers and the middle layers, and the investigated tensile

bar specimens showed an approximate planar FOD.

The cumulative ®ber orientation percentages of ®bers

were measured for the surfaces layers and the core

(middle) layers, and the cumulative percentage of the

®bers in the whole composite can be obtained from

Kwok et al.20 as shown in Fig. 17 (circle points) for

Fig. 16. The eect of the ®ber orientation function g() on the

variation in the composite elastic modulus (a) with the direc- Vf=0.184. The cumulative orientation distribution

tion angle for various and (b) with the direction angle function of ®bers (eqn (8)), is used to simulate the

for =60 . cumulative FOD, and the result is shown in Fig. 17

(p=0.52 and q=6, see solid line). And the following

data of the parameters are used to predict the variation

model for the transverse modulus (i.e. the transverse in the composite elastic modulus with the direction

modulus theory).26,27 (,):20 Ef=76 GPa, Gf=30.4 GPa, f=0.25,

Em=4.0 GPa, Gm=1.43 GPa, m=0.40, Vf=0.184,

Ec 90 ; Ef Em = Vf Em 1 ÿ Vf Ef 21 df=9.4 m and `mean/df=31 (`mean=0.291 mm, a=6.7

and b=1.7). The composite elastic modulus is evaluated

is applied to the existing experimental result. However, by the present theory, and the theoretical results and the

the modulus value evaluated with this transverse mod- experimental results are presented in Fig. 18. The elastic

ulus theory is much lower than the experimental value. moduli in the three directions (=0 , =0 ), (=90 ,

Therefore, the present theory is a more precise model in =0 ) and (=90 , =90 ) were investigated experi-

predicting the transverse modulus of SFRP for the uni- mentally. Figure 18 reveals that the theoretical results

directional ®ber alignment case than the transverse agree very well with the experimental ones in the three

modulus theory (eqn (21)). directions experimentally investigated.

Table 1. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results of the longitudinal and transverse moduli of the unidirectional short-

glass-®ber epoxy composite8

System(stress direction) Stiness (GPa)

Present theory Transverse modulus theory26,27 Experimental results8

`mean =0.466 mm 3.198 mm

Longitudinal to short ®bers 31.93 36.21 31.0

Transverse to short ®bers 9.58 9.58 5.39 9.6

Elastic modulus of misaligned short-®ber-reinforced polymers 1971

function g() versus . Finally, the theory is applied to

some existing experimental results8,20 and the theoretical

results predicted by the present theory are found to agree

well with the published experimental results.

REFERENCES

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