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Introduction to Healthcare System

Introduction to Medical Terminology

Introduction To Human Body; Structure &


Function
2

Introduction to Medical Terminology & related


equipment’s name

Orientation to Radiology Department

Radiation Hazards and Protection


Safety & First Aid

Personnel Hygiene and safety

Bio Medical Waste Management (BMW)

Patients Right & Environment

Soft Skills & Communication

Radiation Physics & Physics of Diagnostic


Radiology
Dark Room Techniques

Faults in Radiographs and Remedy (Machine


know how)

Contrast Media

Recent Imaging and special Diagnostic


Procedure
Post processing techniques

Radiography techniques & Positioning


Machines & Accessories

Patient Care, handling & Department


Management
Quality Assurance in Radiology

Act Within The Limits Of Competence And


Authority

Work Effectively With Others

Manage Work To Meet Requirements

Consent, Documentation & Records

Basic Computer Knowledge


Basic understanding of Healthcare Service Providers (primary,
secondary & tertiary) AL
Basic understanding of hospital functions 1

Basic understanding of Radiology Technician, Understanding of


Radiology Department at different level (National / State / District) 1J
1 al

Basic understanding of anatomic definitions, cells and tissues of human


body . Basic understanding of all the body systems and its functions 1j
The basics of the cardio vascular system, common cardiovascular
disorders) 1j
The basics of the respiratory system 1j
The basics of the digestive system 1j
The basics of the urinary system 1j
The basics of the reproductive system 0.5 j
The basics of the musculoskeletal system 0.5 j
The basics of the nervous system 1j
The basics of the ear, nose, throat and eye 0.5 j
The basics of the endocrine system 0.5 j
The basics of the haemopoietic and lymphatic system 0.5 j

The basics of the surface anatomy & surface markings of human body 1j

Explain the pathology of various systems: cardiovascular system,


respiratory system, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, GIT,
GUT and reproductive system 1 al
To learn about basic understanding of congenital malformations, Centre
of ossification. Medico-legal & anthropological aspects of skeletal
system, Estimation of age, sex, stature (height) and race. 1 al
Basics of Embriology 1 al
To know about commonly used medical terms in radiological field, To
develop understanding of medical abbreviations. 1m
To develop understanding of commonly used medical equipment &
terms in radiological department. 1j
Orientation to Radiology & Radiotherapy Department 1j
Introduction to Radiation Hazards. Radiation units – Roentgen, rad, rem,
etc, Dosimetry, various radiation measuring instruments, measurement
of X-ray and other radiation,TLD 1j

Biological effect of radiation (Late and immediate effects of radiation),


Radiation Protection,ICRP recommendations, AERB related guidelines 0.5 j

To develop understanding about protective materials, lead, lead


equivalent, building materials, Radiation protection devices and
personal monitoring devices, , Maximum permissible doe (MPD) 0.5 j
precautions to ensure patient’s safety,self-safety, first aids, common
emergency conditions and what to do in medical emergencies, 1j
Fire safety, disaster management and techniques to deal with it 1 AL
use of PPE & radiation safety (lead apron, TLD badges etc), hand
hygiene, vaccination against common Infectious Diseases 1j

categories of bio-medical waste, colour coding, disposal of BMW, To


understand the role of an infection control team 1m

steps taken to ensure safety and comfort to the patient during the
procedure, methodology of cleanliness, and hygiene environment,
sensitivities involved in patient’s right and responsibilities, Learn
Radiology Technician’s role in maintaining patient's rights 0.5
To learn and understand to prepare the patient and the room for the
procedure 0.5
art of effective communication
reading and writing skills

need for customer service and service excellence in Medical service


work ethics in hospital set up
goal setting, team building, team work, time management, thinking and
reasoning & communicating with others
Telephone and Email etiquettes
Basic computer working
identification of rapidly changing situations and adapt accordingly

Learn planning and organization of work, Learn decision making ability

History of X Ray 0.5 j

understanding about basic concepts of power, work, force, energy,


electricity, magnetism and their units and
measurements- Einstein’s formula – electromagnetic induction –
Atomic structure –radioactivity- ionization and excitation -
electromagnetic waves 1j

X-Rays Basics: Hands and soft X-Rays, Production and properties,


Continuous and characteristic X-Rays, Quality of X-Rays, Heel effect,
Thematic omission 2j
measurement of lionizing radiation: Exposure, Roentgen 0.5 j

X-Ray tubes ,Different parts of an X-Ray tube, Stationary anode tube,


Rotating anode tube, Beam Restrictors, Aperture diagrams, Collimators,
Cones and cylinders, Grids and Different Types of Grid 1.5
Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, Luminescence 0.5
X-Ray Films, cassets for digital X ray 1
Electrostatics Current Potential and potential Difference EMF
Resistance, Ohm’s Law Conductors, Insulators & Semi-Conductors
Electrical power Electrical Energy Electric Capacitor (Condenser)
Capacitance 1

Magnetism Properties of Magnet Magnetic Premeability and Retentivity


magnetic Flux Types of Magnetic Material Electromagnetism Electro
Magnetic Induction 1
Electric Generator Construction and working DC Generator 0.5
Transformer Types Principle Construction Auto Transformer Power
Losses 0.5
Rectification Methods of Rectification Self Rectification Valve –Tube
rectification 0.5
Rays Absorbed dose inverse square Law Scattered Radiation Methods to
Reduce scatter radiation 0.5
Location, Layout, related Accessories & apparatus required, dark room
illuminations - white light and safe lighting

Techniques (film protection, film construction), photographic process:


Introduction, visible light, images produced by radiation, light sensitive
photographic materials, construction of x-ray film & its cross over effect.

storage of film materials and radiograph,Construction of an intensifying


screen, learn about the Fluorescent materials. Types of intensifying
screens, types of cassettes

Film processing: Development. The nature of development-manual or


automatic. The PH scale. constitution of developing solutions both in
manual and automatic processing and properties of developing
chemicals.film processing: Fixing and role of a fixing solution.
Constitution of the fixing solutions and properties of the constituents.
Factors affecting the quality of fixer.

processing equipment: Materials for processing equipment, processors


for Manual operation, hangers, control of chemicals temperature by
heating and thermostat, immersion heaters as well as cooling methods. 4
To learn about machine parts & related accessories to machine
To learn about machine guide given by the manufacturer
To understand faults in radiographs and remedy 1
To understand to operate and oversee operation of radiologic
equipment 1

understanding about Contrast Media Intravascular media Adverse


Reactions, precautions and treatments Various Contrast Media Contrast
Media in Ct, MRI and Ultrasound 1

Detailed knowledge of ultrasound, colour Doppler, different types of


transducers, their principles, applications & role in medicine & cross
sectional anatomy. 2
Mammography, Equipment, Positioning and projections 1
Alimentary Tract radiography: understanding about (Oesophagus )
Barium Swallow, Barium Meal Upper GI Study, Barium meal Follow
through, Barium Enema, Sialography 3

To develop understanding about Nasopharyngography, Tomography,


Laryngography, Bronchography, (Biliary Tract) Oral Cholecystography,
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography, Per Operative
Cholangiography, Urinary Tract intravenous urography, Retrograde
Pyelography, Antegrade Pyelography , Cystography, Retrograde
urethrography 3

To develop understanding about Arthrography, Myelography,


Dacrocystography and orbital Venography, Angiography Arteriography,
Carotid Arteriography, Femoral Arteriography, Phlebography
(Venography) 1

To know about CT scan, conventional, spiral (helical), Multislice-:


Historical development, its principle and applications, various
generations& definition of terms and cross sectional anatomy& use of
diagnostic methods. 2

To know about Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-: Principle,


application, its advantage over computed tomography or ultra
sonography. Its limitations, uses & cross sectional anatomy. 2
To know about Spectroscopy-: Principle, application and uses. 1
To know about Computerised Radiography (CR)-: Principle, application,
advantage & technique. 1

To know about Digital Radiography (DR)-: Principle, scanned projection


radiography, digital substraction angiography application, definition,
advantages & techniques. 1
To know about DSA-: Uses, application, techniques & principle 0.5

To know about Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS)-: Basic


knowledge of PACS, application, principle & image transmission. 0.5
The equipment for processing X-ray images:
a. X-ray Films and X-ray cassettes
b. Intensifying screens
c. X-ray films types structure & quality – choosing films for different
studies
d. Dry & wet processing
e. film processing methods - manual and automatic processing of
conventional & modern images
f. types & maintenance of processing rooms and image processing
equipment
g. systems advantages & disadvantages of day light systems
h. Typical processing faults
i. Production of best quality images in glossy prints and paper prints etc.
j. Uses of intensifying screen, fluorescence and structure of intensifying
screens 3
To develop understanding about Software post processing:
- Digital image processing techniques in CR & DR

To develop understanding about How to read and interpret an X-Ray


anatomical terminology, Positioning terminology, Projection
terminology 0.5

To know regarding Exposure factors : Millie ampere , Kilovolt age 0.5

To develop understanding about positioning of the upper limb, Basic


alternative and additional projections for Hand. , Fingers, Thumb,
Scaphoid, Carpal bones, Carpal tunnel, Wrist, Fore arm, Elbow joint,
Homeruns, The Shoulder, Acromio – clavicular joints, Clavicle, Sterna –
clavicular joint, Scapula, Bones of the thorax, Ribs, Sternum, The Lower
Limb, Foot, Toes,Cleaners, Ankle joint, Leg, Knee joint, Femur, Hip joint,
Pelvis and sacro-iliac joint, Hip joint and upper third of femur, Pelvis,
Sacro – iliac joint, The Vertebral column, Cervical Vertebra, Thoracic
Vertebra, Lumbar Vertebra, Skull, Mastoid, Paranasal, Facial bone -
Maxillae, Mandible, Dental radiography, Lungs/heart and aorta, The
abdomen and pelvic cavity, Mammography (only for female candidates) 10

To learn about Chest & Thorax Bones:-Chest-PA, lordotic


view(Apicogarm), oblique lateral, thoracic inlet view, decubitus view 2

To learn about Abdomen:-general preparation of patient, positioning for


fluid and air levels, plain film exam, principle advantage, techniques and
applications 1
To learn about Upper limb:-fingers, hands, carpal-tunnel view, wrist-
projections, Projections for scaphoid, forearm, elbow, humerus,
shoulder joints, acromio-clavicular joint, sterno-clavicular joint, clavicle
& scapula. 2

To learn about Lower limb:-toes, feet, calcaneum, ankle joint, leg bones,
different views of knee patella, inter condyler notch, and femur 2

To learn about Vertebral Column:-Atlanto occipital joint, odontoid,


cervical spine, cervico-thoracic spin, dorsal spine, thoraco lumbar spine,
lumbosacral spine, sacrum, coccyx, scoliosis, kyphosis, flexion
extension, and both oblique views of spines 2

To learn about Hips & Pelvis:-Pelvis with both hip joints in different
positions, internal and external rotation, frog position, SI Joint. 1

To learn about Ward mobile radiography:-electrical supply, radiation


protection, instruction to be followed for portable radiography. 1

To learn about Operation Theatre technique:-General precautions.


Asepsis in techniques. Selection of exposure risks, radiation protection. 1

To learn about others related:-Dental radiography, macro & micro


radiography, Cine radiography, localization of foreign body, battery
operated units (conducer), mass miniature radiography, other
emergency radiography 1

To develop understanding about Carrying out routine procedures for :


troubleshooting & maintenance. To develop understanding about
Breakdown -& how to report a breakdown of imaging and processing
systems 1
Quality control - calibration in digital systems 1 biomedicalhareda
To develop understanding about Special radiographic equipment:
Mobile unit, Dental unit, Classical Fluoroscopy units, C- Arm 1

Determine the radiological diagnostic tests required for the patient


based on the physician’s prescription and the medical history-
Procedure to patients, Explaining Do's and Don’ts to the patient,
Documentation of patient records:
1) Taking the advice of a radiologist on the scans performed
2)taking patient's consent
3) Documenting diagnosis and comments of the radiologist in a report
for the patient
4)Explanation of diagnosis and report to patient , 1
How to handle: Children, Adult, Women, geriatric 1
Preparation of the patient for special radiological procedure 2
Concept of Quality control, periodic testing of the x-ray equipment,
Evaluation of the test results, maintaining a log about the equipment
being tested, factors which influences quality of care, difference
between quality control and assurance 1 biomedical

Understand the meaning of relations and types of relationship,


effective working relationships with the people, boundary in technician
client relationships, code of ethics for radiology technicians 1m

Understand the importance of a team and team work, the types of


team in health care organization, how to manage the conflict in health
care facility 1m

To develop broad understanding regarding management of work so as


to meet professional expectations, the significance of keeping the
hospital clean, significance of maintaining confidentiality in work
environment, how to manage stress 1m

Understand guidelines for documentation, various types of records of


importance for Radiology Technician, importance of records and
consent, abbreviations and symbols, Enter, transcribe, record, store, or
maintain information in written or electronic/magnetic form 1j
Introduction to Computers, operating systems, Microsoft Office 1 jhuma
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