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Leadership & Organization Development Journal

A test of the path-goal leadership theory in Taiwan

Colin Silverthorne
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Colin Silverthorne, (2001),"A test of the path-goal leadership theory in Taiwan", Leadership & Organization Development
Journal, Vol. 22 Iss 4 pp. 151 - 158
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A test of the path-goal leadership theory in Taiwan

Colin Silverthorne
University of San Francisco, California, USA

Keywords This study analyzed the leadership behavior The theory proposes four different kinds of
Leadership, Taiwan, and processes of managers in a sample of leadership styles. They are directive or
Organizational effectiveness,
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National cultures
Taiwan companies using the path-goal theory instrumental, supportive, participative and
(House, 1971). Research regarding leadership achievement-oriented leadership styles. An
Abstract styles is highly important to Taiwan's effective leader is one who knows which style
The path-goal theory of leadership industrial organizations. Taiwan is in a to use and when to use it. Directive or
states that the leader helps
unique position in that industrial instrumental leaders tell subordinates what
subordinates to achieve their goals
by providing a clear path for them to development was very rapid and occurred is expected of them and give specific
follow. This research project used without a parallel increase in management guidance and enforce rules and procedures.
data collected in Taiwan to test the education. Taiwan is a newly industrialized The supportive leader likes a friendly
applicability of this theory in a non- environment and gives strong attention to
western culture. The three groups
country and the use of modern or new
of subjects studied (peers, management techniques have not always the needs and wellbeing of his or her
managers and subordinates), occurred. Organizational change is often subordinates. The participative leader
perceived the level of task structure slow to occur, so hopefully the findings of involves his or her subordinates in the
to be equivalent. Three aspects of decision-making process. Finally, the
leadership were measured:
this research will be valuable. Of particular
interest was whether Taiwanese managers achievement-oriented leader seeks to
instrumental, supportive and
participative leadership. Leaders are able to adjust their leadership style and improve performance, sets high standards,
reported that they used each style and shows confidence that his or her
behavior in order to compensate for changes
of leadership at a statistical subordinates will achieve these standards,
significantly higher level than their in the work environment. Further, it was
(Prasad, 1990). Which of these styles a leader
peers believed. Two dimensions of important to see how the adjustments that a
chooses should depend on the nature of the
motivation were also considered: manager makes impact subordinates' job
efforts that lead to performance and task and the needs of the subordinates. If the
satisfaction and performance. Research
efforts that lead to rewards. Overall, task is well defined then less guidance is
the results provide some support for regarding leadership styles is highly
needed and the leader can be less directive,
the path-goal theory of leadership. important to Taiwan's industrial
whereas, if the task is poorly defined,
The theory was supported for the organizations. Taiwan is in a unique position
relationship between managers and subordinates will require more guidance and
in that industrial development was very direction from the leader. The path-goal
subordinates but not supported for
the relationship between managers rapid and occurred without a parallel theory argues that a leader should be able to
and peers. increase in management education. A review be either task or relationship oriented as the
of the research literature yields no studies particular situation requires (Wren, 1994).
that have tested this particular leadership The theory is built around two different
theory in Asia, let alone Taiwan. hypotheses or propositions. The first is that
The author wishes to thank The path-goal theory developed by House
Dr Ping-Chi Mao and Dr when subordinates take the leaders' behavior
(1971) and revised over the next several years as the source for their present job
April Chi of the California
Management Institute for (e.g. House, 1999), argues that leaders can satisfaction, the leader's behavior is
their assistance with the adjust their own behaviors to adapt to generally acceptable and can lead to
data collection. contingencies and in this way find the most employee satisfaction. The behavior of the
suitable style for any particular situation. leader will be viewed as acceptable to
Received: January 2001
Revised/accepted: The theory states that the main goal of the subordinates only when they perceive it as
March 2001 leader is to help subordinates attain the either an immediate source of satisfaction or
subordinates' goals effectively, and to as instrumental to future job satisfaction.
provide them with the necessary direction The second hypothesis or proposition offered
and support to achieve their own goals as by the theory is that leadership behavior is
Leadership & Organization well as those of the organization. motivational. Therefore the more
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158
The research register for this journal is available at The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
# MCB University Press
[ISSN 0143-7739]

[ 151 ]
Colin Silverthorne appropriate the leader's behavior, the more theory and demonstrated the robustness of
A test of the path-goal motivational it is likely to be. Motivation of the theory in regard to leader behavior and
leadership theory in Taiwan subordinates is achieved by tying that the theory could be used outside the
Leadership & Organization satisfaction of subordinates' needs to normal parameters of leadership research.
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158 effective performance and by complementing Another study (Fry et al., 1986) tested the
the work environment of the subordinates by moderating effects of interdependence
providing the necessary coaching, guidance, between leader behaviors and satisfaction
and rewards for their effective performance, and performance. The research, conducted
(Levanoni and Knoop, 1985). If the work on sports teams, found strong support for the
structure is unclear or there is a significant performance hypothesis but not the
amount of environmental pressure, the satisfaction hypothesis. It was suggested that
directive leadership style will give this result might have occurred because
subordinates more job satisfaction and result achievement behavior is very important in
in more effective work performance. If the sports teams and participation is less
work structure is clear then the supportive important because of the team nature of
leadership style will allow subordinates to sports. This would infer that organizations,
feel more job satisfaction and result in more with highly interdependent work groups,
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effective work performance. When employees need managers who are more instrumental
have a high level of ability and experience, in controlling and coordinating group
the directive leadership style is probably not member tasks either through direct
the most effective and in fact may hamper supervision or formalized rules. If group
employee performance and job satisfaction. If members work independently of each other,
the organization has a rigid and clear power a coaching, counseling and consideration
system, then the leader needs to be more leadership style may lead to greater
supportive than directive. collective group performance.
According to the theory, the role of the Keller (1989) looked at the moderating need
leader is dependent on the subordinate's for clarity for the initiating-structure-
working environment and the amount of performance relationship and the current
structure in the environment. Highly and future impacts of these variables. He
structured environments that provide a large found support for the path-goal theory in that
amount of organization and role and task need for clarity does moderate the
clarity will provide a clear path to work relationship between leader initiating
goals. In this situation, the leader should be structure and satisfaction. However, Keller
concerned with his or her relationship with cautioned that additional research in a
subordinates. The leader supports morale greater variety of settings is necessary before
and reduces the tedium of tasks as much as these results can be generalized. In the
possible. If the nature of the work structure workplace, professionals with a low need for
is unclear or changeable, the leader should clarity would generally structure their own
assist subordinates by providing direction work consistent with the organizational and
and guidance. In this type of situation the task needs. However, those professionals
leader should choose task orientation over with a high need for clarity should receive
relationship orientation. more structure from their supervisors for
The path-goal theory has both supporters unclear tasks to enhance performance and
and detractors. Schriesheim and DeNisi, satisfaction, and then the supervisor can
(1981) looked at some of the criticisms of the provide the appropriate leadership behavior.
theory. One primary criticism is that it does Keller (1989) noted that the less structure
not have the ability to generate meaningful there is in the work environment, the more
predictions. In addition, critics cite the lack the leader is likely to be motivated to add
of available empirical support. To counter structure by coaching and guiding
these criticisms Schriesheim and DeNisi employees. Initiation of structure, or
conducted several field studies and directive leadership, was found to be more
concluded the data provided considerable effective than other styles of leadership in
support for the path-goal theory. Fulk and situations where tasks are ambiguous,
Wendler (1982) identified four areas of unstructured or where insufficient feedback
research that they considered have not is given to employees (Fry et al., 1986). In this
received sufficient attention, and attempted situation, directed leadership helps to keep
to predict outcomes using the path-goal employee effectiveness and satisfaction high
theory. These four areas were leader and increase the amount of time and energy
influence up the organization, achievement spent on a task.
orientation, contingent approval and The relationships between job attitudes,
punitive behaviors. The findings supported work environment perceptions and
the underlying premises of the path-goal supervisor's rating of job performance was
[ 152 ]
Colin Silverthorne investigated by Butler and Ehrlich (1991), style is accepted by subordinates and seen as
A test of the path-goal and their results also supported the path-goal motivational, and also generates two
leadership theory in Taiwan theory. Given the highly structured and hypotheses.
Leadership & Organization standardized task environment investigated
Development Journal H4: The leadership style of managers is not
22/4 [2001] 151±158 in this study, there was considerably less seen as accepted by subordinates.
pressure on the leaders in the organization. H5: The leadership style of managers are is
However, given the complexity of the tasks not seen as motivational to employees
undertaken, the effect and need for by their subordinates.
leadership were found to be strong.
The next research question looked at the role
In a meta-analysis of studies that had been
of strategic rather than tactical decision
conducted to investigate the merits of the
making. This concept is a critical one in path-
path-goal theory, Woffard and Liska (1993)
goal theory since it is important to know
concluded that research did not seem to
whether participation in tactical rather than
support the major tenets of the theory, strategic decisions is a better predictor of
although they also concluded that much of performance, generating the following
the research was flawed. They noted that the hypothesis:
research in general found that effective
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leadership is not dependent on the H6: Participation in tactical rather than

instrumentality of the leader or that the strategic decisions is a better predictor
of work outcomes.
elements that get in the way of employees
being successful do not match the theory.
They suggest that the constructs used in
research receive greater attention if effective
research is to be conducted. Further, they Method
concluded that the most effective leader may Subjects
well be the person who identifies the Data were collected from managers, peers
deficiencies and hindrances in a work and subordinates for a sample of staff from a
situation and uses behaviors that will major company in Taiwan. The sample sizes
minimize or eliminate them. Communicating were as follows: 46 managers, 46 peers and 92
with employees regarding their needs and subordinates. An attempt was made to
problems on the job would be an effective include all managers in the sample. However,
strategy for managers. In fact, leadership because of factors beyond the control of the
skills often take second place to job-related researcher, three managers were not
experience and job-related expertise when available or refused to participate. The peer
managerial promotions and hiring decisions group consisted of the same managers acting
are made (Campbell et al., 1995). in their peer role, so this group also included
Based on the findings from the earlier 46 of the 49 people available. Two
research, the following hypotheses were subordinates for each manager participating
proposed and tested. The path-goal theory in the study were picked at random to be
suggests task structure is related to included in the sample of subordinates, and
instrumental leader behavior, resulting in these subordinates evaluated their own
the following research hypothesis: manager only. Two employees either refused
H1: Since task structure has a moderating to participate or were not available and were
effect on the relationships between replaced, yielding the sample of 92
instrumental behavior, managers will subordinates. Both males and females were
prefer a high task structure to a low included in this sample. It should be noted,
task structure. however, that the population of available
managers was predominantly male (40 males
The second research question looked at and six females), while the subordinate group
whether the manager's leadership style is had more of a balance between males and
accepted by peers and seen as motivational. females (61 males and 31 females).
This question has to be analyzed in two parts
generating two different hypotheses. Instrumentation and data collection
H2: The leadership style of managers is not The data were collected from all subjects
seen as accepted by peers. using standardized questionnaires
H3: The leadership style of managers is not previously validated for use in looking at
seen as motivational to employees by path-goal theory. All subjects in this study
their peers. completed the task structure scale (House,
The third research question is similar to the 1973). This scale consists of ten items
second, but in this case the focus is on the intended to measure the degree to which the
subordinates rather than the peers. This task stimuli and execution rules are simple,
question asked if the manager's leadership repetitive, and unambiguous. The second
[ 153 ]
Colin Silverthorne scale used was the leader behavior scale. correlations yielded a score of 0.42 on the
A test of the path-goal This scale was developed from several task-structure scale; a value of 0.52 for the
leadership theory in Taiwan sources and validated by House (1973). This instrumental leadership scale, of 0.49 for the
Leadership & Organization scale has three sub-scales that measure supportive leadership scale and 0.65 for the
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158 instrumental, supportive, and participative participative leadership scale; and a value of
leadership. The third scale that was used 0.56 on efforts that lead to performance and a
looked at leader expectancy. This scale has value of 0.41 on efforts that lead to rewards.
two sub-scales. The first sub-scale measures All of these correlations are statistically
efforts that lead to performance and the significant at the 0.05 level for the sample
second measures efforts that lead to rewards size used. The scales used in this study
(House, 1973). A measure of work outcomes therefore can be considered to have a
was also needed. The instrument used was reasonable level of validity for the population
developed by Sagie and Koslowsky (1994). sampled in this study. The validity measure
These authors developed and validated an for the work outcome scale replicated the
instrument that measures acceptance, procedure used by Sagie and Koslowsky
satisfaction, effectiveness and time at work. (1994) and found equivalent measures of
All of the scales were translated into validity of 0.63.
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Chinese using the double translation method.

This approach assures that the translation is
accurate. Since little research has been done Results
outside the USA on path-goal theory, there
are no research data to support the validity An analysis of variance comparing the level
and reliability of these instruments in any of task structure between the three groups
language other than English. To overcome indicated that the level of task was perceived
this problem, pilot data were collected and as equivalent by the three groups (F (2, 181) =
the validity and reliability process used by 1.76, p > 0.05). A comparison of the data from
House was replicated to provide support for the task structure scale indicates that the
the validity and reliability of the task structure was higher than the USA
instruments. This study was designed to normative data for all three groups; however,
evaluate the path-goal theory and any such no recent normative data were found so this
study requires consideration of all aspects of comparison is only indicative of a possible
the theory as well as the measurement trend. Using the data from the leader
instruments used. Thus, the issue of validity behavior scale for the managers and their
and reliability of the instruments was an peers, a series of independent t-tests were
integral part of this study. All three computed. The test results were as follows:
leadership scales were given to samples of for the instrumental leadership scale t (104) =
people in equivalent types of jobs as the 4.26, p < 0.05; for the supportive leadership
subjects used in the final sample. These scale, t (104) = 3.92, p < 0.05; and for
results are based on 80 workers and participative leadership, t (104) = 3.55, p <
managers taking two administrations of the 0.05. These results indicate that the managers
test two weeks apart. Test-retest reliabilities scored higher on all three scales than the
for the three scales were as follows: task- scores attributed to them by their peers. This
structure, 0.74; leader behavior, 0.77; and finding suggests that the peers have a lower
leader expectancy, 0.71. For the work level of acceptance of the managers'
outcomes scale, the reliability coefficient was leadership style.
0.73. Split-half reliability scores were also Pearson product moment correlations were
obtained on a different sample of 75 workers computed for each of the two motivational
and managers and the reliability scores were factors, efforts that lead to performance and
as follows: task-structure, 0.84; leader efforts that lead to rewards, as assigned by
behavior, 0.86; and leader expectancy, 0.79. the peers. A strong positive correlation
All of these coefficients are more than supports the expectation that leadership style
adequate levels of reliability, and it can be is related to performance and reward factors.
concluded that the tests are reliable for the However, this effect was found only for the
population to be studied. participative leadership score assigned by
A measure of concurrent validity was peers and the performance factor (Table I).
obtained by asking a group of managers to Independent t-tests were computed using
evaluate their peers on a ten-point scale for the data from the leader behavior scale for
each of the dimensions on the three scales the managers and their subordinates. The
and then comparing these results with their results were: for the instrumental leadership
scores on the same scales. These managers scale t (137) = 1.46, p > 0.05, for the supportive
were different from those included in the leadership scale, t (137) = 1.91, p > 0.05; and
final sample. Pearson product moment for participative leadership, t (137) = 1.59,
[ 154 ]
Colin Silverthorne p > 0.05. Given that the results for the
A test of the path-goal managers were equivalent on all three scales Discussion
leadership theory in Taiwan to those attributed to the managers by their The present study looked at the dimensions
Leadership & Organization subordinates, the subordinates had a good of the path-goal theory developed by House
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158 level of acceptance of the managers' (1971) as they apply in Taiwan. The relative
leadership style. effectiveness of leadership styles and the
A series of correlational analyses were also theoretical frameworks within which these
computed for each of the two motivational styles operate have been a major topic of
factors and the scores assigned by consideration in the organizational and
subordinates. The results are summarized in leadership literature for more than 50 years.
Table II. A strong positive correlation on The path-goal theory was tested in order to
each of these dimensions would be understand the relationship between
supportive of a relationship, and this effect leadership styles, preferred levels of task
was found for all of the variables measured. structure and peer and subordinate
Finally, a regression analysis was used to acceptance of a manager's style. There has
investigate each of the work outcomes been no published research in Taiwan using
measured. These work outcomes were the House (1971) model. For this reason, it
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acceptance of change, work satisfaction, was necessary to translate all of the

effectiveness and time invested in work. A instruments used in this research into
hierarchical regression analysis of work Chinese and then to test the instruments for
outcomes was computed for the organization their reliability and validity; based on the
being studied and for each of the three groups findings it is reasonable to assume that the
of subjects used in this study (Cohen and instruments have an acceptable level of
Cohen, 1983). The results are reported in reliability and validity.
Table III. Since the path-goal theory suggests that
As can be seen from Table III, the beta task structure has a moderating effect on
values range from 3 to 23 and many of the instrumental behavior, it was expected that
additional variance values (R2) were managers would prefer high task structure.
statistically significant. The results of the test of this hypothesis
showed that the three groups of subjects
perceived the level of task structure to be
Table I equivalent. This finding is important since it
Correlational values between the variables for peers suggests that the different subject groups
Instrumental Supportive Participative perceived task structure levels in the
leadership leadership leadership organization the same way. Given that
members of the organization perceive the
Performance factors ±0.24 0.27* 0.37*
level of task structure as equivalent, the next
Reward factors 0.12 ±0.32* 0.22
concern was to ascertain whether the level of
Note: p < 0.05 (all degrees of freedom 45) task structure could be considered to be high
or low. One way to judge the level of task
structure is to compare the results of the
Table II scores provided by the Taiwanese sample
Correlational values between the variables for subordinates with normative data from the USA. The
groups in Taiwan all perceived the level of
Instrumental Supportive Participative task structure to be higher than those
leadership leadership leadership indicated by US normative scores. While it is
Performance factors 0.44* 0.47* 0.41* not possible to argue without contradiction
Reward factors 0.52* 0.38* 0.37* that the task structure is higher in Taiwan
organizations and no recent normative data
Note: p < 0.05 (all degrees of freedom 91)
are available for this scale, the level of
difference between the two sets of data is
very large, indicating that the task structure
Table III is higher. Further, managers' self-reports
Hierarchical regression analysis of work outcome beta values indicate that they prefer a high level of task
structure and subordinates and peers also
Acceptance Satisfaction Effectiveness Time at work
believe that managers prefer high task
2 2 2
Subjects Beta R Beta R Beta R Beta R2 structure.
Managers 23 0.13* 11 0.03 14 0.06 12 0.08 The second hypothesis tested in this
Peers 10 0.03 16 0.11* 19 0.15* 20 0.14* research study was that the leadership style
Subordinates 16 0.09 19 0.14* 22 0.21* 17 0.18 of the managers would not be acceptable to
their peers. Three scales of leadership were
Notes: * p < 0.05
measured in this study: instrumental,
[ 155 ]
Colin Silverthorne supportive and participative leadership. On between the score for the efforts that lead to
A test of the path-goal all three scales the leaders reported that they rewards and the instrumental leadership
leadership theory in Taiwan used this style of leadership at a statistical score was a non-statistically significant
Leadership & Organization significantly higher level than their peers negative correlation. The correlation
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158 believed. These findings indicate that the between efforts that lead to rewards and the
peers have a lower level of acceptance of the supportive leadership score was a
manager's leadership style and supported the statistically significant negative correlation.
second research hypothesis. This finding is However, the correlation between efforts that
interesting in that the managers perceived lead to reward and the supportive leadership
themselves differently to the way they are score was a positive, statistically significant
perceived by other managers. Perhaps one.
managers either have a false sense of their The question is: why were the results
own leadership style or they downgrade the inconsistent? The path-goal theory argues
leadership of others. Given that the peer that there should be consistency among these
group of managers includes the same three variables. However, instrumental
individuals as the manager group, it might leadership is most dependent on a task
have been anticipated that the perception of emphasis, while the supportive leadership
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self and others would have been more style places more emphasis on relationships.
consistent. However, the results are Research by Bales and Slater (1955) and
supportive of the path-goal theory. others has suggested that these two
The leader's behavior is important because components are often in conflict and difficult
it has a direct impact on the behavior of for many managers to reconcile and use
followers. This is particularly true in the effectively. This would suggest that if the
area of motivation and performance. This correlation between instrumental leadership
study looked at two dimensions of
and performance is negative then the
motivation. These were efforts that lead to
correlation between instrumental leadership
performance and efforts that lead to rewards.
and rewards should be positive. The reverse
Efforts that lead to performance motivate
relationship should also be true and should
individuals at an intrinsic level. The
apply to all three dimensions of leadership
employees will work because their
performance is valued both by the manager
This expectation was only supported for
and by themselves. Performance and efforts
the supportive leadership dimension. The
that lead to rewards are more extrinsic in
results of the data analysis to test the third
nature. Here individuals are motivated
hypothesis suggest that the relationship
because they will receive rewards from the
between style of leadership and the
organization in the form of such things as
perception of motivation is more complex
salary or benefits. These two dimensions of
than path-goal theory implies. For example,
motivation are important components of the
path-goal theory of leadership, which if instrumental leadership is rarely used in
emphasizes that the role of the manager is to the organization, it is reasonable to assume
provide employees with a clear picture of the that individuals with limited exposure to this
path they are to follow in order that they can style will be less consistent in identifying it.
reach the organization's goals. The fourth and fifth hypotheses are an
In order to test this hypothesis, a series of extension of the previous two hypotheses, but
correlations were computed. The results this time the comparison was between
were not consistent and provide an subordinates and managers. The forth
interesting range of findings. In order for the hypothesis tested suggested that the
hypothesis to be supported, it was necessary leadership style of the managers would not be
to find a consistent set of positive acceptable to their subordinates. On all three
correlations. This was not the case. The scales the leaders reported that they used this
correlation between the score for the efforts style of leadership at statistically the same
that lead to performance and the level as their subordinates believed. These
instrumental leadership score was a non- findings indicate that the subordinates'
statistically significant negative correlation. acceptance of the manager's leadership style
However, the correlations between efforts and managers see themselves in the same
that lead to performance and the supportive way as their subordinates. This implies that
leadership score and between efforts that managers and subordinates have a sense of
lead to performance and the participative leadership style. This finding contradicts the
leadership score were both positive and results for the peers on the same dimensions.
statistically significant. The results The results show differences for the peers
comparing the efforts that lead to rewards and are supportive of the path-goal theory of
were even more inconsistent. The correlation leadership but no difference for the
[ 156 ]
Colin Silverthorne subordinates, which does not support the theory need to be examined and tested. The
A test of the path-goal path-goal theory. results indicate that employees found
leadership theory in Taiwan The leader's behavior is important because participation in tactical rather than strategic
Leadership & Organization it has a direct impact on the behavior of decision making more productive. According
Development Journal
22/4 [2001] 151±158 subordinates, and this study looked at efforts to the path-goal theory, tactical decision
that lead to performance and efforts that lead making is less ambiguous than strategic
to rewards. As stated earlier, these two decision making. This difference generates
dimensions of motivation are an important different expectations in subordinates.
component of the path-goal theory of Specifically, subordinates have a greater
leadership. In order to test the fifth expectation of being involved in tactical
hypothesis, a series of correlations were rather than strategic decision making. From
computed. The results were consistent with a practical perspective, the findings on
those predicted by the path-goal theory. In decision making imply that the subordinates
order for the hypothesis to be supported, it have an expectation that they will be
was necessary to find a consistent set of involved in decision making that relates to
positive correlations. This was the case. The methods and procedures. They do not share
correlation between the score for the efforts this expectation for decisions involving
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that lead to performance and the issues like new product development.
instrumental leadership score, between Overall, the results of this study provide
efforts that lead to performance and the some support for the path-goal theory. The
supportive leadership score and between primary finding, in this study, is that the
efforts that lead to performance and the path-goal theory can be a useful tool when
supportive leadership scores were all applied to organizations in Taiwan, with the
positive, statistically significant implication that managerial training and
relationships. The results comparing the selection should reflect the key components
efforts that lead to rewards were also of the path-goal theory of leadership.
consistent, showing a positive correlation Managers who adapt to the basic principles
between subordinates' perceptions of of the theory may prove to be better leaders
leadership style and the motivational factors and managers.
supporting the path-goal theory. The final The findings from this research provide
hypothesis stated that participation by some support for the path-goal theory. It was
employees in organizational decisions that supported when the relationship between
were tactical rather than strategic was more managers and subordinates was considered.
likely to be predictive of work outcomes. The The theory was not supported when applied
data were analyzed using a regression to the relationship between managers and
analysis and looked at four work outcomes. their peers. It may reasonably be assumed
These were acceptance of the decision- that the path-goal theory in general and the
making process, satisfaction with the use of a tactical decision-making process
decision-making process, the perceived with subordinates can be used to provide a
effectiveness of the decision-making process theoretical framework for managers in
and the time involved. The type of decision Taiwan. Overall, the path-goal theory,
involvement was derived from the path-goal particularly as it applies to the relationship
theory (Sagie and Koslowsky, 1994). between leaders and subordinates, was
Decisions that involve initiation of new supported.
products or service are called strategic
decisions. Decisions that involve methods or References
procedures are called tactical decisions. This Bales, R.F. and Slater, P.E. (1955), ``Role
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