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Input Details

Generator data:

Rated Generator output: 187.5 MVA (150 MW)


Rated voltage between phases: 15.75 kV
Power Factor: 0.8
Rated speed: 3000 rpm
Frequency: 50 Hz
Current at full load = 187.5 x 106 / √3 x 15.75 x 103 = 6873 A
I2 Capability: 15%
I22t Constant: = 20
Direct axis synchronous reactance Xd(SAT) : 2.105 Ohms
Direct axis transient reactance X’d(SAT) : 0.227 Ohms
Direct axis sub transient reactance X”d(SAT) : 0.139 Ohms
Line length: 0.2 km from Generator to Switchyard

Neutral grounding Transformer (NGT)


Ratio: 15.75KV/250V

CT / PT Details
Generator 15.75kV side, CT ratio: 8000/1 A
GROUND CT RATIO: 50/1 A
Generator PT ratio: 15.75kV/ 3/ 110/ 3 V

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Generator Protection

Protection functions Generator Protection system GPR-1 & 2 G60 are

1. Generator Differential Protection – 87G


2. Generator Unbalance Protection – 46
3. Loss of Excitation Protection – 40
4. Under Voltage – 27
5. Over Voltage – 59
6. Under Frequency – 81U
7. Over Frequency – 81O
8. Rate of change of frequency - 81
9. Over Fluxing Protection – 24
10. Phase Over Current Protection – 50/51
11. Neutral E/F Protection – 50N/51N
12. Active Reverse power Protection - 32P
13. Reactive Reverse power Protection – 32Q
14. Low forward power Protection - 37
15. 100% Stator Ground Fault Protection – 27TN
16. Back-up Impedance/Phase Distance Protection – 21G
17. Power swing detect/Pole Slipping Protection - 78G
18. Dead Machine Protection – 50/27
19. Local Breaker Back-up Protection (50LBB)

Protection functions for F650 relay is

1. Dead Machine Protection (50/27)

Protection function for CDG11 relay is

1. Standby Earth fault/Back up Earth fault Protection (64ST)

Protection functions for IWX-YWX relay is

1. Rotor Earth fault Protection (64F)

Protection functions from Generator Control panel are

1. Generator Stator Winding Temperature trip


2. Generator Bearing Temperature trip

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Relay Type - G60
Make - GE MULTILIN

Generator Differential Protection (87)

The differential current pickup setting can be set as low as 5% of rated generator current, to
provide protection for as much of the winding as possible. Thus, to obtain maximum
sensitivity, the differential pickup current is chosen as 0.05 P.U.

The percentage differential element has a dual slope characteristic.


The “through current” is adjusted to compensate for CT ratio error mismatch and CT
response via a dual slope characteristic typically as shown below.

Slope 1, set at 10% starting from Restrain Current as shown below.


The STATOR DIFF BREAK 1 setting should greater than the maximum overload expected
for the machine, so it is set at 1.15 PU

Slope 2, set at 80 %.
The STATOR DIFF BREAK 2 setting is set at 3 PU.

6.0

5.0

4.0
IOperate (Multiples of CT)

Operating
Region
Slope 2
3.0 80 %

2.
0 Restraint
Slope 1 Region
1.0 15 %

0.5 Minimum Pickup = 0.5

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

I Restraint (Multiples of CT)

Example: Fig-1

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommende Remarks


No Function d Setting
1 Stator To trip 86A
Differential
0.05 to 1 p.u in 0.001 p.u 0.05
Pickup steps. 10%
Slope 1 1 - 100% in 1% steps. 1.15
Break 1 1 to 1.5 p.u in 0.01 p.u steps.
Slope 2 1 - 100% IN 1% STEPS 80% To trip 86A
Break 2
1.5 to 30 p.u 0.01 p.u steps 3.00 p.u

Generator Unbalance Protection (46)

System Details:

Asymmetrical short circuit performance is given by I22 t = 20


Continuous negative sequence capability = 15%
CT Ratio = 8000/5

The generator nominal current


Inom (p.u) = (Inom primary) / CT Primary
= 6873/8000
= 0.859 P.U
Recommended settings:
Stage 1
Pickup = 60% x I2 capability
= 0.6 x 15%
= 9.0 % of FLC

The minimum operate time of Stage 1 = 5 seconds


The maximum operating time = 600 seconds

Stage 2 is set higher than Stage 1

Stage 2 shall be set at 70% of I2 capability.


Stage 2 pickup = 10.5% of FLC with time delay of 0.2 sec.

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks


No Function Setting
1 GEN UNBAL 0.000 to 1.250 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.859
INOM 0.00 to 100.00% in steps of 0.01 9%
Stage 1 Pickup 0.00 to 100.00 in steps of 0.01 20 Stage 1
Stage 1 K-Value 0.000 to 50.000 s in steps of 0.001 5s for 86C
Stage 1 Tmin 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 600.0 s Trip
Stage 1 Tmax 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 240.0 s
Stage 1 K-Reset 0.05 to 30.00 p.u in steps of 0.01 10.5 % Stage 2
Stage 2 Pickup 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 0.2 s for 86B
Stage 2 Pickup Trip
Delay

Loss of Excitation Protection (40)

Xd = 2.105 pu
X’d = 0.227 pu
MVA = 187.5
CTR/PTR = (8000 / 5 ) x (110/15750) = 11.1746
Zbase (sec) = (base kV2 / base MVA) x (CTR/VTR)
= (15.75 kV2 / 187.5 MVA) x 11.1746 = 14.78

X’d (sec) =X’d x Zb


= 0.227×14.78 = 3.355

Xd (sec) = Xd x Zb
= 2.105 ×14.78 =31.112

CENTER 1 = (Zbase (sec) + X’d (sec) ) / 2 = (14.78 + 3.355 ) /2 = 9.067


RADIUS 1 = Zbase (sec)/2 = (14.78) /2 = 7.39
PICKUP DELAY 1 = 0.06 seconds

CENTER 2 = (Xd (sec)+ X’d (sec)) / 2 = (31.112 +3.355 ) /2= 17.2335


RADIUS 2 = Xd (sec)/ 2=(31.112)/2 = 15.556

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
Center 1 0.10 to 300.00 in steps of 0.01 9.067 To trip 86A
Radius 1 0.10 to 300.00 in steps of 0.01 7.39
UV Supervision Disabled, Enabled Enabled
Pickup Delay 1 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.01 0.06

Center 2 0.10 to 300.00 in steps of 0.01 17.2335 To trip 86B


Radius 2 0.10 to 300.00 in steps of 0.01 15.556
UV Supervision Disabled, Enabled Disabled

Pickup Delay 2 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.01 0.5


UV Supervision 0.000 to 1.250 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.7

BLOCK Flex logic VT FUSE FAIL

Under Voltage Protection (27)

Trip stage-1 & 2 90 % of the rated Voltage

Under Voltage stage 1


Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
1 Mode Phase to Ground, Phase to Phase Phase to Phase To Trip
86C
Pickup 0.000 to 3.000 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.92 p.u

Curve Definite Time, Inverse Time Definite Time

Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01 0.50 s

Min Volt 0.000 to 3.000 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.100 p.u

Under Voltage stage 2


Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
1 Mode Phase to Ground, Phase to Phase Phase to Phase To Trip
86B
Pickup 0.000 to 3.000 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.90 p.u

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Curve Definite Time, Inverse Time Definite Time

Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01 2.00 s

Min Volt 0.000 to 3.000 p.u in steps of 0.001 0.100 p.u

Over Voltage Protection (59)

The time settings should also be depended on the withstand levels of the machine

Trip stage-1 & 2 110 % of the rated Voltage

Protection Setting – Stage-1


Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
Pickup 0.000 to 3.000 p.u in steps of 0.001 1.08 p.u To TRIP
86C
Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01 0.5 s
Reset Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0.01 1.00 s

Stage-2 (Flex Elements-1, 2 & 3)


Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
Pickup -90 to 90 p.u in steps of 0.001 1.1 p.u To TRIP
86B
Delay 0.00 to 65.50 s in steps of 0.001 2.00 s

Under Frequency Protection (81U)

Rated frequency is 50 Hz

UNDERFREQUENCY 1
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Min Volt/Amp 0.10 to 1.25 p.u in steps 0.5 To Trip
of 0.01 86C
Pickup 20.00 to 65.00 Hz in 47.8
steps of 0.01

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Pickup Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0.5 sec
of 0.001

Reset Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0 sec


of 0.001

UNDERFREQUENCY 2
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Min Volt/Amp 0.10 to 1.25 p.u in steps 0.5 To Trip
of 0.01 86B
Pickup 20.00 to 65.00 Hz in 47.5
steps of 0.01

Pickup Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 2.0 sec


of 0.001

Reset Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0 sec


of 0.001

Over Frequency Protection (81O)

OVERFREQUENCY 1
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Min Volt/Amp 0.10 to 1.25 p.u in steps 0.5 To Trip
of 0.01 86C
Pickup 20.00 to 65.00 Hz in 52.0
steps of 0.01

Pickup Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0.5 sec


of 0.001

Reset Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0 sec


of 0.001

BLOCK Flex logic

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


OVERFREQUENCY 2
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Min Volt/Amp 0.10 to 1.25 p.u in steps 0.5 To Trip
of 0.01 86B
Pickup 20.00 to 65.00 Hz in 52.5
steps of 0.01

Pickup Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 3.0 sec


of 0.001

Reset Delay 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps 0 sec


of 0.001

BLOCK Flex logic

Frequency Rate of Change Protection (81U/O)

Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks


No Relay Setting
1 Freq Rate -1 Trend Increasing 'Increasing To Trip
Decreasing 86C
Bi-Directional
Freq Rate -1 Pick Up 0.10 to 15.00 Hz/sec in '0.5 Hz/sec
steps of 0.01
Freq Rate -1 OV Supv 0.100 to 3.000 pu in 0.7 sec
Pick Up steps of 0.001
Freq Rate -1 OC Supv 0.100 to 3.000 pu in 0.2 sec
Pick Up steps of 0.001
Freq Rate -1 Min 20.00 to 80.00 Hz in 45
Frequency steps of 0.01
Freq Rate -1 Max 20.00 to 80.00 Hz in 55
Frequency steps of 0.01
Freq Rate -1 Pick Up 0 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.1
Delay 0.001

Over Excitation/Over fluxing Protection (24)


Calculations:
Rated Generator Voltage: 15.75 kV, 50 Hz
Ratio of the voltage transformer: 15750/ 3/110/ 3
Rated Phase VT secondary voltage: 63.5
Rated generator V/Hz on secondary side: 63.5/50 = 1.27 V/Hz.

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


With max. Permissible continuous over excitation 105% (assumed)

Definite Time Element (ALARM SETTING):


Minimum Pickup Level = 1.05 x 1.27 = 1.3335 PU (105 %)
Independent Time Delay= 3 s

Inverse Time Element (TRIP SETTING):


Select setting 110 % of rated generator V/Hz.
Minimum Pickup Level = 1.1 x 1.27 V/Hz = 1.397 PU

Protection Setting
VOLTS PER HERTZ 1 (Stage-1)
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
1 Pickup 0.80 to 4.00 p.u in steps of 1.4 To TRIP
0.01 86B

2 CURVES Definite Time, Inverse A, Inverse B


Inverse B, Inverse C,
Flex Curve A, Flex Curve B

3 0.05 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 3sec


TD MULTIPLIER

4 T Reset 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 0.1 sec

VOLTS PER HERTZ 2 (Stage-2)


Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
1 Pickup 0.80 to 4.00 p.u in steps of 1.34 Alarm
0.01

2 Curves Definite Time, Inverse A, Definite time


Inverse B, Inverse C, 3 seconds
Flex Curve A, Flex Curve B

3 TD Multiplier 0.05 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01

4 T Reset 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 0.1sec

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Generator Phase Instantaneous O/C (IOC) Protection (50P)

The phase instantaneous overcurrent element is used as an instantaneous element with no


intentional delay. The input current is the fundamental phasor magnitude.
The setting is selected to protect for fault at or near generator terminals.

Phase Instantaneous Over Current


Full load current= 6873A
Hence selected pickup value as 3 times the max. full load current i.e 2.577 p.u
(3x6873/8000)
PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
Pickup 0.000 to 30.000 p.u in steps of 2.577 p.u To trip 86B
0.001
Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0
0.01
Reset Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps of 0
0.01

Generator Phase O/C (TOC) Protection (51P)

The pickup of this element is set at a safe margin above the maximum load expected on the
machine.

Pickup = 1.1 x Generator Nominal Current


CT Primary

= 1.1 x 6873
8000

= 0.945 P.U

The equation for IEC Curve-A is as follows:

T = TDM x K
I E
I Pick up -1

Where, K = 0.14 and E = 0.020, I=Input current and I pickup = Nominal current

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Considered operating time for a three phase fault on the HV side of transformer as 0.50s.

0.50
TDM = 0.14
0.945 0.02
0.859 -1

TDM = 0.0068

Protection setting

Available Setting Recommended Setting


Function Enabled, Disable Enabled
Input Phasor, RMS Phasor
Pickup 0.00 to 30.00pu in steps of 0.001 0.945 P.U
Curve IEC Curve-A
TD Multiplier 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.0068
Reset Instantaneous, Timed Instantaneous
Voltage Restraint Disabled, Enabled Disabled
Target Self-reset, Latched, Disabled Latched
Events Disabled, Enabled Enabled

Generator Neutral IDMT O/C (TOC) Protection (51N)

The Neutral TOC pickup setting is set as 2% of rated generator current.

PICKUP = 0.02 x Generator Nominal Current = 0.02 x (6873/8000) = 0.0171pu


CT Primary
PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Pickup 0.000 to 30.00 p.u in steps of To trip 86A
0.0171
0.01
Curve IEEE Mod Inv, IEEE Very
Inv, IEEE Ext Inv IEC Curve A

TD Multiplier 0 To 65.535 in steps of 0.001 0.1

Reset Instantaneous, Timed Instantaneous

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Generator Neutral Instantaneous O/C Protection (50N)

The Neutral IOC pickup setting is set as 50% of rated generator current.

PICKUP = 0.5 x Generator Nominal Current = 0.5 x (6873/8000) = 0.429pu


CT Primary
PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommended Remarks
No Relay Setting
1 Pickup 0.000 to 30.00 p.u in steps of 0.429 To trip 86A
0.01
Delay 0 To 65.535 in steps of 0.001 0.0

Reset Instantaneous, Timed Instantaneous

Directional Power

Reverse Active Power (32P)- To trip 86B

Assuming 2% as the motoring power required of the O/P power of generator


2% of 150MW = 0.02 X 150 = 3.0 MW

Smin = ½ X Rated Motoring Power (PW)

3 X Phase CT Primary X Phase VT Ratio X Phase VT Sec

= ½ X 3.0MW

3 X 8000 X 143.18 X 63.5

= 0.0068 P.U

To prevent mal-operation for power swings the element is typically time delayed for Trip
by 2 seconds

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Reverse Reactive Power (32Q)- To trip 86B

Smin = -0.013 P.U


Delay = 3 seconds
RCA = 270˚

Low Forward Power (37) - To trip 86B

Assuming 10% as the minimum power below which the generator should trip on turbine
faults, we get: 10% of 135MW = 0.1 X 150 = 15.0 MW

Smin = Minimum operating Power (PW)

3 X Phase CT Primary X Phase VT Ratio X Phase VT Sec

= 15.0MW

3 X 8000 X 143.18182 X 63.5

= 0.0687 P.U

Smin = 0.0687 P.U (For Low forward power SMIN < 0. Refer ‘b’ diagram below)
Delay = 1 seconds
RCA = 180˚

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Available setting Power 1 Power 2
Directional 0 to 359° in steps of 1 180˚ 270˚
Power RCA1
Stage 1 pickup –1.200 to 1.200 pu in 0.0068 p.u -0.013 p.u
steps of 0.001
Stage 1 Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps 2 seconds 3 seconds
of 0.01
Stage 2 pickup –1.200 to 1.200 pu in -0.068 p.u
steps of 0.001
Stage 2 Delay 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps 1 seconds
of 0.01
Block VT FUSE FAIL OP VT FUSE FAIL OP

100% Stator Ground Fault Protection (64TN)

This element has two stages, stage 1 to Trip the machine & stage 2 for Alarm. Set the
pickup to 0.15 for both stages to provide adequate overlap with the Auxiliary voltage
element. Set stage 1 to 0.375V secondary (this value may be increased for security in
particularly noisy environments). Stage 2 is typically set at 0.3 V secondary. The
supervision settings are expressed in per unit of the Nominal phase VT secondary setting.
The time delay settings are 5 seconds for stage 1 and 1 second for stage 2 elements
respectively

This protection will be set after measurement of third harmonic voltage generated by the
machine at various loads.

Stage-1 supervision = 0.375/63.5V = 0.0057 p.u

Stage-2 supervision = 0.300/63.5V = 0.0045 p.u

Protection Setting

Available setting Recommended Remarks


setting
Stage 1 Pickup 0.000 to 0.250 p.u in 0.15 p.u To trip 86A
steps of 0.001
Stage 1 Pickup 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps 5 seconds
delay of 0.01 s
Stage 1 supv 0.0010 to 0.1000 p.u in 0.0057 p.u
steps of 0.0001 p.u
Stage 2 Pickup 0.000 to 0.250 p.u in 0.15 p.u
steps of 0.001
Stage 2 Pickup 0.00 to 600.00 s in steps 1 seconds
delay of 0.01 s

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Stage 2 supv 0.0010 to 0.1000 p.u in 0.0045 p.u
steps of 0.0001 p.u

Back-up Impedance / Phase Distance Protection (21G)

Generator Trafo. Impedance @ 15.75kV base = 15.752 x 0.145


200

= 0.179 Ohm

Generator Transformer Impedance x 0.8 = 0.179 x 0.8


= 0.1438

Secondary Impedance = 0.1438 x CT ratio


PT ratio

= 0.1438 x 1600
143.18

= 1.607 Ohm

Line Backup impedance protection setting

Line Positive sequence impedance / km = 0.2509 Ohm


Line Voltage = 400kV

Line-1 Length = 0.2 km (Plant to SS)


Line-2 Length = 0.2 km (Plant to SS)

Total Line-1 Impedance (ZL1) = 0.2509 x 0.2 = 0.05 Ohm


Total Line-2 Impedance (ZL2) = 0.2509 x 0.2 = 0.05 Ohm

Total Impedance on 400kV Base = ZL1*ZL2 / ZL1 + ZL2


= 0.0252 Ohm

Impedance on 15.75kV base = Impedance on 400kV base x 15.752


4002
= 0.0252 x 15.752
4002

= 0.00004 Ohm

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Total Impedance = (Line Impedance + Transformer Impedance) x 1.1

= (0.00004 + 0.1438) x 1.1


= 0.158 Ohm

Total Secondary Impedance = 0.158 x CT ratio


PT ratio

= 0.158 x 1600
143.18
= 1.768 Ohm

Generator Impedance = Xd x VL2


MVA

= j2.105 x 15.752
187.5

= j2.785Ohm

Zone 3 = (1.2 x Generator Impedance x CTR) / PTR

= (1.2 x j2.785 x 1600) / 143.18

= j37.346Ohm

Available Setting Recommended Recommended Setting


Setting for Zone- for Zone-3
1
Function Enabled, Disabled Enabled Enabled
Function Forward, Reverse, Non- Forward Reverse
Directional
Xfmr Vol Dy1, Dy3, Dy5, Dy7, Dy9, Dy1 None
connection Dy11, Yd1, Yd3, Yd5, Yd7,
Yd9, Yd11
Xfmr Cur Dy1, Dy3, Dy5, Dy7, Dy9, Dy1 None
connection Dy11, Yd1, Yd3, Yd5, Yd7,
Yd9, Yd11
Reach 0.02 to 500.00 Ohm in 1.768Ohm 37.346Ohm
steps of 0.01
Delay 0.000 to 65.535s in steps of 5.00s 100ms (considering
0.001 Back-up protection for
Gen. Diff)

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Back-up Impedance should have time delay marginally higher than the longest time delay
employed in any of the protection system which is tripping the Generator CB.

Pole Slipping protection / Power Swing Blocking (78G)

The out of step protection is used to detect a loss of synchronism of the generator. The
impedance locus is measured as compared with blinders and MHO circle.

SGnom = 187.5MVA

UGnom = 15.75KV

IGnom = SGnom = 6873A


3. UGnom

Generator nominal impedance in Primary value

XGnom = UGnom2 = 1.323


SGnom

Secondary impedance calculated from primary impedance, CT generator neutral end


ratio and VT output ratio.

XGsec = XGpri . CTRatio = 14.78


VTRatio

Generator synchronous reactance in p.u. value

Xd = 2.105

Primary impedance calculated from nominal (generator) voltage and nominal


apparent power

Xdprim = Xd . UGnom2 = 2.785


SGnom

Secondary impedance calculated from primary impedance, CT generator neutral


end ratio and VT output ratio.

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Xdsec = Xdprim . CTratio = 31.12
PTratio

Generator transient reactance in P.U. value

Xd’ = 0.227

Primary impedance from nominal (generator) voltage and nominal apparent power

Xd’prim = Xd’ . UGnom2 = 0.3


SGnom

Secondary impedance calculated from primary impedance, CT generator neutral end


ratio and VT output ratio.

Xd’sec = Xd’prim . CTratio = 3.356


PTratio

Transformer impedance in p.u. value

Uk = 14.5% = 0.145 p.u

Primary impedance calculated from nominal (generator) voltage and nominal


apparent power

ZTprim = Uk . U2LVnom = 0.179


STnom

Secondary impedance calculated from primary impedance and CT generator output


ratio.

ZTsec =ZTprim . CTratio = 2.0


PTratio

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


The protective function operates if the impedance locus crosses first the right blinder and
within a time delay the left blinder.

Generator Impedance

The generator impedance is equal to the transient reactance:

Zg = j.Xd’sec = 3.356i

Transformer Impedance

The transformer impedance is equal to the short circuit impedance:

Zt = j.ZTsec = 2.00i

External system Impedance

Zsext = 3.97 . exp (j.86 deg) (Assumed. Customer to give the exact value)

The impedance is based on 400KV and has to be adapted to the generator voltage,

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Zs = Zsext . U2Gnom . CTR = 0.0687
(400KV)2 PTR

System Impedance:

Z = Zg + Zt + Zs = 0.0145 + 5.427i

MHO Characteristics

The forward reach is calculated with the transformer impedance as following:

Reach =150%

Fwdreach = |Reach.Zt| = 3.0

The forward angle is equal to the angle of the system impedance as following:

Fwdrca = arg(Z) = 79˚

The reverse reach is calculated with the generator impedance as following:

Reach=200%

Revreach = |Reach.Zg| = 6.712

The reverse angle is equal to the angle of the generator impedance

Revrca = arg(Zg) = 79˚

Blinder Calculation

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Outer Blinder

The outer blinder is calculated with the system angle as following:

out = 60˚

The offset between the right and left blinder is calculated according the picture above as
following:

180˚ - out
tan 2
Offsetout = . |Z| = 9.575
sin (arg(Z))

With this offset the position of the right and left blinder is as following:

180˚ - out
tan 2 |Z| |Zg|
Blinderoutright = . + = 5.942
sin (arg(Z)) 2 tan(arg(Z))

Blinderoutleft = Offsetout - Blinderoutright = 3.63

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Inner Blinder

The inner Blinder is calculated with the system angle as following:

in = 120˚

The offset between the right and left blinder is calculated according the picture above as
following:

180˚ - in
tan 2
Offsetin = . |Z| = 3.189
sin (arg(Z))

With this offset the position of the right and left blinder is as following:

180˚ - in
tan 2 |Z| |Zg|
Blinderintright = . + = 2.247
sin (arg(Z)) 2 tan(arg(Z))

Blinderinleft = Offsetin – Blinderinright = 0.941

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
Power Swing Shape Mho, Quad Mho To trip 86B
Power Swing Mode Two step, Three step
TWO STEP
Power Swing Supv 0.050 to 30.00 p.u in steps of 0.6
0.001
Power Swing Fwd Rch 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 3.0
0.01
Power Swing Quad 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Fwd Rch 0.01
Power Swing Quad 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Fwd Rch Mid 0.01

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Power Swing Quad 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Fwd Rch Out 0.01
Power Swing Fwd 40 to 90Deg. in steps of 1 79
RCA
Power Swing Rev 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 6.712
Reach 0.01
Power Swing Quad 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Rev Rch Mid 0.01
Power Swing Quad 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Rev Rch Out 0.01
Power Swing Rev RCA 40 to 90Deg. in steps of 1 79
Power Swing Outer 40 to 140Deg. in steps of 1 60
Limit Angle
Power Swing Middle 40 to 140Deg. in steps of 1 90
Limit Angle
Power Swing Inner 40 to 140Deg. in steps of 1 120
Limit Angle
Power Swing Outer 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 5.942
Rgt Bld 0.01
Power Swing Outer Lft 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 3.63
Bld 0.01
Power Swing Middle 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Rgt Bld 0.01
Power Swing Middle 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of -
Lft Bld 0.01
Power Swing Inner Rgt 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 2.247
Bld 0.01
Power Swing Inner Lft 0.1 to 500.00 Ohm in steps of 0.941
Bld 0.01
Power Swing Pickup 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.03
Delay 1 0.001
Power Swing Reset 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.05
Delay 1 0.001
Power Swing Pickup 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.017
Delay 2 0.001
Power Swing Pickup 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.009
Delay 3 0.001
Power Swing Pickup 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.017
Delay 4 0.001
Power Swing Seal-in 0.000 to 65.535 s in steps of 0.4
Delay 0.001
Power Swing Trip Early, Delayed Early
mode

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Power Swing Blk Flex logic operand off
Power Swing target Self reset, latched, disabled Self-reset

Dead Machine Protection (50/27)


PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
Accdnt Enrg Arming UV or Offline / UV & UV & Offline To trip 86A
Mode Offline
Accdnt Enrg OC 0.00 to 3.00 p.u in steps of
0.4
pickup 0.01
Accdnt Enrg UV 0.00 to 3.00 p.u in steps of 0.7
pickup 0.01
Accdnt Enrg Offline OFF, ON OFF

Local Breaker Back-up protection (50LBB)

Find below LBB logic. We have considered this protection using current operated pickup
elements with additional timing of 200ms using Flex Logic.

Relay Type - F650


Make - GE MULTILIN

Dead machine protection – dedicated relay with 3rd DC supply.- To trip 86A

Over Current ( for 50/27)


PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks
No Relay d Setting
Inst. OC pickup level 0.05 to 160.00 in steps of 0.01
0.4
Trip time 0.00 to 900.00 in steps of 0.01 0.01s

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Under Voltage ( for 50/27)

Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Recommende Remarks


No Relay d Setting
UV pickup level 3 to 300.00 in steps of 1V
77V
Trip time 0.00 to 900.00 in steps of 0.01 0.01s
Operation logic Any phase

Relay Type - CDG11


Make - AREVA

Stand-by Earthfault relay (64ST)


Available setting Recommended
setting
Pickup 0.1 to 0.4 x In 0.10 x In
Curve Standard Inverse
TMS 0.1 to 1.00 0.1

Relay Type - IWX-YWX


Make - ABB

Rotor Earthfault relay (64F)


Recommended setting
Stage-1 **5000 Ohm
Delay 3 secs.
Stage-2 **2000 Ohm
Delay 2 secs.

Note: **-To be checked and decided at site.

From GCP metering panel Temperature Scanner.

Generator Stator Winding Temperature Protection: 115 Deg.C for alarm and 120 Deg.C for
Trip

Generator DE/NDE Bearing Temperature Protection: 85 Deg.C for alarm and 90 Deg.C for
Trip

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Generator Transformer data:

Generator Transformer Rating: 200 MVA


Voltage Ratio: 420/15.75 kV
Frequency: 50 Hz
Rated Current at HV side = 274.93 A
Rated Current at LV side = 7331.43 A
Impedance Z% : 14.5

CT / PT Details
Generator Transformer HV side, CT ratio: 400/1 A
NEUTRAL CT RATIO: 400/1 A
PT ratio: 400KV/ 3/ 110/ 3 V

Generator Transformer Protection

Protection functions Generator Transformer Protection system T60-1&T60-2 are

1. Generator Transformer Differential Protection – 87GT


2. Restricted Ground Fault Protection – 64
3. Over Fluxing Protection – 24
4. Phase Over Current Protection – 50/51

Protection functions Generator Transformer Protection system T60-87O is

1. Overall Differential Protection (87O)

Protection function for CDG11 relay 64ST1 & 64ST2 is

1. Standby Earth fault


- T60
Relay Type
Make - GE MULTILIN

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Generator Transformer Differential Protection (87T)

Percentage Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommende Remarks


No Function d Setting
1 T/F Percentage
Differential
Pickup 0.050 to 1.000pu in steps of 0.001 0.2
Slope 1 15 to 100% in steps of 1 25%
Break 1 1.000 to 2.000 pu in steps of 0.001 2
Slope 2 50 TO 100% IN STEPS OF 1 80%
Break 2 2.000 to 30.00 pu in steps of 0.001 8.00 p.u

1 Inrush inhibit Disabled,Adapt.2nd,Trad.2nd Adapt.2nd


function
Inrush inhibit Per phase,2-out-0f-3,Average Per phase
mode 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 15%
Inrush inhibit level Disabled,5th 5th
Over exci.inhibit 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 10
fn
Over exci.inhibit
lvl

Instantaneous Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks


No Function Setting
1 T/F Instantaneous 2.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 6.0
Differential Pickup

Restricted Ground fault Protection (64)

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


1 Pickup 0.005 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001
0.08
Slope 0 to 100% in steps of 1 20

Pick up delay 0.000 to 600.000pu in steps of 0.01 0.04

Reset delay 0.000 to 600.000pu in steps of 0.01 0

Over fluxing Protection (24)


Calculations:
Rated GT HV Voltage: 420 kV, 50 Hz
Ratio of the voltage transformer: 400 KV/ 3/110/ 3
Rated Phase VT secondary voltage: 63.5
Rated V/Hz on secondary side: 63.5/50 = 1.27 V/Hz.
With max. Permissible continuous over excitation 105% (assumed)

Definite Time Element (ALARM SETTING):


Minimum Pickup Level = 1.05 x 1.27 = 1.3335 PU (105 %)
Independent Time Delay= 3 s

Definite Time Element (TRIP SETTING):


Select setting 110 % of rated T/F V/Hz.
Minimum Pickup Level = 1.1 x 1.27 V/Hz = 1.397 PU

Protection Setting
VOLTS PER HERTZ 1 (Stage-1)
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommende Remarks
No d Setting
1 Pickup 0.80 to 4.00 p.u in steps of 0.01 1.4 To trip

2 Definite Time, Inverse A, Definite Time


CURVES
Inverse B, Inverse C, Flex
Curve A, Flex Curve B
3 0.05 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.05 sec
TD MULTIPLIER
4 T Reset 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 0.1sec

VOLTS PER HERTZ 2 (Stage-2)


Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommende Remarks
No d Setting
1 Pickup 0.80 to 4.00 p.u in steps of 0.01 1.34 alarm

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


2 Curves Definite Time, Inverse A, Definite Time
Inverse B, Inverse C, Flex
Curve A, Flex Curve B
3 TD Multiplier 0.05 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.05 sec
4 T Reset 0.0 to 1000.0 s in steps of 0.1 0.0sec

Phase Over Current (TOC) Protection (51P)

The phase overcurrent element is used as definite time element. The input current is the
fundamental phasor magnitude.

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommend Remarks
No ed Setting
Phase TOC1 Input Phasor/RMS Phasor
Pickup 0.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 1.1 p.u
Phase TOC1 Curve Over Current Type Table
IEC CURVE A
Phase TOC1 TD 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.5
Multiplier
Phase TOC1 Reset Instantaneous/Timed 'Instantaneo
us
Phase TOC1 Voltage Disabled/Enabled 'Disabled
Restraint

Phase Instantaneous Over Current (IOC) Protection (50P)

The phase overcurrent element is used as definite time element. The input current is the
fundamental phasor magnitude.

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommend Remarks
No ed Setting
Phase IOC1 Input Phasor/RMS Phasor
Pickup 0.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 3 p.u
Delay 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.1
Phase IOC1 Reset Instantaneous/Timed 'Instantaneo
us

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Relay Type - T60
Make - GE MULTILIN

Overall Differential Protection (87O)

Percentage Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommende Remarks


No d Setting
1 Percentage
Differential
Pickup 0.050 to 1.000pu in steps of 0.001 0.2
Slope 1 15 to 100% in steps of 1 25%
Break 1 1.000 to 2.000 pu in steps of 0.001 2
Slope 2 50 TO 100% IN STEPS OF 1 80%
Break 2 2.000 to 30.00 pu in steps of 0.001 8.00 p.u

1 Inrush inhibit Disabled,Adapt.2nd,Trad.2nd Adapt.2nd


function
Inrush inhibit Per phase,2-out-0f-3,Average Per phase
mode 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 15%
Inrush inhibit level Disabled,5th 5th
Over exci.inhibit fn 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 10
Over exci.inhibit lvl

Instantaneous Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks


No Function Setting
1 Instantaneous 2.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 6.0
Differential Pickup

Relay Type - CDG11


Make - AREVA

Stand-by Earthfault relay (64ST-1 & 64ST-2)


Available setting Recommended
setting
Pickup 0.1 to 0.4 x In 0.10 x In
Curve Standard Inverse
TMS 0.1 to 1.00 0.1

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Unit Auxiliary Transformer data:

Unit Auxiliary Transformer Rating: 25 MVA


Voltage Ratio: 15.75 KV/6.9KV
Frequency: 50 Hz
Rated Current at HV side = 916.42 A
Rated Current at LV side = 2091.85 A
Impedance Z% : 10.0

CT / PT Details

Unit Auxiliary Transformer HV side, CT ratio: 1000/1 A


NEUTRAL CT RATIO: 400/1 A
PT ratio: 15.75KV/ 3/ 110/ 3 V and LV side 6.9KV/ 3/ 110/ 3 V

Unit Auxiliary Transformer Protection

Protection functions Unit Auxiliary Transformer Protection system T60-1&T60-2 are

1. Unit Auxiliary Transformer Differential Protection – 87T


2. Restricted Ground Fault Protection – 64
3. Phase Over Current Protection – 50/51

Protection function for CDG11 relay 64ST is

1. Standby Earth fault

Relay Type - T60


Make - GE MULTILIN

Unit Auxiliary Transformer Differential Protection (87T)

Percentage Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks


No Setting
1 T/F Percentage
Differential
Pickup 0.050 to 1.000pu in steps of 0.001 0.2
Slope 1 15 to 100% in steps of 1 25%
Break 1 1.000 to 2.000 pu in steps of 0.001 2

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Slope 2 50 TO 100% IN STEPS OF 1 80%
Break 2 2.000 to 30.00 pu in steps of 0.001 8.00 p.u

1 Inrush inhibit Disabled,Adapt.2nd,Trad.2nd Adapt.2nd


function
Inrush inhibit Per phase,2-out-0f-3,Average Per phase
mode 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 15%
Inrush inhibit level Disabled,5th 5th
Over exci.inhibit fn 1.0 to 40.0% of f0 in steps of 0.1 10
Over exci.inhibit lvl

Instantaneous Differential Protection Setting

Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks


No Function Setting
1 T/F Instantaneous 2.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 6.0
Differential Pickup

Restricted Ground fault Protection (64)


PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Setting Available in the Relay Recommended Remarks
No Function Setting
1 Pickup 0.005 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001
0.08
Slope 0 to 100% in steps of 1 20

Pick up delay 0.000 to 600.000pu in steps of 0.01 0.04

Reset delay 0.000 to 600.000pu in steps of 0.01 0

Phase Over Current (TOC) Protection (51P)

The phase over current element is used as definite time element. The input current is the
fundamental phasor magnitude.

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommend Remarks
No ed Setting
Phase TOC1 Input Phasor/RMS Phasor

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01


Pickup 0.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 1.1 p.u
Phase TOC1 Curve Over Current Type Table
IEC CURVE A
Phase TOC1 TD 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.5
Multiplier
Phase TOC1 Reset Instantaneous/Timed 'Instantaneo
us
Phase TOC1 Voltage Disabled/Enabled 'Disabled
Restraint

Phase Instantaneous Over Current (IOC) Protection (50P)

The phase overcurrent element is used as definite time element. The input current is the
fundamental phasor magnitude.

PROTECTION SETTING
Sl Protection Function Setting Available in the Relay Recommend Remarks
No ed Setting
Phase IOC1 Input Phasor/RMS Phasor
Pickup 0.000 to 30.000pu in steps of 0.001 3 p.u
Delay 0.00 to 600.00 in steps of 0.01 0.1
Phase IOC1 Reset Instantaneous/Timed 'Instantaneo
us

Relay Type - CDG11


Make - AREVA

Stand-by Earthfault relay (64ST-1)


Available setting Recommended
setting
Pickup 0.1 to 0.4 x In 0.10 x In
Curve Standard Inverse
TMS 0.1 to 1.00 0.1

Doc No: P-1104 Rev:01