mechanical engineering chapter

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mechanical engineering chapter

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Stress

• A variable that can be used as a measure of strength of a structural

member.

Learning objectives

• Understanding the concept of stress.

forces and moments.

Stresses

and Moments and Moments

1-1

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Normal Stress

Imaginary Cut N σavg

Imaginary Cut Compressive Normal Force Compressive Normal Stre

σ av = N ⁄ A

• All internal forces (and moments) in the book are in bold italics

• Normal stress that pulls the surface away from the body is called a ten-

sile stress.

• Normal stress that pushes the surface into the body is called a com-

pressive stress.

• The normal stress acting in the direction of the axis of a slender mem-

ber (rods, cables, bars, columns, etc.) is called the axial stress.

• The compressive normal stress that is produced when one surface

presses against other is called the bearing stress.

1-2

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

wires of diameter of 0.75 mm. Determine the tensile stress in the wires

AB and BC.

2m

A A

2.5

m

2.5

m

B

C

Light

Fig. P1.5

1-3

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Shear Stress

Imaginary cut

along the possible path

Weight

Imaginary cut of the of the edge of the ring.

between the wall Clothes

and the tape Pull

of the

hand

V

W

V of eigh V Pull

Clo the t of the

the V

s hand

τav

τav W

τav

τav of eight

t

Clo he Pull

the τav of the

s hand

τ av = V ⁄ A

1-4

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

• Visualizing the surface on which stress acts is very important.

F

F

F

F

V

V

V

ND ND

NC

NC VD

D VB D

C

NB

C

B

NB VB

B Cut 2

Cut 1 VD

1-5

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

1.24 The device shown in Fig. P1.24 is used for determining the

shear strength of the wood. The dimensions of the wood block are

6 in x 8 in x 1.5 in. If the force required to break the wood block is

12 kips, determine the average shear strength of the wood.

P

6 in Wood

6 in 2 in

Fig. P1.24

1-6

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

1.31 Two cast iron pipes are held together by a bolt as shown. The

outer diameters of the two pipes are 50 mm and 70 mm and wall thick-

ness of each pipe is 10 mm.The diameter of the bolt is 15 mm. The bolt

broke while transmitting a torque of 2 kN-m. On what surface(s) did the

bolt break? What was the average shear stress in the bolt on the surface

where it broke?

Fig. P1.31

1-7

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Fig. P1.43 shows a truss and the sequence of assembly of members at pin

H. All members of the truss have a cross-sectional area of 250 mm2 and

all pins have a diameter of 15 mm.

1.42 Determine the axial stresses in members HA, HB, HG and HC

of the truss shown in Fig. P1.43.

1.43 Determine the maximum shear stress in pin H.

G

H F

HC

HG

300 300 HB

E HA

A B C D

3m 3m 3m 3m

Pin H

4 kN 2 kN 3 kN

Fig. P1.43

1-8

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

of a body is called the stress on a surface.

• The intensity of internal distributed force that is normal to the surface

of an imaginary cut is called the normal stress on a surface.

• The intensity of internal distributed force that is parallel to the surface

of an imaginary cut surface is called the shear stress on the surface.

• Relating stresses to external forces and moments is a two step process.

Stresses

and Moments and Moments

Static equivalency

Normal stress Uniform

Normal stress x linear in z x shear stress

Uniform Shear linear in y in tangential

Uniform Normal Stress τavg direction.

Stress σavg y y

z z

x x T

N = σ A V = τ A

avg avg My

y y

z z

Mz

1-9

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

shear stress τ and a normal stress as shown in Fig. P1.57(b). (a) Replace

the normal stress distribution by an equivalent internal normal force N

and an internal moment Mz acting at the centroid C of the cross-sec-

tion.(b) Determine the value of the average shear stress τ, the intensity of

the external distributed force w, and the force P.

(a) y Normal stress distribution

A (b)

2m 3m 55o at cross-section AA

25 mm

y

x A 5m

z C

w N/m 40 mm

P

Fig. P1.57 z

40 mm

σ = 150 MPa (T)

1-10

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Fig. P1.68. The length of bonded region L = 5 inches. Determine the

maximum force P the joint can support if the shear strength of adhesive is

300 psi and the wood strength is 6 ksi in tension.

P

8 in P

1 in

1 in

1 in

L

Fig. P1.68

1.69 The joint in Fig. P1.68 is to support a force P = 25 kips, what

should be the length L of the bonded region if the adhesive strength in

shear is 300 psi.

1-11

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Class Problem 1

A nail is being pulled out using a claw hammer. Draw the free body dia-

gram that can be used for calculation of shear stress acting on the nail.

Identify the surface and the direction of shear stress.

12 in

2 in

Class Problem 2

The two pipes got separated while transmitting the force P. Draw the free

body diagram that will permit the calculation of shear stress in the bolt at

breaking time. Identify the surface and the direction of shear stress.

1-12

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Class Problem 3

Draw the free body diagram for calculating the shear stress in the bolts

holding the coupling together. Identify the surface and the direction of

shear stress on each bolt.

1-13

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Stress at a Point

Outward normal i Internal Force

∆F j

∆Ai σ ij = lim ----------

∆ A i → 0 ∆ A i

∆Fj

direction of direction of the

outward normal to the internal force component.

imaginary cut surface.

in the positive i direction.

same sign. Thus σij is positive if: (1) ∆Fj and ∆Ai are both positive. (2)

∆Fj and ∆Ai are both negative.

σ xx τ xy τ xz

• Stress Matrix in 3-D: τ yx σ yy τ yz

τ zx τ zy σ zz

Scaler 1=10 1=20 1=30

Vector 1=11 2=21 3=31

Stress 1=12 4=22 9=32

1-14

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

Stress Element

• Stress element is an imaginary object that helps us visualize stress at a

point by constructing surfaces that have outward normal in the coordi-

nate directions.

Stress cube showing all positive stress components

σ xx τ xy τ xz

τ yx σ yy τ yz

τ zx τ zy σ zz

σ xx τ xy 0

τ yx σ yy 0

0 0 0

• A pair of symmetric shear stress points towards the corner or away

from the corner.

1-15

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

1.78 Show the non-zero stress components on the A,B, and C faces

of the cube.

τ yx = – 200 MPa σ yy = 175MPa ( C ) τ yz = 225MPa

τ zx = 0 τ zy = 225MPa σ zz = 150MPa ( C )

.C

.B z

.A

Class Problem 4

Show the non-zero stress components of problem 1-78 on the A,B, and C

faces of the cube below.

y z

.C

.B

x

.A

1-16

M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 1 Oxford University Press

drical coordinate system on the A,B, and C faces of the stress element

shown.

τ θr = 100MPa σ θθ = 160MPa ( T ) τ θx = 165MPa

τ xr = – 125 MPa τ xθ = 165MPa σ xx = 150MPa ( T )

A

r

B θ

x

C

1-17

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