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Module 4: Radioactive Decay Modes

1.
a) Radioactive Decay – A Spontaneous process where an unstable stomic nucleus disintegrates,
emitting radiation in the process.
b) The Four types of radioactive decay are alpha decay, beta decay, positron emission, and
electron capture.
2.
a) In alpha decay, an a particle is ejected from the unstable nucleus of a radioactive element.
b) Alpha particle – two protons and two neutrons, identical to the nucleas of a HE atom.
c) The loss of protons results in the formation of a different element.
3. On another paper.
4.
a) Beta decay – a beta particle is ejected from the unstable nucleus of a radioactive element.
b) A beta particle is a high-speed electron, a negatively charged particle of negligible mass.
c) A neutron converts to a proton during the loss of a negative charge from the nucleus.
5.
a) This increase in total protons produces a new element with an atomic number of (n+1).
b) I can determine what element has been formed by beta decay by finding the element on the
periodic table that has one more proton than the previous element.
6. On another paper.
7.
a) A positron emission is when a positron is ejected from the unstable nucleus of a radioactive
element.
b) A positron is a positively charged particle of negligible mass.
c) A proton converts to a neutron as the positive charge is lost from the nucleus.
8. On another paper.
9.
a) In electron capture, an orbital electron is captured by the unstable nucleus of a radioactive
element.
b) The gain of a negative charge from the nucleus means that one proton converts to a
neutron.
10. On another paper.

Module 2: Half Life


1.
a) Half-life is the time it takes for half of a radioactive sample to decay.
b) The range of half-lives in the periodic table of elements is from seconds to thousands of
years.
c) Three elements: Astatine, 1.4 seconds; Lead, 21 years; Radium, 1664.2 years
2. At/Ao = 0.5 ^ (t/t1/2)
a) At - Amount left at time t
b) Ao - Original amount at time zero
c) t – Time
d) t1/2 – Half-life
3.
a) The shape of the graph is consistent.
b) The time it takes to get to a certain percentage is different.
4. You can use the second equation to find the age of an object t = ((t1/2)/0.693)In(Ao/At)

Module 1: Balancing Nuclear Reactions


1.
a) Nuclear reactions occur in stars.
b) Nuclear reactions differ from normal chemical reactions.
c) They involve the altering of the nucleus, such that elements are formed and destroyed.
2. X
3.
a) Beta Particle (Electron) –
b) Positron –
c) Alpha Particle –
d) Proton –
e) Neutron –
f) Gamma Ray –
4.
a) The sums of the masses of the reactants must be equal to the sum of the masses of the
products.
b) The number of protons on the reactant side must be equal to the number of protons on the
products side.
5.