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# Remainder and Factor Theorems

## 1. Given that x3 – 3x2 – 4x + 16 ≡ (x – 2)(x + 3)(x – c) + Px + Q, find the values of P, Q and

c.

2. When x6 + 5x3 – px – q and px2 – qx – 1 are each divided by (x + 1), the remainders
obtained are 7 and –6 respectively. Find the values of p and q.

3. When f (x) is divided by (x – 1), the remainder is 12. When f (x) is divided by (x – 4), the
remainder is 3. Find the remainder when f (x) is divided by (x – 1)(x – 4).

4. If (x2 – 2x – 3) is a factor of the expression x4 + px3 + qx – 81, find the value of p and of q.
With these values of p and q, factorise the expression completely, showing all your
workings clearly.

## 5. Factorise 2x3 + x2 – 22x + 24 completely, showing all your workings clearly.

6. Given that f (x) = x2n – (p + 1)x2 + p, where n and p are positive integers, show that (x – 1)
is a factor of f (x) for all real values of p. When p = 4, find the value of n for which (x + 2)
is a factor of f (x) and then factorise f (x) completely, showing all your workings clearly.

## 7. Show that (x + 2) is a factor of 2x3 – x2 – 13x – 6, and factorise this expression

completely, showing all your workings clearly. Hence, solve the equation
2(2y – 1)3 – (2y – 1)2 – 26y + 7 = 0.

8. When f (x) = x3 + kx2 – 7x + 2 is divided by (x – k), the remainder is 2k. Find the possible
values of k, leaving your answer to two decimal places where necessary, with workings.

9. Solve the equation x3 – 8x2 + 10x + 4 = 0, giving your answers correct to two decimal
places where necessary, showing all your workings clearly.

## 10. For all real values of x,

f (x) = 4x3 – 2x2 – x + 1 ≡ A(x – 1) + B(x2 – 1) + Cx(x2 – 1) + D.

## (ii) (x2 – 1).

11. Solve the equation 4x3 + 3x2 – 16x – 12 = 0, showing all your workings clearly.

## Hence, find the values of x for which

|x|3 + ¾|x|2 – 4|x| – 3 = 0.

12. (a) Given that (x – 2) and (x + 1) are both factors of f (x), where
f (x) = 4x4 + px3 – 9x2 + qx + 2,
show that the values of p and q are –4 and 1 respectively.

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(b) Given that f (x) can also be expressed as f (x) = (x – 2)(x + 1)(ax2 + b), find the values
of a and b.

## By using an appropriate substitution, or otherwise, solve

4x8 – 4x6 = 9x4 – x2 – 2.

13. Given that the expression 2x3 + ax2 + bx + c leaves the same remainder when divided by
(x + 1) or (x – 2), find the value of a + b.

Given also that the remainder is 5 when the expression is divided by (x – 1), calculate the
value of c.

14. Given that 5x2 – 4x + 22 ≡ A(x – 1)2 + B(x + 2) – C for all real values of x, find the values
of A, B and C.

15. (a) Show that (x – 2y) is a factor of x3 + 2x2y – 5xy2 – 6y3 and find the other two factors.

(b) Given that x3 + 7x2 + ax – 5 ≡ (x2 – x – 2)f (x) + (x + 1)(bx – 1), find

## (i) the value of a and of b, and

(ii) f (x).

16. Find the roots of the equation y = 2x3 – 9x2 + 3x + 4, showing all your workings clearly.

## Hence, sketch the curve of the cubic equation.

17. (a) Show that the polynomial a3 + 4a2 – 13a – 34 is divisible by (a + 2).

(b) Hence, solve the equation a3 + 4a2 – 13a – 34 = 0, expressing non-integer solutions in
the form p ± q√2, where p and q are integers.

## (a) Show that a = 2 and b = –7.

(b) Solve the equation f (x) = 0, showing all your workings clearly.

(c) Hence, by using a suitable substitution, solve the equation, leaving your answers in 3
significant figures, where necessary,

## (ii) 12e3x + 4e2x – 7ex + 1 = 0.

19. Find the value of k for which (a – 3b) is a factor of a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4. Hence, for this value
of k, factorise a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4 completely.

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20. The expression x2n – k has (x + 3) as a factor and leaves a remainder of –80 when divided
by (x + 1). Calculate the values of n and k, where both are integers. With these values of n
and k, factorise x2n – k completely.

21. Given that x3 – 3x2 – 4x + 16 ≡ (x2 + x – 6)(x – p) + Ax + B, find the values of A, B and p.
Hence, or otherwise, find the remainder when x3 – 3x2 – 4x + 16 is divided by

## (b) (x2 + x – 6).

22. The expression 4x3 + 21x – 6 has the same remainder when divided by (x – a) or by
(x + b), where a ≠ –b. Find the value of a2 + b2 – ab.

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