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Misr University for Science & Technology

College of Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 213A

Fluid Mechanics and Heat


Transfer
Dr. Hassan K. Abdulrahim
hassankm2006@gmail.com

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Lecture 3
Fluid Statics Ch-11
10/10/2017

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Fluid Statics

Fluid statics deals with problems


associated with fluids at rest, is generally
referred to as hydrostatics when the fluid
is a liquid and as aerostatics when the
fluid is a gas.
Since there is no relative motion between
the fluid and the solid surface, there are no
shear forces acting parallel to the surface,
therefore, the force exerted on a surface
by a fluid at rest is normal to the surface.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Fluid Statics
The only stress we deal with in fluid statics is
the normal stress, which is the pressure, and
the variation of pressure is due only to the
weight of the fluid.
Fluid statics is used to determine the forces
acting on floating or submerged bodies and
the forces developed by devices like hydraulic
presses and car jacks.
The design of many constructions such as
water dams and liquid storage tanks requires
the determination of the forces acting on their
surfaces using fluid statics.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Pressure

Pressure: is the normal force exerted per unit


area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 (𝐹)
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑃 =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝐴)
Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called a
Pascal (Pa). Since the unit Pa is too small for
pressures encountered in practice, kilopascal
(1 kPa = 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa =
106 Pa) are commonly used.
Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2, lbf/in2 =
psi

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Earth’s Atmosphere

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)

The pressure at any location on the Earth, caused by the


weight of the air column above it. At sea level, atmospheric
pressure has an average value of one atmosphere and
gradually decreases as altitude increases.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Standard atmospheric pressure

Standard atmospheric pressure at mean-


sea-level is 1 atm which is equal to
=101.3 kN/m2 or (kPa)
=1.013 bar
=14.7 psi
=760 mm of Hg
=33.9 ft of water
=10.3 m of water

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

Actual pressure at a give point is called


the absolute pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices are
calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,
and therefore indicate gage pressure,
Pgage = Pabs - Patm
Pressure below atmospheric pressure are
called vacuum pressure,
Pvac = Patm - Pabs
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
PASCAL’S LAW

“Pressure at any point in fluid is same in all


directions when the fluid is at rest”

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


PASCAL’S LAW

Px = Py = P
The above states that the pressure acting on fluid particle
is same in all directions when the fluidChapter
is at3: rest
Pressure and Fluid Statics
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces
On a plane surface, the hydrostatic forces form a
system of parallel forces, and we often need to
determine the magnitude of the force and its point of
action, which is called the centre of pressure (CP).
In most cases, the other side of the plate is open to
the atmosphere, and thus atmospheric pressure
acts on both sides of the plate, yielding a zero
resultant.
In such cases, it is convenient to subtract
atmospheric pressure and work with the gage
pressure only. For example, Pgage= rgh at the
bottom of the lake.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces

When analyzing hydrostatic forces on submerged


surfaces, the atmospheric pressure can be subtracted for
simplicity when it acts on both sidesChapter
of the structure.
3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces
The resultant hydrostatic
force FR acting on the
surface is determined by
integrating the
force P.dA acting on a
differential area dA over the
entire surface area

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces

The magnitude of the resultant force acting on a


plane surface of a completely submerged plate in a
homogeneous (constant density) fluid is equal to the
product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the
surface and the area A of the surface.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Center of Pressure
Line of action of resultant
force FR=PCA does not
pass through the centroid
of the surface. In general,
it lies underneath where
the pressure is higher.
Vertical location of Center
of Pressure is determined
by equating the moment of
the resultant force to the
moment of the distributed
I xx ,C pressure force.
y p  yC  Ixx,C is tabulated for simple
yc A geometries.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Example 1 - Vertical Plane

A plane surface is circular with a diameter of 2m. If it is


vertical and the top edge is 0.5m below the water surface,
find the magnitude of the force on one side and the depth
of centre of pressure
Solution: 𝐹𝑅 = 𝑃𝑐 × 𝐴
I xx ,C
y p  yC 
yc A

When the plane is truly vertical


Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Example 2 - Inclined Plane
A rectangular plate 5ft by 4ft is at an angle of 30o with the horizontal,
and the 5 ft side is horizontal. Find the magnitude of force on one
side of the plate and the depth of its center of pressure when the top
edge is (a) at the water surface (b) 1 ft below water surface

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Example 2 - Inclined Plane

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


EXAMPLE 11–1 Hydrostatic Force
Acting on the Door of a Submerged Car
A heavy car plunges into a lake
during an accident and lands at
the bottom of the lake on its
wheels. The door is 1.2-m-high
and 1-m-wide, and the top edge
of the door is 8 m below the free
surface of the water. Determine
the hydrostatic force on the door
and the location of the pressure
center, and discuss if the driver
can open the door.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Assumptions
1 The bottom surface of the lake is
horizontal. 2 The passenger cabin is well
sealed so that no water leaks inside. 3 The
door can be approximated as a vertical
rectangular plate. 4 The pressure in the
passenger cabin remains at atmospheric
value since there is no water leaking in,
and thus no compression of the air inside.
Therefore, atmospheric pressure cancels
out in the calculations since it acts on both
sides of the door. 5 The weight of the car is
larger than the buoyant force acting on it.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
FR = Pavg x A = 184.4 = 101.3 kN
A strong person can lift 100 kg, whose weight is 981
N or about 1 kN. Also, the person can apply the
force at a point farthest from the hinges (1 m
farther) for maximum effect and generate a moment
of 1 kN m. The resultant hydrostatic force acts
under the midpoint of the door, and thus a distance
of 0.5 m from the hinges. This generates a moment
of 50.6 kN m, which is about 50 times the moment
the driver can possibly generate. Therefore, it is
impossible for the driver to open the door of the car.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

FR on a curved surface is more involved since it requires


integration of the pressure forces that change direction
along the surface.
Easiest approach: determine horizontal and vertical
components FH and FV separately.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces
Horizontal force component on curved surface:
FH = Fx .
Vertical force component on curved surface:
FV = Fy ± W,
W is the weight of the liquid in the enclosed block W =
rgV.
Magnitude of force FR = (FH2 + FV2)1/2
Angle of force is a = tan-1(FV/FH)

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


The exact location of the line of action of the
resultant force (e.g., its distance from one of
the end points of the curved surface) can be
determined by taking a moment about an
appropriate point.
These discussions are valid for all curved
surfaces regardless of whether they are
above or below the liquid.
When the curved surface is a circular arc (full
circle or any part of it), the resultant
hydrostatic force acting on the surface always
passes through the center of the circle.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics


Finally, hydrostatic forces
acting on a plane or
curved surface submerged
in a multi-layered fluid of
different densities can be
determined by considering
different parts of surfaces
in different fluids as different surfaces, finding the
force on each part, and then adding them using
vector addition.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Buoyancy and Stability

This relation is valid for any


body regardless of its shape.
For a fluid with constant density, the buoyant force is
independent of the distance of the body from the free
surface. It is also independent of the density of the
solid body. Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy is due to the fluid displaced by a


body.
FB = rf gV
Archimedes principal: The buoyant force
acting on a body of uniform density
immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of
the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts
upward through the centroid of the displaced
volume.
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Buoyancy and Stability

Buoyancy force FB is equal


only to the displaced volume
rfgVdisplaced.
Three scenarios possible
1. rbody < rfluid: Floating body
2. rbody = rfluid: Neutrally buoyant
3. rbody > rfluid: Sinking body
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
Stability of Floating Bodies

If body is bottom-heavy (G lower than B), it is always stable.


Floating bodies can be stable when G is higher than B due to shift in
location of center buoyancy and creation of restoring moment.
Measure of stability is the metacentric height GM. If GM>1, ship is
stable. Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics
End of Chapter 11
Thank you

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics