You are on page 1of 84

Chapter Study Outline

I.[Introduction: Columbian Exchange]


II.The First Americans
A. The Settling of the Americas
1. "Indians" settled the New World between 15,000 and 60,000 years ago
B. Indian Societies of the Americas
1. North and South American societies built roads, trade networks, and irrigation systems.
2. Societies from Mexico and areas south were grander in scale and organization than those
north of Mexico.
a. Indians north of Mexico lacked literacy, metal tools, and scientific knowledge necessary for long-
distance navigation.
C. Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley
1. Built approximately 3,500 years ago along the Mississippi River in modern-day Louisiana,
a community known today as Poverty Point was a trading center for the Mississippi and
Ohio River valleys.
2. Located near present-day St. Louis, the city known as Cahokia flourished with a population
of 10,000-30,000 around the year 1200.
D. Western Indians
1. Hopi and Zuni ancestors settled around present-day Arizona and New Mexico and built
large planned towns with multiple-family dwellings, and traded with peoples as far away as
Mississippi and central Mexico.
E. Indians of Eastern North America
1. Indian tribes living in the eastern part of North America sustained themselves with a diet
of corn, squash, and beans and supplemented it by fishing and hunting.
2. Tribes frequently warred with one another; however, there were also many loose alliances.
3. Indians saw themselves as one group among many; the sheer diversity seen by the
Europeans upon their arrival was remarkable.
F. Native American Religion
1. Religious ceremonies were often directly related to farming and hunting.
2. Those who were believed to hold special spiritual powers held positions of respect and
authority.
G. Land and Property
1. The idea of owning private property was foreign to Indians.
2. Indians believed land was a common resource, not an economic commodity.
3. Wealth mattered little in Indian societies, and generosity was far more important.
H. Gender Relations
1. Women could engage in premarital sex and choose to divorce their husbands, and most
Indian societies were matrilineal.
2. Since men were often away on hunts, women attended to the agricultural duties, as well as
the household duties.
I. European Views of the Indians
1. Europeans felt that Indians lacked genuine religion.
2. Europeans claimed that Indians did not "use" the land and thus had no claim to it.
3. Europeans viewed Indian men as weak and Indian women as mistreated.
III.Indian Freedom, European Freedom
. Indian Freedom
1. Europeans concluded that the notion of freedom was alien to Indian societies.
2. European understanding of freedom was based on ideas of personal independence and the
ownership of private property-ideas foreign to Indians.
A. Christian Liberty
1. Europeans believed that to embrace Christ was to provide freedom from sin.
2. "Christian liberty" had no connection to later ideas of religious tolerance.
B. Freedom and Authority
1. Europeans claimed that obedience to law was another definition of freedom
2. Under English law, women held very few rights and were submissive to their husbands.
C. Liberty and Liberties
1. Liberty came from knowing one's place in a hierarchical society and fulfilling duties
appropriate to one's rank.
2. Numerous modern civil liberties (such as freedom of worship and of the press) did not
exist.
IV.The Expansion of Europe
. Chinese and Portuguese Navigation
1. Chinese admiral Zheng He led seven naval expeditions into the Indian Ocean between 1405
and 1433, even exploring East Africa on the sixth voyage.
2. The caravel, compass, and quadrant made travel along the African coast possible for the
Portuguese in the early fifteenth century.
3. The Portuguese established trading posts, "factories," along the western coast of Africa.
4. Portugal began colonizing Atlantic islands and established plantations worked by slaves.
A. Freedom and Slavery in Africa
1. Slavery was already one form of labor in Africa before the Europeans came.
2. The arrival of the Portuguese accelerated the buying and selling of slaves within Africa.
3. By the time Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1498, Portugal had established a vast trading
empire.
B. The Voyages of Columbus
1. Christopher Columbus, an Italian, got financial support from King Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella of Spain.
2. In the same year, 1492, the king and queen completed the reconquista.
V.Contact
. Columbus in the New World
1. Columbus landed on Hispaniola in 1492 and colonization began the next year.
2. Nicolas de Ovando established a permanent base in Hispaniola in 1502.
3. Amerigo Vespucci sailed along the coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, and the
New World came to be called America.
A. Exploration and Conquest
1. News could now travel quickly, especially with the invention of Gutenberg's movable-type
printing press in the 1430s.
2. John Cabot had traveled to Newfoundland in 1497 and soon many Europeans were
exploring the New World.
3. Balboa trekked across Panama and was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
Magellan led an expedition to sail around the world.
4. Two Spanish conquistadores, Cortés and Pizarro, led devastating expeditions against the
Aztec and Inca civilizations, respectively, in the early 1500s.
B. The Demographic Disaster
1. The Columbian Exchange transferred not only plants and animals, but also diseases, such
as smallpox and influenza.
2. The native populations were significantly depleted through wars, enslavement, and
disease.
VI.The Spanish Empire
. Governing Spanish America
1. Spain established a stable government modeled after Spanish home rule and absolutism.
. Power flowed from the king to the Council of the Indies to viceroys to local officials.
2. The Catholic Church played a significant role in the administration of Spanish colonies.
A. Colonists and Indians in Spanish America
1. Gold and silver mining was the primary economy in Spanish America.
. Mines were worked by Indians.
a. Many Spaniards came to the New World for easier social mobility.
2. Indian inhabitants always outnumbered European colonists and their descendants in
Spanish America.
3. Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture-part Indian, part Spanish, and, in places,
part African.
. Mestizos are persons of mixed Indian and Spanish origin.
B. Justifications for Conquest
1. To justify their claims to land that belonged to someone else, the Spanish relied on cultural
superiority, missionary zeal, and violence.
2. A missionary element existed from the church's long holy war against Islam, and was
renewed with the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century.
3. A primary aim of the Spaniards was to convert the Indians to the "true faith."
C. Piety and Profit
1. The souls to be saved could also be a labor force in the gold and silver mines.
2. Bartolomé de Las Casas wrote about the injustices of Spanish rule toward the Indians.
3. He believed that "the entire human race is one," but favored African slavery.
D. Reforming the Empire
1. Las Casas's writings encouraged the 1542 New Laws, which forbade the enslavement of
Indians.
2. The Black Legend was an image, put forth in part by Las Casas, that Spain was a uniquely
brutal and exploitive colonizer.
E. Exploring North America
1. Spanish explorers migrated into what is now the United States in search of gold; first was
Juan Ponce de León in Florida (1513).
2. Large Spanish expeditions traveled through Florida, the Gulf of Mexico region, and the
Southwest (1520s-1540s).
3. These expeditions, particularly Hernando de Soto's, brutalized Indians and spread deadly
diseases.
F. Spain in Florida and the Southwest
1. Florida, the first present-day U.S. area colonized by Spain, had forts as early as the 1560s
to protect Spanish treasure fleets from pirates.
2. As late as 1763, Spanish Florida had only 4,000 inhabitants of European descent.
3. Juan de Oñate led settlers into present-day New Mexico (1598).
4. Oñate destroyed Acoma, a centuries-old Indian city, in response to an attack.
G. The Pueblo Revolt
1. In 1680, Pueblo Indians, led by Popé, rebelled against the Spanish colonists in present-day
New Mexico for forcing the Indians to convert to Christianity.
VII.The French and Dutch Empires
. French Colonization
1. Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608, and others explored and claimed the entire
Mississippi Valley for France.
2. Relatively few French colonists arrived in New France. The white population in 1700 was
only 19,000.
A. New France and the Indians
1. With few settlers, friendly relations with the Indians were essential for France.
2. The French prided themselves on adopting a more humane policy toward the Indians than
Spain, yet their contact still brought disease and their fur trading depleted the native
animal population.
3. The métis were children of Indian women and French men.
B. The Dutch Empire
1. Henry Hudson sailed into New York Harbor and claimed the area for the Netherlands
(1609).
2. The Dutch West India Company settled colonists on Manhattan Island (1626).
3. The Netherlands dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century.
C. Dutch Freedom
1. The Dutch prided themselves on their devotion to liberty; freedom of the press and a broad
religious toleration were unique to the Dutch.
2. Amsterdam was a refuge for many persecuted Protestants and Jews.
3. New Netherland was a military post, not governed democratically, but the citizens
possessed rights.
4. Slaves had some rights, women enjoyed more independence than their counterparts in
other colonies, and there was more religious toleration.
D. Settling New Netherland
1. Cheap livestock and free land after six years of labor were promised in an attempt to attract
settlers.
E. New Netherland and the Indians
1. The Dutch came to trade, not to conquer, and were determined to treat the Indians more
humanely, although conflict was not completely avoided.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Jamestown]
II.England and the New World
A. Unifying the English Nation
1. England's stability in the sixteenth century was undermined by religious conflicts.
B. England and Ireland
1. England's methods to subdue Ireland in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries
established patterns that would be repeated in America.
C. England and North America
1. The English crown issued charters for individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir
Walter Raleigh to colonize America at their own expense, but both failed.
D. Motives for Colonization
1. Anti-Catholicism had become deeply ingrained in English popular culture.
2. A Discourse Concerning Western Planting argued that settlement would strike a blow at
England's most powerful Catholic enemy: Spain.
3. National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America.
4. It was also argued that trade, not mineral wealth, would be the basis of England's empire.
E. The Social Crisis
1. A worsening economy and the enclosure movement led to an increase in the number of
poor and to a social crisis.
2. Unruly poor were encouraged to leave England for the New World.
F. Masterless Men
1. The English increasingly viewed America as a land where a man could control his own
labor and thus gain economic independence, particularly through the ownership of land.
III.The Coming of the English
. English Emigrants
1. Sustained immigration was vital for the settlement's survival.
2. Between 1607 and 1700, a little over half a million persons left England.
a. They settled in Ireland, the West Indies, and North America.
b. The majority of settlers in North America were young, single men from the bottom rungs of English
society.
A. Indentured Servants
1. Two-thirds of English settlers came to North America as indentured servants.
2. Indentured servants did not enjoy any liberties while under contract.
B. Land and Liberty
1. Land was the basis of liberty.
C. Englishmen and Indians
1. The English were chiefly interested in displacing the Indians and settling on their land.
2. Most colonial authorities acquired land by purchase.
3. The seventeenth century was marked by recurrent warfare between colonists and Indians.
. Wars gave the English a heightened sense of superiority.
D. The Transformation of Indian Life
1. English goods were quickly integrated into Indian life.
2. Over time, those European goods changed Indian farming, hunting, and cooking practices.
. Growing connections with Europeans stimulated warfare among Indian tribes.
IV.Settling the Chesapeake
. The Jamestown Colony
1. Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony's early history because of high
death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, and
placing gold before farming.
2. By 1610, only 65 settlers remained alive.
3. John Smith's tough leadership held the early colony together.
4. New policies were adopted in 1618 so that the colony could survive.
. Headright system
a. A "charter of grants and liberties" provided an elected assembly (House of Burgesses), which first met
in 1619.
A. Powhatan and Pocahontas
1. Powhatan, the leader of thirty tribes near Jamestown, eagerly traded with the English.
2. English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful early on.
. Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614, symbolizing Anglo-Indian harmony.
B. The Uprising of 1622
1. Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post, conflict
was inevitable.
. Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia's settlers in 1622.
2. Through a treaty, the English forced Indians to recognize their subordination to the
government at Jamestown and moved them onto reservations.
3. The Virginia Company surrendered its charter to the crown in 1624.
C. A Tobacco Colony
1. Tobacco was Virginia's substitute for gold.
2. The expansion of tobacco production led to an increased demand for field labor.
D. Women and the Family
1. Virginian society lacked a stable family life.
2. Social conditions opened the door to roles women rarely assumed in England.
E. The Maryland Experiment
1. Maryland was established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert.
2. The charter granted Calvert "full, free, and absolute power."
F. Religion in Maryland
1. Calvert envisioned Maryland as a refuge for persecuted Catholics.
2. Most appointed officials initially were Catholic, but Protestants always outnumbered
Catholics in the colony.
3. Although it had a high death rate, Maryland offered servants greater opportunity for land
ownership than Virginia.
V.The New England Way
. The Rise of Puritanism
1. Puritanism emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England.
. Puritans believed that the Church of England retained too many elements of
Catholicism.
2. Puritans considered religious belief a complex and demanding matter, urging believers to
seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons.
. Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin.
A. Moral Liberty
1. Many Puritans immigrated to the New World in hopes of establishing a Bible
Commonwealth that would eventually influence England.
2. They came to America in search of liberty and the right to worship and govern themselves.
3. Puritans were governed by a "moral" liberty, "a liberty to that only which is good," which
was compatible with severe restraints on speech, religion, and personal behavior.
B. The Pilgrims at Plymouth
1. Pilgrims sailed in 1620 to Cape Cod aboard the Mayflower.
. Before going ashore, the adult men signed the Mayflower Compact, the first written frame of
government in what is now the United States.
2. Local Indians provided much valuable help to the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving was
celebrated in 1621.
C. The Great Migration
1. The Massachusetts Bay Company was charted in 1629 by London merchants wanting to
further the Puritan cause and to turn a profit from trade with the Indians.
2. New England settlement was very different from settlement in the Chesapeake colonies.
. New England had a more equal balance of men and women.
a. New England enjoyed a healthier climate.
b. New England had more families.
D. The Puritan Family
1. Puritans reproduced the family structure of England with men at the head of the
household.
2. Women were allowed full church membership and divorce was legal, but a woman was
expected to obey her husband fully.
E. Government and Society in Massachusetts
1. Massachusetts was organized into self-governing towns.
. Each town had a Congregational Church and a school.
a. To train an educated ministry, Harvard College was established in 1636.
2. The freemen of Massachusetts elected their governor.
3. Puritan democracy was for those within the circle of church members.
F. Puritan Liberties
1. Puritans defined liberties by social rank, producing a rigid hierarchal society justified by
God's will.
2. The Body of Liberties affirmed the rights of free speech and assembly and equal protection
for all.
3. Although ministers were forbidden to hold office in Massachusetts, church and state were
closely interconnected.
VI.New Englanders Divided
. Roger Williams
1. A young Puritan minister, Williams preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice
whatever form of religion he chose.
2. Williams believed that it was essential to separate church and state.
A. Rhode Island and Connecticut
1. Banished from Massachusetts in 1636, Williams established Rhode Island.
2. Rhode Island was truly a beacon of religious freedom and democratic government.
3. Other spin-offs from Massachusetts included New Haven and Hartford, which joined to
become the colony of Connecticut in 1662.
B. The Trials of Anne Hutchinson
1. Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the
ministers in Massachusetts were guilty of faulty preaching.
2. Hutchinson was placed on trial in 1637 for sedition.
. Authorities charged her with Antinomianism (putting one's own judgment or faith above human law
and church teachings).
a. On trial she said God spoke to her directly rather than through ministers or the Bible.
b. She and her followers were banished.
C. Puritans and Indians
1. Colonial leaders had differing opinions about the English right to claim Indian land.
2. To New England's leaders, the Indians represented both savagery and temptation.
. The Connecticut General Court set a penalty for anyone who
a. chose to live with the Indians.
b. The Puritans made no real attempt to convert the Indians in the first two decades.
D. The Pequot War
1. As the white population grew, conflict with the Indians became unavoidable, and the
turning point came when a fur trader was killed by Pequots.
2. Colonists warred against the Pequots in 1637, exterminating the tribe.
E. The New England Economy
1. Most migrants came from the middle ranks of society.
2. Fishing and timber were exported, but the economy centered on family farms.
F. A Growing Commercial Society
1. Per capita wealth was more equally distributed in New England than in the Chesapeake.
2. A powerful merchant class rose up, assuming a growing role based on trade within the
British empire.
3. Some clashed with the church and left to establish a new town, Portsmouth, in New
Hampshire.
4. By 1650, less than half the population of Boston had become full church members.
5. In 1662, the Half-Way Covenant answered with a compromise that allowed the
grandchildren of the Great Migration generation to be baptized and be granted a kind of
half-way membership in the church.
VII.Religion, Politics, and Freedom
. The Rights of Englishmen
1. By 1600, the idea that certain rights of Englishmen applied to all within the kingdom had
developed alongside the traditional definition of liberties.
2. This tradition rested on the Magna Carta, which was signed by King John in 1215.
. It identified a series of liberties granted to "all the free men of our realm."
3. The Magna Carta over time came to embody the idea of English freedom:
. Habeas corpus
a. The right to face one's accuser
b. Trial by jury
A. The English Civil War
1. The English Civil War of the 1640s illuminated debates about liberty and what it meant to
be a freeborn Englishman.
B. England's Debate over Freedom
1. John Milton called for freedom of speech and of the press.
2. The Levellers called for an even greater expansion of freedom, moving away from a
definition based on social class.
3. The Diggers was another political group attempting to give freedom an economic
underpinning through the common ownership of land.
C. The Civil War and English America
1. Most New Englanders sided with Parliament in the Civil War.
2. Ironically, Puritan leaders were uncomfortable with the religious toleration for Protestants
gaining favor in England, as it was Parliament that granted Williams his charter for Rhode
Island.
3. A number of Hutchinson's followers became Quakers; four were hanged in Massachusetts.
4. In Maryland, crisis erupted into civil war.
5. In 1649, Maryland adopted an Act Concerning Religion, which institutionalized the
principles of toleration that had prevailed from the colony's beginning.
D. Cromwell and the Empire
1. Oliver Cromwell, who ruled England from 1649 until his death in 1658, pursued an
aggressive policy of colonial expansion, the promotion of Protestantism, and commercial
empowerment in the British Isles and the Western Hemisphere.
2. The next century was a time of crisis and consolidation.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: King Philip's War]
II.Global Competition and The Expansion of England's Empire
A. The Mercantilist System
1. England attempted to regulate its economy to ensure wealth and national power.
a. Commerce, not territorial plunder, was the foundation of the English empire.
2. The 1651 Navigation Acts required colonial products or "enumerated" goods to be
transported in English ships and sold at English ports.
B. The Conquest of New Netherland
1. The restoration of the English monarchy came in 1660 with Charles II, and the government
chartered new trading ventures such as the Royal African Company.
2. In 1664, during an Anglo-Dutch war, New Netherland came under control of the English.
3. The terms of Dutch surrender guaranteed some freedoms and liberties but reversed others,
especially for blacks.
4. The Duke of York governed New York, and by 1700 nearly 2 million acres of land were
owned by only five New York families.
C. New York and the Indians
1. The English briefly held an alliance with the Five Nations known as the Covenant Chain,
but by the end of the century the Five Nations adopted a policy of neutrality.
D. The Charter of Liberties
1. Demanding liberties, the English of New York got an elected assembly, which drafted a
Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1683.
E. The Founding of Carolina
1. Carolina was established as a barrier to Spanish expansion north of Florida.
2. Carolina was an offshoot of Barbados and, as such, a slave colony from the start.
3. From 1670 until 1720, Carolina engaged in a slave trade that sold captured local Indians to
other mainland colonies and to the West Indies.
4. The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina envisioned a feudal society. The colonial
government did allow for religious toleration, an elected assembly, and a generous
headright system.
5. The economy grew slowly until planters discovered rice, which would make them the
wealthiest elite in English North America.
F. The Holy Experiment
1. Pennsylvania was the last seventeenth-century colony to be established and was given to
proprietor William Penn.
2. A Quaker, Penn envisioned a colony of peaceful harmony between colonists and Indians
and a haven for spiritual freedom.
3. Quakers believed that liberty was a universal entitlement.
. Liberty extended to women, blacks, and Indians.
4. Religious freedom was a fundamental principle.
. Quakers upheld a strict code of personal morality.
G. Land in Pennsylvania
1. Penn established an appointed council to originate legislation and an assembly elected by
male taxpayers and "freemen," which meant that a majority of the male population could
vote.
2. He owned all of the colony's land and sold it to settlers at low prices rather than granting it
outright.
3. Pennsylvania attracted immigrants from all over western Europe.
III.Origins of American Slavery
. The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured
servants.
1. Englishmen and Africans
. In the seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed.
a. Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices.
2. Slavery in History
. Although slavery has a long history, slavery in North America was markedly different.
a. Slavery in the Americas was based on the plantation and the death rate was high in the seventeenth
century.
3. Slavery in the West Indies
. By 1600, huge sugar plantations worked by slaves from Africa were well-established in Brazil and in
the West Indies.
a. By 1600, disease had killed off the Indians, and white indentured servants were no longer willing to do
the backbreaking work required on sugar plantations.
b. Sugar was the first crop to be mass-marketed to consumers in Europe.
4. Slavery and the Law
. The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would
become later.
i.Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court.
5. The Rise of Chesapeake Slavery
. It was not until the 1660s that the laws of Virginia and Maryland explicitly referred
to slavery.
a. A Virginia law of 1662 provided that in the case of a child born to one free
parent and one slave parent, the status of the offspring followed that of the
mother.
b. In 1667 the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that conversion to
Christianity did not release a slave from bondage.
6. Bacon's Rebellion: Land and Labor in Virginia
. Virginia's shift from white indentured servants to African slaves as the main
plantation labor force was accelerated by Bacon's Rebellion.
a. Virginia's government ran a corrupt regime under Governor Berkeley.
b. Good, free land was scarce for freed indentured servants.
c. Nathaniel Bacon, an elite planter, called for the removal of all Indians,
lower taxes, and an end to rule by "grandees." His campaign gained support
from small farmers, indentured servants, landless men, and even some
Africans.
d. Bacon spoke of traditional English liberties.
e. The rebellion's aftermath left Virginia's planter elite to consolidate their
power and improve their image.
7. A Slave Society
. By the end of the seventeenth century, a number of factors made slave labor very attractive to English
settlers; and slavery began to supplant indentured servitude between 1680 and 1700.
a. By the early eighteenth century, Virginia had transformed from a society with slaves to a slave society.
.In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes.
b. From the start of American slavery, blacks ran away and desired freedom.
c. Settlers were well aware that the desire for freedom could ignite the slaves to rebel.
IV.Colonies in Crisis
. The Glorious Revolution
1. The Glorious Revolution in 1688 established parliamentary supremacy and secured the
Protestant succession to the throne.
2. Rather than risk a Catholic succession through James II, a group of English aristocrats
invited the Dutch Protestant William of Orange to assume the throne.
3. The overthrow of James II entrenched the notion that liberty was the birthright of all
Englishmen.
. Parliament issued a Bill of Rights (1689) guaranteeing individual rights such as trial by jury.
a. Parliament adopted the Toleration Act (1690), which allowed Protestant Dissenters (but not Catholics)
to worship freely, although only Anglicans could hold public office.
A. The Glorious Revolution in America
1. In 1675, England established the Lords of Trade to oversee colonial affairs, but the colonies
were not interested in obeying London.
2. To create wealth, between 1686 and 1685 James II created a "super-colony," the Dominion
of New England.
. The new colony threatened liberties.
3. News in America of the Glorious Revolution in England resulted in a reestablishment of
former colonial governments.
4. Lord Baltimore's charter for Maryland was revoked for mismanagement.
5. Jacob Leisler, a Calvinist, took control of New York.
6. Leisler was executed, and New York politics remained polarized for years.
7. In New England, Plymouth was absorbed into Massachusetts, and the political structure of
the Bible Commonwealth was transformed.
. Land ownership, not church membership, was required to vote.
a. A governor was appointed in London rather than elected.
b. The colony had to abide by the Toleration Act.
B. The Salem Witch Trials
1. Witchcraft was widely believed in and punishable by execution.
. Most accused were women.
2. In 1691, several girls suffered fits and nightmares, which were attributed to witchcraft.
3. Three women, including a Caribbean slave named Tituba, were named as witches.
4. Accusations snowballed; ultimately fourteen women and six men were executed before the
governor halted all prosecutions.
V.The Growth of Colonial America
. A Diverse Population
1. As England's economy improved, large-scale migration was draining labor from the
mother country.
. Efforts began to stop promotion of emigration.
2. London believed colonial development bolstered the nation's power and wealth.
. 50,000 convicts were sent to the Chesapeake to work in the tobacco fields.
3. 145,000 Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants came to North America.
A. The German Migration
1. Germans, 110,000 in all, formed the largest group of newcomers from the European
continent.
2. Entire German families emigrated as "redemptioners."
B. Religious Diversity
1. In eighteenth-century British America, ethnic groups tended to live and worship in
relatively homogenous communities.
2. Dissenting Protestants in most colonies gained the right to worship as they pleased in their
own churches.
C. Indian Life in Transition
1. Indian communities were well integrated into the British imperial system.
2. Traders, British officials, and farmers all viewed Indians differently.
3. The Walking Purchase of 1737 brought fraud to the Pennsylvania Indians.
D. Regional Diversity
1. The backcountry was the most rapidly growing region in North America.
2. Farmers in the older portions of the Middle Colonies enjoyed a standard of living
unimaginable in Europe.
. Pennsylvania was known as "the best poor man's country."
E. The Consumer Revolution
1. Great Britain eclipsed the Dutch in the eighteenth century as the leader in trade.
2. Eighteenth-century colonial society enjoyed a multitude of consumer goods.
F. Colonial Cities
1. Although relatively small and few in number, port cities like Philadelphia were important.
2. Cities served mainly as gathering places for agricultural goods and for imported items to be
distributed to the countryside.
3. The city was home to a large population of artisans.
G. An Atlantic World
1. Trade helped to create a web of interdependence among the European empires.
2. Membership in the empire had many advantages for the colonists.
VI.Social Classes in the Colonies
. The Colonial Elite
1. Expanding trade created the emergence of a powerful upper class of merchants.
2. In the Chesapeake and Lower South, planters accumulated enormous wealth.
3. America had no titled aristocracy or established social ranks.
A. Anglicization
1. Colonial elites began to think of themselves as more and more English.
2. Desperate to follow an aristocratic lifestyle, wealthy Americans tried to model their lives on
British etiquette and behavior.
3. The tie that held the elite together was the belief that freedom from labor was the mark of
the gentleman.
B. Poverty in the Colonies
1. Although poverty was not as widespread in the colonies as it was in England, many
colonists had to work as tenants or wage laborers because access to land diminished.
2. Taking the colonies as a whole, half of the wealth at mid-century was concentrated in the
hands of the richest 10 percent of the population.
3. The better-off in society tended to view the poor as lazy and responsible for their own
plight.
C. The Middle Ranks
1. Many in the nonplantation South owned some land.
2. By the eighteenth century, colonial farm families viewed land ownership almost as a right:
the social precondition of freedom.
D. Women and the Household Economy
1. The family was the center of economic life, and all members contributed to the family's
livelihood.
2. In the eighteenth century, the division of labor along gender lines solidified.
E. North America at Mid-Century
1. As compared to Europe, colonies were diverse, prosperous, and offered many liberties.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Olaudah Equiano]
II.Slavery and Empire
A. Atlantic Trade
1. A series of trade routes crisscrossed the Atlantic.
2. Colonial merchants profited from the slave trade.
3. Slavery became connected with the color black, and liberty with the color white.
B. Africa and the Slave Trade
1. With the exception of the king of Benin, most African rulers took part in the slave trade.
2. The slave trade was concentrated in western Africa, greatly disrupting its society and
economy.
C. The Middle Passage
1. The Middle Passage was the voyage across the Atlantic for slaves.
2. Slaves were crammed aboard ships for maximum profit.
3. Slave traders took the vast majority of slaves to Brazil and to the West Indies, where death
rates were high.
4. Less than 5 percent of African slaves went to what became the United States, but the slave
population there increased steadily through natural reproduction.
D. Chesapeake Slavery
1. Three distinct slave systems were well entrenched in Britain's mainland colonies:
a. Tobacco-based plantation slavery in the Chesapeake
b. Rice-based plantation slavery in South Carolina and Georgia
c. Nonplantation societies of New England and the Middle Colonies
2. Slavery transformed Chesapeake society into an elaborate hierarchy of degrees of freedom:
. Large planters
a. Yeomen farmers
b. Indentured servants and tenant farmers
c. Slaves
3. With the consolidation of a slave society, planters enacted laws to protect their power over
the slaves.
E. The Rice Kingdom
1. South Carolinian and Georgian slavery rested on rice.
2. Rice and indigo required large-scale cultivation (which was done by slaves).
3. Under the task system, individual slaves did daily jobs, the completion of which allowed
time for leisure or cultivation of their own crops.
4. By 1770, the number of South Carolina slaves had reached 100,000-well over half the
colony's population.
F. The Georgia Experiment
1. Georgia was established by a group of philanthropists led by James Oglethorpe in 1733.
2. Oglethorpe had banned liquor and slaves, but the settlers demanded their right of self-
government and repealed the bans by the early 1750s.
G. Slavery in the North
1. Since the economics of New England and the Middle Colonies were based on small farms,
slavery was far less important.
2. Given that slaves were few and posed no threat to the white majority, laws were less harsh
than in the South.
3. Slaves did represent a sizable percentage of urban laborers, particularly in New York and in
Philadelphia.
III.Slave Cultures and Slave Resistance
. Becoming African-American
1. The common link among Africans in America was not kinship, language, or even "race,"
but slavery itself.
2. For most of the eighteenth century, the majority of American slaves were African by birth.
A. African-American Cultures
1. In the Chesapeake, slaves learned English, participated in the Great Awakening, and were
exposed to white culture.
2. In South Carolina and Georgia, two very different black societies emerged:
. Communities on rice plantations retained significant African cultural elements (e.g., housing styles,
child naming practices, language).
a. Slaves in the cities of Charleston and Savannah assimilated more quickly into Euro-American culture.
3. In the northern colonies, a distinctive African-American culture developed more slowly,
and African-Americans enjoyed more access to the mainstream of life.
B. Resistance to Slavery
1. A common thread among African-Americans was the desire for freedom.
. Many plantation slaves in South Carolina and Georgia ran away to Florida or to cities.
2. The first eighteenth-century slave uprising occurred in New York City in 1712.
3. The Stono Rebellion of 1739 in South Carolina led to the tightening of the slave code.
4. A panic in 1741 swept New York City after a series of fires broke out that were rumored to
have been part of a slave conspiracy to attack whites.
IV.An Empire of Freedom
. British Patriotism
1. Despite the centrality of slavery to its empire, eighteenth-century Great Britain prided itself
on being the world's most advanced and freest nation.
2. Most Britons shared a common law, a common language, a common devotion to
Protestantism, and a common enemy in France.
3. Britons believed that wealth, religion, and freedom went together.
A. The British Constitution
1. Central to this sense of British identity was the concept of liberty.
2. Britons believed that no man was above the law, not even the king.
3. The idea of liberty became increasingly identified with a general right to resist arbitrary
government.
B. Republican Liberty
1. Republicanism celebrated active participation in public life by economically independent
citizens.
2. Republicanism held virtue-meaning a willingness to subordinate self-interest to the public
good-to be crucial in public life.
3. Republicanism in Britain was associated with the Country Party, which criticized Britain's
loss of virtue.
C. Liberal Freedom
1. Liberalism was strongly influenced by the philosopher John Locke.
2. Lockean ideas included individual rights, the consent of the governed, and the right of
rebellion against unjust or oppressive government.
3. Locke's ideas excluded many from freedom's full benefits in the eighteenth century, but
they opened the door for many to challenge the limitations on their own freedom later.
4. Republicanism and liberalism eventually reinforced each other.
V.The Public Sphere
. The Right to Vote
1. In Britain, ownership of property was a common qualifier for voting.
2. Suffrage was much more common in the colonies than in Britain.
A. Political Cultures
1. Considerable power was held by those with appointive, not elective, offices.
2. Property qualifications for officeholding were far higher than for voting.
3. Deference-the notion among ordinary people that wealth, education, and social
prominence carried a right to public office-limited choices in elections.
B. The Rise of the Assemblies
1. Elected assemblies became more assertive in colonial politics during the eighteenth
century.
2. The colonial elected assemblies exercised great influence over governors and other
appointed officials.
3. Leaders of the assemblies drew on the writings of the English Country Party.
C. Politics in Public
1. The American gentry were very active in the discussion of politics, particularly through
clubs.
D. The Colonial Press
1. Widespread literacy and the proliferation of newspapers encouraged political discourse.
2. Circulating libraries contributed to the dissemination of information.
E. Freedom of Expression and Its Limits
1. Freedom of speech was a relatively new idea.
2. Freedom of the press was generally viewed as dangerous.
3. After 1695, the government could not censor print material, and colonial newspapers
defended freedom of the press as a central component of liberty.
F. The Trial of Zenger
1. Newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger went on trial in 1735 for seditious libel, for
criticizing New York's governor.
. He was found not guilty.
a. The outcome promoted the idea that publishing the truth should always be permitted and
demonstrated that free expression was becoming ingrained in the popular imagination.
G. The American Enlightenment
1. Americans sought to apply to political and social life the scientific method of careful
investigation based on research and experiment.
2. Belief in Deism (the notion that because God set up natural laws to govern the universe,
following the act of creation, God did not intervene in the world) embodied the spirit of the
American Enlightenment.
VI.The Great Awakening
. Religious Revivals
1. The Great Awakening was a series of local events united by a commitment to a more
emotional and personal Christianity than that offered by existing churches.
2. The Great Awakening was led by flamboyant preachers like Jonathan Edwards, whose
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God stressed the need for humans to seek divine grace.
A. The Preaching of Whitefield
1. The English minister George Whitefield is often credited with sparking the Great
Awakening.
B. The Awakening's Impact
1. The Great Awakening enlarged the boundaries of liberty as Old Lights (traditionalists) and
New Lights (revivalists) defended their right to worship.
2. The Great Awakening inspired criticism of many aspects of colonial society.
3. A few preachers explicitly condemned slavery.
VII.Imperial Rivalries
. Spanish North America
1. A vast territorial empire on paper, Spanish North America actually consisted of a few small
and isolated urban clusters.
2. Despite establishing religious missions and presidios, the Spanish population in Spain's
North American empire remained relatively small and sparse.
A. The Spanish in California
1. Spain ordered the colonization of California in response to a perceived Russian threat.
. JunÃpero Serra founded the first mission in San Diego in 1769.
2. California was a mission frontier.
B. The French Empire
1. The French empire in the eighteenth century expanded in Canada.
2. The French tended to view North America as a place of cruel exile for criminals and social
outcasts.
VIII.Battle for the Continent
. The Middle Ground
1. Indians were constantly being pushed from their homes into a "middle ground" between
European empires and Indian sovereignty.
2. The government of Virginia gave an immense land grant in 1749 to the Ohio Company.
A. The Seven Years' War
1. The war began in 1754 as the British tried to dislodge the French from western
Pennsylvania.
2. The war went against the British until 1757, when William Pitt became British prime
minister and turned the tide of battle.
3. In 1759, a French army was defeated near Quebec.
B. A World Transformed
1. The Peace of Paris in 1763 resulted in the expulsion of France from North America.
2. The Seven Years' War put future financial strains on all the participants.
C. Pontiac's Rebellion
1. With the removal of the French, the balance-of-power diplomacy that had enabled groups
like the Iroquois to maintain a significant degree of autonomy was eliminated.
2. In 1763, Indians in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes launched a revolt against British rule.
3. Neolin championed a pan-Indian identity.
D. The Proclamation Line
1. To avoid further Indian conflicts, London issued the Proclamation of 1763, which banned
white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
2. The Proclamation enraged settlers and land speculators hoping to take advantage of the
expulsion of the French.
E. Pennsylvania and the Indians
1. The war deepened the hostility of western Pennsylvanian farmers toward Indians and
witnessed numerous indiscriminate assaults on Indian communities.
2. After the Paxton Boys marched on Philadelphia, the governor ordered the expulsion of
much of the Indian population from Pennsylvania.
F. Colonial Identities
1. The colonists emerged from the Seven Years' War with a strengthened pride in being
members of the British empire.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Thomas Hutchinson]
II.The Crisis Begins
A. Consolidating the Empire
1. During the Seven Years' War, Britain treated the colonies as their ally.
2. After the Seven Years' War, London insisted that the colonists play a subordinate role to
the mother country and help pay for the protection the British provided.
3. Members of the British Parliament had virtual representation.
4. The colonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in
Parliament.
B. Taxing the Colonies
1. The Sugar Act of 1764 and a revenue act threatened the profits of colonial merchants.
2. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materials.
3. The act was wide-reaching and offended virtually every free colonist.
4. Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the Revolutionary era and the first
major split between the colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedom.
C. Taxation and Representation
1. American leaders viewed the British empire as an association of equals in which free
settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at home.
2. The Stamp Act Congress met in 1765 to endorse Virginia's House of Burgesses' resolutions.
a. Patrick Henry
D. Liberty and Resistance
1. No word was more frequently invoked by critics of the Stamp Act than "liberty."
. Liberty Tree
2. A Committee of Correspondence was created in Boston and other colonies to exchange
ideas about resistance.
3. The Sons of Liberty were organized to resist the Stamp Act and to enforce a boycott of
British goods.
4. London repealed the Stamp Act, but issued the Declaratory Act.
E. The Regulators
1. Two groups in the Carolinas were known as Regulators in the 1760s.
2. The South Carolina Regulators consisted of wealthy backcountry residents who protested
their underrepresentation in the colonial assembly and the lack of local governments.
3. The North Carolina Regulators mobilized small farmers upset with corrupt local
government run by elites.
4. The North Carolina militia defeated the North Carolina Regulators at the battle of
Alamance (1771), which ended their protests.
III.The Road to Revolution
. The Townshend Crisis
1. The 1767 Townshend Act imposed taxes on imported goods.
2. By 1768, colonies were again boycotting British goods.
3. Rather than rely on British goods, colonists relied on homespun clothing; use of American
goods came to be seen as a symbol of American resistance.
4. Urban artisans strongly supported the boycott.
A. The Boston Massacre
1. The March 1770 conflict between Bostonians and British troops left five Bostonians,
including a mixed-race sailor named Crispus Attucks, dead.
2. The boycott ended after the Townshend duties were repealed, leaving only a tax on tea.
B. Wilkes and Liberty
1. The treatment of John Wilkes and the rumors of Anglican bishops being sent to America
convinced many settlers that England was succumbing to the same pattern of political
corruption and decline of liberty that afflicted other countries.
C. The Tea Act
1. The East India Company was in financial crisis, and the British government decided to
market the company's Chinese tea in North America.
2. The Tea Act was intended to aid the East India Company and to defray the costs of colonial
government.
3. December 16, 1773: colonists threw more than 300 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.
D. The Intolerable Acts
1. London's response to the Bostonians' action was swift and harsh with the so-called
Intolerable Acts.
2. The Quebec Act granted religious toleration for Catholics in Canada.
IV.The Coming of Independence
. The Continental Congress
1. To resist the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in 1774.
A. The Continental Association
1. The Congress adopted the Continental Association, which called for an almost complete
halt to trade with Great Britain and the West Indies.
2. Committees of Safety were established to enforce the boycotts.
. The Committees of Safety enlarged the political nation.
B. The Sweets of Liberty
1. By 1775, talk of liberty pervaded the colonies.
2. As the crisis deepened, Americans increasingly based their claims not simply on the
historical rights of Englishmen but on the more abstract language of natural rights and
universal freedom.
. John Locke
a. Thomas Jefferson
C. The Outbreak of War
1. In April 1775, war broke out at Lexington and Concord.
2. The Battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the colonists forced General Howe from
Boston by March 1776.
3. The Second Continental Congress raised an army and appointed George Washington its
commander.
D. Independence?
1. That the goal of this war was independence was not clear by the end of 1775.
2. Opinions varied in the colonies as to the question of independence.
E. Paine's Common Sense
1. Thomas Paine published Common Sense in January 1776, which criticized monarchy and
aristocracy.
2. Paine deemed absurd a small island ruling a continent.
3. Paine tied the economic hopes of the new nation to the idea of commercial freedom.
4. Paine argued that America would become a haven for liberty, "an asylum for mankind."
5. Paine dramatically expanded the public sphere where political discussion took place.
6. He pioneered a new style of political writing, engaging a far greater audience than anyone
before him.
7. His persuasions led the Second Continental Congress to sever the colonies' ties with Great
Britain.
F. The Declaration of Independence
1. The Declaration of Independence declared the United States an independent nation.
2. Jefferson's preamble gave the Declaration its enduring impact.
3. The Declaration of Independence completed the shift from the rights of Englishmen to the
rights of mankind as the object of American independence.
. The "pursuit of happiness" was unique.
G. An Asylum for Mankind
1. The idea of "American exceptionalism" was prevalent in the Revolution.
H. The Global Declaration of Independence
1. Although for most Americans winning international recognition for their independence
trumped concern for global human rights, Thomas Jefferson hoped the Declaration would
inspire others to claim liberty and self-government.
2. Numerous anticolonial movements, such as Vietnam in 1945, have modeled their own
declarations of independence on America's.
3. The Declaration's principle that political authority rests on the will of "the people" has been
influential around the world.
V.Securing Independence
. The Balance of Power
1. Britain had the advantage of a large, professional army and navy.
2. Patriots had the advantages of fighting on their own soil and a passionate desire for
freedom.
A. Blacks in the Revolution
1. George Washington accepted black recruits after Lord Dunmore's proclamation offered
freedom to slaves who fought for the British.
. Five thousand African-Americans enlisted in state militias and the Continental army and navy.
a. Some slaves gained freedom by serving in place of an owner.
2. Siding with the British offered slaves far more opportunities for liberty.
B. The First Years of the War
1. The war initially went badly for Washington; many of his troops went home.
2. Washington managed a successful surprise attack on Trenton and Princeton.
C. The Battle of Saratoga
1. The Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 gave the patriots a victory and boost to morale.
. The victory convinced the French to aid the Americans in 1778.
D. The War in the South
1. The focus of the war shifted to the South in 1778.
2. British commanders were unable to consolidate their hold on the South.
E. Victory at Last
1. American and French troops surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he
surrendered in October 1781.
2. The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783.
. The American delegation was made up of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay.
Chapter Study Outline
I.[Introduction: Abigail Adams]
II.Democratizing Freedom
A. The Dream of Equality
1. The Revolution unleashed public debates and political and social struggles that enlarged
the scope of freedom and challenged inherited structures of power within America.
a. The principle of hereditary aristocracy was rejected.
2. The Declaration of Independence's assertion that "all men are created equal" announced a
radical principle whose full implications could not be anticipated.
. American freedom became linked with equality, which challenged the fundamental inequality
inherent in the colonial social order.
B. Expanding the Political Nation
1. The democratization of freedom was dramatic for free men.
2. Artisans, small farmers, laborers, and the militia all emerged as self-conscious elements in
politics.
C. The Revolution in Pennsylvania
1. The prewar elite of Pennsylvania opposed independence.
. This left a vacuum of political leadership filled by a new pro-independence grouping.
2. Pennsylvania's 1776 constitution sought to institutionalize democracy in a number of ways,
including:
. Establishing an annually elected, one-house legislature
a. Allowing tax-paying (not just property-owning) men to vote
b. Abolishing the office of governor
D. The New Constitutions
1. Each state wrote a new constitution and all agreed that their governments must be
republics.
2. One-house legislatures were adopted only by Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Vermont.
3. John Adams's "balanced governments" included two-house legislatures.
E. The Right to Vote
1. The property qualification for suffrage was hotly debated.
2. The least democratization occurred in the southern states, where highly deferential
political traditions enabled the landed gentry to retain their control of political affairs.
3. By the 1780s, with the exceptions of Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of
the adult white male population could meet voting requirements.
4. Freedom and an individual's right to vote had become interchangeable.
III.Toward Religious Toleration
. Catholic Americans
1. Joining forces with France and inviting Quebec to join in the struggle against Britain had
weakened anti-Catholicism.
A. Separating Church and State
1. Many believed that religion was necessary as a foundation of public morality, but were
skeptical of religious doctrine.
2. The drive to separate church and state brought together Deists with members of
evangelical sects.
3. The seven state constitutions that began with declarations of rights all included a
commitment to "the free exercise of religion."
4. Many states still limited religious freedoms (e.g., barring Jews from voting and holding
office, except in New York; or publicly financing religious institutions, such as in
Massachusetts).
5. Catholics gained the right to worship without persecution throughout the states.
B. Jefferson and Religious Liberty
1. Thomas Jefferson's Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom separated church and state.
2. James Madison insisted that one reason for the complete separation of church and state
was to reinforce the principle that the new nation offered "asylum to the persecuted and
oppressed of every nation and religion."
3. Thanks to religious freedom, the early republic witnessed an amazing proliferation of
religious denominations.
C. A Virtuous Citizenry
1. Leaders wished to encourage virtue-the ability to sacrifice self-interest for the public good.
IV.Defining Economic Freedom
. Toward Free Labor
1. The lack of freedom inherent in apprenticeship and servitude increasingly came to be seen
as incompatible with republican citizenship.
2. By 1800, indentured servitude had all but disappeared from the United States.
. The distinction between freedom and slavery sharpened.
A. The Soul of a Republic
1. To most free Americans, equality meant equal opportunity rather than equality of
condition.
2. Thomas Jefferson and others equated land and economic resources with freedom.
B. The Politics of Inflation
1. Some Americans responded to wartime inflation by accusing merchants of hoarding goods
and by seizing stocks of food to be sold at the traditional "just price."
C. The Debate over Free Trade
1. Congress urged states to adopt measures to fix wages and prices.
2. Adam Smith's argument that the "invisible hand" of the free market directed economic life
more effectively and fairly than governmental intervention offered intellectual justification
for those who believed that the economy should be left to regulate itself.
V.The Limits of Liberty
. Colonial Loyalists
1. An estimated 20 to 25 percent of Americans were Loyalists (those who retained their
allegiance to the crown).
2. Loyalists included:
. Wealthy men with close working relationships with Britain
a. Ethnic minorities fearful of losing to local majorities their freedom to
enjoy cultural autonomy
b. Many southern backcountry farmers and New York tenants who opposed
wealthy planter patriots and landlord patriots, respectively
A. The Loyalists' Plight
1. The War for Independence was in some respects a civil war among Americans.
2. War brought a deprivation of basic rights to many Americans.
. Many states required residents to take oaths of allegiance to the new nation.
3. When the war ended, as many as 100,000 Loyalists were banished from the United States
or emigrated voluntarily.
B. The Indians' Revolution
1. American independence meant the loss of freedom for Indians.
2. Indians were divided in allegiance during the War of Independence.
3. Both the British and Americans were guilty of savagery toward the Indians during the war.
4. To many patriots, access to Indian land was one of the fruits of American victory.
. Liberty for whites meant loss of liberty for Indians
5. The Treaty of Paris marked the culmination of a century in which the balance of power in
eastern North America shifted away from the Indians and toward white Americans.
VI.Slavery and the Revolution
. The Language of Slavery and Freedom
1. During the debates over British rule, "slavery" was primarily a political category.
2. The irony that America cried for liberty while enslaving Africans was recognized by some
(e.g., the British statesman Edmund Burke and the British writer Dr. Samuel Johnson).
A. Obstacles to Abolition
1. Some patriots argued that slavery for blacks made freedom possible for whites.
B. The Cause of General Liberty
1. By defining freedom as a universal entitlement rather than as a set of rights specific to a
particular place or people, the Revolution inevitably raised questions about the status of
slavery in the new nation.
2. Samuel Sewall's The Selling of Joseph (1700) was the first antislavery tract in America.
3. In 1773, Benjamin Rush warned that slavery was a "national crime" that would bring
"national punishment."
C. Petitions for Freedom
1. Slaves in the North and in the South appropriated the language of liberty for their own
purposes.
2. Slaves presented "freedom petitions" in New England in the early 1770s.
3. Many blacks were surprised that white America did not realize their rhetoric of revolution
demanded emancipation.
4. The poems of Phillis Wheatley, a slave in Boston, often spoke of freedom.
D. British Emancipators
1. Nearly 100,000 slaves deserted their owners and fled to British lines.
2. At the end of the war, over 15,000 blacks accompanied the British out of the country.
. Many ended up in Nova Scotia, England, and Sierra Leone, a West African settlement established by
Britain for former U.S. slaves.
a. Some were re-enslaved in the West Indies.
E. Voluntary Emancipations
1. For a brief moment, the revolutionary upheaval appeared to threaten the continued
existence of slavery as some slaveholders, primarily in the Upper South, provided for the
emancipation of their slaves.
F. Abolition in the North
1. Between 1777 and 1804, every state north of Maryland took steps toward emancipation.
2. Abolition in the North was a slow process and typically applied only to future children of
current slave women.
G. Free Black Communities
1. After the war, free black communities with their own churches, schools, and leaders came
into existence.
2. Despite the rhetoric of freedom, the war did not end slavery for blacks.
VII.Daughters of Liberty
. Revolutionary Women
1. Many women participated in the war in various capacities.
. Deborah Sampson, for example, dressed as a man and enlisted in the Continental army.
2. Within American households, women participated in the political discussions unleashed by
independence.
3. "Coverture" (which meant a husband held legal authority over his wife) remained intact in
the new nation.
4. In both law and social reality, women lacked the opportunity for autonomy (based on
ownership of property or control of one's own person) and hence lacked the essential
qualification of political participation.
A. Republican Motherhood
1. Women played a key role in the new republic by training future citizens.
2. The idea of Republican motherhood reinforced the trend toward the idea of
"companionate" marriage.
B. The Arduous Struggle for Liberty
1. The Revolution changed the life of virtually every American.
2. America became a beacon of hope to those chafing under Old World tyrannies.
. The idea that "the people" possessed rights was quickly internationalized.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Ratification Celebrations]
II.America under the Confederation
A. The Articles of Confederation
1. The first written constitution of the United States
a. One-house Congress
b. No president
c. No judiciary
2. The only powers granted to the national government were those for declaring war,
conducting foreign affairs, and making treaties.
B. Congress, Settlers, and the West
1. Congress established national control over land to the west of the thirteen states and
devised rules for its settlement.
2. In the immediate aftermath of independence, Congress took the position that by aiding the
British, Indians had forfeited the right to their lands.
3. Congress faced conflicting pressures from settlers and land speculators regarding western
development.
4. Peace brought rapid settlement into frontier areas.
5. Leaders feared unregulated flow of settlement across the Appalachian Mountains could
provoke constant warfare with the Indians.
C. The Land Ordinances
1. The Ordinance of 1784 established stages of self-government for the West.
2. The Ordinance of 1785 regulated land sales in the region north of the Ohio River and
established the township system there.
3. Like the British before them, American officials found it difficult to regulate the thirst for
new land.
4. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established policy that admitted the area's population as
equal members of the political system.
D. The Confederation's Weaknesses
1. The war created an economic crisis that the Confederation government could not
adequately address.
2. With Congress unable to act, the states adopted their own economic policies.
E. Shays's Rebellion
1. Facing seizure of their land, debt-ridden farmers closed the courts in western
Massachusetts.
. They modeled their protests on those of the Revolutionary era, using liberty trees.
2. Shays's Rebellion convinced many of the need for a stronger central government to protect
property rights (a form of private liberty) from too much power in the hands of the people.
F. Nationalists of the 1780s
1. Nation builders like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton called for increased national
authority.
2. The concerns voiced by critics of the Articles found a sympathetic hearing among men who
had developed a national consciousness during the Revolution.
3. At a meeting in Annapolis (September 1786), delegates called for a convention to amend
the Articles of Confederation in order to avoid anarchy and monarchy.
III.A New Constitution
. The Structure of Government
1. Prominent wealthy and well-educated men took part in the Constitutional Convention.
2. Delegates quickly agreed the Constitution would create a legislature, an executive, and a
national judiciary.
3. The key to stable, effective republican government was finding a way to balance the
competing claims of liberty and power.
4. A compromise over the shape of Congress emerged from debates over the Virginia and
New Jersey Plans.
. Virginia Plan (favored by more populous states): two-house legislature where state's population
determined representation in both houses
a. New Jersey Plan (favored by smaller states): one-house legislature in which each state cast one vote
b. Compromise: two-house Congress consisting of Senate (each state had two members) and House of
Representatives (apportioned according to states' populations)
A. The Limits of Democracy
1. The Constitution left the determination of voter qualifications to the states.
2. The new government was based on a limited democracy.
3. Federal judges would be appointed by the president.
4. The president would be elected by an electoral college, or, in the case of a tie in that body,
by the House of Representatives.
B. The Division and Separation of Powers
1. The Constitution embodies federalism and a system of checks and balances.
. Federalism refers to the relationship between the national government and the states.
a. The separation of powers, or the system of checks and balances, refers to the way the Constitution
seeks to prevent any branch of the national government from dominating the other two.
C. The Debate over Slavery
1. Slavery divided the delegates.
2. The words "slave" and "slavery" did not appear in the Constitution, but it did provide for
slavery.
3. The South Carolinian delegates proved very influential in preserving slavery within the
Constitution.
D. Slavery in the Constitution
1. The Constitution prevented Congress from prohibiting the slave trade until 1808.
2. The fugitive slave clause made clear that the condition of bondage remained attached to a
person even if he or she escaped to a free area, and it required all states to help police the
institution of slavery.
3. The federal government could not interfere with slavery in the states.
. Slave states had more power due to the three-fifths clause.
E. The Final Document
1. Delegates signed the final draft on September 17, 1787.
2. The Constitution created a new framework for American development.
IV.The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights
. The Federalist
1. Nine of the thirteen states had to ratify the document.
2. The Federalist was published to generate support for ratification.
. Hamilton argued the Constitution had created "the perfect balance between liberty and power."
A. "Extend the Sphere"
1. Madison had a new vision of the relationship between government and society in
Federalist no. 10 and no. 51.
2. Madison argued that the large size of the United States was a source of stability, not
weakness.
3. Madison helped to popularize the liberal idea that men are generally motivated by self-
interest and that the good of society arises from the clash of these private interests.
B. The Anti-Federalists
1. Anti-Federalists, who opposed ratification, argued that the republic had to be small and
warned that the Constitution would result in an oppressive government.
2. "Liberty" was the Anti-Federalists' watchword.
. They argued for a Bill of Rights.
3. Federalists tended to be men of substantial property, urban dwellers seeking prosperity,
and rural residents tied to the commercial marketplace.
4. Anti-Federalists drew support from small farmers in more isolated rural areas (e.g., New
York's Hudson Valley, western Massachusetts, the southern backcountry).
5. Federalists dominated the press, which helped them carry the day.
6. Madison won support for the Constitution by promising a bill of rights later.
7. By mid-1788, the required nine states had ratified.
8. Only Rhode Island and North Carolina voted against ratification, but they eventually joined
the new government.
C. The Bill of Rights
1. Madison believed the Constitution would protect liberty without the addition of a bill of
rights.
2. Still, to satisfy the Constitution's critics, Madison introduced a bill of rights to the first
Congress.
3. Some rights, such as the prohibiting of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments,
reflected English roots, while others, such as the recognition of religious freedom, were
uniquely American.
4. Among the most important rights were freedom of speech and of the press, vital building
blocks of a democratic public sphere.
V."We the People"
. National Identity
1. The Constitution identifies three populations inhabiting the United States:
. Indians
a. "Other persons," which meant slaves
b. "People," who were the only ones entitled to American freedom
A. Indians in the New Nation
1. Indian tribes had no representation in the new government.
2. The treaty system was used with Indians, and Congress forbade the transfer of Indian land
without federal approval.
3. The U.S. victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers led to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.
. Under this treaty, twelve Indian tribes ceded most of Ohio and Indiana to the United States.
a. The treaty established the annuity system-yearly grants of federal money to Indian tribes that led to
continuing U.S. government influence in tribal affairs.
4. Some prominent Americans believed that Indians could assimilate into society.
. Assimilation meant transforming traditional Indian life.
B. Blacks and the Republic
1. The status of citizenship for free blacks was left to individual states.
2. Crèvecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer described America as a melting pot of
Europeans.
3. Like Crèvecoeur, many white Americans excluded blacks from their conception of the
American people.
. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited naturalization (the process by which
immigrants become citizens) to "free white persons."
C. Jefferson, Slavery, and Race
1. John Locke and others maintained that reason was essential to having liberty.
. Many white Americans did not consider blacks to be rational beings.
a. Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia claimed blacks lacked self-
control, reason, and devotion to the larger community.
2. Jefferson did not think any group was fixed permanently in a status of inferiority.
3. Some prominent Virginians believed black Americans could not become part of the
America nation.
D. Principles of Freedom
1. The Revolution widened the divide between free Americans and those who remained in
slavery.
2. "We the people" increasingly meant white Americans.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: George Washington's Inauguration]
II.Politics in an Age of Passion
A. Hamilton's Program
1. As secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton's long-range goal was to make the United
States a major commercial and military power.
2. His program had five parts:
a. Create creditworthiness by assuming state debts
b. Create a new national debt
c. Create a bank of the United States
d. Tax producers of whiskey
e. Impose tariffs and provide government subsidies to industries
B. The Emergence of Opposition
1. Opposition to Hamilton's plan was voiced by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
. Hamilton's plan depended on a close relationship with Britain.
a. Opponents believed the United States' future lay westward, not with Britain.
C. The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain
1. At first, opposition to Hamilton's program arose almost entirely from the South.
2. Hamilton argued the "general welfare" clause of the Constitution justified his program.
3. Jefferson insisted on "strict construction" of the Constitution, which meant the federal
government could only exercise powers specifically listed in that document.
4. Jefferson agreed southerners would accept Hamilton's plan in exchange for placing the
national capital on the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia.
D. The Impact of the French Revolution
1. The French Revolution became very radical by 1793, and France went to war with Britain.
2. George Washington declared American neutrality.
3. Jay's Treaty abandoned any American alliance with France by positioning the United
States close to Britain.
E. Political Parties
1. The Federalist Party supported Washington and Hamilton's economic plan and close ties
with Britain.
. Freedom rested on deference to authority.
F. The Whiskey Rebellion
1. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 proved to Federalists that democracy in the hands of
ordinary citizens was dangerous.
G. The Republican Party
1. Republicans were more sympathetic to France and had more faith in democratic self-
government.
2. Political language became more and more heated.
H. An Expanding Public Sphere
1. The political debates of the 1790s expanded the public sphere.
2. Newspapers and pamphlets were a primary vehicle for political debate.
3. Supporters of the French Revolution and critics of the Washington administration formed
nearly fifty Democratic-Republican Societies in 1793-1794.
4. The societies argued that political liberty meant not simply voting at elections but also
constant involvement in public affairs.
I. The Rights of Women
1. The expansion of the public sphere offered women an opportunity to take part in political
discussions, read newspapers, and hear orations.
. Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women
a. Judith Sargent Murray
2. A common call was for greater educational opportunities.
3. Although politics was a realm for men, the American Revolution had deepened the
democratization of public life.
III.The Adams Presidency
. The Election of 1796
1. Adams won with seventy-one electoral votes and Jefferson became vice president with
sixty-eight electoral votes.
2. His presidency was beset by crises.
. Quasi-war with France
a. Fries's Rebellion
A. The "Reign of Witches"
1. The Alien and Sedition Acts limited civil liberties.
2. The main target was the Republican press.
B. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
1. The Sedition Act thrust freedom of expression to the center of discussions of American
liberty.
. No other state endorsed the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.
C. The "Revolution of 1800"
1. Jefferson defeated Adams in the 1800 presidential campaign.
2. A constitutional crisis emerged with the election.
. Twelfth Amendment
a. Hamilton-Burr duel
3. Adams's acceptance of defeat established the vital precedent of a peaceful transfer of power
from a defeated party to its successor.
D. Slavery and Politics
1. Jefferson's election as president was aided by the three-fifths clause, which gave a
disproportionate number of electoral votes to southern states.
2. The First Congress received petitions calling for emancipation, which set off a long
sectional debate in that body.
3. In 1793, Congress adopted a law to enforce the Constitution's fugitive slave clause.
E. The Haitian Revolution
1. Events during the 1790s underscored how powerfully slavery defined and distorted
American freedom.
2. A successful slave uprising led by Toussaint L'Ouverture established Haiti as an
independent nation in 1804.
F. Gabriel's Rebellion
1. A slave rebellion was attempted in Virginia in 1800.
2. The conspiracy was rooted in Richmond's black community.
3. Gabriel spoke the language of liberty forged in the American Revolution and reinvigorated
during the 1790s.
4. Virginia's slave laws became stricter.
IV.Jefferson in Power
. Jefferson's inaugural address was conciliatory toward his opponents.
A. However, he hoped to dismantle as much of the Federalist system as possible.
1. Judicial Review
. John Marshall's Supreme Court established the Court's power to review laws of Congress and of the
states (judicial review).
a. Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the precedent of the Court's power of judicial review relative
to federal laws.
b. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) extended judicial review to state laws.
2. The Louisiana Purchase
. To purchase Louisiana, Jefferson had to abandon his conviction that the federal government was
limited to powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
a. Jefferson's concern with the territory was over trade through New Orleans.
b. Jefferson asserted that the additional territory would allow the republic to remain agrarian and
therefore virtuous.
3. Lewis and Clark
. Lewis and Clark's object was both scientific and commercial.
a. Their journey from 1804 to 1806 brought invaluable information and paved the way for a
transcontinental country.
4. Incorporating Louisiana
. In 1803, New Orleans was the only part of the Louisiana Purchase territory with a significant non-
Indian population.
a. Louisiana's slaves had enjoyed far more freedom under the rule of Spain than they would as part of
the liberty-loving United States.
5. The Barbary Wars
. Jefferson hoped to avoid foreign entanglements.
a. Barbary pirates from North Africa demanded bribes from American ships.
b. Because Jefferson refused to increase payments to the pirates, the United States and Tripoli engaged
in a naval conflict that ended with American victory in 1804.
6. The Embargo
. War between France and Great Britain hurt American trade.
a. The Embargo Act resulted in a crippled U.S. economy.
i.Replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act
7. Madison and Pressure for War
. Macon's Bill no. 2 allowed trade to resume.
a. The War Hawks called for war against Britain.
.Wished to annex Canada
V.The "Second War for Independence"
. The Indian Response
1. The period from 1800 to 1812 was an "age of prophecy" among Indians as they sought to
revitalize Indian life.
2. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa tried to revive a pan-Indian movement and unite against
white Americans.
3. William Henry Harrison destroyed Prophetstown at the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811).
A. The War of 1812
1. Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war.
2. The government found it difficult to finance the war.
3. Americans enjoyed few military successes.
. Andrew Jackson achieved the war's greatest victory at New Orleans in January 1815.
a. Peace officially came with the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814, although news of it did not arrive
until after the Battle of New Orleans.
B. The War's Aftermath
1. The war confirmed the ability of a Republican government to conduct a war without
surrendering its institutions.
C. The End of the Federalist Party
1. A casualty of the war was the Federalist Party.
. Hartford Convention

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Marquis de Lafayette]
II.A New Economy
A. Roads and Steamboats
1. Improvements in transportation lowered costs and linked farmers to markets.
2. Improved water transportation most dramatically increased the speed and lowered the
expense of commerce.
B. The Erie Canal
1. The canal was completed in 1825 and made New York City a major trade port.
2. The state-funded canal typified funding for internal improvements.
C. Railroads and the Telegraph
1. Railroads opened the frontier to settlement and linked markets.
2. The telegraph introduced a communication revolution.
D. The Rise of the West
1. Improvements in transportation and communication made possible the rise of the West as
a powerful, self-conscious region of the new nation.
2. People traveled in groups and cooperated with each other to clear land, build houses and
barns, and establish communities.
3. Squatters set up farms on unoccupied land.
4. Many Americans settled without regard to national boundaries.
a. Florida
E. The Cotton Kingdom
1. The market revolution and westward expansion heightened the nation's sectional divisions.
2. The rise of cotton production came with Eli Whitney's cotton gin.
3. The cotton gin revolutionized American slavery.
4. Slave trading became a well-organized business.
. Slave coffles
a. Historians estimate that around 1 million slaves were shifted from the older slave states to the Deep
South between 1800 and 1860.
III.Market Society
. Commercial Farmers
1. The Northwest became a region with an integrated economy of commercial farms and
manufacturing cities.
2. Farmers grew crops and raised livestock for sale.
3. The East provided a source of credit and a market.
4. John Deere's steel plow made possible the rapid subduing of the western prairies.
A. The Growth of Cities
1. Cities formed part of the western frontier.
. Cincinnati
a. Chicago
2. The nature of work shifted from that of the skilled artisan to that of the factory worker.
B. The Factory System
1. Samuel Slater established America's first factory in 1790.
. It was based on an outwork system.
2. The first large-scale American factory was constructed in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts.
. Lowell
3. The American System of manufactures relied on the mass production of interchangeable
parts that could be rapidly assembled into standardized, finished products.
C. The "Mill Girls"
1. Early New England textile mills largely relied on female labor.
D. The Growth of Immigration
1. Economic expansion fueled a demand for labor, which was met, in part, by increased
immigration from abroad.
. Ireland and Germany
a. Many settled in the northern states.
2. Numerous factors inspired this massive flow of population across the Atlantic.
. European economic conditions
a. Introduction of the ocean-going steamship
b. American religious and political freedoms also attracted many Europeans fleeing from the failed
revolutions of 1848.
3. The Irish were refugees from disaster, fleeing the Irish potato famine.
. They filled many low-wage unskilled jobs in America.
4. German immigrants included a considerably larger number of skilled craftsmen as
compared to Irish immigrants.
5. Many Germans established themselves in the West, including Cincinnati, St. Louis, and
Milwaukee or the "German Triangle."
E. The Rise of Nativism
1. The influx of Irish during the 1840s and 1850s led to violent anti-immigrant backlash in
New York City and Philadelphia.
2. Those who feared the impact of immigration on American political and social life were
called "nativists." They blamed immigrants for:
. Urban crime
a. Political corruption
b. Alcohol abuses
c. Undercutting wages
F. The Transformation of Law
1. The corporate form of business organization became central to the new market economy.
2. Many Americans distrusted corporate charters as a form of government-granted special
privilege.
3. The Supreme Court ruled on many aspects of corporations and employer/employee rights.
IV.The Free Individual
. The West and Freedom
1. American freedom had long been linked to the availability of land in the West.
. Manifest Destiny
2. In national myth and ideology the West would long remain "the last home of the freeborn
American."
. The West was vital for economic independence, the social condition of freedom.
A. The Transcendentalists
1. Ralph Waldo Emerson believed that freedom was an open-ended process of self-realization
by which individuals could remake themselves and their own lives.
2. Henry David Thoreau worried that the market revolution actually stifled individual
judgment; genuine freedom lay within the individual.
. Walden
B. The Second Great Awakening
1. The Second Great Awakening added a religious underpinning to the celebration of personal
self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination.
2. The Reverend Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in
upstate New York.
3. The Second Great Awakening democratized American Christianity.
. Proliferation of ministers
a. Evangelical denominations (e.g., Methodists and Baptists) grew tremendously.
C. The Awakening's Impact
1. Promoted the doctrine of human free will
2. Revivalist ministers seized the opportunities offered by the market revolution to spread
their message.
V.The Limits of Prosperity
. Liberty and Prosperity
1. Opportunities for the "self-made man" abounded.
2. The market revolution produced a new middle class.
A. Race and Opportunity
1. Free blacks were excluded from the new economic opportunities.
2. Barred from schools and other public facilities, free blacks laboriously constructed their
own institutional life.
. African Methodist Episcopal Church
3. Free blacks were confined to the lowest ranks of the labor market.
4. Free blacks were not allowed access to public land in the West.
B. The Cult of Domesticity
1. A new definition of femininity emerged based on values like love, friendship, and mutual
obligation.
2. Women were to find freedom in fulfilling their duties within their sphere.
C. Women and Work
1. Only low-paying jobs were available to women.
. Domestic servants, factory workers, and seamstresses
2. Not working outside the home became a badge of respectability for women.
. Freedom was freedom from labor.
3. Although middle-class women did not work outside the home, they did much work as
wives and mothers.
D. The Early Labor Movement
1. Some felt the market revolution reduced their freedom.
. Economic swings widened the gap between classes.
2. The first Workingman's Parties were established in the 1820s.
. By the 1830s, strikes had become commonplace.
E. The "Liberty of Living"
1. Wage workers evoked "liberty" when calling for improvements in the workplace.
2. Some described wage labor as the very essence of slavery.
. Economic security formed an essential part of American freedom.
Chapter Study Outline
I.[Introduction: Andrew Jackson]
II.The Triumph of Democracy
A. Property and Democracy
1. By 1860, all but one state had eliminated property requirements for voting.
B. The Dorr War
1. Rhode Island had property qualifications for voting in 1841.
2. Because propertyless wage earners (e.g., factory workers) could not vote, the state's labor
movement pushed for reform at the People's Convention (October 1841).
a. This extralegal convention adopted a new state constitution that enfranchised all white men.
b. Reformers inaugurated Thomas Dorr as governor.
c. President Tyler sent in federal troops and the Dorr movement collapsed.
C. Tocqueville on Democracy
1. By 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men were eligible to vote.
2. Democratic political institutions came to define the nation's sense of its own identity.
3. Tocqueville identified democracy as an essential attribute of American freedom.
D. The Information Revolution
1. Steam power helped the proliferation of the penny press.
2. Reduction in printing costs also resulted in alternative newspapers.
E. The Limits of Democracy
1. The "principle of universal suffrage" meant that "white males of age constituted the
political nation."
2. How could the word "universal" be reconciled with barring blacks and women from
political participation?
F. A Racial Democracy
1. Despite increased democracy in America, blacks were seen as a group apart.
2. Blacks were often portrayed as stereotypes.
3. Blacks were not allowed to vote in most states.
4. In effect, race had replaced class as the boundary that separated those American men who
were entitled to enjoy political freedom from those who were not.
III.Nationalism and Its Discontents
. The American System
1. A new manufacturing sector emerged from the War of 1812, and many believed that it was
a necessary complement to the agricultural sector for national growth.
2. In 1815, President James Madison put forward a blueprint for government-promoted
economic development that came to be known as the American System.
. New national bank
a. Tariffs
b. Federal financing for better roads and canals ("internal improvements")
3. President Madison became convinced that allowing the national government to exercise
powers not mentioned in the Constitution would prove dangerous to individual liberty and
southern interests.
A. Banks and Money
1. The Second Bank of the United States was a profit-making corporation that served the
government.
2. Local banks promoted economic growth.
3. The Bank of the United States was supposed to prevent the overissuance of money.
B. The Panic of 1819
1. The Bank of the United States participated in a speculative fever that swept the country
after the War of 1812 ended.
2. Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels,
the economic bubble burst.
3. The Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony of the previous years.
. Americans continued to distrust banks.
4. The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the United States was
constitutional.
C. The Missouri Controversy
1. James Monroe's two terms as president were characterized by the absence of two-party
competition ("The Era of Good Feelings").
2. The absence of political party disputes was replaced by sectional disputes.
3. Missouri petitioned for statehood in 1819.
. Debate arose over slavery.
4. The Missouri Compromise was adopted by Congress in 1820.
. Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and, to maintain sectional balance, Maine was
admitted as a free state.
a. Congress prohibited slavery north of the 36° 30' latitude in remaining Louisiana Purchase territory.
5. The Missouri debate highlighted that the westward expansion of slavery was a passionate
topic that might prove to be hazardous to national unity.
IV.Nation, Section, and Party
. The United States and the Latin American Wars of Independence
1. Between 1810 and 1822, Spain's Latin American colonies rose in rebellion and established
a series of independent nations.
2. In 1822, the Monroe administration became the first government to extend diplomatic
recognition to the new Latin American republics.
3. In some ways, Latin American constitutions were more democratic than the U.S.
Constitution.
. Allowed Indians and free blacks to vote
A. The Monroe Doctrine
1. Fearing that Spain would try to regain its colonies, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams
drafted the Monroe Doctrine.
. No new European colonization of the New World.
a. The United States would abstain from European wars.
b. Europeans should not interfere with new Latin American republics.
B. The Election of 1824
1. Andrew Jackson was the only candidate in the 1824 election to have national appeal.
2. None of the four candidates received a majority of the electoral votes.
. The election fell to the House of Representatives.
a. Henry Clay supported John Quincy Adams.
3. Clay's "corrupt bargain" gave Adams the White House.
C. The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams
1. John Quincy Adams enjoyed one of the most distinguished prepresidential careers of any
American president.
2. Adams had a clear vision of national greatness.
. Supported the American system
a. Wished to enhance American influence in the Western Hemisphere
D. "Liberty Is Power"
1. Adams held a view of federal power far more expansive than most of his contemporaries.
. Stated that "liberty is power"
2. His plans alarmed many.
E. Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party
1. Adams's political rivals emphasized:
. Individual liberty
a. States' rights
b. Limited government
2. Martin Van Buren viewed political party competition as a necessary and positive influence
to achieve national unity.
F. The Election of 1828
1. By 1828, Van Buren had established the political apparatus of the Democratic Party.
2. Andrew Jackson campaigned against John Quincy Adams in 1828.
3. A far higher percentage of the eligible electorate voted in 1828 than before, and Jackson
won a resounding victory.
V.The Age of Jackson
. The Party System
1. Politics had become a spectacle.
2. Party machines emerged.
. Spoils system
3. National conventions chose candidates.
A. Democrats and Whigs
1. Democrats and Whigs differed on issues that emerged from the market revolution.
2. Democrats favored no government intervention in the economy.
3. Whigs supported government promotion of economic development through the American
System.
B. Public and Private Freedom
1. The party battles of the Jacksonian era reflected the clash between public and private
definitions of American freedom and their relationship to governmental power.
2. Democrats supported a weak federal government, championing individual and states'
rights.
. Reduced expenditures
a. Reduced tariffs
b. Abolished the national bank
3. Democrats opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society.
4. Whigs believed that a strong federal government was necessary to promote liberty.
. Whigs argued that government should promote morality to foster the welfare of the people.
C. South Carolina and Nullification
1. Jackson's first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over
state law.
. Tariff of 1828
2. South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government in part from fear that a
strong federal government might act against slavery.
D. Calhoun's Political Theory
1. John C. Calhoun emerged as the leading theorist of nullification.
. Exposition and Protest
a. Because states created the Constitution, each one could prevent the enforcement within its borders of
federal laws that exceeded powers specifically spelled out in the Constitution.
2. Daniel Webster argued that the people, not the states, created the Constitution.
E. The Nullification Crisis
1. Jackson considered nullification an act of disunion.
2. When South Carolina nullified the tariff in 1832, Jackson responded with the Force Bill.
3. A compromise tariff (1833) resolved the crisis.
4. Calhoun left the Democratic Party for the Whigs.
F. Indian Removal
1. The expansion of cotton and slavery led to forced relocation of Indians.
. Indian Removal Act of 1830
a. Five Civilized Tribes
2. The law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that civilized Indians could be
assimilated into the American population.
G. The Supreme Court and the Indians
1. The Cherokees went to court to protect their rights.
. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
a. Worcester v. Georgia
2. John Ross led Cherokee resistance.
. Trail of Tears
3. The Seminoles fought a war against removal (1835-1842).
VI.The Bank War and After
. Biddle's Bank
1. The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market
revolution.
2. Jackson distrusted bankers as "nonproducers."
3. The Bank, under its president Nicholas Biddle, wielded great power.
4. Using language resonating with popular values, Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Bank's
charter.
A. Pet Banks, the Economy, and the Panic of 1837
1. Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and
their deposit in state or "pet" banks.
2. Partly because the Bank of the United States had lost the ability to regulate the currency
effectively, prices rose dramatically while real wages declined.
3. By 1836, the American government and the Bank of England required gold or silver for
payments.
4. With cotton exports declining, the United States suffered a panic in 1837 and a depression
until 1843.
B. Van Buren in Office
1. Martin Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury to deal with the crisis.
C. The Election of 1840
1. The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840.
2. Harrison was promoted as the "log cabin" candidate.
. His running mate was John Tyler.
3. Selling candidates in campaigns was as important as the platform for which they stood.
4. Harrison died a month after taking office.
5. Tyler vetoed measures to enact the American System.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Frederick Douglass]
A. Slave childhood
B. Leader of abolitionist movement, publishing his autobiography that condemned slavery and racism
II.The Old South
. Cotton Is King
1. Cotton replaced sugar as the world's major crop produced by slave labor in the nineteenth
century.
2. The strength of American slavery rested on cotton.
3. Cotton industry
a. Three-fourths of the world's cotton supply came from the southern United States.
b. Cotton supplied textile mills in the North and in Great Britain.
c. As early as 1803, cotton represented America's most important export.
A. The Second Middle Passage
1. Although the African slave trade was prohibited, the sale and trade of slaves within the
United States flourished.
2. The main business districts of southern cities contained the offices of slave traders, and
auctions took place at public slave markets.
B. Slavery and the Nation
1. The North was not immune to slavery.
. Northern merchants and manufacturers participated in the slave economy and shared in its profits.
a. Slavery shaped the lives of all Americans.
C. The Southern Economy
1. Southern economic growth was different from northern.
. There were few large cities in the South.
a. The cities were mainly centers for gathering and shipping cotton.
2. New Orleans was the only city of significant size in the South.
3. The region produced less than 10 percent of the nation's manufactured goods.
D. Plain Folk of the Old South
1. Three-fourths of white southerners did not own slaves.
2. Most white southerners lived on self-sufficient farms.
3. Most whites supported slavery.
. A few, like Andrew Johnson and Joseph Brown, spoke out against the planter elite.
a. Most white southerners supported the planter elite and slavery because of shared bonds of regional
loyalty, racism, and kinship ties.
E. The Planter Class
1. In 1850, the majority of slaveholding families owned five or fewer slaves.
2. Fewer than 2,000 families owned 100 slaves or more.
3. Ownership of slaves provided the route to wealth, status, and influence.
4. Slavery was a profit-making system.
. Men watched the world market for cotton, invested in infrastructure, and managed their plantations.
a. Plantation mistresses cared for sick slaves, oversaw the domestic servants, and supervised the
plantation when the master was away.
5. Southern slave owners spent much of their money on material goods.
F. The Paternalist Ethos
1. Southern slaveowners were committed to a hierarchical, agrarian society.
2. Paternalism was ingrained in slave society and enabled slaveowners to think of themselves
as kind, responsible masters even as they bought and sold their human property.
G. The Proslavery Argument
1. By the 1830s, fewer southerners believed that slavery was a necessary evil.
2. The proslavery argument rested on a number of pillars, including a commitment to white
supremacy, biblical sanction of slavery, and the historical precedent that slavery was
essential to human progress.
3. Another proslavery argument held that slavery guaranteed equality for whites.
H. Abolition in the Americas
1. Abolition in the Americas influenced debates over slavery in the United States.
. Proslavery advocates used postemancipation decline in sugar and in other cash crops as evidence of
British abolitionism's failure.
a. Abolitionists argued that the former slaves' rising living standards (and similar improvements)
showed that emancipation had succeeded.
2. By mid-century, New World slavery remained only in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the
United States.
I. Slavery and Liberty
1. White southerners declared themselves the true heirs of the American Revolution.
2. Proslavery arguments begin to repudiate the ideas in the Declaration of Independence that
equality and freedom were universal entitlements.
. John C. Calhoun believed that the language in the Declaration of Independence was dangerous.
3. George Fitzhugh, a Virginia writer, argued that "universal liberty" was the exception, not
the rule.
4. By 1830, southerners defended slavery in terms of liberty and freedom; without slavery,
freedom was not possible.
III.Life under Slavery
. Slaves and the Law
1. Slaves were considered property and had few legal rights.
2. Slaves were not allowed to:
. Testify against a white person
a. b.Carry a firearm
b. Leave the plantation without permission
c. Learn how to read or write
d. Gather in a group without a white person present
3. Although, some of these laws were not always vigorously enforced.
4. Masters also controlled whether slaves married and how they spent their free time.
5. Trial of Celia: Celia killed her master while resisting a sexual assault.
. Celia was charged with murder and sentenced to die, but she was pregnant and her execution was
delayed until she gave birth, so as not to deny the current master his property right.
A. Conditions of Slave Life
1. American slaves as compared to their counterparts in the West Indies and in Brazil enjoyed
better diets, lower infant mortality, and longer life expectancies.
. Reasons for the above include the paternalistic ethos of the South, the lack of malaria and yellow fever
in the South, and the high costs of slaves.
B. Free Blacks in the Old South
1. By 1860, there were nearly half a million free blacks in the United States and most of them
lived in the South.
2. Free blacks were not all that free.
. Free blacks were allowed by law to own property and marry and could not be bought or sold.
a. Free blacks could not testify in court or serve on a jury.
3. The majority of free blacks who lived in the Lower South resided in cities like New Orleans
and Charleston, whereas those living in the Upper South generally lived in rural areas,
working for wages as farm laborers.
C. Slave Labor
1. Labor occupied most of a slave's daily existence.
2. There were many types of jobs a slave might perform.
3. Many slaves working in the fields also labored in large gangs.
4. On large plantations, they worked in gangs under the direction of the overseer, a man who
was generally considered cruel by the slaves.
D. Slavery in the Cities
1. Most city slaves were servants, cooks, and other domestics.
2. Some city slaves were skilled artisans and occasionally lived on their own.
E. Maintaining Order
1. The system of maintaining order rested on force.
2. There were many tools a master had to maintain order, including whipping, exploiting
divisions among slaves, incentives, and the threat of sale.
IV.Slave Culture
. The Slave Family
1. Despite the threat of sale and the fact that marriage between slaves was illegal, many slaves
did marry and create families.
. Slaves frequently named children after other family members to retain family continuity.
a. The slave community had a significantly higher number of female-headed households as compared to
the white community.
A. The Threat of Sale
1. Slave traders paid little attention to preserving family ties.
B. Gender Roles among Slaves
1. Traditional gender roles were not followed in the fields; but during their own time, slaves
did fall into traditional gender roles.
C. Slave Religion
1. Black Christianity was distinctive and offered solace to the slaves.
. Almost every plantation had its own black preacher.
a. Slaves worshipped in biracial churches.
b. Free blacks established their own churches.
2. Masters viewed Christianity as another means of social control and required slaves to
attend services conducted by white ministers.
3. Many biblical stories offered hope and solace to slaves.
D. The Desire for Liberty
1. Slave culture rested on a sense of the injustice of bondage and the desire for freedom.
2. Slave folklore glorified the weak over the strong, and their spirituals emphasized eventual
liberation.
V.Resistance to Slavery
. Forms of Resistance
1. The most common form of resistance was silent sabotage-the breaking of tools, feigning
illness, doing poor work.
2. Less common, but more serious forms of resistance included poisoning the master, arson,
and armed assaults.
3. The slaves who ran away were more threatening to the stability of the slave system.
4. Of the estimated 1,000 slaves a year to escape, most escaped from the Upper South.
. In the Deep South, fugitive slaves often escaped to the southern cities, to blend in with the free black
population.
5. The Underground Railroad was a loose organization of abolitionists who helped slaves to
escape.
. Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave who made twenty trips to Maryland, leading slaves to freedom.
A. The Amistad
1. In 1839, a group of slaves collectively seized their freedom while on board the Amistad.
2. The U.S. Supreme Court accepted John Quincy Adams's argument that the slaves had been
illegally seized in Africa and should be freed.
B. Slave Revolts
1. 1811 witnessed an uprising on sugar plantations in Louisiana, which saw slaves marching
toward New Orleans before the militia captured them.
2. In 1822, Denmark Vesey was charged with conspiracy in South Carolina.
. Vesey was a religious man who believed the Bible condemned slavery and who saw the hypocrisy of
the Declaration of Independence.
a. The conspiracy was uncovered before Vesey could act.
C. Nat Turner's Rebellion
1. In 1831, Nat Turner and his followers marched through Virginia, attacking white farm
families.
. Eighty slaves had joined Turner and sixty whites had been killed (mostly women and children) before
the militia put down the rebellion.
a. Turner was captured and executed.
2. Turner's was the last large-scale rebellion in the South.
3. The Virginia legislature debated plans for gradual emancipation of the state's slaves, but
voted not to take that step.
. Instead, Virginia tightened its grip on slavery through new laws further limiting
slaves' rights.
4. 1831 marked a turning point for the Old South as white southerners closed ranks and
defended slavery more strongly than ever.
Chapter Study Outline
I.[Introduction: Abby Kelley]
II.The Reform Impulse
A. Utopian Communities
1. About 100 reform communities were established in the decades before the Civil War.
2. Nearly all the communities set out to reorganize society on a cooperative basis, hoping
both to restore social harmony to a world of excessive individualism and also to narrow the
widening gap between rich and poor.
a. Socialism and communism entered the language.
B. The Shakers
1. The Shakers were the most successful of the religious communities and had a significant
impact on the outside world.
2. Shakers believed men and women were spiritually equal.
3. They abandoned private property and traditional family life.
C. The Mormons' Trek
1. The Mormons were founded in the 1820s by Joseph Smith.
2. The absolute authority Smith exercised over his followers, the refusal of the Mormons to
separate church and state, and their practice of polygamy alarmed many neighbors.
3. Mormons faced persecution in New York, Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois; Smith was
murdered.
4. Smith's successor, Brigham Young, led his followers to the Great Salt Lake.
D. Oneida
1. The founder of Oneida, John Noyes, and his followers practiced "complex marriage."
2. Oneida was an extremely dictatorial environment.
E. Worldly Communities
1. The most important secular communitarian was Robert Owen.
2. Owen established New Harmony, where he hoped to create a "new moral world"
3. At New Harmony, Owen championed women's rights and education.
F. Religion and Reform
1. Some reform movements drew their inspiration from the religious revivalism of the Second
Great Awakening.
2. The revivals popularized the outlook known as perfectionism, which saw both individuals
and society at large as capable of indefinite improvement.
3. Under the impact of the revivals, older reform efforts moved in a new, radical direction.
. Prohibition, pacifism, and abolition
4. To members of the North's emerging middle-class culture, reform became a badge of
respectability.
5. The American Temperance Society directed its efforts at both the drunkards and the
occasional drinker.
G. Critics of Reform
1. Many Americans saw the reform impulse as an attack on their own freedom.
. Catholics rallied against the temperance movement.
H. Reformers and Freedom
1. The vision of freedom expressed by the reform movements was liberating and controlling
at the same time.
2. Many religious groups in the East formed reform groups promoting religious virtue.
I. The Invention of the Asylum
1. Americans embarked on a program of institution building.
. Jails
a. Poorhouses
b. Asylums
c. Orphanages
2. These institutions were inspired by the conviction that those who passed through their
doors could eventually be released to become productive, self-disciplined citizens.
J. The Common School
1. A tax-supported state public school system was widely adopted.
2. Horace Mann was the era's leading educational reformer.
3. Mann hoped that universal public education could restore equality to a fractured society.
. Avenue for social advancement
4. Common schools provided career opportunities for women but widened the divide between
North and South.
III.The Crusade against Slavery
. Colonization
1. The American Colonization Society (ACS), founded in 1816, promoted the gradual abolition
of slavery and the settlement of black Americans in Africa.
. The ACS founded Liberia as its colony in West Africa.
2. Many prominent political leaders supported the ACS.
3. Like Indian removal, colonization rested on the premise that America is fundamentally a
white society.
4. Most African-Americans adamantly opposed the idea of colonization.
. In 1817, free blacks assembled in Philadelphia for the first national black convention and condemned
colonization.
a. They insisted that blacks were Americans, entitled to the same rights enjoyed by whites.
A. Militant Abolitionism
1. A new generation of reformers demanded immediate abolition.
2. David Walker's An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World was a passionate
indictment of slavery and racial prejudice.
3. The appearance in 1831 of The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison's weekly journal
published in Boston, gave the new breed of abolitionism a permanent voice.
4. Some of Garrison's ideas appeared too radical, but his call for immediate abolition was
echoed by many.
. Garrison rejected colonization.
B. Spreading the Abolitionist Message
1. Abolitionists recognized the democratic potential in the production of printed material.
2. Theodore Weld helped to create the abolitionists' mass constituency by using the methods
of religious revivals.
3. Weld and a group of trained speakers spread the message of slavery as a sin.
C. Slavery and Moral Suasion
1. Nearly all abolitionists, despite their militant language, rejected violence as a means of
ending slavery.
2. Many abolitionists were pacifists, and they attempted to convince the slaveholder through
"moral suasion" of his sinful ways.
D. A New Vision of America
1. The antislavery movement sought to reinvigorate the idea of freedom as a truly universal
entitlement.
2. They insisted that blacks were fellow countrymen, not foreigners or a permanently inferior
caste.
3. Abolitionists disagreed over the usefulness of the Constitution.
4. Abolitionists consciously identified their movement with the revolutionary heritage.
. The Liberty Bell
IV.Black and White Abolitionism
. Black Abolitionists
1. From its inception, blacks played a leading role in the antislavery movement.
. Frederick Douglass
2. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin gave the abolitionist message a powerful human appeal as it
was modeled on the autobiography of fugitive slave Josiah Henson.
3. By the 1840s, black abolitionists sought an independent role within the movement,
regularly holding their own conventions
4. At every opportunity, black abolitionists rejected the nation's pretensions as a land of
liberty.
5. Black abolitionists articulated the ideal of color-blind citizenship.
6. Frederick Douglass famously questioned the meaning of the Fourth of July.
A. Gentlemen of Property and Standing
1. Abolitionism aroused violent hostility from northerners who feared that the movement
threatened to disrupt the Union, interfere with profits wrested from slave labor, and
overturn white supremacy.
2. Editor Elijah Lovejoy was killed by a mob while defending his press.
3. Mob attacks and attempts to limit abolitionists' freedom of speech convinced many
northerners that slavery was incompatible with the democratic liberties of white
Americans.
V.The Origins of Feminism
. The Rise of the Public Woman
1. Women were instrumental in the abolition movement.
2. The public sphere was open to women in ways government and party politics were not.
A. Women and Free Speech
1. Women lectured in public about abolition.
. Grimké sisters
2. The Grimké sisters argued against the idea that taking part in assemblies, demonstrations,
and lectures was unfeminine.
3. Letters on the Equality of the Sexes (1838)
. Equal pay for equal work
B. Women's Rights
1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848.
. Raised the issue of woman suffrage
2. The Declaration of Sentiments condemned the entire structure of inequality.
C. Feminism and Freedom
1. Lacking broad backing at home, early feminists found allies abroad.
2. Women deserved the range of individual choices and the possibility of self-realization that
constituted the essence of freedom.
3. Margaret Fuller sought to apply to women the transcendentalist idea that freedom meant a
quest for personal development.
D. Women and Work
1. The participants at Seneca Falls rejected the identification of the home as the women's
"sphere."
. The "bloomer" costume
E. The Slavery of Sex
1. The concept of the "slavery of sex" empowered the women's movement to develop an all-
encompassing critique of male authority and their own subordination.
2. Marriage and slavery became powerful rhetorical tools for feminists.
F. "Social Freedom"
1. The demand that women should enjoy the rights to regulate their own sexual activity and
procreation and to be protected by the state against violence at the hands of their husbands
challenged the notion that claims for justice, freedom, and individual rights should stop at
the household's door.
2. The issue of women's private freedom revealed underlying differences within the
movement for women's rights.
G. The Abolitionist Schism
1. When organized abolitionism split into two wings in 1840, the immediate cause was a
dispute over the proper role of women in antislavery work.
. American Anti-Slavery Society (favored women in leadership positions)
a. American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (opposed women in leadership positions)
2. The Liberty Party was established in hopes of making abolitionism a political movement.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Statue of Freedom]
II.Fruits of Manifest Destiny
A. Continental Expansion
1. In the 1840s, slavery moved to the center stage of American politics because of territorial
expansion.
B. The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California
1. Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821.
a. The northern frontier of Mexico was California, New Mexico, and Texas.
2. California's non-Indian population in 1821 was vastly outnumbered by Indians.
C. The Texas Revolt
1. The first part of Mexico to be settled by significant numbers of Americans was Texas.
. Moses Austin
2. Alarmed that its grip on the area was weakening, the Mexican government in 1830
annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States.
. Stephen Austin led the call from American settlers demanding greater autonomy
within Mexico.
3. General Antonio López de Santa Anna sent an army in 1835 to impose central authority.
4. Rebels formed a provisional government that soon called for Texan independence.
. The Alamo
a. Sam Houston
5. Texas desired annexation by the United States, but neither Jackson nor Van Buren took
action because of political concerns regarding adding another slave state.
D. The Election of 1844
1. The issue of Texas annexation was linked to slavery and affected the nominations of
presidential candidates.
. Clay and Van Buren agreed to keep Texas out of the presidential campaign.
2. James Polk, a Tennessee slaveholder and friend of Jackson, received the Democratic
nomination instead of Van Buren.
. Supported Texas annexation
a. Supported "reoccupation" of all of Oregon
E. The Road to War
1. Polk had four clearly defined goals:
. Reduce the tariff
a. Reestablish the Independent Treasury system
b. Settle the Oregon dispute
c. Bring California into the Union
2. Polk initiated war with Mexico to get California.
F. The War and Its Critics
1. Although the majority of Americans supported the war, a vocal minority feared the only
aim of the war was to acquire new land for the expansion of slavery.
. Henry David Thoreau wrote "On Civil Disobedience."
a. Abraham Lincoln questioned Polk's right to declare war.
G. Combat in Mexico
1. Combat took place on three fronts.
. California and the "bear flag republic"
a. General Stephen Kearney and Santa Fe
b. Winfield Scott and central Mexico
2. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
H. Race and Manifest Destiny
1. A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and
severing trade routes.
. "Male citizens" were guaranteed American rights.
a. Indians were described as "savage tribes."
2. Territorial expansion gave a new stridency to ideas about racial superiority.
3. Mexico had abolished slavery and declared persons of Spanish, Indian, and African origin
equal before the law.
4. The Texas constitution adopted after independence not only included protections for
slavery but denied civil rights to Indians and persons of African origin.
I. Gold-Rush California
1. California's gold-rush population was incredibly diverse.
2. The explosive population growth and fierce competition for gold worsened conflicts among
California's many racial and ethnic groups.
3. The boundaries of freedom in California were tightly drawn.
. Indians, Asians, and blacks were all prohibited basic rights.
a. Thousands of Indian children, declared orphans, were bought and sold as slaves.
J. Opening Japan
1. The U.S. navy's commodore Matthew Perry sailed warships into Tokyo Harbor and
demanded that Japan negotiate a trade treaty with the United States (1853-1854).
2. Japan opened two ports to U.S. merchant ships in 1854.
3. The United States was interested in Japan primarily as a refueling stop on the way to
China.
III.A Dose of Arsenic
. The Wilmot Proviso
1. In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution prohibiting
slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico.
2. In 1848, opponents of slavery's expansion organized the Free Soil Party.
. The party nominated Martin Van Buren for president.
A. The Free Soil Appeal
1. The free soil position had a popular appeal in the North because it would limit southern
power in the federal government.
2. The Free Soil platform of 1848 called for barring slavery from western territories and for
the federal government providing homesteads to settlers without cost.
3. Many southerners considered singling out slavery as the one form of property barred from
the West to be an affront to them and their way of life.
4. The admission of new free states would overturn the delicate political balance between the
sections and make the South a permanent minority.
B. Crisis and Compromise
1. 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe, only to be suppressed by counterrevolution.
2. With the slavery issue appearing more and more ominous, established party leaders moved
to resolve differences between the sections.
3. The Compromise of 1850 included:
. Admission of California as a free state
a. Abolition of the slave trade (not slavery itself) in the District of Columbia
b. Stronger Fugitive Slave law
c. In the Mexican Cession territories, local white inhabitants would determine the status of slavery.
C. The Great Debate
1. Powerful leaders spoke for and against the Compromise:
. Daniel Webster (for the Compromise)
a. John C. Calhoun (against the Compromise)
b. William Seward (against the Compromise)
2. President Taylor, Compromise opponent, died in office, and the new president, Millard
Fillmore, secured the adoption of the Compromise.
D. The Fugitive Slave Issue
1. The Fugitive Slave Act allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of
alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury trial or even testimony by the accused individual.
2. In a series of dramatic confrontations, fugitives, aided by abolitionist allies, violently
resisted capture.
3. The fugitive slave law also led several thousand northern blacks to flee to safety in Canada.
E. Douglas and Popular Sovereignty
1. Franklin Pierce won the 1852 presidential election.
2. Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to establish territorial governments for Nebraska and
Kansas so that a transcontinental railroad could be constructed.
. Slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty (territorial voters, not Congress, would decide).
F. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
1. Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery had been prohibited in the Kansas-Nebraska
area.
2. The Appeal of the Independent Democrats was issued by antislavery congressmen opposed
to the Kansas-Nebraska bill because it would potentially open the area to slavery.
3. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became law.
. Democrats were no longer unified as many northern Democrats opposed the bill.
a. The Whig Party collapsed.
b. The South became solidly Democratic.
c. The Republican Party emerged to prevent the further expansion of slavery.
IV.The Rise of the Republican Party
. The Northern Economy
1. The rise of the Republican Party reflected underlying economic and social changes.
. Railroad network
2. By 1860, the North had become a complex, integrated economy.
3. Two great areas of industrial production had arisen:
. Northeastern seaboard
a. Great Lakes region
A. The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothings
1. In 1854 the American, or Know-Nothing, Party emerged as a political party appealing to
anti-Catholic and, in the North, antislavery sentiments.
B. The Free Labor Ideology
1. Republicans managed to convince most northerners (antislavery Democrats, Whigs, Free
Soilers, and Know-Nothings) that the "slave power" posed a more immediate threat to their
liberties.
. This appeal rested on the idea of free labor.
2. Free labor could not compete with slave labor, and so slavery's expansion had to be halted
to ensure freedom for the white laborer.
3. Republicans as a whole were not abolitionists.
C. "Bleeding Kansas" and the Election of 1856
1. Bleeding Kansas seemed to discredit Douglas's policy of leaving the decision of slavery up
to the local population-thus, aiding the Republicans.
. Civil war within Kansas
a. Charles Sumner
2. The election of 1856 demonstrated that parties had reoriented themselves along sectional
lines.
V.The Emergence of Lincoln
. The Dred Scott Decision
1. After having lived in free territories, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom.
2. The Supreme Court justices addressed three questions:
. Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court?
a. Did residence in a free state make Scott free?
b. Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
3. Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Roger A. Taney declared that only white persons
could be citizens of the United States.
4. Taney ruled that Congress possessed no power under the Constitution to bar slavery from a
territory, so Scott was still a slave.
. The decision in effect declared unconstitutional the Republican platform of
restricting slavery's expansion.
5. President Buchana wanted to admit Kansas as a slave state under the Lecompton
Constitution; Stephen Douglas attempted to block the attempt.
A. Lincoln and Slavery
1. In seeking reelection, Douglas faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Abraham
Lincoln.
2. Lincoln's speeches combined the moral fervor of the abolitionists with the respect for order
and the Constitution of more conservative northerners.
B. The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign
1. Lincoln campaigned against Douglas for Illinois's senate seat.
2. The Lincoln-Douglas debates remain classics of American political oratory.
. To Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slavery.
a. Douglas argued that the essence of freedom lay in local self-government
and individual self-determination.
b. Douglas asserted at the Freeport debate that popular sovereignty was
compatible with the Dred Scott decision.
3. Lincoln shared many of the racial prejudices of his day.
4. Douglas was reelected by a narrow margin.
C. John Brown at Harpers Ferry
1. An armed assault by the abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry,
Virginia, further heightened sectional tensions.
2. Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia, Brown's execution turned him into a
martyr to much of the North.
D. The Rise of Southern Nationalism
1. More and more southerners were speaking openly of southward expansion.
. Ostend Manifesto
a. William Walker and filibustering
2. By the late 1850s, southern leaders were bending every effort to strengthen the bonds of
slavery.
E. The Election of 1860
1. The Democratic Party was split with its nomination of Douglas in 1860 and the southern
Democrats' nomination of John Breckinridge.
2. Republicans nominated Lincoln over William Seward.
. Lincoln appealed to many voters.
3. The Republican party platform:
. Denied the validity of the Dred Scott decision
a. Opposed slavery's expansion
b. Added economic initiatives
4. In effect, two presidential campaigns took place in 1860.
5. The most striking thing about the election returns was their sectional character.
6. Without a single vote in ten southern states, Lincoln was elected the nation's sixteenth
president.
VI.The Impending Crisis
. The Secession Movement
1. Rather than accept permanent minority status in a nation governed by their opponents,
Deep South political leaders boldly struck for their region's independence.
2. In the months that followed Lincoln's election, seven states, stretching from South Carolina
to Texas, seceded from the Union.
A. The Secession Crisis
1. President Buchanan denied that a state could secede, but also insisted that the federal
government had no right to use force against it.
2. The Crittenden plan for sectional compromise was rejected by Lincoln because it allowed
for the expansion of slavery.
3. The Confederate States of America was formed before Lincoln's inauguration by the seven
states that had seceded.
. Jefferson Davis as President
B. And the War Came
1. Lincoln also issued a veiled warning: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen,
and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war."
2. After the Confederates began the Civil War by firing on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861,
Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection.
3. Four Upper South states (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) seceded and
joined the Confederacy rather than aid Lincoln in suppressing the rebellion.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Marcus Spiegel]
II.The First Modern War
A. The Two Combatants
1. The Union had many advantages (e.g., manufacturing, railroad mileage, and financial
resources), but it would need to conquer an area larger than western Europe to win.
2. Confederate soldiers were highly motivated fighters.
3. On both sides, the outbreak of war stirred powerful feelings of patriotism.
B. The Technology of War
1. Railroads were vital to the war effort.
2. The introduction of the rifle changed the nature of combat.
3. Modern warfare included POW camps and disease.
C. The Public and the War
1. Both sides were assisted by a vast propaganda effort to mobilize public opinion.
2. The war was brought to the people via newspapers and photographs.
D. Mobilizing Resources
1. The outbreak of the war found both sides unprepared.
2. Feeding and supplying armies was a challenge for both sides.
E. Military Strategies
1. The Confederacy adopted a defensive strategy.
2. Lincoln realized that his armies had to defeat the Confederacy's armies and dismantle
slavery.
F. The War Begins
1. In the East, most of the war's fighting took place in a narrow corridor between Washington
and Richmond.
2. The first Battle of Bull Run, a Confederate victory, shattered any illusions that war was
romantic.
3. After the First Bull Run, George McClellan assumed command of the Union army of the
Potomac.
G. The War in the East, 1862
1. General Lee blunted McClellan's attacks in Virginia and forced him to withdraw to the
vicinity of Washington.
2. Successful on the defensive, Lee now launched an invasion of the North.
3. McClellan's Army of the Potomac stopped Lee at the Battle of Antietam (Maryland), the
single bloodiest day in U.S. history (September 17, 1862).
H. The War in the West
1. Ulysses S. Grant was the architect of early success in the West.
2. In February 1862, Grant won the Union's first significant victory when he captured Fort
Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee.
3. Grant withstood a surprise Confederate attack at the Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee).
III.The Coming of Emancipation
. Slavery and the War
1. In numbers, scale, and the economic power of the institution of slavery, American
emancipation dwarfed that of any other country.
2. At the outset of the war, Lincoln invoked time-honored northern values to mobilize public
support.
3. Lincoln initially insisted that slavery was irrelevant to the conflict.
4. Early in the war, Congress adopted a resolution proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of
Kentucky, which affirmed that the Union had no intention of interfering with slavery.
5. The policy of ignoring slavery unraveled and by the end of 1861 the military began treating
escaped blacks as contraband of war (property of military value subject to confiscation).
6. Blacks saw the outbreak of fighting as heralding the long-awaited end of bondage.
A. Steps toward Emancipation
1. Since slavery stood at the foundation of the southern economy, antislavery northerners
insisted that emancipation was necessary to weaken the South's ability to sustain the war.
2. Throughout 1861 and 1862, Lincoln struggled to retain control of the emancipation issue.
a. Union General John C. Frémont issued a proclamation freeing slaves in Missouri (August 1861).
b. Fearing the negative impact on loyal border states, Lincoln rescinded Frémont's order.
c. Lincoln proposed gradual emancipation and colonization for border-state slaves.
B. Lincoln's Decision
1. Sometime during the summer of 1862, Lincoln concluded that emancipation had become a
political and military necessity.
2. Upon Secretary of State William Seward's advice, he delayed announcing emancipation
until a Union victory.
3. On September 22, 1862, five days after Antietam, Lincoln issued the Preliminary
Emancipation Proclamation.
4. The initial northern reaction was not encouraging, with important Democratic wins in the
fall elections.
C. The Emancipation Proclamation
1. Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which declared slaves
in Confederate-held territory to be free.
2. Despite its limitations, the proclamation set off scenes of jubilation among free blacks and
abolitionists in the North and "contrabands" and slaves in the South.
3. The Emancipation Proclamation not only altered the nature of the Civil War and the course
of American history, but represented a turning point in Lincoln's own thinking.
D. Enlisting Black Troops
1. Of the proclamation's provisions, few were more radical in their implications than the
enrollment of blacks into military service.
2. By the end of the war, over 180,000 black men had served in the Union army, and 24,000
in the navy.
3. Most black soldiers were emancipated slaves who joined the army in the South.
E. The Black Soldier
1. For black soldiers, military service proved to be a liberating experience.
. At least 130 former soldiers served in political office after the Civil War.
2. Within the army, black soldiers did not receive equal treatment to white soldiers.
3. Black soldiers played a crucial role not only in winning the Civil War but also in defining
the war's consequences.
IV.The Second American Revolution
. Liberty, Union, and Nation
1. The Union's triumph consolidated the northern understanding of freedom as the national
norm.
2. To Lincoln, the American nation embodied a set of universal ideas, centered on political
democracy and human liberty.
3. The Gettysburg Address identified the nation's mission with the principle that "all men are
created equal."
4. The war forged a new national self-consciousness, reflected in the increasing use of the
word "nation"-a unified political entity-in place of the older "Union" of separate states.
A. The War and American Religion
1. Northern Protestantism combined Christianity and patriotism in a civic religion that saw
the war as transforming the United States into a true land of freedom.
2. Lincoln shrewdly used religious symbolism to generate public support.
3. Religion helped Americans to cope with unprecedented mass death.
4. New government action to deal with death
. Systems for recording deaths and other casualties
a. National military cemeteries
B. Liberty in Wartime
1. Lincoln consolidated executive power and twice suspended the writ of habeas corpus
throughout the entire Union for those accused of "disloyal activities."
2. After the war, the Court made it clear that the Constitution was not suspended in wartime
(Ex parte Milligan, 1866).
C. The North's Transformation
1. The North experienced the war as a time of prosperity.
D. Government and the Economy
1. Congress adopted policies that promoted economic growth and permanently altered the
nation's financial system.
. The Homestead Act
a. The Land-Grant College Act
2. Congress passed land grants for railroads.
3. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869.
E. The War and Native Americans
1. The withdrawal of troops from the West increased conflict between Indians and white
settlers.
. The Sioux attack in Minnesota.
2. The Union campaign against Navajo led to the tribe's Long Walk, or removal to a
reservation.
3. Some slave-owning tribes, such as the Cherokee, sided with the Confederacy.
F. A New Financial System
1. The need to pay for the war produced dramatic changes in U.S. financial policy:
. Increased tariff
a. New taxes on goods
b. First income tax
2. Wartime economic policies greatly benefited northern manufacturers, railroad men, and
financiers.
3. Taken together, the Union's economic policies vastly increased the power and size of the
federal government.
G. Women and the War
1. Women stepped into the workforce as nurses, factory workers, and government clerks.
2. Hundreds of thousands of northern women took part in humanitarian organizations.
3. Northern women were brought into the public sphere and the war work offered them a
taste of independence.
. Clara Barton, president of the American National Red Cross, became an advocate of woman suffrage
and a strong proponent of the humane treatment of battlefield casualties.
H. The Divided North
1. Republicans labeled those opposed to the war "Copperheads."
2. The war heightened existing social tensions and created new ones.
. Draft riots
V.The Confederate Nation
. Leadership and Government
1. Jefferson Davis proved unable to communicate the war's meaning effectively to ordinary
men and women.
2. Under Davis, the Confederate nation became far more centralized than the Old South had
been.
. Confederate government controlled railroads
a. Confederate government built factories
3. King Cotton diplomacy sought to pressure Europeans to side with the Confederacy, but this
failed.
A. The Inner Civil War
1. Social change and internal turmoil engulfed much of the Confederacy.
. The draft encouraged class divisions among whites.
B. Economic Problems
1. The South's economy, unlike the North's, was in crisis during the war.
2. By the war's end, over 100,000 southern men had deserted.
C. Women and the Confederacy
1. Even more than in the North, the war placed unprecedented burdens on southern white
women.
2. The growing disaffection of southern white women contributed to the decline in home-
front morale and encouraged desertion from the army.
D. Black Soldiers for the Confederacy
1. A shortage of manpower led the Confederate Congress in March 1865 to authorize the
arming of slaves, but the war ended before black soldiers were actually recruited.
VI.Turning Points
. Gettysburg and Vicksburg
1. Lee advanced onto northern soil in Pennsylvania, but was held back by Union forces under
the command of General George Meade at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863).
. Pickett's Charge
2. General Grant secured a Union victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi (July 1863)
A. 1864
1. In 1864, Grant began a war of attrition against Lee's army in Virginia.
2. At the end of six weeks of fighting, Grant's casualties stood at 60,000-almost the size of
Lee's entire army-while Lee had lost 30,000 men.
3. General William T. Sherman entered Atlanta, seizing Georgia's main railroad center.
4. Some Radical Republicans nominated John C. Frémont on a platform calling for a
constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, federal protection of the freedpeople's rights,
and confiscation of the land of leading Confederates.
5. The Democratic candidate for president was General George B. McClellan.
6. Lincoln won, aided by Frémont's withdrawal and Sherman's capture of Atlanta.
VII.Rehearsals for Reconstruction and the End of the War
. The Sea Island Experiment
1. The Union occupied the Sea Islands (on the coast of South Carolina) in November 1861.
2. Women took the lead as teachers in educating the freed slaves of the islands.
. Charlotte Forten and Laura Towne
3. By 1865, black families were working for wages, acquiring education, and enjoying more
humane conditions than under slavery.
A. Wartime Reconstruction in the West
1. After the capture of Vicksburg, the Union army established regulations for plantation
labor.
. Freedpeople signed labor contracts and were paid wages.
2. Neither side was satisfied with the new labor system.
3. At Davis Bend, the emancipated slaves saw the land divided among themselves.
B. The Politics of Wartime Reconstruction
1. In 1863, Lincoln announced his Ten-Percent Plan of Reconstruction.
2. Free blacks in New Orleans complained about the Ten-Percent Plan and found sympathy
from Radical Republicans.
3. The Wade-Davis Bill was offered as an alternative plan.
. Required a majority of a state's voters to pledge loyalty
a. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the plan.
C. Victory at Last
1. Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea in November-December 1864.
2. The Thirteenth Amendment was approved on January 31, 1865.
3. On April 3, 1865, Grant took Richmond.
4. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9.
5. Lincoln was fatally shot on April 14 and died the next morning.
D. The War and the World
1. Grant's post-presidential world tour illustrates how non-Americans saw the war.
. England's Duke of Wellington hailed Grant as a military genius.
a. English workers saw war as having saved the leading experiment in democracy and vindicated free
labor principles.
b. German Chancellor Bismarck saw nation-building as war's central achievement.
E. The War in American History
1. The Civil War laid the foundation for modern America.
2. Both sides lost something they had gone to war to defend.
. The Confederacy lost slavery.
a. The war hastened the transformation of Lincoln's America of free labor, small shops, and independent
farmers into an industrial giant.
Chapter Study Outline
I.[Introduction: Sherman Land]
II.The Meaning of Freedom
A. Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom
1. African-Americans’ understanding of freedom was shaped by their experience as slaves
and observation of the free society around them.
2. Blacks relished the opportunity to demonstrate their liberation from the regulations
(significant and trivial) associated with slavery.
B. Families in Freedom
1. The family was central to the postemancipation black community.
2. Freedom subtly altered relationships within the family.
a. Emancipation increased the power of black men within the family.
b. Black women withdrew from work as field laborers and house servants to the domestic sphere.
C. Church and School
1. Blacks abandoned white-controlled religious institutions to create churches of their own.
2. Blacks of all ages flocked to the schools established by northern missionary societies, the
Freedmen’s Bureau, and groups of ex-slaves.
D. Political Freedom
1. The right to vote inevitably became central to the former slaves’ desire for empowerment
and equality.
2. To demonstrate their patriotism, blacks throughout the South organized Fourth of July
celebrations.
E. Land, Labor, and Freedom
1. Former slaves’ ideas of freedom were directly related to land ownership.
. Many former slaves insisted that through their unpaid labor, they had acquired a right to the land.
F. Masters without Slaves
1. The South’s defeat was complete and demoralizing.
. Planter families faced profound changes.
2. Most planters defined black freedom in the narrowest manner.
G. The Free Labor Vision
1. The victorious Republican North tried to implement its own vision of freedom.
. Free labor
2. The Freedmen’s Bureau was to establish a working free labor system.
H. The Freedmen’s Bureau
1. The task of the Bureau—establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and aged, settling
disputes, etc.—was daunting, especially since it had fewer than 1,000 agents.
2. The Bureau’s achievements in some areas, notably education and health care, were
striking.
I. The Failure of Land Reform
1. President Andrew Johnson ordered nearly all land in federal hands returned to its former
owners.
2. Because no land distribution took place, the vast majority of rural freedpeople remained
poor and without property during Reconstruction.
3. Sharecropping came to dominate the cotton South and much of the tobacco belt.
4. Sharecropping initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’
desire for labor discipline.
J. The White Farmer
1. The aftermath of the war hurt small white farmers.
. Crop-lien system (use of crop as collateral for loans from merchants for supplies)
a. White farmers increased cotton cultivation, cotton prices plummeted, and they found themselves
unable to pay back loans.
2. Both black and white farmers found themselves caught in the sharecropping and crop-lien
systems.
3. Southern cities experienced remarkable growth after the Civil War.
. Rise of a new middle class
K. Aftermaths of Slavery
1. The Reconstruction-era debates over transitioning from slavery to freedom had parallels in
other Western Hemisphere countries where emancipation occurred in the nineteenth
century.
2. Only in the United States did former slaves gain political rights quickly.
III.The Making of Radical Reconstruction
. Andrew Johnson
1. Johnson identified himself as the champion of the “honest yeomen” and a foe of large
planters.
2. Johnson lacked Lincoln’s political skills and keen sense of public opinion.
3. Johnson believed that African-Americans had no role to play in Reconstruction.
A. The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction
1. Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction offered pardons to the white southern elite.
2. Johnson’s plan allowed the new state governments a free hand in managing local affairs.
B. The Black Codes
1. Southern governments began passing new laws that restricted the freedom of blacks.
2. These new laws violated free labor principles and called forth a vigorous response from the
Republican North.
C. The Radical Republicans
1. Radical Republicans called for the dissolution of Johnson’s state governments, the
establishment of new governments that did not have “rebels” in power, and the guarantee
of the right to vote for black men.
2. The Radicals fully embraced the expanded powers of the federal government born of the
Civil War.
. Charles Summer
a. Thaddeus Stevens
3. Thaddeus Stevens’s most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and
divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South.
. His plan was too radical for most others in Congress.
D. The Origins of Civil Rights
1. Most Republicans were moderates, not radicals.
2. Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois proposed two bills to modify Johnson’s policy:
. Extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau
a. Civil Rights Bill (equality before the law was central; it sought to overturn the Black Codes)
3. Johnson vetoed both bills.
4. Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill over his veto and later extended the life of the
Freedmen’s Bureau.
E. The Fourteenth Amendment
1. It placed in the Constitution the principle of citizenship for all persons born in the United
States and empowered the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans.
. It did not grant blacks the right to vote.
F. The Reconstruction Act
1. Johnson campaigned against the Fourteenth Amendment in the 1866 midterm elections.
2. In March 1867, over Johnson’s veto, Congress adopted the Reconstruction Act, which:
. Divided the South into five military districts
a. Called for creation of new southern state governments, with black men given the vote
3. The Reconstruction Act thus began Radical Reconstruction, which lasted until 1877.
G. Impeachment and the Election of Grant
1. To demonstrate his dislike for the Tenure of Office Act, Johnson removed the secretary of
war from office in 1868.
2. Johnson was impeached and the Senate fell one vote short from removing him from office.
H. The Fifteenth Amendment
1. Ulysses S. Grant won the 1868 presidential election.
2. The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870.
3. It prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote
because of race.
. Did not extend suffrage to women
I. The “Great Constitutional Revolution”
1. The laws and amendments of Reconstruction reflected the intersection of two products of
the Civil War era—a newly empowered national state and the idea of a national citizenry
enjoying equality before the law.
2. Before the Civil War, American citizenship had been closely linked to race.
3. The new amendments also transformed the relationship between the federal government
and the states.
J. The Rights of Women
1. The destruction of slavery led feminists to search for ways to make the promise of free
labor real for women.
2. Some feminists (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony) opposed the Fifteenth
Amendment because it did not enfranchise women.
3. The divisions among feminists led to the creation of two hostile women’s rights
organizations that would not reunite until the 1890s.
4. Despite their limitations, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and the
Reconstruction Act of 1867 marked a radical departure in American and world history.
IV.Radical Reconstruction in the South
. “The Tocsin of Freedom”
1. Among the former slaves, the passage of the Reconstruction Act inspired an outburst of
political organization.
2. Blacks used direct action to remedy long-standing grievances.
3. The Union League aided blacks in the public sphere.
4. By 1870, the Union had been restored and southern states had Republican majorities.
A. The Black Officeholder
1. Two thousand African-Americans occupied public offices during Reconstruction.
. Fourteen elected to U.S. House of Representatives
a. Two elected to U.S. Senate
B. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
C.
1. Carpetbaggers were northern-born white Republicans who made their homes in the South
after the war, with many holding political office.
2. Scalawags were southern-born white Republicans.
. Some were wealthy (e.g., James Alcorn, a Mississippi planter)
a. Most had been up-country non-slaveholders before the Civil War and some had been Unionists during
the war.
D. Southern Republicans in Power
1. Southern Republican governments established the South’s first state-supported public
schools.
2. The new governments also pioneered civil rights legislation.
3. Republican governments took steps to strengthen the position of rural laborers and to
promote the South’s economic recovery.
E. The Quest for Prosperity
1. During Reconstruction, every state helped to finance railroad construction.
2. Investment opportunities in the West lured more northern investors than southern
investors, and economic development remained weak in the South.
V.The Overthrow of Reconstruction
. Reconstruction’s Opponents
1. Corruption did exist during Reconstruction, but it was not confined to a race, region, or
party.
2. Opponents could not accept the idea of former slaves voting, holding office, and enjoying
equality before the law.
A. “A Reign of Terror”
1. Secret societies sprang up in the South with the aim of preventing blacks from voting and
destroying the organization of the Republican Party.
2. The Ku Klux Klan was organized in 1866.
. It launched what one victim called a “reign of terror” against Republican leaders, black and white.
a. Example: Colfax, Louisiana, massacre (1873)
3. Congress and President Grant, with the passage of three Enforcement Acts in 1870 and
1871, put an end to the Ku Klux Klan by 1872.
B. The Liberal Republicans
1. The North’s commitment to Reconstruction waned during the 1870s.
2. Some Republicans, alienated from Grant by corruption in his administration, formed the
Liberal Republican Party.
. Horace Greeley
C. The North’s Retreat
1. The Liberal attack on Reconstruction contributed to a resurgence of racism in the North.
2. The 1873 depression also distracted the North from Reconstruction.
3. The Supreme Court whittled away at Congress’s guarantees of black rights.
. Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
a. United States v. Cruikshank (1876)
D. The Triumph of the Redeemers
1. Redeemers claimed to have “redeemed” the white South from corruption, misgovernment,
and northern and black control.
E. The Disputed Election and Bargain of 1877
1. The election between Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) and Samuel Tilden (Democrat)
was very close, with disputed electoral votes from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina.
2. Congress set up a special Electoral Commission to determine the winner of the disputed
votes.
3. Behind the scenes, Hayes made a bargain to allow southern white Democrats to control the
South if his election was accepted.
4. The compromise led to Hayes’s election and the Democrats’ having a free hand in the
South.
F. The End of Reconstruction
1. Reconstruction ended in 1877.
2. It would be nearly a century before the nation again tried to bring equal rights to the
descendants of slaves.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Statue of Liberty]
II.The Second Industrial Revolution
A. The Industrial Economy
1. By 1913, the United States produced one-third of the world's industrial output.
2. The 1880 census showed for the first time that a majority of the workforce engaged in
nonfarming jobs.
3. The growth of cities was vital for financing industrialization.
a. Great Lakes region
b. Pittsburgh
c. Chicago
B. Railroads and the National Market
1. The railroad made possible what is sometimes called the second industrial revolution.
2. The growing population formed an ever-expanding market for the mass production, mass
distribution, and mass marketing of goods.
C. The Spirit of Innovation
1. Scientific breakthroughs and technological innovation spurred growth.
. Thomas Edison
D. Competition and Consolidation
1. The economy suffered prolonged downturns between 1873 and 1897.
2. Businesses engaged in ruthless competition.
3. To avoid cutthroat competition, more and more corporations battled to control entire
industries.
. Between 1897 and 1904, 4,000 firms vanished into larger corporations.
E. The Rise of Andrew Carnegie
1. The railroad pioneered modern techniques of business organization.
2. By the 1890s, Carnegie dominated the steel industry.
. Vertical integration
3. Carnegie's life reflected his desire to succeed and his desire to give back to society.
F. The Triumph of John D. Rockefeller
1. John D. Rockefeller dominated the oil industry.
2. Industrial leaders were considered either "captains of industry" or "robber barons."
G. Workers' Freedom in an Industrial Age
1. For a minority of workers, the rapidly expanding industrial system created new forms of
freedom.
2. For most workers, economic insecurity remained a basic fact of life.
3. Between 1880 and 1900, an average of 35,000 workers perished each year in factory and
mine accidents, the highest rate in the industrial world.
4. Class divisions became more and more visible.
5. Many of the wealthiest Americans consciously pursued an aristocratic lifestyle.
. Thorstein Veblen on conspicuous consumption
6. The working class lived in desperate conditions.
III.The Transformation of the West
. A Diverse Region
1. The political and economic incorporation of the American West was part of a global
process.
2. The federal government acquired Indian land by war and treaties, administered land sales,
and distributed land to farmers, railroads, and mining companies.
A. Farming in the Trans-Mississippi West
1. More land came into cultivation during the thirty years after the Civil War than during the
previous two-and-a-half centuries of American history.
2. Farming was difficult and much of the burden fell to women.
3. As crop production increased, prices fell and small farmers throughout the world suffered
severe difficulties during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
4. The future of western farming ultimately lay with giant agricultural enterprises, as seen in
California.
B. The Cowboy and the Corporate West
1. Cowboys became symbols of a life of freedom on the open range.
2. By the mid-1880s, farmers enclosed more of the open range and moved cattle operations
close to rail connections.
3. Many western industries fell under the sway of companies that mobilized eastern and
European investment in order to introduce advanced technology.
C. The Subjugation of the Plains Indians
1. The incorporation of the West into the national economy spelled the doom of the Plains
Indians and their world.
2. As settlers encroached on Indian lands, bloody conflict between the army and Plains tribes
began in the 1850s and continued for decades.
3. Numbering 30 million in 1800, buffalo were nearly extinct due to hunting and army
campaigns by 1890.
D. "Let Me Be a Free Man"
1. The Nez Percé were chased over 1,700 miles before surrendering in 1877.
2. Chief Joseph spoke of freedom before a distinguished audience in 1879.
3. Defending their land, Sioux and Cheyenne warriors attacked Custer at Little Big Horn.
4. Indian resistance only temporarily delayed the onward march of white soldiers, settlers,
and prospectors.
E. Remaking Indian Life
1. In 1871, Congress eliminated the treaty system that dated back to the Revolutionary era.
. Forced assimilation
F. The Dawes Act and Wounded Knee
1. The crucial step in attacking tribalism came in 1887, with the passage of the Dawes Act.
. The policy proved to be a disaster for the Indians.
2. Some Indians sought solace in the Ghost Dance, a religious revitalization campaign
reminiscent of the pan-Indian movements.
3. On December 29, 1890, soldiers opened fire on Ghost Dancers encamped on Wounded
Knee Creek in South Dakota, killing between 150 and 200 Indians, mostly women and
children.
G. Settler Societies and Global Wests
1. The conquest of the American West was part of a global process.
2. Countries like Argentina, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, as well as the United States,
are often called "settler societies," because immigrants from overseas quickly outnumbered
and displaced the original inhabitants.
IV.Politics in a Gilded Age
. The Corruption of Politics
1. Americans during the Gilded Age saw their nation as an island of political democracy in a
world still dominated by undemocratic governments.
2. Political corruption was rife.
3. Urban politics fell under the sway of corrupt political machines.
. Boss Tweed
4. Corruption was at the national level too.
. Crédit Mobilier
A. The Politics of Dead Center
1. Every Republican candidate for president from 1868 to 1900 had fought in the Union
army.
. Union soldiers' pensions
2. Democrats dominated the southern and Catholic votes.
3. The parties were closely divided and national elections very close.
4. Gilded Age presidents made little effort to mobilize public opinion or to exert executive
leadership.
5. In some ways, American democracy in the Gilded Age seemed remarkably healthy.
B. Government and the Economy
1. The nation's political structure proved ill-equipped to deal with the problems created by
the economy's rapid growth.
. Tariff policy debated
a. Return to gold standard in 1879
2. Republican economic policies strongly favored the interests of eastern industrialists and
bankers.
C. Reform Legislation
1. The Civil Service Act of 1883 created a merit system for federal employees.
2. Congress established the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1887.
3. The Sherman Antitrust Act, passed in 1890, banned practices that restrained free trade.
D. Political Conflict in the States
1. State governments expanded their responsibilities to the public.
2. Third parties enjoyed significant (if short-lived) success in local elections.
. The Greenback-Labor Party
3. Farmers responded to railroad policies by organizing the Grange.
4. Some states passed eight-hour-day laws.
V.Freedom in the Gilded Age
. The Social Problem
1. As the United States matured into an industrial economy, Americans struggled to make
sense of the new social order.
2. Many Americans sensed that something had gone wrong in the nation's social
development.
3. Many Americans viewed the concentration of wealth as inevitable, natural, and justified by
progress.
A. Social Darwinism in America
1. Charles Darwin put forth the theory of evolution, whereby plant and animal species best
suited to their environment took the place of those less able to adapt.
2. Social Darwinism argued that evolution was as natural a process in human society as it was
in nature and that government must not interfere.
3. Failure to advance in society was widely thought to indicate a lack of character.
4. The Social Darwinist William G. Sumner believed that freedom required frank acceptance
of inequality.
B. Liberty of Contract and the Courts
1. Labor contracts reconciled freedom and authority in the workplace.
2. The courts viewed state regulation of business as an insult to free labor.
3. The courts generally sided with business enterprises that complained of a loss of economic
freedom.
4. Lochner v. New York voided a state law establishing ten hours per day or sixty per week as
the maximum hours of work for bakers, citing that it infringed on individual freedom.
VI.Labor and the Republic
. "The Overwhelming Labor Question"
1. The 1877 Great Railroad Strike demonstrated that there was an overwhelming labor
question.
A. The Knights of Labor and the "Conditions to Essential Liberty"
1. The Knights of Labor organized all workers to improve social conditions.
2. Labor raised the question of whether meaningful freedom could exist in a situation of
extreme economic inequality.
B. Middle-Class Reformers
1. Alarmed by fear of class warfare and the growing power of concentrated capital, social
thinkers offered numerous plans for change.
2. Henry George's solution was the single tax.
3. Lawrence Gronlund's Cooperative Commonwealth (1884) was the first book to popularize
socialist ideas for an American audience.
4. Freedom, Edward Bellamy insisted, was a social condition resting on interdependence, not
on autonomy.
5. Bellamy held out the hope of retaining the material abundance made possible by industrial
capitalism while eliminating inequality.
C. A Social Gospel
1. Walter Rauschenbusch insisted that freedom and spiritual self-development required an
equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked the Christian
ideal of brotherhood.
2. Social Gospel adherents established mission and relief programs in urban areas.
D. The Haymarket Affair
1. On May 1, 1886, some 350,000 workers in cities across the country demonstrated for an
eight-hour day.
2. A riot ensued after a bomb killed a policeman on May 4.
3. Employers took the opportunity to paint the labor movement as a dangerous and un-
American force prone to violence and controlled by foreign-born radicals.
4. Seven of the eight men accused of plotting the Haymarket bombing were foreign-born.
E. Labor and Politics
1. Henry George ran for mayor of New York in 1886 on a labor ticket.
2. The events of 1886 suggested that labor might be on the verge of establishing itself as a
permanent political force.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Homestead Strike]
II.The Populist Challenge
A. The Farmers' Revolt
1. Farmers faced increasing economic insecurity.
2. Farmers sought to improve their condition through the Farmers Alliance.
B. The People's Party
1. The People's, or Populist, Party emerged from the Farmers Alliance in the 1890s.
a. Spoke for all the producing classes
2. The Populists embarked on a remarkable effort of community organization and education.
3. Populists embraced modern technologies-the railroad, telegraph, and the national market-
and pushed the federal government to regulate them in the public interest.
C. The Populist Platform
1. The Populist platform of 1892 remains a classic document of American reform.
D. The Populist Coalition
E. The Populists made remarkable efforts to unite black and white small farmers on a common political and
economic program.
F. While many blacks refused to abandon the party of Lincoln, others were attracted by the Populist program.
G. The Populist movement also engaged the energies of thousands of reform-minded women with farm and
labor backgrounds.
1. Mary Elizabeth Lease
H. 1892 presidential candidate James Weaver won over 1 million votes.
III.The Government and Labor
. The severe depression that began in 1893 led to increased conflict between capital and labor.
1. Coxey's Army
A. The Pullman Strike of 1894 saw the labor leader Eugene Debs jailed.
IV.Populism and Labor
. Populists made determined efforts to appeal to industrial workers but ultimately failed to get labor's support.
A. Working-class voters in 1894 shifted en masse to the Republicans rather than to the Populists.
V.Bryan and Free Silver
. In 1896, Democrats and Populists joined to support William Jennings Bryan for the presidency.
1. Called for free silver
2. Condemned the gold standard
3. Championed a government helping ordinary Americans
VI.The Campaign of 1896
. Republicans nominated the Ohio governor William McKinley.
A. The election of 1896 is sometimes called the first modern presidential campaign.
1. Mark Hanna
B. McKinley's victory shattered the political stalemate that had persisted since 1876 and created one of the most
enduring political majorities in American history.
 The Segregated South
1. The Redeemers in Power
1. Upon achieving power, the Redeemers moved to undo Reconstruction as much as possible.
1. Public school systems hardest hit
2. New laws authorized the arrest of virtually any person without employment and greatly increased
the penalties for petty crimes.
2. The Failure of the New South Dream
1. The region as a whole sank deeper and deeper into poverty.
3. Black Life in the South
1. As the most disadvantaged rural southerners, black farmers suffered the most from the region's
condition.
1. Blacks owned less land in 1900 than they had at the end of Reconstruction.
2. Cities supported the growth of a black middle class.
3. Most unions excluded blacks.
4. The Kansas Exodus
1. African-Americans migrated to Kansas seeking political equality, freedom from violence, access to
education, and economic opportunity.
2. Most African-Americans had little alternative but to stay in the region.
1. Most northern employers refused to offer jobs to blacks.
5. The Decline of Black Politics
1. Political opportunities became more and more restricted.
2. The banner of political leadership passed to black women activists.
1. The National Association of Colored Women
3. The Elimination of Black Voting
1. Between 1890 and 1906, every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions
meant to eliminate the black vote.
2. Numerous poor and illiterate whites also lost the right to vote.
3. The elimination of black and many white voters could not have been accomplished
without the approval of the North.
4. The Law of Segregation
1. In 1896, in the landmark decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court gave its
approval to state laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites.
2. John Marshall Harlan was the lone dissenter on the Court.
3. States reacted to the Plessy decision by passing laws mandating racial segregation in
every aspect of southern life.
5. The Rise of Lynching
1. Those blacks who sought to challenge the system or who refused to accept the
demeaning behavior that was a daily feature of southern life faced violence.
2. Many white southerners considered preserving the purity of white womanhood a
justification of extralegal vengeance.
1. Sam Hose
6. The Politics of Memory
1. The Civil War came to be remembered as a tragic family quarrel of "brother against
brother," among white Americans, in which slavery played a minor role.
6. Redrawing the Boundaries
1. The New Immigration and the New Nativism
1. Three and a half million immigrants, mostly from southern and eastern Europe, arrived
in the 1890s.
1. Viewed as inferior by native-born Americans
2. Various suggestions were made by nativists to eliminate the immigrants' ability to vote.
2. Chinese Exclusion and Chinese Rights
1. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 barred Chinese from the United States.
2. Chinese demands for equal rights forced the Supreme Court to define the reach of the
Fourteenth Amendment.
1. Tape v. Hurley (1885)
2. United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898)
3. Fong Yue Ting (1893) authorized the federal government to expel Chinese aliens
without due process of law.
3. The Emergence of Booker T. Washington
1. Prominent black leaders took to emphasizing economic self-help and individual
advancement into the middle class as an alternative to political agitation.
2. Washington emphasized vocational education over political equality.
3. He urged blacks not to try to combat segregation.
4. The Rise of the AFL
1. The rise of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) reflected a shift away from a
broadly reformist past to more limited goals.
2. Samuel Gompers pioneered "business unionism."
3. During the 1890s, the labor movement became less and less inclusive.
5. The Woman's Era
1. Changes in the women's movement reflected the same combination of expanding
activities and narrowing boundaries.
2. Through a network of women's clubs, temperance associations, and social reform
organizations, women exerted a growing influence on public affairs.
1. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
3. The center of gravity of feminism shifted toward an outlook more in keeping with
prevailing racial and ethnic norms.
7. Becoming a World Power
1. The New Imperialism
1. After 1870, European powers, along with Japan, scrambled to dominate Africa, Asia,
and the Middle East, justifying their imperialism as bringing "civilization" to the
supposedly backward peoples of the non-European world.
2. American Expansionism
1. Territorial expansion had been a part of American life since well before independence.
But the 1890s marked a significant turning point in America's relationship with the rest
of the world.
2. Most Americans who looked overseas were interested in expanded trade, not territorial
possessions.
3. The Lure of Empire
1. Religious missionaries spread the nation's influence overseas during the late nineteenth
century.
2. A small group of late-nineteenth-century thinkers actively promoted American
expansionism.
1. Alfred T. Mahan
3. Hawaii was long sought after by Americans, and was annexed by the United States in
1898.
4. The depression that began in 1893 heightened the belief that a more aggressive foreign
policy was necessary to stimulate American exports.
5. New, mass-circulation newspapers promoted nationalistic sentiments ("yellow press").
4. The "Splendid Little War"
1. Cuba had fought for independence since 1868.
2. The United States went to war with Spain to win Cuba's liberty and freedom.
1. Teller Amendment
3. Admiral George Dewey defeated a Spanish fleet at Manila Bay.
5. Roosevelt at San Juan Hill
1. Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders took San Juan Hill in Cuba.
6. An American Empire
1. In the treaty with Spain ending the war, the United States acquired the Philippines,
Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam.
1. Platt Amendment for Cuba
2. America's interest in its new possessions had more to do with trade than with gaining
wealth from natural resources or from large-scale American settlement.
3. In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door policy with China.
7. The Philippine War
1. Many believed that American participation in the destruction of Spanish rule would lead
to social reform and political self-government.
2. Emilio Aguinaldo led a fight against American colonialism.
3. The McKinley administration justified U.S. intervention because of the obligation to its
"little brown brothers."
8. Citizens or Subjects?
1. American rule also brought with it American racial attitudes.
1. "White man's burden"
2. America's triumphant entry into the ranks of imperial powers sparked an intense debate
over the relationship between political democracy, race, and American citizenship.
3. The Foraker Act of 1900 declared Puerto Rico an "insular territory," different from
previous territories in the West.
4. In the twentieth century, the territories acquired in 1898 would follow different paths.
1. Hawaii achieved statehood in 1959.
2. Philippines got independence in 1946.
3. Puerto Rico is the "world's oldest colony" as a commonwealth.
9. Drawing the Global Color Line
1. American racial attitudes had a global impact in the Age of Empire.
2. Chinese exclusion in the United States influenced anti-Chinese laws adopted in Canada.
3. American segregation and disenfranchisement became models for Australia and South
Africa as they formed new governments.
10. "Republic or Empire?"
1. The Anti-Imperialist League argued that empire was incompatible with democracy.
2. But without any sense of contradiction, proponents of an imperial foreign policy also
adopted the language of freedom.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire]
II.An Urban Age and a Consumer Society
A. Farms and Cities
1. For the last time in American history, farms and cities grew together.
2. It was the city that became the focus of Progressive politics and of a new mass consumer
society.
a. New York was the largest city.
B. The Muckrakers
1. A new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposed
the ills of industrial and urban life.
. Lincoln Steffens
2. Major novelists of the era took a similar unsparing approach to social ills.
. Upton Sinclair
C. Immigration as a Global Process
1. Between 1901 and 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United States, many through
Ellis Island.
2. Asian and Mexican immigrants entered the United States in fewer numbers.
. Asians entered through Angel Island.
D. The Immigrant Quest for Freedom
1. Like their nineteenth-century predecessors, the new immigrants arrived imagining the
United States as a land of freedom.
. Some immigrants were "birds of passage," who planned on returning to their
homeland.
2. The new immigrants clustered in close-knit ethnic neighborhoods.
E. Consumer Freedom
1. The advent of large department stores in central cities, chain stores in urban
neighborhoods, and retail mail-order houses for farmers and small-town residents made
available to consumers throughout the country the vast array of goods now pouring from
the nation's factories.
2. Leisure activities also took on the characteristics of mass consumption.
. "Nickelodeon" motion-picture theaters
F. The Working Woman
1. Traditional gender roles were changing dramatically as more women were working for
wages.
. Married women were working more.
2. The working woman became a symbol of female emancipation.
3. Battles emerged within immigrant families of all nationalities between parents and their
self-consciously "free" children, especially daughters.
G. The Rise of Fordism
1. Henry Ford revolutionized manufacturing with the moving assembly line.
2. Ford paid his employees five dollars a day so that they could afford to buy his car.
H. The Promise of Abundance
1. Economic abundance would eventually come to define the American way of life, in which
personal fulfillment was to be found through acquiring material goods.
2. Earning a "living wage" came to be viewed as a natural and absolute right of citizenship.
. Father John A. Ryan
3. Mass consumption came to occupy a central place in descriptions of American society and
its future.
III.Varieties of Progressivism
. Industrial Freedom
1. Frederick W. Taylor pioneered scientific management.
. Eroded freedom of the skilled workers
2. Many believed that unions embodied an essential principle of freedom-the right of people
to govern themselves.
A. The Socialist Presence and Eugene Debs
1. The Socialist Party called for immediate reforms.
2. Socialism flourished in diverse communities throughout the country.
. New York
a. Milwaukee
3. Eugene Debs was socialism's loudest voice.
4. He ran for president in 1912 on the Socialist ticket.
B. AFL and IWW
1. The AFL sought to forge closer ties with forward-looking corporate leaders who were
willing to deal with unions as a way to stabilize employee relations.
2. A group of unionists who rejected the AFL's exclusionary policies formed the Industrial
Workers of the World (IWW).
C. The New Immigrants on Strike
1. Immigrant strikes demonstrated that while ethnic divisions among workers impeded labor
solidarity, ethnic cohesiveness could also be a basis of unity.
2. The Lawrence strike demonstrated that workers sought not only higher wages but the
opportunity to enjoy the finer things in life.
D. Labor and Civil Liberties
1. The courts rejected the claims of labor.
2. Labor unions fought for the right to assemble and speak freely.
E. The New Feminism
1. Feminists' forthright attack on traditional rules of sexual behavior added a new dimension
to the discussion of personal freedom.
2. Issues of intimate personal relations previously confined to private discussion blazed forth
in popular magazines and public debates.
F. The Birth-Control Movement
1. Emma Goldman lectured on sexual freedom and access to birth control.
2. Margaret Sanger placed the issue of birth control at the heart of the new feminism.
G. Native American Progressivism
1. The Society of American Indians was founded in 1911 as a reform organization independent
of white control.
2. Carlos Montezuma became an outspoken critic, demanding that all Indians be granted full
citizenship.
IV.The Politics of Progressivism
. Effective Freedom
1. Progressivism was an international movement as cities throughout the world experienced
similar social strains from rapid industrialization and urban growth.
2. Drawing on the reform programs of the Gilded Age and the example of European
legislation, Progressives sought to reinvigorate the idea of an activist, socially conscious
government.
3. Progressives could reject the traditional assumption that powerful government posed a
threat to freedom because their understanding of freedom was itself in flux.
. John Dewey
A. State and Local Reforms
1. State and local governments enacted most of the era's reform measures.
2. The Gilded Age mayors such as Hazen Pingree pioneered urban Progressivism.
3. The most influential Progressive administration at the state level was that of Robert M. La
Follette, who made Wisconsin a "laboratory for democracy."
B. Progressive Democracy
1. Progressives hoped to reinvigorate democracy by restoring political power to the citizenry
and civic harmony to a divided society.
2. But the Progressive era also witnessed numerous restrictions on democratic participation.
. Voting was seen more as a privilege for a few.
C. Jane Addams and Hull House
1. Organized women reformers spoke for the more democratic side of Progressivism.
2. In doing so, they placed on the political agenda new understandings of female freedom.
3. Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago.
4. The new woman was college educated, middle class, and devoted to providing social
services.
5. Settlement houses produced many female reformers.
D. The Campaign for Woman Suffrage
1. The campaign for woman suffrage became a mass movement.
2. By 1900, over half the states allowed women to vote in local elections dealing with school
issues.
E. Maternalist Reform
1. Ironically, the desire to exalt women's role within the home did much to inspire the
reinvigoration of the suffrage movement.
2. Muller v. Oregon (1908) upheld the constitutionality of an Oregon law setting maximum
working hours for women.
. Louis Brandeis
3. Brandeis argued that the right to government assistance derived from citizenship itself.
V.The Progressive Presidents
. Theodore Roosevelt
1. Roosevelt's Square Deal attempted to confront the problems caused by economic
consolidation by distinguishing between "good" and "bad" corporations.
2. Roosevelt used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve the Northern Securities Company.
3. He pushed to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and for more
regulation of the food and drug industry.
A. The Conservation Movement
1. Roosevelt also moved to preserve parts of the natural environment from economic
exploitation.
. John Muir and the Sierra Club
B. Taft in Office
1. Taft pursued antitrust policy even more aggressively than Roosevelt.
2. He supported the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
3. Progressive Republicans broke from Taft after the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
C. The Election of 1912
1. The election was a four-way contest between Taft, Roosevelt, the Democrat Woodrow
Wilson, and the Socialist Eugene V. Debs.
. It became a national debate on the relationship between political and economic freedom in the age of
big business.
D. New Freedom and New Nationalism
1. Wilson insisted that democracy must be reinvigorated by restoring market competition and
freeing government from domination by big business.
2. Roosevelt called for heavy taxes on personal and corporate fortunes and federal regulation
of industries including railroads, mining, and oil.
3. The Progressive Party platform offered numerous proposals to promote social justice.
E. Wilson's First Term
1. Wilson proved himself a strong executive leader.
2. With Democrats in control of Congress, Wilson moved aggressively to implement his
version of Progressivism.
. Underwood Tariff
a. Clayton Act
F. The Expanding Role of Government
1. Federal Reserve system
2. Federal Trade Commission

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: American "Liberal Internationalism"]
II.An Era of Intervention
A. "I Took the Canal Zone"
1. Roosevelt was more active in international diplomacy than most of his predecessors.
2. Roosevelt pursued a policy of intervention in Central America.
a. Panama
B. The Roosevelt Corollary
1. The United States had the right to exercise "an international police power" in the Western
Hemisphere.
. Dominican Republic
2. Taft emphasized economic investment and loans from American banks, rather than direct
military intervention.
. Dollar Diplomacy
C. Moral Imperialism
1. Wilson promised a new foreign policy that would respect Latin America's independence.
2. Wilson's moral imperialism produced more military interventions in Latin America than
any president before or since.
D. Wilson and Mexico
1. The Mexican Revolution began in 1911.
2. When civil war broke out in Mexico, Wilson ordered American troops to land at Vera Cruz.
. Mexicans greeted the marines as invaders rather than as liberators.
III.America and the Great War
. War broke out in Europe in 1914.
A. The war dealt a severe blow to the optimism and self-confidence of Western civilization.
1. Neutrality and Preparedness
. As war engulfed Europe, Americans found themselves sharply divided.
a. Wilson proclaimed American neutrality, but American commerce and shipping were soon swept into
conflict.
i.Lusitania
b. By the end of 1915, Wilson embarked on a policy of
"preparedness."
2. The Road to War
. Wilson won the reelection in 1916 on the slogan "He kept us out of war."
a. Germany resumed submarine warfare.
b. The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted in 1917.
3. The Fourteen Points
. Russia pulled out of the war after the Lenin Revolution in 1917.
a. Wilson issued the Fourteen Points in January 1918.
.They established the agenda for the peace conference that followed the war.
b. When American troops finally arrived in Europe, they turned the tide of battle.
B. The War at Home
1. The Progressives' War
. Some Progressives viewed the war as the possibility of reforming American society along scientific
lines, instilling a sense of national unity and self-sacrifice, and expanding social justice.
2. The Wartime State
. The war created a national state with unprecedented powers and a sharply increased presence in
Americans' everyday lives.
.Selective Service Act
i.War Industries Board
ii.War Labor Board
3. The Propaganda War
. The Wilson administration decided that patriotism was too important to leave to the private sector.
a. The Committee on Public Information (CPI) was created.
b. The CPI couched its appeal in the Progressive language of social cooperation and expanded
democracy.
c. Freedom took on new significance.
4. The Coming of Woman Suffrage
. America's entry into the war threatened to tear the suffrage movement apart.
.Jeannette Rankin opposed war
a. The National Woman's Party was militantly fighting for suffrage.
.Alice Paul
b. The combined efforts of women during the war won them suffrage.
.Nineteenth Amendment
5. Prohibition
. The campaign to ban intoxicating liquor had a variety of supporters and gained momentum.
a. Like the suffrage movement, prohibitionists came to see national legislation as their best strategy.
.Eighteenth Amendment
6. Liberty in Wartime
. Despite the administration's idealistic language of democracy and freedom, the war inaugurated the
most intense repression of civil liberties the nation has ever known.
7. The Espionage Act
. The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited not only spying and interfering with the draft but also "false
statements" that might impede military success.
a. Eugene V. Debs was convicted in 1918 under the Espionage Act for delivering an antiwar speech.
.Debs ran for president while still in prison in 1920.
8. Coercive Patriotism
. Patriotism now meant support for the government, the war, and the American economic system.
a. The American Protective League (APL) helped the Justice Department identify radicals and critics of
the war.
.Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
C. Who Is an American?
1. The "Race Problem"
. The "race problem" had become a major subject of public concern.
a. Eugenics, which studied the alleged mental characteristics of different races, gave anti-immigrant
sentiment an air of professional expertise.
b. Americanization meant the creation of a more homogenous national culture.
.Israel Zangwill's The Melting Pot
c. A minority of Progressives questioned Americanization efforts and insisted on respect for immigrant
subcultures.
.Randolph Bourne
d. The Anti-German Crusade
.German-Americans bore the brunt of forced Americanization.
i.The use of German and expressions of German culture became
targets of prowar organizations.
e. Toward Immigration Restriction
.The war strengthened the conviction that certain kinds of undesirable
persons ought to be excluded altogether.
i.IQ test introduced in 1916
f. Groups Apart: Mexicans and Asian-Americans
.The war led to further growth of the Southwest's Mexican population.
i.The policies toward Asian-Americans were even more restrictive
than those against Mexicans.
.Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907
g. The Color Line
.The freedoms of the Progressive era did not apply to blacks.
i.Progressive intellectuals, social scientists, labor reformers, and
suffrage advocates displayed a remarkable indifference to the
black condition.
h. Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race
.Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dine with him at the White
House.
i.Wilson's administration imposed racial segregation in federal
departments in Washington, D.C.
.Birth of a Nation
i. W. E. B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest
.Du Bois tried to reconcile the contradiction between what he called
"American freedom for whites and the continuing subjection of Negroes."
.The Souls of Black Folk (1903)
i.In some ways, Du Bois was a typical Progressive who
believed that investigation, exposure, and education
would lead to solutions for social problems.
.The Niagara movement sought to reinvigorate the abolitionist
tradition.
ii.Du Bois was a cofounder of the NAACP.
.Bailey v. Alabama (1911)
j. Closing Ranks
.Most black leaders saw American participation in the war as an opportunity
to make real the promise of freedom.
i.During World War I, "closing ranks" did not bring significant
gains.
k. The Great Migration
.The war opened thousands of industrial jobs to black laborers for the first
time, inspiring a large-scale migration from the South to the North.
.Half a million blacks migrated north.
i.Many motives sustained the Great Migration.
l. Racial Violence, North and South
.Dozens of blacks were killed during a 1917 riot in East St. Louis, Missouri.
i.Violence was not confined to the North.
m. The Rise of Garveyism
.Marcus Garvey launched a separatist movement.
.Freedom for Garveyites meant national self-determination.
2. 1919
. A Worldwide Upsurge
a. Upheaval in America
.In the United States, 1919 also witnessed unprecedented turmoil.
i.In 1919, more than 4 million workers engaged in strikes-the
greatest wave of labor unrest in American history.
ii.The wartime rhetoric of economic democracy and freedom helped
to inspire the era's greatest labor uprising.
.Striking for union recognition, higher wages, and an eight-hour
day
iii.Steel magnates launched a concerted counterattack.
.Propoganda campaign associated the strikers with the IWW
b. The Red Scare
.This was a short-lived but intense period of political intolerance inspired by
the postwar strike wave and the social tensions and fears generated by the
Russian Revolution.
i.In November 1919 and January 1920, Attorney General Palmer
dispatched federal agents to raid the offices of radical and labor
organizations throughout the country.
c. Wilson at Versailles
.The Versailles Treaty did accomplish some of Wilson's goals.
i.The Versailles Treaty was a harsh document that all but
guaranteed future conflict in Europe.
d. The Wilsonian Moment
.Wilson's idea that government must rest on the consent of the governed
and his belief in "equality of nations" reverberated across the globe,
especially among oppressed minorities and colonial peoples seeking
independence.
i.Wilson's language of self-determination raised false hopes for
many peoples.
ii.The British and French had no intention of applying the principle
of self-determination to their own empires.
.Ottoman empire and the League of Nations "mandates"
e. The Seeds of Wars to Come
.German resentment over the terms of the peace treaty helped to fuel the
rise of Adolf Hitler.
i.A new anti-Western nationalism and anticolonial nationalism
emerged in non-European nations.
f. The Treaty Debate
.Wilson viewed the new League of Nations as the war's finest legacy.
i.Opponents viewed the league as a threat designed to deprive the
country of its freedom of action.
ii.On its own terms, the war to make the world safe for democracy
failed.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Sacco-Vanzetti Case]
II.The Business of America
A. A Decade of Prosperity
1. The business of America was business.
2. The automobile industry stimulated the expansion of steel, rubber and oil production, road
construction, and other sectors of the economy.
3. American multinational corporations extended their reach throughout the world.
a. American companies produced 85 percent of the world's cars and 40 percent of its
manufactured goods.
B. A New Society
1. Consumer goods of all kinds proliferated, marketed by salespeople and advertisers who
promoted them as ways of satisfying Americans' psychological desires and everyday needs.
2. Americans spent more and more of their income on leisure activities like vacations,
movies, and sporting events.
C. The Limits of Prosperity
1. The fruits of increased production were very unequally distributed.
2. By 1929, an estimated 40 percent of the population still lived in poverty.
D. The Farmer's Plight
1. 1 Farmers did not share in the prosperity of the decade.
. California received many displaced farmers.
E. The Image of Business
1. Businesspeople like Henry Ford and engineers like Herbert Hoover were cultural heroes.
2. Numerous firms established public relations departments.
F. The Decline of Labor
1. Business appropriated the rhetoric of Americanism and industrial freedom as weapons
against labor unions.
. Welfare capitalism
2. Propaganda campaigns linked unionism and socialism as examples of the sinister influence
of foreigners on American life.
3. During the 1920s, labor lost over 2 million members.
G. The Equal Rights Amendment
1. The achievement of suffrage in 1920 eliminated the bond of unity between various
activists.
2. Alice Paul's National Woman's Party proposed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
H. Women's Freedom
1. Female liberation resurfaced as a lifestyle, the stuff of advertising and mass entertainment.
. The flapper
2. Female freedom became a marketing tool.
3. New freedom for women only lasted while she was single.
III.Business and Government
. In 1929, the sociologists Robert and Helen Lynd published Middletown.
1. The Republican Era
. Government policies reflected the pro-business ethos of the 1920s.
i.Lower taxes
ii.Higher tariffs
iii.Anti-unionism
a. The Supreme Court remained strongly conservative.
.Repudiated Muller v. Oregon.
2. Corruption in Government
. The Harding administration quickly became one of the most corrupt in American history.
a. Harding surrounded himself with cronies who used their offices for private gain.
.Teapot Dome scandal
3. The Election of 1924
. Coolidge exemplified Yankee honesty.
a. Robert La Follette ran on a Progressive platform in 1924.
4. Economic Diplomacy
. Foreign affairs also reflected the close working relationship between business and government.
.Washington Naval Arms Conference
a. The government continued to dispatch soldiers when a change in government in the Caribbean
threatened American economic interests.
.Somoza and Nicaragua
IV.The Birth of Civil Liberties
. Wartime repression continued into the 1920s.
A. In 1922, the film industry adopted the Hays Code.
1. A "Clear and Present Danger"
. The ACLU was established in 1920.
a. In its initial decisions, the Supreme Court gave the concept of civil liberties a series of devastating
blows.
2. The Court and Civil Liberties
. Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandeis began to speak up for freedom of speech.
a. The new regard for free speech went beyond political expression.
V.The Culture Wars
. The Fundamentalist Revolt
1. Many evangelical Protestants felt threatened by the decline of traditional values and the
increased visibility of Catholicism and Judaism because of immigration.
2. Convinced that the literal truth of the Bible formed the basis of Christian belief,
fundamentalists launched a campaign to rid Protestant denominations of modernism.
. Billy Sunday
3. Fundamentalists supported Prohibition, while others viewed it as a violation of individual
freedom.
A. The Scopes Trial
1. John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution in school.
2. The Scopes trial reflected the enduring tension between two American definitions of
freedom.
3. The renowned labor lawyer Clarence Darrow defended Scopes.
. Darrow examined William J. Bryan as an expert on the Bible.
4. Fundamentalists retreated for many years from battles over public education, preferring to
build their own schools and colleges.
B. The Second Klan
1. Few features of urban life seemed more alien to small-town, native-born Protestants than
immigrant populations and cultures.
2. The Klan was reborn in Atlanta in 1915 after the lynching of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory
manager accused of killing a teenage girl.
3. By the mid-1920s the Klan spread to the North and West.
C. Closing the Golden Door
1. Some new laws redrew the boundary of citizenship to include groups previously outside of
it.
2. Efforts to restrict immigration made gains when large employers dropped their traditional
opposition.
3. In 1924, Congress permanently limited immigration for Europeans and banned it for
Asians.
. To satisfy the demands of large farmers in California who relied heavily on
seasonal Mexican labor, the law established no limits on immigration from the Western
Hemisphere.
a. The law did establish a new category of "illegal alien" and a new
mechanism for enforcement, the Border Patrol.
D. Race and the Law
1. James J. Davis commented that immigration policy must now rest on a biological
definition of the ideal population.
2. The 1924 immigration law also reflected the Progressive desire to improve the quality of
democratic citizenship and to employ scientific methods to set public policy.
E. Promoting Tolerance
1. The most potent defense of a pluralist vision of American society came from the new
immigrants themselves.
2. Immigrant groups asserted the validity of cultural diversity and identified toleration of
difference as the essence of American freedom.
3. In landmark decisions, the Supreme Court struck down laws that tried to enforce
Americanization.
F. The Emergence of Harlem
1. The 1920s also witnessed an upsurge of self-consciousness among black Americans,
especially in the North's urban ghettos.
2. New York's Harlem gained an international reputation as the "capital" of black America.
3. The 1920s became famous for "slumming."
G. The Harlem Renaissance
1. In art, the term "New Negro" meant the rejection of established stereotypes and a search
for black values to put in their place.
. Claude McKay
VI.The Great Depression
. The Election of 1928
1. Hoover seemed to exemplify what was widely called the new era of American capitalism.
2. Hoover's opponent in 1928 was Alfred E. Smith of New York.
3. Smith's Catholicism became the focus of the race.
A. The Coming of the Depression
1. On October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday), the stock market crashed.
2. The stock market crash did not, by itself, cause the Depression.
3. The global financial system was ill-equipped to deal with the crash.
B. Americans and the Depression
1. The Depression transformed American life.
2. The image of big business, carefully cultivated during the 1920s, collapsed as congressional
investigations revealed massive irregularities among bankers and stockbrokers.
C. Resignation and Protest
1. Twenty thousand unemployed World War I veterans descended on Washington in the
spring of 1932 to demand early payment of a bonus due in 1945.
D. Hoover's Response
1. Businessmen strongly opposed federal aid to the unemployed.
2. Hoover remained committed to "associational action."
E. The Worsening Economic Outlook
1. Some administration remedies made the economic situation worse.
2. In 1932, Hoover created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
F. Freedom in the Modern World
1. In 1927, the definition of freedom celebrated the unimpeded reign of economic enterprise
yet tolerated the surveillance of private life and individual conscience.
2. By 1932, the seeds had already been planted for a new conception of freedom.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Columbia River Project]
II.The First New Deal
A. FDR and the Election of 1932
1. FDR promised a "new deal" for the American people, but his campaign was vague in
explaining how he was going to achieve it.
B. The Coming of the New Deal
1. Roosevelt saw his New Deal as an alternative to socialism on the left, to Nazism on the
right, and to the inaction of upholders of unregulated capitalism.
2. For advice, FDR relied heavily on a group of intellectuals and social workers who took up
key positions in his administration.
a. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
b. Harry Hopkins
c. Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes
d. Justice Louis Brandeis
3. The view of these individuals prevailed during what came to be called the First New Deal.
C. The Banking Crisis
1. Roosevelt declared a bank holiday, temporarily halting all bank operations, and called
Congress into special session.
. Emergency Banking Act
2. Further measures also transformed the American financial system.
. Glass-Steagall Act
a. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
D. The NRA
1. An unprecedented flurry of legislation during the first three months of Roosevelt's
administration was a period known as the Hundred Days.
2. The centerpiece of Roosevelt's plan for combating the Depression was the National
Industrial Recovery Act (NRA).
3. The NRA reflected how even in its early days, the New Deal reshaped understandings of
liberty.
. Section 7a
4. Hugh S. Johnson set standards for production, prices, and wages in the textile, steel,
mining, and auto industries.
E. Government Jobs
1. The Hundred Days also brought the government into providing relief to those in need.
. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
a. Civilian Conservation Core (CCC)
F. Public-Works Projects
1. The Public Works Administration (PWA) was created to build roads, schools, hospitals,
and other public facilities.
2. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was created to build dams.
G. The New Deal and Agriculture
1. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) authorized the federal government to try to raise
farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers not to plant
more.
2. The AAA succeeded in significantly raising farm prices and incomes for large farmers.
. The policy generally hurt small farms and tenant farmers.
3. The 1930s also witnessed severe drought creating the Dust Bowl.
H. The New Deal and Housing
1. The Depression devastated the American housing industry.
2. Hoover's administration established a federally sponsored bank to issue home loans.
3. FDR moved energetically to protect homeowners from foreclosure and to stimulate new
construction.
. Home Owners Loan Corporation
a. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
4. There were other important measures of Roosevelt's first two years in office:
. Twenty-first Amendment
a. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
b. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
I. The Court and the New Deal
1. In 1935, the Supreme Court began to invalidate key New Deal Laws:
. National Recover Administration
a. The Agricultural Adjustment Act
III.The Grassroots Revolt
. Labor's Great Upheaval
1. A cadre of militant labor leaders provided leadership to the labor upsurge.
2. Workers' demands during the 1930s went beyond better wages.
. All their goals required union recognition.
3. Roosevelt's election as president did much to rekindle hope among labor.
4. 1934 saw an explosion of strikes.
A. The Rise of the CIO
1. The labor upheaval posed a challenge to the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
2. John Lewis led a walkout of the AFL that produced a new labor organization, the Congress
of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
3. The United Auto Workers (UAW) led a sit-down strike in 1936.
4. Steel workers tried to follow suit.
5. Union membership reached 9 million by 1940.
B. Labor and Politics
1. The labor upsurge altered the balance of economic power and propelled to the forefront of
politics labor's goal of a fairer, freer, more equal America.
2. CIO leaders explained the Depression as the result of an imbalance of wealth and income.
C. Voices of Protest
1. Other popular movements of the mid-1930s also placed the question of economic justice
on the political agenda.
. Upton Sinclair and the End Poverty in California movement (EPIC)
a. Huey Long and Share Our Wealth
b. Charles Coughlin
c. Dr. Francis Townsend
IV.The Second New Deal
. Roosevelt in 1935 launched the Second New Deal with an emphasis on economic security.
1. The Rural Electrification Agency (REA) provided electricity to rural areas.
A. The WPA and the Wagner Act
1. Under Harry Hopkins's direction, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) changed the
physical face of the United States.
2. Perhaps the most famous WPA projects were in the arts.
3. The Wagner Act brought democracy into the American workplace.
B. The American Welfare State: Social Security
1. The centerpiece of the Second New Deal was the Social Security Act of 1935.
2. The Social Security Act launched the American version of the welfare state.
3. Social Security represented a dramatic departure from the traditional functions of
government.
V.A Reckoning with Liberty
. Roosevelt was a master of political communication and used his fireside chats to great effect.
A. FDR gave the term "liberalism" its modern meaning.
B. As the 1930s progressed, proponents of the New Deal invoked the language of liberty with greater and
greater passion.
C. The Election of 1936
1. Fighting for the possession of "the ideal of freedom" emerged as the central issue of the
presidential campaign of 1936.
2. Republicans chose Kansas governor Alfred Landon, a former Theodore Roosevelt
Progressive.
3. Roosevelt won a landslide reelection.
. New Deal coalition
D. The Court Fight
1. FDR proposed to change the face of the Supreme Court for political reasons.
2. The Court's new willingness to accept the New Deal marked a permanent change in judicial
policy.
E. The End of the Second New Deal
1. The Fair Labor Standards bill banned goods produced by child labor from interstate
commerce, set forty cents as the minimum hourly wage, and required overtime pay for
hours of work exceeding forty per week.
2. The year 1937 witnessed a sharp downturn of the economy.
VI.The Limits of Change
. The New Deal and American Women
1. Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the role of first lady.
2. However, organized feminism, already in disarray during the 1920s, disappeared as a
political force.
3. Most New Deal programs did not exclude women from benefits, but the ideal of the male-
headed household powerfully shaped social policy.
A. The Southern Veto
1. The power of the Solid South helped to mold the New Deal welfare state into an
entitlement for white Americans.
. The Social Security law excluded agricultural and domestic workers, the largest categories of black
employment.
2. Political left and black organizations lobbied for changes in Social Security.
B. The Stigma of Welfare
1. Blacks became more dependant on welfare because they were excluded from eligibility for
other programs.
C. The Indian New Deal
1. Under Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier, the administration launched an Indian
New Deal.
2. It marked the most radical shift in Indian policy in the nation's history.
D. The New Deal and Mexican-Americans
1. For Mexican-Americans, the Depression was a wrenching experience.
E. Last Hired, First Fired
1. African-Americans were hit hardest by the Depression.
2. FDR appointed a number of blacks to important federal positions.
. Mary McLeod Bethune
3. The 1930s witnessed a historic shift in black voting patterns.
F. Federal Discrimination
1. Federal housing policy revealed the limits of New Deal freedom.
2. Federal employment practices also discriminated on the basis of race.
3. Not until the Great Society of the 1960s would those left out of New Deal programs win
inclusion in the American welfare state.
VII.A New Conception of America
. The Heyday of American Communism
1. In the mid-1930s, the left enjoyed a shaping influence on the nation's politics and culture.
2. The CIO and Communist Party became focal points for a broad social and intellectual
impulse that helped to redraw the boundaries of American freedom.
. The Popular Front
A. Redefining the People
1. The Popular Front vision for American society was that the American way of life meant
unionism and social citizenship, not the unbridled pursuit of wealth.
2. Artists and writers captured the common man.
B. Challenging the Color Line
1. Popular Front culture moved well beyond New Deal liberalism in condemning racism as
incompatible with true Americanism.
2. The Communist-dominated International Labor Defense mobilized popular support for
black defendants victimized by racism in the criminal justice system.
. Scottsboro case
3. The CIO welcomed black members.
C. Labor and Civil Liberties
1. Another central element of Popular Front public culture was its mobilization for civil
liberties, especially the right of labor to organize.
2. Labor militancy helped to produce an important shift in the understanding of civil liberties.
3. In 1939, Attorney General Frank Murphy established a Civil Liberties Unit in the
Department of Justice.
. Civil liberties replaced property rights of business as the judicial foundation of freedom.
4. The House of Representatives established an Un-American Activities Committee in 1938 to
investigate disloyalty.
D. The End of the New Deal
1. FDR was losing support from southern Democrats.
2. Roosevelt concluded that the enactment of future New Deal measures required a
liberalization of the southern Democratic Party.
3. A period of political stalemate followed the congressional election of 1938.
E. The New Deal in American History
1. Given the scope of the economic calamity it tried to counter, the New Deal seems in many
ways quite limited.
2. Yet even as the New Deal receded, its substantial accomplishments remained.
3. One thing the New Deal failed to do was generate prosperity.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms Paintings]
II.Fighting World War II
A. Good Neighbors
1. FDR embarked on a number of departures in foreign policy.
a. Soviet Union
b. Latin America
B. The Road to War
1. Japan had expanded its reach in Manchuria and China by the mid-1930s.
2. Germany embarked on a campaign to control the entire continent.
. Benito Mussolini
a. General Francisco Franco
3. Although Roosevelt was alarmed, he was tied to the policy of appeasement.
C. Isolationism
1. American businesspeople did not wish to give up profitable overseas markets in Germany
and Japan.
2. Many Americans were reluctant to get involved in international affairs because of the
legacy of World War I.
3. Congress favored isolationism, as seen with various Neutrality Acts.
D. War in Europe
1. Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.
. Blitzkrieg appeared unstoppable.
2. For nearly two years, Britain stood virtually alone in fighting Germany.
. Battle of Britain
E. Toward Intervention
1. In 1940, breaking with a tradition that dated back to George Washington, Roosevelt
announced his candidacy for a third term as president.
2. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 and froze Japanese assets.
F. Pearl Harbor
1. On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes, launched from aircraft carriers, bombed the naval
base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
2. FDR asked for a declaration of war against Japan.
G. The War in the Pacific
1. The first few months of American involvement witnessed an unbroken string of military
disasters.
2. The tide turned with the battles at Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942.
H. The War in Europe
1. D-Day established the much needed second front in western Europe.
2. The crucial fighting in Europe took place on the eastern front between Germany and the
Soviet Union.
. Stalingrad marked the turning point.
3. The war claimed millions of lives.
. Holocaust
III.The Home Front
. Mobilizing for War
1. World War II transformed the role of the national government.
2. The government built housing for war workers and forced civilian industries to retool for
war production.
A. Business and the War
1. Americans produced an astonishing amount of wartime goods and utilized science and
technology.
2. The West Coast emerged as a focus of military-industrial production.
. Nearly 2 million Americans moved to California for jobs in defense-related
industries.
3. The South remained very poor when the war ended.
B. Labor in Wartime
1. Organized labor entered a three-sided arrangement with government and business that
allowed union membership to soar to unprecedented levels.
2. Unions became firmly established in many sectors of the economy during World War II.
C. Fighting for the Four Freedoms
1. To Roosevelt, the Four Freedoms expressed deeply held American values worthy of being
spread worldwide.
2. Roosevelt initially meant the phrase to refer to the elimination of barriers to international
trade.
. It came to mean protecting the standard of living from falling after the war.
D. The Fifth Freedom
1. The war witnessed a burst of messages marketing advertisers' definition of freedom.
. Free enterprise
E. Women at War
1. Women in 1944 made up over one-third of the civilian labor force.
2. New opportunities opened up for married women and mothers.
3. Women's work during the war was viewed by men and the government as temporary.
4. The advertisers' "world of tomorrow" rested on a vision of family-centered prosperity.
IV.Visions of Postwar Freedom
. Toward an American Century
1. Henry Luce insisted that the United States embrace a leadership role in his 1941 book The
American Century.
2. Henry Wallace offered a less imperialistic alternative.
3. Luce and Wallace both spoke about a new conception of America's role in the world.
A. "The Way of Life of Free Men"
1. The National Resources Planning Board offered a blueprint for a peacetime economy based
on:
. Full employment
a. An expanded welfare state
b. A widely shared American standard of living
2. FDR called for an Economic Bill of Rights in 1944.
3. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act, or GI Bill of Rights, was one of the most far-reaching
pieces of social legislation in American history.
B. The Road to Serfdom
1. Hayek's The Road to Serfdom (1944)
. Offered a new intellectual justification for opponents of active government.
a. Helped lay the foundation for the rise of modern conservatism.
V.The American Dilemma
. Patriotic Assimilation
1. World War II created a vast melting pot, especially for European immigrants and their
children.
2. By the war's end, racism and nativism had been stripped of intellectual respectability.
. Ruth Benedict
A. The Bracero Program
1. The war had a far more ambiguous meaning for nonwhites than for whites.
2. The bracero program allowed tens of thousands of contract laborers to cross into the
United States to take up jobs as domestic and agricultural workers.
3. "Zoot suit" riots
4. Mexican-Americans brought complaints of discrimination before the Fair Employment
Practices Commission (FEPC).
B. Indians during the War
1. American Indians served in the army.
. The Iroquois issued a declaration of war against the Axis powers.
a. "Code talkers."
C. Asian-Americans in Wartime
1. Asian-Americans' war experience was filled with paradox.
2. Chinese exclusion was abolished.
3. The American government viewed every person of Japanese ethnicity as a potential spy.
D. Japanese-American Internment
1. The military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order 9066.
2. Internment revealed how easily war can undermine basic freedoms.
. Hardly anyone spoke out against internment.
3. The courts refused to intervene.
. Korematsu v. United States (1944)
4. The government marketed war bonds to the internees and drafted them into the army.
E. Blacks and the War
1. The wartime message of freedom portended a major transformation in the status of blacks.
2. The war spurred a movement of the black population from the rural South to the cities of
the North and West.
. Detroit race riot
F. Blacks and Military Service
1. During the war, over 1 million blacks served in the armed forces.
2. Black soldiers sometimes had to give up their seats on railroad cars to accommodate Nazi
prisoners of war.
G. Birth of the Civil Rights Movement
1. The war years witnessed the birth of the modern civil rights movement.
2. In July 1941, the black labor leader A. Philip Randolph called for a March on Washington.
. Executive Order 8802 and FEPC
H. The Double-V
1. The "double-V" meant that victory over Germany and Japan must be accompanied by
victory over segregation at home.
I. The War and Race
1. During the war, a broad political coalition centered on the left, but reaching well beyond it
called for an end to racial inequality in America.
2. CIO unions made significant efforts to organize black workers and to win them access to
skilled positions.
3. The new lack of militancy created a crisis for moderate white southerners.
4. The South reacted to preserve white supremacy.
J. An American Dilemma
1. An American Dilemma (1944) was a sprawling account of the country's racial past, present,
and future.
. Gunnar Myrdal
2. Myrdal noted the conflict between American values and American racial polices.
. America had to outlaw discrimination.
K. Black Internationalism
1. In the first decades of the twentieth century, a black international consciousness was
reinvigorated.
2. W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, and others developed an outlook that linked the plight of
black Americans with that of people of color worldwide.
3. World War II stimulated among African-Americans a greater awareness of the links
between racism in the United States and colonialism abroad.
VI.The End of the War
. "The Most Terrible Weapon"
1. One of the most momentous decisions ever confronted by an American president-whether
to use the bomb on Japan-fell to Harry Truman.
2. The atomic bomb was a practical realization of the theory of relativity.
3. The Manhattan Project developed an atomic bomb.
A. The Dawn of the Atomic Age
1. On August 6, 1945, an American plane dropped an atomic bomb that detonated over
Hiroshima, Japan.
2. Because of the enormous cost in civilian lives, the use of the bomb remains controversial.
B. The Nature of War
1. The dropping of the atomic bombs was the logical culmination of the way World War II
had been fought: never before had civilian populations been so targeted in a war.
C. Planning the Postwar World
1. Even as the war raged, a series of meetings between Allied leaders formulated plans for the
postwar world.
. Tehran
a. Yalta
b. Potsdam
D. Yalta and Bretton Woods
1. The Bretton Woods meeting established a new international economic system.
E. The United Nations
1. The Dumbarton Oaks meeting established the structure of the United Nations.
. General Assembly
a. Security Council
F. Peace, but not Harmony
1. World War II produced a radical redistribution of world power.
2. It remained to be seen how seriously the victorious Allies took their wartime rhetoric of
freedom.
. Mahatma Gandhi
Chapter Study Outline
I.[Introduction: The Freedom Train]
II.Origins of the Cold War
A. The Two Powers
1. The United States emerged from World War II as by far the world's greatest power.
2. The only power that in any way could rival the United States was the Soviet Union.
B. The Roots of Containment
1. It seems all but inevitable that the two major powers to emerge from the war would come
into conflict.
2. The Long Telegram advised the Truman administration that the Soviets could not be dealt
with as a normal government.
a. Containment
b. Iron Curtain speech
C. The Truman Doctrine
1. Truman soon determined to put the policy of containment into effect.
2. To rally popular backing for Greece and Turkey, Truman rolled out the heaviest weapon in
his rhetorical arsenal-the defense of freedom.
3. The Truman Doctrine created the language through which most Americans came to
understand the postwar world.
D. The Marshall Plan
1. George Marshall pledged the United States to contribute billions of dollars to finance the
economic recovery of Europe.
2. The Marshall Plan offered a positive vision to go along with containment.
3. The Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history.
E. The Reconstruction of Japan
1. Under the guidance of General Douglas MacArthur, the "supreme commander" in Japan
until 1948, that country adopted a new, democratic constitution.
2. The United States also oversaw the economic reconstruction of Japan.
F. The Berlin Blockade and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
1. In 1948, the Soviets cut off road and rail traffic from the American, British, and French
zones of occupied Germany to Berlin.
. An eleven-month Allied airlift followed.
2. In 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb.
3. NATO pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack.
. Warsaw Pact
G. The Growing Communist Challenge
1. Communists won the civil war in China in 1949.
2. In the wake of these events, the National Security Council approved a call for a permanent
military buildup to enable the United States to pursue a global crusade against
communism.
. NSC-68
H. The Korean War
1. In June 1950, the North Korean army invaded the south, hoping to reunify the country
under communist control.
2. American troops did the bulk of the fighting on this first battlefield of the Cold War.
. General Douglas MacArthur
I. Cold War Critics
1. Casting the Cold War in terms of a worldwide battle between freedom and slavery had
unfortunate consequences.
2. Walter Lippmann objected to turning foreign policy into an "ideological crusade."
J. Imperialism and Decolonization
1. Many movements for colonial independence borrowed the language of the American
Declaration of Independence in demanding the right to self-government.
III.The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom
. Among other things, the Cold War was an ideological struggle, a battle, in a popular phrase of the 1950s, for
the "hearts and minds" of people throughout the world.
A. One of the more unusual Cold War battlefields involved American history and culture.
B. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) emerged as unlikely patrons of the arts.
C. Freedom and Totalitarianism
1. Along with freedom, the Cold War's other great mobilizing concept was totalitarianism.
2. Just as the conflict over slavery redefined American freedom in the nineteenth century,
and the confrontation with the Nazis shaped understandings of freedom during World War
II, the Cold War reshaped them once again.
D. The Rise of Human Rights
1. The idea that rights exist applicable to all members of the human family originated during
the eighteenth century in the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions.
2. In 1948, the UN General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
E. Ambiguities of Human Rights
1. Debates over the Universal Declaration of Human Rights revealed the tensions inherent in
the idea of human rights.
2. After the Cold War ended, the idea of human rights would play an increasingly prominent
role in world affairs.
IV.The Truman Presidency
. The Fair Deal
1. Truman's first domestic task was to preside over the transition from a wartime to a
peacetime economy.
2. He moved to revive the stalled momentum of the New Deal.
A. The Postwar Strike Wave
1. The AFL and CIO launched Operation Dixie, a campaign to bring unionization to the
South.
2. Nearly 5 million workers went on strike.
B. The Republican Resurgence
1. Republicans swept to control both houses of Congress in 1946.
2. Congress turned aside Truman's Fair Deal program.
. Taft-Hartley Act
C. Postwar Civil Rights
1. Immediately after the war, the status of black Americans enjoyed a prominence in national
affairs unmatched since Reconstruction.
2. The Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 added Jackie Robinson to their team.
D. To Secure These Rights
1. A Commission on Civil Rights appointed by the president issued To Secure These Rights.
. It called on the federal government to abolish segregation and discrimination.
2. In 1948, Truman presented an ambitious civil rights program to Congress.
. Truman desegregated the armed forces.
3. The Democratic platform of 1948 was the most progressive in the party's history.
E. The Dixiecrat and Wallace Revolts
1. Dixiecrats formed the States' Rights party.
. Strom Thurmond
2. A group of left-wing critics of Truman's foreign policy formed the Progressive Party.
. Henry Wallace
3. Truman's main opponent was the Republican Thomas A. Dewey.
4. Truman's success represented one of the greatest upsets in American political history.
V.The Anticommunist Crusade
. The Cold War encouraged a culture of secrecy and dishonesty.
A. At precisely the moment when the United States celebrated freedom as the foundation of American
life, the right to dissent came under attack.
1. Loyalty and Disloyalty
. Those who could be linked to communism were considered enemies of freedom.
a. HUAC hearings against Hollywood began in 1947.
2. The Spy Trials
. HUAC investigated Alger Hiss.
a. The Rosenburgs were convicted of spying and executed in 1953.
3. McCarthy and McCarthyism
. Senator Joseph McCarthy announced in 1950 that he had a list of 205 communists working for the
State Department.
a. McCarthy's downfall came with the nationally televised Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954.
4. An Atmosphere of Fear
. Anticommunism was as much a local as a national phenomenon.
a. Local anticommunist groups forced public libraries to remove "un-American" books from their
shelves.
5. The Uses of Anticommunism
. Anticommunism had many faces and purposes.
a. Anticommunism also served as a weapon wielded by individuals and groups in battles unrelated to
defending the United States against subversion.
6. Anticommunist Politics
. The McCarran Internal Security Bill of 1950
a. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952
b. Organized labor rid itself of its left-wing officials and emerged as a major supporter of the foreign
policy of the Cold War.
7. Cold War Civil Rights
. The civil rights movement also underwent a transformation.
i.The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
purged communists from local branches.
ii.The Cold War caused a shift in thinking and tactics among civil
rights groups.
iii.Dean Acheson's speech on aiding "free peoples"was addressed to
the Delta Council; it was was filled with unintended irony, as the
Delta's citizens were denied the very liberties of which he spoke.
iv.After 1948, little came of the Truman administration's civil rights
flurry, but time would reveal that the waning of the civil rights
impulse was only temporary.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Debates]
II.The Golden Age
A. After the war, the American economy enjoyed remarkable growth.
B. Numerous innovations came into widespread use during these years, transforming Americans' daily lives.
C. A Changing Economy
1. The Cold War fueled industrial production and promoted a redistribution of the nation's
population and economic resources.
2. Since the 1950s, the American economy has shifted away from manufacturing.
3. The center of gravity of American farming shifted decisively to the West (especially to
California).
D. A Suburban Nation
1. The main engines of economic growth during the 1950s were residential construction and
spending on consumer goods.
2. The dream of home ownership came within reach of the majority of Americans.
a. Levittown
E. The Growth of the West
1. California became the most prominent symbol of the postwar suburban boom.
2. Western cities were decentralized clusters of single-family homes and businesses united by
a web of highways.
F. The TV World
1. Television replaced newspapers as the most common source of information about public
events and provided Americans of all regions and backgrounds with a common cultural
experience.
2. TV avoided controversy and projected a bland image of middle-class life.
3. Television also became the most effective advertising medium ever invented.
G. Women at Work and at Home
1. After a sharp postwar drop in female employment, the number of women at work soon
began to rise, yet the nature and aims of women's work had changed.
2. Women were expected to get married, have kids, and stay at home.
. Baby boom
3. Feminism seemed to have disappeared from American life.
H. A Segregated Landscape
1. The suburbs remained segregated communities.
2. During the postwar suburban boom, federal agencies continued to insure mortgages that
barred resale of houses to nonwhites, thereby financing housing segregation.
3. Under programs of "urban renewal," cities demolished poor neighborhoods in city centers
that occupied potentially valuable real estate.
I. The Divided Society
1. Suburbanization hardened the racial lines of division in American life.
2. Between 1950 and 1970, about 7 million white Americans left cities for the suburbs.
3. The process of racial exclusion became self-reinforcing.
4. Suburban home ownership long remained a white entitlement.
J. Selling Free Enterprise
1. More than political democracy or freedom of speech, an economic system resting on
private ownership united the nations of the Free World.
2. The selling of free enterprise became a major industry.
K. The Libertarian Conservatives and New Conservatives
1. To libertarian conservatives, freedom meant individual autonomy, limited government,
and unregulated capitalism.
2. These ideas had great appeal in the rapidly growing South and West.
3. The new conservatism became increasingly prominent in the 1950s.
4. The new conservatives insisted that toleration of difference offered no substitute for the
search for absolute truth.
5. They understood freedom as first and foremost a moral condition.
6. Two powerful enemies became focal points for the conservative revival:
. The Soviet Union abroad
a. The federal government at home
III.The Eisenhower Era
. Ike and Nixon
1. General Dwight D. Eisenhower ran for president in 1952.
2. Richard Nixon ran as his vice president.
. Nixon gained a reputation for opportunism and dishonesty.
A. The 1952 Campaign
1. This period illustrated the importance of TV in politics.
2. Eisenhower's popularity and promises to end the Korean conflict brought him victory in
1952.
3. During the 1950s, voters at home and abroad seemed to find reassurance in selecting
familiar, elderly leaders to govern them.
B. Modern Republicanism
1. Wealthy businessmen dominated Eisenhower's cabinet.
. Eisenhower refused to roll back the New Deal.
2. Modern Republicanism aimed to sever the Republican Party's identification in the minds
of many Americans with Herbert Hoover, the Great Depression, and indifference to the
economic conditions of ordinary citizens.
. Core New Deal programs expanded.
3. Government spending was used to promote productivity and boost employment.
C. The Social Contract
1. The 1950s witnessed an easing of the labor conflict of the two previous decades.
. AFL and CIO merged in 1955.
a. Social contract
2. Unionized workers shared fully in the prosperity of the 1950s.
D. Massive Retaliation
1. Ike took office at a time when the Cold War had entered an extremely dangerous phase.
2. Massive retaliation declared that any Soviet attack on an American ally would be countered
by a nuclear assault on the Soviet Union itself.
E. Ike and the Russians
1. Eisenhower came to believe that the Soviets were reasonable and could be dealt with in
conventional diplomatic terms.
2. Khrushchev's call for peaceful coexistence with the United States raised the possibility of
an easing of the Cold War.
3. In 1958, the two superpowers agreed to a voluntary halt on the testing of nuclear weapons.
F. The Emergence of the Third World
1. The post-World War II era witnessed the crumbling of European empires.
2. Decolonization presented the United States with a complex set of choices.
3. The Cold War became the determining factor in American relations with the Third World.
. Guatemala
a. Iran
G. Origins of the Vietnam War
1. Anticommunism led the United States into deeper involvement in Vietnam.
2. A peace conference in Geneva divided Vietnam temporarily at the 17th parallel.
3. Events in Iran and Vietnam, considered great successes at the time by American
policymakers, cast a long shadow over American foreign relations.
H. Mass Society and Its Critics
1. Some intellectuals wondered whether the celebration of affluence and the either/or
mentality of the Cold War obscured the extent to which the United States itself fell short of
the ideal of freedom.
. Wright Mills
2. One strand of social analysis in the 1950s contended that Americans did not enjoy genuine
freedom.
. David Riesman's The Lonely Crowd (1950)
I. Rebels without a Cause
1. The emergence of a popular culture geared to the emerging youth market suggested that
significant generational tensions lay beneath the bland surface of 1950s life.
2. Cultural life during the 1950s seemed far more daring than politics.
. Rock and roll
3. The Beats were a small group of poets and writers who railed against mainstream culture.
4. Rejecting the work ethic, the "desperate materialism" of the suburban middle class, and the
militarization of American life by the Cold War, the Beats celebrated impulsive action,
immediate pleasure, and sexual experimentation.
IV.The Freedom Movement
. Origins of the Movement
1. The United States in the 1950s was still a segregated and unequal society.
2. Few white Americans felt any urgency about confronting racial inequality.
A. The Legal Assault on Segregation
1. It fell to the courts to confront the problem of racial segregation.
. The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
a. Earl Warren
2. For years, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP),
under the leadership of attorney Thurgood Marshall, had pressed legal challenges to the
"separate but Equal" doctrine laid down by the Court in 1896 in Plessy v. Ferguson.
B. The Brown Case
1. Marshall brought the NAACP's support to local cases that had arisen when black parents
challenged unfair school policies.
2. Marshall argued that segregation did lifelong damage to black children.
3. Earl Warren managed to create unanimity in a divided court, some of whose members
disliked segregation but feared that a decision to outlaw it would spark widespread
violence.
C. The Montgomery Bus Boycott
1. Brown ensured that when the movement resumed after waning in the early 1950s, it would
have the backing of the federal courts.
. Rosa Parks
a. Bus boycott
D. The Daybreak of Freedom
1. The Montgomery Bus Boycott marked a turning point in postwar American history.
2. It vaulted Martin Luther King Jr. as the movement's national symbol.
3. From the beginning, the language of freedom pervaded the black movement.
E. The Leadership of King
1. In King's soaring oratory, the protesters' understandings of freedom fused into a coherent
whole.
2. Echoing Christian themes derived from his training in the black church, King's speeches
resonated deeply in both black communities and in the broader culture.
F. Massive Resistance
1. In 1956, King formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
2. In 1956, many southern congressmen and senators signed a Southern Manifesto.
G. Eisenhower and Civil Rights
1. The federal government tried to remain aloof from the black struggle.
. President Eisenhower failed to provide moral leadership.
2. In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas used the National Guard to prevent the court-
ordered integration of Little Rock's Central High School.
3. Since the start of the Cold War, American leaders had worried about the impact of
segregation on the country's international reputation.
4. The global reaction to the Brown decision was overwhelmingly positive.
V.The Election of 1960
. Kennedy and Nixon
1. The presidential campaign of 1960 turned out to be one of the closest in American history.
2. John F. Kennedy was a Catholic and the youngest presidential candidate in history.
3. Both Kennedy and Nixon were ardent Cold Warriors.
. Missile gap
a. Television debate
A. The End of the 1950s
1. Eisenhower's Farewell Address warned against the drumbeat of calls for a new military
buildup.
. Military-industrial complex

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Greensboro Sit-in]
II.The Freedom Movement
A. The Rising Tide of Protest
1. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organized the Freedom Rides in 1961.
2. As protests escalated, so did the resistance of local authorities.
a. James Meredith
B. Birmingham
1. The high point of protest came in the spring of 1963.
2. Martin Luther King Jr. led a demonstration in Birmingham, Alabama.
. "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
3. King made the bold decision to send black school children into the streets of Birmingham.
. Bull Connor unleashed his forces against the children.
4. The events in Birmingham forced white Americans to decide whether they had more in
common with fellow citizens demanding their basic rights or violent segregationists.
. Medgar Evers
C. The March on Washington
1. The March on Washington was organized by a coalition of civil rights, labor, and church
organizations
2. The March on Washington reflected an unprecedented degree of black-white cooperation
in support of racial and economic justice, while revealing some of the movement's
limitations and the tensions within it.
III.The Kennedy Years
. Kennedy and the World
1. Kennedy's agenda envisioned new initiatives aimed at countering communist influence in
the world.
. Peace Corps
a. Space program
2. Kennedy failed at ousting Castro from power in Cuba.
A. The Missile Crisis
1. The most dangerous crisis of the Kennedy administration came in October 1962, when
American spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was installing missiles in Cuba
capable of reaching the United States with nuclear weapons.
2. In 1963, Kennedy moved to reduce Cold War tensions.
. Limited Test-Ban Treaty
B. Kennedy and Civil Rights
1. Kennedy failed to protect civil rights workers from violence, insisting that law enforcement
was a local matter.
2. The events in Birmingham in 1963 forced Kennedy to take more action.
3. Kennedy was shot on November 22, 1963, in Dallas.
IV.Lyndon Johnson's Presidency
. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
1. Immediately after becoming president, Lyndon Johnson identified himself with the black
movement more passionately than any previous president.
2. In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act.
A. Freedom Summer
1. The 1964 law did not address a major concern of the civil rights movement-the right to vote
in the South.
2. Freedom Summer was a voter registration drive in Mississippi.
. Schwerner, Goodman, and Chaney
3. Freedom Summer led directly to the campaign by the MississippiFreedom Democratic
Party (MFDP).
. Fannie Lou Hammer
B. The 1964 Election
1. Lyndon B. Johnson's opponent was Barry Goldwater, who was portrayed as pro-nuclear
war and anti-civil rights.
2. He was stigmatized by the Democrats as an extremist who would repeal Social Security and
risk nuclear war.
C. The Conservative Sixties
1. With the founding in 1960 of Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), conservative students
emerged as a force in politics.
. Sharon Statement
D. The Voting Rights Act
1. In 1965, King led a group in a march from Selma to Montgomery.
2. The federal government took action when there was violence against nonviolent
demonstrators.
. 1965 Voting Rights Act
a. Twenty-fourth Amendment
E. Immigration Reform
1. The belief that racism should no longer serve as a basis of public policy spilled over into
other realms.
2. Taken together, the civil rights revolution and immigration reform marked the triumph of
a pluralist conception of Americanism.
F. The Great Society
1. Johnson outlined the most sweeping proposal for government action to promote the
general welfare since the New Deal.
2. Unlike the New Deal, however, the Great Society was a response to prosperity, not
depression.
G. The War on Poverty
1. The centerpiece of the Great Society was the crusade to eradicate poverty.
. Michael Harrington's The Other America (1962)
2. In the 1960s, the administration attributed poverty to an absence of skills and a lack of
proper attitudes and work habits.
3. The War on Poverty concentrated on equipping the poor with skills and rebuilding their
spirits and motivation.
H. Freedom and Equality
1. Johnson's Great Society may not have achieved equality as a fact, but it represented a
remarkable reaffirmation of the idea of social citizenship.
2. Coupled with the decade's high rate of economic growth, the War on Poverty succeeded in
reducing the incidence of poverty from 22 percent to 13 percent of American families
during the 1960s.
V.The Changing Black Movement
. The Ghetto Uprisings
1. The 1965 Watts uprising left 35 dead, 900 injured, and $30 million in property damage.
2. By the summer of 1967, violence had become so widespread that some feared racial civil
war.
. Kerner Report
3. With black unemployment twice that of whites and average black family income little more
than half the white norm, the movement looked for ways to "make freedom real" for black
Americans.
. Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged
4. In 1966, King launched the Chicago Freedom Movement, with demands quite different
from its predecessors in the South.
. The movement failed.
A. Malcolm X
1. Malcolm X had insisted that blacks must control the political and economic resources of
their communities and rely on their own efforts rather than working with whites.
2. After a trip to Mecca, Malcolm X began to speak of the possibility of interracial cooperation
for radical change in the United States.
B. The Rise of Black Power
1. Black Power immediately became a rallying cry for those bitter over: the federal
government's failure to stop violence against civil rights workers, white attempts to
determine movement strategy, and the civil rights movement's failure to have any impact
on the economic problems of black ghettos.
2. The idea of Black Power reflected the radicalization of young civil rights activists and
sparked an explosion of racial self-assertion.
3. Inspired by the idea of black self-determination, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) and CORE repudiated their previous interracialism, and new militant
groups sprang into existence.
. Black Panther Party
VI.Vietnam and the New Left
. Old and New Lefts
1. What made the New Left new was its rejection of the intellectual and political categories
that had shaped radicalism for most of the twentieth century.
2. The New Left's greatest inspiration was the black freedom movement.
A. The Fading Consensus
1. The years 1962 and 1963 witnessed the appearance of several pathbreaking books that
challenged one or another aspect of the 1950s consensus.
. The Fire Next Time-black revolution
a. Silent Spring-environmental costs of urban growth
b. The Other America-persistence of poverty amid plenty
c. The Death and Life of Great American Cities-urban renewal criticism
2. The Port Huron Statement offered a new vision of social change.
. Freedom meant participatory democracy.
3. In 1964, events at the University of California at Berkeley revealed the possibility of a far
broader mobilization of students in the name of participatory democracy.
B. America and Vietnam
1. Fear that the public would not forgive them for losing Vietnam made it impossible for
Presidents Kennedy and Johnson to remove the United States from an increasingly
untenable situation.
C. Lyndon Johnson's War
1. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution in 1964, authorizing the president to take
"all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Vietnam.
2. Although Johnson campaigned in 1964 against sending U.S. troops to Vietnam, troops
arrived in 1965.
3. By 1968, the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam exceeded half a million and the conduct of
the war had become more and more brutal.
D. The Antiwar Movement
1. As casualties mounted and U.S. bombs poured down on North and South Vietnam, the
Cold War foreign policy consensus began to unravel.
2. Opposition to the war became the organizing theme that united all kinds of doubts and
discontents.
. The burden of fighting fell on the working class and the poor.
3. SDS began antiwar demonstrations in 1965.
E. The Counterculture
1. As the Sixties progressed, young Americans' understanding of freedom increasingly
expanded to include cultural freedom as well.
2. Liberation was a massive redefinition of freedom as a rejection of all authority.
3. The counterculture in some ways represented not rebellion but the fulfillment of the
consumer marketplace.
F. Personal Liberation and the Free Individual
1. To young dissenters, personal liberation represented a spirit of creative experimentation, a
search for a way of life in which friendship and pleasure eclipsed the single-minded pursuit
of wealth.
2. The counterculture emphasized the ideal of community.
3. The countercultures' notion of liberation centered on the free individual.
. Sexual freedom
VII.The New Movements and the Rights Revolution
. The Feminine Mystique
1. The public reawakening of feminist consciousness came with the publication in 1963 of
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique.
2. The immediate result of the Feminine Mystique was to focus attention on yet another gap
between American rhetoric and American reality.
3. The law slowly began to address feminist concerns.
4. 1966 saw the formation of the National Organization for Women (NOW), with Friedan as
president.
A. Women's Liberation
1. Many women in the civil rights movement concluded that the treatment of women in
society was not much better than society's treatment of blacks.
2. The same complaints arose in SDS.
3. By 1967, women throughout the country were establishing consciousness-raising groups to
discuss the sources of their discontent.
4. The new feminism burst onto the national scene at the Miss America beauty pageant of
1968.
. Bra burners
B. Personal Freedom
1. Women believed that "the personal is political," thus permanently changing Americans'
definition of freedom.
2. Radical feminists' first public campaign demanded the repeal of state laws that
underscored women's lack of self-determination by banning abortions or leaving it up to
physicians to decide whether a pregnancy should be terminated.
C. Gay Liberation
1. Gay men and lesbians had long been stigmatized as sinful or mentally disordered.
2. The sixties transformed the gay movement.
. Stonewall bar
D. Latino Activism
1. The movement emphasized pride in both the Mexican past and the new Chicano culture
that had arisen in the United States.
. Cesar Chavez
E. Red Power
1. Truman and Eisenhower had sought a policy known as "termination," meant to integrate
Native Americans into the American mainstream; but it was abandoned by Kennedy.
2. Indian activists demanded not simply economic aid but greater self-determination.
. American Indian Movement
a. Indians of All Nations
b. Red Power movement
F. Silent Spring
1. The new environmentalism was more activist and youth-oriented and spoke the language
of empowering citizens to participate in decisions that affected their lives.
2. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (1962) spurred the movement.
3. Environmentalism attracted the broadest bipartisan support of any of the new social
movements, despite vigorous opposition from business groups that considered its
proposals a violation of property rights.
. April 22, 1970: Earth Day
4. Closely related to environmentalism was the consumer movement, spearheaded by the
lawyer Ralph Nader.
G. The Rights Revolution
1. Under the guidance of Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court vastly expanded the rights
enjoyed by all Americans.
2. In 1957, the Court moved to rein in the anticommunist crusade.
3. The Court continued to guard civil liberties in the 1950s and 1960s.
4. In the 1960s, the Court continued to push toward racial equality.
. Loving v. Virginia (1967)
5. The Court simultaneously pushed forward the process of imposing on the states the
obligation to respect the liberties outlined in the Bill of Rights.
. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
a. Baker v. Carr (1962)
H. The Right to Privacy
1. The Warren Court outlined entirely new rights in response to the rapidly changing
contours of American society.
. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
a. Roe v. Wade (1973)
VIII.1968
. A Year of Turmoil
1. The sixties reached their climax in 1968, a year when momentous events succeeded each
other with such rapidity that the foundations of society seemed to be dissolving.
. Tet offensive
a. Lyndon Johnson withdrew from the 1968 election.
b. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated.
c. Robert Kennedy was assassinated.
d. Chicago Democratic National Convention
A. The Global 1968
1. 1968 was a year of worldwide upheaval.
2. Massive antiwar demonstrations took place.
B. Nixon's Comeback
1. The year's events opened the door for a conservative reaction.
2. Richard Nixon campaigned as the champion of the silent majority.
C. The Legacy of the Sixties
1. The 1960s produced new rights and new understandings of freedom.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Theodore White]
II.President Nixon
A. Nixon's Domestic Policies
1. Having won the presidency by a very narrow margin, Nixon moved toward the political
center on many issues.
2. The Nixon administration created a host of new federal agencies.
a. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
b. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
c. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
B. Nixon and Welfare
1. Perhaps Nixon's most startling initiative was his proposal for a Family Assistance Plan.
. The plan would have replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with a guaranteed
annual income, but it failed in Congress.
C. Nixon and Race
1. To consolidate support in the white South, Nixon nominated to the Supreme Court
conservative southern jurists with records of support for segregation.
. Both were rejected by the Senate.
2. The Nixon administration also pursued affirmative action programs to upgrade minority
employment.
. Philadelphia Plan
3. Trade unions of skilled workers strongly opposed the Philadelphia Plan.
D. The Burger Court
1. Warren Burger was expected to lead the justices in a conservative direction but surprised
many of his supporters.
2. In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971), busing was used as a tool to
achieve integration.
. Boston
3. Many whites came to view affirmative action programs as a form of reverse discrimination.
4. In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Court ruled that fixed quotas
were unconstitutional but that race could be used as one factor among many in college
admission decisions.
E. The Continuing Sexual Revolution
1. To the alarm of conservatives, during the 1970s, the sexual revolution passed from the
counterculture into the social mainstream.
2. The number of divorces in 1975 exceeded the number of first-time marriages.
3. Women made inroads into areas from which they had long been excluded in the 1970s.
. Title IX
a. Equal Credit Opportunity Act
b. More employment opportunities
4. The gay and lesbian movement expanded greatly during the 1970s and became a major
concern of the right.
F. Nixon and Détente
1. Conservatives viewed Nixon's foreign policy as dangerously soft on communism.
2. Nixon and Henry Kissinger continued their predecessors' policy of attempting to
undermine governments deemed dangerous to American strategic or economic interests.
. Chile.
3. In his relations with the major communist powers, however, Nixon fundamentally altered
Cold War policies.
4. Nixon visited China in 1972.
5. Nixon then went to Moscow, signing the treaties associated with the Strategic Arms
Limitation Talks (SALT).
. Détente
III.Vietnam and Watergate
. Nixon and Vietnam
1. Vietnamization
2. Antiwar protests climaxed in 1970.
. Kent State and Jackson State Universities
a. Social changes within the troops
3. Public support for the war was rapidly waning.
. My Lai Massacre
a. War Powers Act of 1973
A. The End of the Vietnam War
1. The Paris peace agreement made possible the final withdrawal of American troops in 1973.
2. Vietnam was a military, political, and social disaster.
B. Watergate
1. Nixon was obsessed with secrecy and viewed critics as a threat to national security.
. Pentagon Papers led to the plumbers.
2. The Watergate break-in was covered up by the White House.
. Nixon's tapes
C. Nixon's Fall
1. In August 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend that Nixon be
impeached for conspiracy to obstruct justice.
. Nixon resigned.
2. Nixon's presidency remains a classic example of the abuse of political power.
3. Frank Church led investigations against the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
. Church Committee revelations seriously undermined Americans' confidence in their own government.
4. Liberals, who had despised Nixon throughout his career, celebrated his downfall.
IV.The End of the Golden Age
. The Decline of Manufacturing
1. During the 1970s, the long period of postwar economic expansion and consumer prosperity
came to an end and was succeeded by slow growth and high inflation.
2. In 1971, for the first time in the twentieth century, the United States experienced a
merchandise trade deficit.
3. Nixon took the United States off the gold standard.
A. Stagflation
1. The United States experienced two oil shocks in the 1970s.
2. By 1973 the United States imported one-third of its oil.
3. "Stagflation": stagnant economic growth and high inflation.
. Misery index
B. The Beleaguered Social Compact
1. Faced with declining profits and rising overseas competition, corporations eliminated well-
paid manufacturing jobs.
. The effects on industrial cities were devastating.
a. The growth of cities in the Sunbelt was dramatic.
2. In some manufacturing centers, political and economic leaders welcomed the opportunity
to remake their cities as finance, information, and entertainment hubs.
3. Always a junior partner in the Democratic coalition, the labor movement found itself
forced onto the defensive.
C. Ford as President
1. Among his first acts as president, Ford pardoned Nixon.
2. In domestic policy, Ford's presidency lacked significant accomplishment.
. WIN
3. The Helsinki Accords were signed in 1975.
D. The Carter Administration
1. Carter ran for president as an outsider, making a virtue of the fact that he had never held
federal office.
2. Carter had more in common with Progressives of the early twentieth century than with
more recent liberals.
E. Carter and the Economic Crisis
1. Carter viewed inflation, not unemployment, as the country's main economic problem.
2. Carter also believed that expanded use of nuclear energy could help reduce dependence on
imported oil.
. Three Mile Island
F. The Emergence of Human Rights Politics
1. Under Carter, promoting human rights became a centerpiece of American foreign policy
for the first time.
2. Human rights organizations like the International League for Human Rights shaped
Carter's thinking.
3. Carter cut off aid to the brutal military dictatorship governing Argentina.
4. Carter's emphasis on pursuing peaceful solutions to international problems and his
willingness to think outside the Cold War framework yielded important results.
. Camp David Accords
a. Panama Canal
5. Both conservative Cold Warriors and foreign policy "realists" severely criticized Carter's
emphasis on human rights.
G. The Iran Crisis and Afghanistan
1. The Iranian revolution marked a shift in opposition movements in the Middle East from
socialism and Arab nationalism to religious fundamentalism.
2. The president announced the Carter Doctrine in response to the Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan.
V.The Rising Tide of Conservatism
. The Religious Right
1. The rise of religious fundamentalism during the 1970s expanded conservatism's popular
base.
2. Evangelical Christians had become more and more alienated from a culture that seemed to
them to trivialize religion and promote immorality.
. Jerry Falwell and the Moral Majority
A. The Battle over the Equal Rights Amendment
1. The ERA aroused unexpected protest from those who claimed it would discredit the role of
wife and homemaker.
. To its supporters, the amendment offered a guarantee of women's freedom in the public sphere.
a. To its foes, freedom for women still resided in the divinely appointed roles of wife and mother.
B. The Abortion Controversy
1. Anti-abortion advocates believe that life begins at conception and abortion is nothing less
than murder.
2. Woman's rights advocates believe that a woman's right to control her body includes the
right to a safe, legal abortion.
3. The abortion issue draws a bitter, sometimes violent line through American politics.
C. The Tax Revolt
1. Economic anxieties also created a growing constituency for conservative economics.
. The tax revolt inspired a critique of government.
2. Economic decline also broadened the constituency receptive to demands for lower taxes.
. Proposition 13
3. The Sagebrush Rebellion in Nevada argued that certain decision-making power should be
given over to the states.
D. The Election of 1980
1. Reagan appealed skillfully to the white backlash.
. Emphasized states' rights
2. Riding a wave of dissatisfaction with the country's condition, Reagan swept into the White
House.
VI.The Reagan Revolution
. Reagan and American Freedom
1. An excellent public speaker, his optimism and affability appealed to large numbers of
Americans.
. Reagan made conservatism seem progressive.
a. Freedom became the watchword of the Reagan Revolution.
2. Reagan reshaped the nation's agenda and political language more effectively than any
other president since Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A. Reaganomics
1. Reagan's tax cuts marked a sharp retreat from the principle of progressivity.
2. Supply-side economics assumed that cutting taxes would inspire Americans at all income
levels to work harder, since they would keep more of the money they earned.
B. Reagan and Labor
1. Reagan's firing of air traffic controllers inspired many private employers to launch anti-
union offensives.
2. "Reaganomics," as critics dubbed the administration's policies, initially produced the most
severe recession since the 1930s.
C. The Problem of Inequality
1. Reagan's policies, rising stock prices, and deindustrialization resulted in a considerable rise
in economic inequality.
2. When the national unemployment rate reached 8.9 percent at the end of 1981, the figure
for blacks exceeded 20 percent.
D. The Second Gilded Age
1. In retrospect, the 1980s, like the 1890s, would be widely remembered as a decade of
misplaced values.
2. Taxpayers footed the bill for some of the consequences.
. Savings and Loan scandal
3. During Reagan's presidency, the national debt tripled to $2.7 trillion.
E. Conservatives and Reagan
1. Reagan left intact core elements of the welfare state and did little to advance the social
agenda of the Christian Right.
F. Reagan and the Cold War
1. In foreign policy, Reagan denounced the Soviet Union as an "evil empire," and sponsored
the largest military buildup in American history.
2. He proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative, a space-based system to intercept and destroy
enemy missiles.
3. Reagan came into office determined to overturn the "Vietnam syndrome."
G. The Iran-Contra Affair
1. Reagan denied knowledge of the illegal proceedings, but the Iran-Contra affair undermined
confidence that he controlled his own administration.
H. Reagan and Gorbachev
1. In his second term, Reagan softened his anticommunist rhetoric and established good
relations with Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev.
. Glasnost and perestroika
I. Reagan's Legacy
1. Reagan's presidency revealed the contradictions at the heart of modern conservatism.
2. By 1988 "liberal" was a term of political abuse.
J. The Election of 1988
1. The 1988 election seemed to show politics sinking to new lows.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: The Battle of Seattle and Antiglobalization]
II.The Post-Cold War World
A. The Crisis of Communism
1. The Tiananmen Square freedom demonstration in 1989 ended in violence.
2. Germany reunified in 1990.
3. By December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
4. The end of the Cold War ushered in a truly worldwide capitalist system.
B. A New World Order?
1. Although George H. W. Bush talked of a New World Order, no one knew what its
characteristics would be.
C. The Gulf War
1. Bush intervened when Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990.
2. The Gulf War was the first post-Cold War international crisis.
D. Visions of America's Role
1. Bush identified the Gulf War as the first step in the struggle to create a world based on
democracy and global free trade.
E. The Election of Clinton
1. The economy slipped into recession in 1991, and Bill Clinton took advantage to win the
election.
a. A charismatic campaigner, Clinton conveyed sincere concern for voters' economic anxieties.
2. A third candidate, the eccentric Texas billionaire Ross Perot, also entered the fray.
F. Clinton in Office
1. During his first two years in office, Clinton turned away from some of the social and
economic policies of the Reagan and Bush years.
2. Clinton shared his predecessor's passion for free trade.
. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
3. The major policy initiative of Clinton's first term was a plan to address the rising cost of
health care and the increasing number of Americans who lacked health insurance.
. The plan would have provided universal coverage through large groupings of organizations like the
health maintenance organizations (HMOs).
a. It was attacked by doctors, health insurance companies, and drug companies.
G. The "Freedom Revolution"
1. In 1994, for the first time since the 1950s, Republicans won control of both houses of
Congress.
. Newt Gingrich and the Contract with America
2. Viewing their electoral triumph as an endorsement of the contract, Republicans moved
swiftly to implement its provisions.
H. Clinton's Political Strategy
1. Clinton rebuilt his popularity by campaigning against a radical Congress.
2. Clinton signed into law a Republican bill that abolished the program of Aid to Families
with Dependent Children (AFDC).
3. Clinton easily defeated Republican Bob Dole in the presidential contest of 1996, becoming
the first Democrat elected to two terms since FDR.
I. Clinton and World Affairs
1. Clinton took steps to encourage the settlement of long-standing international conflicts and
tried to elevate support for human rights to a central place in international relations.
2. Like Carter, Clinton found it difficult to balance concern for human rights with strategic
and economic interests.
. Rwanda
3. The most complex foreign policy crisis of the Clinton years arose from the disintegration of
Yugoslavia.
4. With the Cold War over, protection of human rights in the Balkans gave the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) a new purpose.
J. Human Rights
1. Human rights emerged as justification for interventions in matters once considered to be
the internal affairs of sovereign nations.
III.A New Economy?
. The Computer Revolution
1. Computers and the Internet produced a new economy.
2. Microchips made possible the development of entirely new consumer products.
3. The computer transformed American life.
4. The Internet expanded the flow of information and communications more radically than
any invention since the printing press.
A. The Stock Market Boom and Bust
1. In the United States, economic growth and talk of a new economy sparked a frenzied boom
in the stock market reminiscent of the 1920s.
2. Investors were especially attracted to the new "dot coms," companies that conducted
business via the Internet and seemed to symbolize the promise of the new economy.
3. The bubble burst on April 14, 2000, when stocks suffered their largest one-day drop in
history.
B. The Enron Syndrome
1. Only after the market dropped did it become apparent that the stock boom of the 1990s
had been fueled in part by fraud.
. Enron
C. Fruits of Deregulation
1. The sectors of the economy most affected by the scandals-energy, telecommunications, and
stock trading-had all been subjects of deregulation.
2. Many corporate criminals were found guilty and had to serve prison and/or pay billions in
compensation.
3. Many stock frauds stemmed from the repeal in 1999 of the Glass-Steagall Act, a New Deal
measure that had separated commercial banks from investment banks.
D. Rising Inequality
1. The boom that began in 1995 benefited nearly all Americans.
. However, overall, during the last two decades of the twentieth century, the poor and middle class
became worse off, while the rich became significantly richer.
2. The economy, in large part due to NAFTA, continued its shift away from manufacturers.
3. In 2000, the United States was a suburban nation, which was also divided by income.
IV.Culture Wars
. The Newest Immigrants
1. Because of shifts in immigration, cultural and racial diversity became increasingly visible
in the United States.
2. As in the past, most immigrants became urban residents.
3. Post-1965 immigration formed part of the worldwide uprooting of labor arising from
globalization.
4. For the first time in American history, women make up the majority of newcomers.
A. The New Diversity
1. Latinos formed the largest single immigrant group.
2. Numbering over 45 million in 2007, Latinos nearly equaled blacks and were poised to
become the largest minority group in the United States.
3. Only after 1965 did immigration from Asia assume large proportions.
B. African-Americans in the 1990s
1. Between 1970 and 2000, twice as many Africans immigrated to the United States than had
entered during the entire period of the Atlantic slave trade.
2. Most African-Americans remained in a more precarious situation than whites or many
recent immigrants.
3. The justices made it increasingly difficult for victims of discrimination to win lawsuits and
proved increasingly sympathetic to the pleas of whites that affirmative action plans
discriminated against them.
4. Despite the nation's growing racial diversity, school segregation was on the rise.
C. The Spread of Imprisonment
1. African-Americans, compared to other Americans, had an extremely high rate of
imprisonment.
2. As the prison population grew, a "prison-industrial complex" emerged.
3. Over one-quarter of all African-American men could expect to serve time in prison at some
time during their lives.
4. African-Americans were also more likely than whites to suffer execution.
5. The continuing frustration of urban African-Americans exploded in 1992.
. Rodney King
D. The Continuing Rights Revolution
1. In 1990, newly organized disabled Americans won passage of the Americans with
Disabilities Act.
2. The campaign for gay rights continued to gain momentum in the 1990s.
. AIDS
E. Native Americans in 2000
1. The Native American population reached 4 million in the 2000 Census, reflecting not only
natural population growth but also an increased pride in identifying themselves as such to
census enumerators.
2. Many Native American tribes have profited from casinos on their lands.
F. Multiculturalism
1. "Multiculturalism" was a term to celebrate group differences and demand group
recognition.
2. Public-opinion polls indicate a growth of toleration in America over the last three decades.
3. Increased cultural diversity and changes in educational policy inspired harsh debates.
4. The culture wars were battles over moral values that raged throughout the 1990s.
. Pat Robertson and the Christian Coalition
5. It sometimes appeared during the 1990s that the country was refighting old battles
between traditional religion and modern secular culture.
G. "Family Values" in Retreat
1. The census of 2000 showed family values increasingly in disarray.
2. Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania (1992) repudiated the centuries-old doctrine
that a husband has a legal claim to control the body of his wife.
H. The Antigovernment Extreme
1. At the radical fringe of conservatism, the belief that the federal government posed a threat
to American freedom led to the creation of private militias that armed themselves to fend
off oppressive authority.
2. An Oklahoma federal building was bombed by Timothy McVeigh in 1995.
V.Impeachment and the Election of 2000
. The Impeachment of Clinton
1. From the day he took office, charges of misconduct bedeviled Clinton.
. Whitewater
a. Paula Jones
b. Monica Lewinsky
A. The Disputed Election
1. The 2000 election was between Al Gore and George W. Bush.
2. The election proved to be one of the closest in the nation's history.
. Florida
3. As in 1877, it fell to Supreme Court justices to decide the outcome.
4. The most remarkable thing about the election of 2000 was not so much its controversial
ending as the even division of the country it revealed.
B. A Challenged Democracy
1. Coming at the end of the decade of democracy, the 2000 election revealed troubling
features of the American political system at the end of the twentieth century.
2. Evidence abounded in 2000 of a broad disengagement from public life.
VI.Freedom and the New Century
. Exceptional America
1. In the United States, people lived longer and healthier in 2000, compared to previous
generations, and enjoyed a level of material comfort unimagined a century before.
2. Ideas of freedom in the United States seem more attuned to individual advancement than
to broad social welfare.

Chapter Study Outline


I.[Introduction: Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001]
II.The War on Terrorism
A. Bush before September 11
1. Bush emphasized American freedom of action, unrestrained by international treaties and
institutions.
2. The Bush administration announced that it would not abide by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997.
a. Scientists consider global warming a serious situation.
B. "They Hate Freedom"
1. An outpouring of popular patriotism followed the September 11 attacks.
2. The Bush administration benefited from this patriotism and identification with
government.
3. Bush told America that "freedom and fear are at war."
C. The Bush Doctrine
1. Bush revealed his new foreign policy principle that the United States would launch a war
on terrorism, which quickly became known as the Bush Doctrine.
. War in Afghanistan
D. The "Axis of Evil"
1. Remarkable changes in American foreign policy quickly followed the Afghan war.
2. In 2002, Bush identified Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as the axis of evil.
III.An American Empire?
. Charges quickly arose that the United States was bent on establishing itself as a new global empire.
A. In America, the term "empire," once a term of abuse, came back into widespread use.
B. Confronting Iraq
1. A conservative group within the Bush administration welcomed an American invasion of
Iraq to oust Hussein from power.
. This group seized on the attacks on September 11 to press their case for an Iraq invasion.
2. In 2002, the Bush administration announced that a regime change was necessary in Iraq,
as Hussein was amassing weapons of mass destruction.
C. The Iraq War
1. The decision split the Western alliance and inspired a massive antiwar movement
throughout the world.
2. Foreign policy "realists" like Brent Scowcroft warned that the Iraq War deflected attention
away from the administration's real foe, Al Qaeda.
3. China, Russia, Germany, and France refused to support a preemptive strike against Iraq.
4. Bush called the war Operation Iraqi Freedom.
D. Another Vietnam?
1. Baghdad was captured within a month, and soon thereafter President Bush announced
"mission accomplished."
2. Looters and insurgents took control of Iraq, as there were not enough American troops in
the country to keep order.
3. Sectarian violence soon swept the country.
4. The war soon cost more lives and dollars than any policymaker had estimated.
E. The World and the War
1. Rarely in its history had the United States found itself so isolated from world public
opinion.
2. Much of the outside world viewed the United States as a superpower unwilling to abide by
the rules of international law.
IV.The Aftermath of September 11 at Home
. Security and Liberty
1. Congress rushed to pass the USA Patriot Act.
. Conferred unprecedented powers on law-enforcement agencies
a. Detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was established.
2. In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the
holding of secret military tribunals for noncitizens deemed to have assisted terrorism.
A. The Power of the President
1. Many regulations of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), and local police forces were rescinded; and while some of these measures had
congressional authorization, many had been unilaterally implemented by the president.
B. The Torture Controversy
1. The Bush administration insisted that the United States need not be bounded by
international law in regard to the war on terror.
2. Abu Ghraib prison
3. Congress inserted a measure banning the use of torture in 2005, sponsored by John
McCain.
4. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, and other
officials had authorized the torture of persons captured in the war on terrorism, over the
objections of many in the military.
C. The Economy under Bush
1. During 2001, the economy slipped into a recession.
. Ninety percent of the jobs lost were in manufacturing.
2. The real income of average American families fell slightly despite the economic recovery.
V.The Winds of Change
. The 2004 Election
1. Democrats sensed a golden opportunity.
. John Kerry, Vietnam veteran
2. Karl Rove mobilized the conservative base on cultural issues.
A. Bush's Second Term
1. Bush wished to "end tyranny in the world."
2. The expected revolution with Bush's reelection stalled because of his eroding popularity,
scandal, and indictments in the vice president's office.
B. Hurricane Katrina
1. In August 2005, New Orleans was devastated when the levee system broke and the city
began to flood.
2. The natural disaster became a human-made one too, considering the ineptitude of the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
C. The New Orleans Disaster
1. Poor residents of the city were left abandoned amid floodwaters.
2. Where the government failed, individuals stepped in and shone.
3. The hurricane also brought about energy concerns as the Gulf Coast oil drilling shut down.
D. The Immigration Debate
1. Illegal immigration also increased, both supporting and hurting the United States'
economy and prompting heated debate.
2. In response to a House bill making it a felony to be in the country illegally, immigrants
marched in protest throughout the United States.
3. Many church and relief groups denounced the bill as akin to the Fugitive Slave Law of
1850.
E. The Constitution and Liberty
1. Two significant Supreme Court decisions in June 2003 revealed how the largely
conservative justices had come to accept that the social revolution that began during the
1960s could not be undone.
. Affirmative action
a. Homosexuality
F. The Court and the President
1. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
. The Court ruled that Yaser Hamdi had a right to a hearing after being imprisoned in a military jail
without charge or the right to see a lawyer.
a. With two new justices sitting on the bench, the Court ruled that the Geneva Conventions were the law
of the land.
G. The Midterm Elections of 2006
1. Democrats expected gains due to Bush's plummeting popularity.
2. Democrats gained control of both houses of Congress.
. Nancy Pelosi of California became the first female Speaker of the House in history.
3. At the end of his second term, Bush's popularity sank to historic lows.
H. The Housing Bubble
1. In 2008, the American banking system found itself on the brink of collapse.
2. The roots of the crisis lay in a combination of public and private policies that favored
economic speculation.
3. Banks and other lending institutions issued "sub-prime" mortgages.
4. Wall Street bankers developed complex ways of repackaging and selling these mortgages to
investors.
I. The Great Recession
1. In 2006 and 2007, home prices began to fall. Many homeowners owed more money than
their homes were worth and could not pay monthly mortgage payments.
2. The value of the mortgage-based securities fell precipitously, and banks were left with
billions of dollars of worthless investments.
3. In 2008, banks stopped making loans, business dried up, and the stock market collapsed.
4. Americans cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in
unemployment.
5. In April 2009, the recession that began in December 2007 became the longest since the
Great Depression.
J. "A Conspiracy against the Public"
1. Leading bankers and investment houses helped to bring down the American economy.
2. The reputation of stockbrokers and bankers fell to lows last seen during the Great
Depression.
. Bernard Madoff, "Ponzi scheme"
3. The crisis exposed the flaws in market fundamentalism and deregulation.
K. Bush and the Crisis
1. The Bush administration allowed Lehman Brothers to fail, and Lehman Brother's failure
created a domino effect.
2. The administration reversed course and persuaded Congress to appropriate $700 billion
dollars to bail out other floundering firms.
. "Too big to fail"
3. The crisis also revealed the limits of the American "safety net."
VI.The Rise of Obama
. The caucuses and primary elections resulted in the nomination of Barack Obama, a relatively little-known
47-year-old senator from Illinois and the first black candidate to win the nomination of a major party.
A. Hillary Clinton sought the Democratic nomination by emphasizing her political experience, while Obama
emphasized change.
B. With its widespread use of the Internet and massive mobilization of new voters, Obama's campaign was the
first political campaign of the twenty-first century.
C. The 2008 Campaign
1. Obama faced Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee, in the general election.
2. McCain chose Sarah Palin as his running mate. The selection of Palin raised questions
among many Americans about McCain's judgment.
3. Obama won the election.
. His election redrew the nation's political map.
a. Obama carried Democratic strongholds in New England, the mid-Atlantic states, the industrial
Midwest, and the West Coast.
b. Obama also won in states that had been reliably Republican for years: Virginia, North Carolina, and
Florida.
D. The Age of Obama?
1. Obama's victory seemed to mark the end of a political era.
2. Republican appeals to patriotism, low taxes, and resentment against the changes sparked
by the 1960s seemed out of date.
3. Democrats regained the presidency, ended up with 60 of the 100 seats in the U.S. Senate,
and won a large majority in the House.
4. The election of the nation's first African-American president represented a historic
watershed.
E. Obama's Inauguration
1. Many Americans viewed Obama's election as a cause for optimism.
2. In his inaugural address, Obama offered a stark rebuke to eight years of Bush policies.
F. Obama in Office
1. Obama's first policy initiatives lived up to the promise of change, but other policy
initiatives followed the course set by the Bush Administration.
G. The Republican Revival
1. A grassroots movement calling itself the Tea Party mobilized to oppose what it claimed was
excessive government spending and regulation.
VII.Learning from History
. It is still far too soon to assess the full impact of September 11 on American life.
A. As in the past, freedom is central to Americans' sense of themselves as individuals and as a nation.