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Infinite Series

[Power series, Interval of convergence]

Prepared by:

Dr. Sunil

NIT Hamirpur (HP)

(Last updated on 07-01-2010)

Latest update available at: http://www.freewebs.com/sunilnit/

Power Series:

A series of the form a n x n a 0 a1x a 2 x 2 ...... a n x n ... (i)

n 0

where the ai’s are independent of x, is called a power series in x. Such a series may

converge for some or for all values of x.

Interval of convergence:

u n 1 a x n 1 a

Lim Lim n 1 n Lim n 1 .x .

n u n n a x n a n

n

a

If Lim n 1 , then by D’Alembert’s ratio test,

n a n

1

i.e. when x and diverges for all other values.

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 2

1 1

Thus, the power series (i) has an interval x , within which it converges and

diverges for all values of x outside this interval.

Such an interval is called the “interval of convergence” of the power series.

Remarks:

If a n x n has radius of convergence is R (assumed finite), then radius of

convergence of a n x 2n is R.

Q.No.:1.: State with reasons, the values of x for which the series

x 2 x3 x 4 x5

x ...... converges.

2 3 4 5

or

Show that the series

x 2 x3 xn

x ... 1n 1 ... is convergent for 1 x 1 .

2 3 n

xn x n 1

Sol.: Here u n 1n 1 and u n 1 1n .

n n 1

u n 1 n 1

Lim Lim x x. Lim x .

n u n n n 1

n 1

1

n

Then, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the series converges for x 1 and diverges for x 1 .

1 1 1 1

Putting x 1, the series becomes, 1 ...... .

2 3 4 5

1

The given series is 1n 1u n 1n 1 n , which is an alternating series.

1 1

n 1 n u n 1 u n .

n 1 n

Thus u n 1 u n for n 1 i.e. each term is numerically less than its preceding term,

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 3

1

and Lim u n Lim 0.

n n n

1 1 1 1

Putting x 1 , the series becomes, 1 ...... .

2 3 4 5

1

The given series becomes u n ,

n

Thus, by p-series test (here p=1), the given series is divergent when x 1 .

Hence, the given series converges for 1 x 1 .

i.e. Interval of convergence is (1, 1] .

Q.No.:2.: State with reasons, the values of x for which the series

x 2 x3 x 4 x5

...... converges.

2 3 4 5

x n 1 xn2

Sol.: Here u n 1n 1 and u n 1 1n 2 .

n 1 n2

1

u n 1 n 1 1

Lim Lim x x. Lim n x .

n u n n n 2 n 2

1

n

Then, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the series converges for x 1 and diverges for x 1 .

Now let us examine the series for x 1 .

1 1 1 1

Putting x = 1, the series becomes, ...... .

2 3 4 5

1

The given series is 1n 1 u n 1n 1 n 1 , which is an alternating series.

1 1

n 2 (n 1) u n 1 u n .

n 2 n 1

Thus u n 1 u n for n 1 i.e. each term is numerically less than its preceding term,

1

and Lim u n Lim 0.

n n n 1

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 4

1 1 1 1

Putting x 1 , the series becomes, ...... .

2 3 4 5

1

The given series is un n 1 ,

1 1 u 1

Here u n .Take v n . Lim n Lim 1 (a non-zero, finite number) .

n 1 n n v n n 1

1

n

Thus, by comparison test, both the series u n and vn converges or diverges

1

But vn n (here p = 1) is divergent. [by p-series test]

i.e. Interval of convergence is 1, 1 .

Convergence of exponential series:

Q.No.:3.: Show that the series

x 2 x3 xn

1 x ... ... is convergent for all values of x.

2! 3! n!

x n 1 xn

Proof: Here u n and u n 1 .

(n 1)! n!

u n 1 x n (n 1)! x

Now Lim Lim n 1 Lim 0 1 .

n u n n n! x n n

Hence, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the given series is convergent for all values of x.

Convergence of Binomial series:

Q.No.:4.: Show that the series

n (n 1) 2 n (n 1)...[n (r 1)] r

1 nx x ...... x ...... converges for x 1 .

2! r!

n (n 1)...[ n (r 2)] r 1

Proof: Here u r x ,r 1

(r 1)!

n (n 1)...[n (r 2)][n (r 1)] r

and u r 1 x

r!

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 5

u r 1 n (r 1) n 1

Lim Lim x Lim 1 x x for r (n 1)

r u r r r r r

Then, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the series converges for x 1 .

1n x n

Q.No.5: Discuss the behaviour of the infinite series n

.

n n 1 n 1

xn x n 1 x x

Sol.: Here u n 1 and so u n 1 1

n

.

n n n 1 n 1

n 1

u x n 1

Lim n 1 Lim n Lim x x.

n u n n 1 n 1

x

1

n

n

Hence, the given series converges absolutely if x 1 and diverges if x 1 .

Case 1: x 1.

convergent.

Case 2: x 1.

1

When x 1 , the given series is 1n 1u n 1n 1 n , which is an alternating

series.

1 1

Since n 1 n u n 1 u n .

n 1 n

Thus u n 1 u n for n 1 i.e. each term is numerically less than its preceding term,

1

and Lim u n Lim 0.

n n n

Case 3: x 1.

n n n

xn 1

n

n

.

n

Hence, by p-series test, the given series is divergent.

Case 4: x 1.

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 6

xn xn

u n 1

n

. Here Lim form

n n n

xn x n log x

Applying L’Hospital rule, we get Lim Lim

n n n 1

Hence, by Leibnitz’s rule, the given alternating series is oscillatory.

Case 5: x 1 , say x y, y 1

1 1 y

n n n

xn yn

n

n

n

, which is a positive term series.

yn y n 1

Here u n and u n 1

n n 1

u n 1 y n 1 n n 1

Now Lim Lim n Lim y Lim y y 1

n un n n 1 y n n 1 n 1

1

n

Hence, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the series is divergent.

Therefore, the given series converges for 1 x 1 , diverges for x 1 and oscillates

for x 1 .

1 1 1

Q.No.6.: Prove that the series ......

1 x 21 x 2

31 x 3

converges if x 0 and also if x 2 .

or

Determine for what values of x, the following series are convergent:

1 1 1

......

1 x 21 x 2

31 x 3

1 1

Sol.: Here u n and u n 1 .

n 1 x n

n 11 x n 1

u n 1 1 n 1 x n n 1 1

Now Lim Lim Lim . .

n u n n n 11 x n 1 1 n 1 1 x 1 x

n 1

n

1

Then, by D’Alembert’s ratio test, the given series is convergent if 1.

1 x

1 1 1

i.e. if 1 1 1 and 1

1 x 1 x 1 x

Infinite Series: Power series, Interval of convergence Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur 7

1

1 and 1 1 x 1 x 1 and 0 x

1 x

x 2 and 0 x x 2 and 0 x

x 2 and x 0

i.e. if x 0 and also if x 2

Test for convergence at the end points x = 0 and x = 2.

For x = 0, the given series reduces to

1 1 1

1 ...... ....

2 3 n

which is a divergent harmonic series with p = 1.

For x = 2, the given series becomes

1 ....

n

1 1

1 ......

2 3 n

This alternating series is convergent by Leibnitz’s rule.

Thus the given series converges for x ≥ 2 and x < 0.

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