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College of Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Department

ME 213A

Transfer

Dr. Hassan K. Abdulrahim

hassankm2006@gmail.com

Lecture 3

Fluid Statics Ch-11

10/10/2017

Fluid Statics

associated with fluids at rest, is generally

referred to as hydrostatics when the fluid

is a liquid and as aerostatics when the

fluid is a gas.

Since there is no relative motion between

the fluid and the solid surface, there are no

shear forces acting parallel to the surface,

therefore, the force exerted on a surface

by a fluid at rest is normal to the surface.

Fluid Statics

The only stress we deal with in fluid statics is

the normal stress, which is the pressure, and

the variation of pressure is due only to the

weight of the fluid.

Fluid statics is used to determine the forces

acting on floating or submerged bodies and

the forces developed by devices like hydraulic

presses and car jacks.

The design of many constructions such as

water dams and liquid storage tanks requires

the determination of the forces acting on their

surfaces using fluid statics.

Pressure

area. It is denoted by P and is given by;

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 (𝐹)

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑃 =

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝐴)

Units of pressure are N/m2, which is called a

Pascal (Pa). Since the unit Pa is too small for

pressures encountered in practice, kilopascal

(1 kPa = 103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa =

106 Pa) are commonly used.

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm2, lbf/in2 =

psi

Earth’s Atmosphere

Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)

Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)

weight of the air column above it. At sea level, atmospheric

pressure has an average value of one atmosphere and

gradually decreases as altitude increases.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Standard atmospheric pressure

sea-level is 1 atm which is equal to

=101.3 kN/m2 or (kPa)

=1.013 bar

=14.7 psi

=760 mm of Hg

=33.9 ft of water

=10.3 m of water

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

the absolute pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices are

calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,

and therefore indicate gage pressure,

Pgage = Pabs - Patm

Pressure below atmospheric pressure are

called vacuum pressure,

Pvac = Patm - Pabs

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

PASCAL’S LAW

directions when the fluid is at rest”

PASCAL’S LAW

Px = Py = P

The above states that the pressure acting on fluid particle

is same in all directions when the fluidChapter

is at3: rest

Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

On a plane surface, the hydrostatic forces form a

system of parallel forces, and we often need to

determine the magnitude of the force and its point of

action, which is called the centre of pressure (CP).

In most cases, the other side of the plate is open to

the atmosphere, and thus atmospheric pressure

acts on both sides of the plate, yielding a zero

resultant.

In such cases, it is convenient to subtract

atmospheric pressure and work with the gage

pressure only. For example, Pgage= rgh at the

bottom of the lake.

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

surfaces, the atmospheric pressure can be subtracted for

simplicity when it acts on both sidesChapter

of the structure.

3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

The resultant hydrostatic

force FR acting on the

surface is determined by

integrating the

force P.dA acting on a

differential area dA over the

entire surface area

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

Surfaces

plane surface of a completely submerged plate in a

homogeneous (constant density) fluid is equal to the

product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the

surface and the area A of the surface.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Center of Pressure

Line of action of resultant

force FR=PCA does not

pass through the centroid

of the surface. In general,

it lies underneath where

the pressure is higher.

Vertical location of Center

of Pressure is determined

by equating the moment of

the resultant force to the

moment of the distributed

I xx ,C pressure force.

y p yC Ixx,C is tabulated for simple

yc A geometries.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Example 1 - Vertical Plane

vertical and the top edge is 0.5m below the water surface,

find the magnitude of the force on one side and the depth

of centre of pressure

Solution: 𝐹𝑅 = 𝑃𝑐 × 𝐴

I xx ,C

y p yC

yc A

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Example 2 - Inclined Plane

A rectangular plate 5ft by 4ft is at an angle of 30o with the horizontal,

and the 5 ft side is horizontal. Find the magnitude of force on one

side of the plate and the depth of its center of pressure when the top

edge is (a) at the water surface (b) 1 ft below water surface

Example 2 - Inclined Plane

EXAMPLE 11–1 Hydrostatic Force

Acting on the Door of a Submerged Car

A heavy car plunges into a lake

during an accident and lands at

the bottom of the lake on its

wheels. The door is 1.2-m-high

and 1-m-wide, and the top edge

of the door is 8 m below the free

surface of the water. Determine

the hydrostatic force on the door

and the location of the pressure

center, and discuss if the driver

can open the door.

Assumptions

1 The bottom surface of the lake is

horizontal. 2 The passenger cabin is well

sealed so that no water leaks inside. 3 The

door can be approximated as a vertical

rectangular plate. 4 The pressure in the

passenger cabin remains at atmospheric

value since there is no water leaking in,

and thus no compression of the air inside.

Therefore, atmospheric pressure cancels

out in the calculations since it acts on both

sides of the door. 5 The weight of the car is

larger than the buoyant force acting on it.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

FR = Pavg x A = 184.4 = 101.3 kN

A strong person can lift 100 kg, whose weight is 981

N or about 1 kN. Also, the person can apply the

force at a point farthest from the hinges (1 m

farther) for maximum effect and generate a moment

of 1 kN m. The resultant hydrostatic force acts

under the midpoint of the door, and thus a distance

of 0.5 m from the hinges. This generates a moment

of 50.6 kN m, which is about 50 times the moment

the driver can possibly generate. Therefore, it is

impossible for the driver to open the door of the car.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

integration of the pressure forces that change direction

along the surface.

Easiest approach: determine horizontal and vertical

components FH and FV separately.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces

Horizontal force component on curved surface:

FH = Fx .

Vertical force component on curved surface:

FV = Fy ± W,

W is the weight of the liquid in the enclosed block W =

rgV.

Magnitude of force FR = (FH2 + FV2)1/2

Angle of force is a = tan-1(FV/FH)

The exact location of the line of action of the

resultant force (e.g., its distance from one of

the end points of the curved surface) can be

determined by taking a moment about an

appropriate point.

These discussions are valid for all curved

surfaces regardless of whether they are

above or below the liquid.

When the curved surface is a circular arc (full

circle or any part of it), the resultant

hydrostatic force acting on the surface always

passes through the center of the circle.

Finally, hydrostatic forces

acting on a plane or

curved surface submerged

in a multi-layered fluid of

different densities can be

determined by considering

different parts of surfaces

in different fluids as different surfaces, finding the

force on each part, and then adding them using

vector addition.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Buoyancy and Stability

body regardless of its shape.

For a fluid with constant density, the buoyant force is

independent of the distance of the body from the free

surface. It is also independent of the density of the

solid body. Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Buoyancy and Stability

body.

FB = rf gV

Archimedes principal: The buoyant force

acting on a body of uniform density

immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of

the fluid displaced by the body, and it acts

upward through the centroid of the displaced

volume.

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Buoyancy and Stability

only to the displaced volume

rfgVdisplaced.

Three scenarios possible

1. rbody < rfluid: Floating body

2. rbody = rfluid: Neutrally buoyant

3. rbody > rfluid: Sinking body

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

Stability of Floating Bodies

Floating bodies can be stable when G is higher than B due to shift in

location of center buoyancy and creation of restoring moment.

Measure of stability is the metacentric height GM. If GM>1, ship is

stable. Chapter 3: Pressure and Fluid Statics

End of Chapter 11

Thank you

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