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Graph​ ​of​ ​function

Prepared​ ​by:​ ​Ezra​ ​Theodores,​ ​S.T.

1. Linear
3. Polinomial
4. Simple​ ​Rational​ ​Function
5. Square-root​ ​Function
6. Exponential
7. Logarithmic​ ​Function
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Prerequisite:

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CHAPTER​ ​1
Linear​ ​function

1.1​ ​Linear​ ​explicit​ ​equation​ ​is:

y = mx + c
where
m = g radient/ slope
c = constant

Example​ ​1.1
Consider​ ​to​ ​the​ ​graph

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1.2​ ​The​ ​parallel​ ​lines​ ​have​ ​same​ ​gradient

Let​ ​ l1 //l2 then​ ​ m1 = m2

1.3​ ​The​ ​product​ ​of​ ​gradients​ ​of​ ​two​ ​lines​ ​is​ ​-1
Let​ ​ l1 ⊥l2 then​ ​ m1 .m2 =− 1

1.4​ ​Linear​ ​Implicit​ ​Equation

The​ ​equation​ ​of​ ​line​ ​of​ ​gradient​ ​ a/b is​ ​ y = (a/b)x + c .​ ​multiple​ ​both​ ​sides​ ​by​ ​ b ​ ​we​ ​have
by = ax + bc ,​ ​where​ ​ bc is​ ​a​ ​constant,​ ​let​ ​ bc = k then​ ​the​ ​implicit​ ​form​ ​of​ ​linear​ ​equation​ ​of
gradient​ ​ a/b ​ ​and​ ​cut​ ​the​ ​ Y − Axis ​ ​at​ ​ (0, k /b) ​ ​is
ax − by − k = 0

1.5​ ​Exercise

1. Draw​ ​line
l1 : y = 2x
l2 : y − 2 = 2x
l3 : y = 2(x − 2)
l4 : y − 3 = 2(x − 4)

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2. Draw​ ​line​ ​ l1 : y =− 3x + 6
Line​ ​ l2 perpendicular​ ​to​ ​ l1 and​ ​passes​ ​ (− 2, 1) .​ ​draw​ ​line​ ​ l2
Find​ ​the​ ​equation​ ​of​ ​line​ ​ l2

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3. The​ ​line​ ​ 4x + ky = 20 passes​ ​through​ ​the​ ​points​ ​ A(8, −4) ​ ​and​ ​ B (b, 2b) ,
where​ ​ k ​ ​and​ ​ b ​ ​are​ ​constants.
(i)​ ​Find​ ​the​ ​values​ ​of​ ​ k ​ ​and​ ​ b
(ii)​ ​Find​ ​the​ ​coordinates​ ​of​ ​the​ ​mid-point​ ​of​ ​AB

4. Line​ ​ l1 of​ ​gradient​ ​2​ ​cuts​ ​the​ ​ Y − Axis ​ ​at​ ​ (0,− 3) and​ ​cut​ ​the​ ​ X − axis at
A(1, 0) .​ ​Line​ ​ l2 parallel​ ​to​ ​ l1 and​ ​cut​ ​the​ ​ X − Axis ​ ​at​ ​ (b, 0) and​ ​ Y − axis ​ ​at
(0, 2) .
(i)​ ​find​ ​the​ ​value​ ​of​ ​ |1 − b|
(ii)​ ​find​ ​the​ ​distance​ ​of​ ​line​ ​ l1 and​ ​ l2

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Chapter​ ​2

2.1​ ​General​ ​form​ ​[Quadratic​ ​equation]

y = ax2 + bx + c (qe.1​ ​form)
Where​ ​ a =/ 0 and​ ​ b, c ∈ R

By​ ​completing​ ​the​ ​square​ ​method​ ​we​ ​reform​ ​the​ ​quadratic​ ​equation​ ​to​ ​become
b 2 −b2 +4ac
y = a(x + 2a ) + 4a
−b2 +4ac
And​ ​let​ ​ − b/(2a) = xm and​ ​ 4a = ym
2
y = a(x − xm ) + y m (qe.2​ ​form)

2.3​ ​Exercise
1. Show​ ​the​ ​algebra​ ​steps​ ​of​ ​completing​ ​the​ ​square​ ​method​ ​from
y = ax2 + bx + c
To​ ​become​ ​(qe.2​ ​form): y = a(x + b/(2a))2 + (− b2 + 4ac)/(4a)
2. Change​ ​the​ ​following​ ​quadratic​ ​equation​ ​in​ ​(qe.2​ ​form)​ ​form​ ​ y = a(x − xm )2 + y m
a) y = x2 + 2x + 3 h) y = x2 + x + 3
b) y = x2 + 2x + 1 i) y = x2 + 7x + 9
c) y = x2 + 2x + 4 j) y = 3x2 + 5x + 7
d) y = x2 − 6x + 7 k) y = 5x2 + 7x − 9
e) y = x2 − 6x + 5 l) y = − x2 + 2x + 3
f) y = x2 − 6x + 9 m) y =− 2x2 + 8x + 6
g) y = x2 + 12x + 3 n) y = − 5x2 + 2x + 7

2.2​ ​ xm and​ ​ y m
To​ ​understand​ ​about​ ​ xm and​ ​ y m ,​ ​the​ ​set​ ​ a = 1 then​ ​we​ ​have​ ​ y − y m = (x − xm )2
Consider​ ​to​ ​the​ ​following​ ​graph

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What​ ​is​ ​your​ ​conclusion?

What​ ​do​ ​ xm and​ ​ y m ​ ​effect​ t​ o​ ​the​ ​graph​ ​of​ ​ y = x2

2.3​ ​The​ ​effect​ ​of​ ​ a

This​ ​is​ ​the​ ​graph​ ​of​ ​ y = x2 ,​ ​ y = 21 x2 ,​ ​and​ ​ y = 2x2 .​ ​Could​ ​you​ ​notice​ ​the​ ​equation​ ​and​ ​its
graph?

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Exercise

1. Write​ ​the​ ​equation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​following​ ​graph.​ ​From​ ​the​ ​form​ ​ y = a(x − xm )2 + y m and
expand​ ​it​ ​to​ ​become​ ​the​ ​general​ ​form​ ​ y = ax2 + bx + c
a.

b.

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c.

d.

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e.

f.

​​​

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g.

h.

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i.

j.

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k.

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2. Draw​ ​the​ ​graph​ ​of

a. y = (x − 1)2 − 3

b. y =− (x + 4)2 + 6

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c. y = (x + 2)2 − 3

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d. y =− (x + 1)2 + 3

e. y = 2(x + 1)2 − 3

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f. y = (1/3)(x − 1)2 − 3

g. y = x2 + 2x + 1

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h. y = x2 + 2x − 2

i. y = 2x2 + 4x + 7

j. y = x2 + 2x − 3

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k. y = 3x2 + 6x − 9

Consider​ ​to​ ​section​ ​j)​ ​and​ ​k).​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​tell​ ​the​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​them?

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Consider​ ​to​ ​quadratic​ ​function​ ​ y = ax2 + bx + c .​ ​When​ ​the​ ​value​ ​of​ ​ y = 0 then​ ​we​ ​have:
ax2 + bx + c = 0
This​ ​equation​ ​is​ ​called​ ​quadratic​ ​equation​.

The​ ​solution​ ​of​ ​quadratic​ ​equation​ ​is​ ​also​ ​called​ ​the​ z​ eroes​ ​of​ ​quadratic​ ​function​ ​or​ ​the
roots​ ​of​ ​quadratic​ ​equation​.

To​ ​find​ ​the​ ​roots​ ​we​ ​use​ ​the​ ​completing​ ​square​ ​method​ ​as​ ​we​ ​did​ ​to​ ​quadratic​ ​function:
b 2 (−b2 +4ac)
0 = a(x + 2a ) + 4a
We​ ​will​ ​end​ ​up​ ​with:
−b±√b2 −4ac
x= 2a

means
x1 = (− b + √D )/(2a) ​ ​or​ ​ x2 = (− b − √D)/(2a)

Then:
x1 + x2 =− b/a
x1 .x2 = c/a
x1 − x2 = √D/a ,​ ​for​ ​ x1> x2

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Chapter​ ​3
Intersection​ ​of​ ​Graphs

3.1​ ​Intersections​ ​with​ ​axises

A. Linear​ ​graph​ ​intercept​ ​X-Axis
The​ ​point​ ​of​ ​intersection​ ​between​ ​linear​ ​graph​ ​and
B. Linear​ ​graph​ ​intercept​ ​Y-Axis

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