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PV array characteristics

A.S.L.V.SWATHI, G.VANITHA

Dept. of EEE Dept. of EEE

GVPCOE (A), Visakhapatnam. GVPCOE (A), Visakhapatnam.

Abstract-- The performance of a photovoltaic (PV) accuracy, two diode model has been studied for years [9],

module is mostly affected by array configuration, irradiance, [10]. In these research works, some methods were

and module temperature. It is important to understand the developed to determine the electrical parameters in these

relationship between these effects and the output power of models. The electrical characteristics of a solar cell/PV

the PV array.This work presents a MATLAB-Simulink-based module derived from those proposed models match the

PV module model which includes a controlled current source experimental data well when irradiance is uniform.

and an S-Function builder. The modeling scheme in S- However, these models cannot be directly used when

Function builder is deduced by some predigest functions. irradiance is non-uniWith a spurt in the use

Under the condition of non-uniform irradiance, simulation

show that the output power of a PV array gets more of renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) power

complicated due to multiple peaks. Moreover, the proposed generation is being employed in many applications.

model can also simulate electric circuit and its maximum Conventionally, a PV system consists of solar PV arrays and

power point tracking (MPPT) in MATLAB-Simulink. electric converters. A PV array is formed by series/parallel

combination of solar modules. Some operating conditions

Keywords _MATLAB-Simulink, model, non- result in non uniform irradiance of PV array ,such as

uniform irradiance, photovoltaic (PV) shadows, clouds, dirt, debris, bird droppings, different

orientations and tilts, and so on. If several solar cells in a

I .INTRODUCTION series PV module are mismatched due to non uniform

irradiance, these cells will limit the output current of

With a spurt in the use of renewable energy sources, normal cells. This leads to decrease of the output power,

photovoltaic (PV) power generation is being employed in even generates hot-spot and causes damage to these cells.

many applications. Conventionally, a PV system consists of To avoid the destructive effects of hotspot, a bypass diode

solar PV arrays and electric converters. A PV array is is connected in parallel with a PV module or parallel with

formed by series/parallel combination of solar modules. some series-connected solar cells in a PV module, which

SomeoperatingconditionsresultinnonuniformirradianceofP creates a replacement path [1]. The output power of

Varray,such as shadows, clouds, dirt, debris, bird mismatched cells is cut off when the bypass diode works.

droppings, different orientations and tilts, and so on. If The output characteristics will be more complicated when

several solar cells in a series PV module are mismatched the PV array is mismatched, and it causes some energy loss

due to non uniform irradiance, these cells will limit the [2]–[5]. To obtain maximal PV installation output power, it

output current of normal cells. This leads to decrease of the is very important to reveal PV characteristics under

output power, even generates hot-spot and causes damage condition of non-uniform irradiance. To model solar cell,

to these cells. To avoid the destructive effects of hotspot, a the one-diode model has been proposed [6], and some

bypass diode is connected in parallel with a PV module or researchers have studied how to extract parameters for

parallel with some series-connected solar cells in a PV the model [7], [8]. For a higher accuracy, two diode model

module, which creates a replacement path [1]. The output has been studied for years [9], [10]. In these research

power of mismatched cells is cut off when the bypass diode works, some methods were developed to determine the

works. The output characteristics will be more electrical parameters in these models. The electrical

complicated when the PV array is mismatched, and it characteristics of a solar cell/PV module derived from

causes some energy loss [2]–[5]. To obtain maximal PV those proposed models match the experimental data well

installation output power, it is very important to reveal PV when irradiance is uniform. However, these models cannot

characteristics under condition of non-uniform irradiance. be directly used when irradiance is non-uniform.

To model solar cell, the one-diode model has been

proposed [6], and some researchers have studied how to

extract parameters for the model [7], [8]. For a higher

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2180

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

To achieve a simulation kit of this issue, a simple but Rs: series resistance.

accurate enough PV module model using MATLAB-

Simulink was proposed in this paper. It is derived from a The I–V equation of Fig. 1 is showed as

one-diode model with some parameters in the main

formula, which could make calculating easier. The I=Iph-Io {e(V+I.Rs/VI)-1}-(V+RsI/Rsh) (1)

proposed model can not only be combined to simulate PV

array by series/paralleled connection, but also be Where Io is the reverse saturation current of the diode, q

employed to simulate an electronic circuit and its control is the electron charge (1.602×10−19 C), A is the curve

ﬁtting factor, and K is Boltzmann constant

strategy, especially under conditions of non- uniform

(1.38×10−23J/K).

irradiance.

B. Model of a PV Module

the slope at short circuit is almost zero, the value of Rsh

can be assumed to be inﬁnite [23]. In this case, the last

term in (1) could be ignored. And taking Iph as ISC, (1) will

become [22]

Fig.1. Equivalent circuit of a single solar cell application of this equation for a PV module, the term of

q(V + RsI)/AKT is changed to q(V + RsI)/NsAKT, in which

II. PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE MODELING Ns is the number of series-connected solar cells in a PV

module. Then, (2) will become

A. Mathematical Equation of a Solar Cell

I = ISC −Io (eq (V + R s I )/ N s AKT −1) (3).

There are many equivalent circuits of a solar cell,

where the single-diode and two-diode models could be the

most widely used. Since the single-diode model is simple Under standard test condition (STC), which consists of a

and accurate enough in many cases [7], [8], it is applied in PV module temperature of 25 ◦C and an in-plane irradiance

this paper. Its equivalent circuit with series and parallel of 1 000 W/m2 with spectral distribution conforming to an

resistance is shown in Fig. 1 [22]. AM1.5 spectrum, (7) could be rewritten as follows:

The symbols in Fig. 1 are deﬁned as follows: Iref = ISC,ref(1−k V ref+ R s Iref Voc,ref −1)

Iph: photocurrent;

Where Iref is the output current under STC, ISC,ref is the

short circuit current under STC, Vref is the output voltage

Id: current of parallel diode; under STC, VOC,ref is the open-circuit voltage under STC,

and kref is the coefficient of k under STC. Parameters at

Ish: shunt current; maximum output power point (MPP) under STC could be

given to solve the coefficient of kref

I: output current;

kref = ( V MPP,ref+ R s IMPP,ref V OC,ref −1)1− IMPP,ref

V : output voltage; ISC,ref

D: parallel diode; Where VMPP,ref is the output voltage at MPP under STC

and IMPP,ref is the output current at MPP under STC.

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2181

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

C. PV Module Model in MATLAB-Simulink D. The S-code for the implementation of the proposed ﬂow

in resides in the output pane. The S-code is presented in

The block diagram of the MATLAB-Simulink-based PV the Appendix.

module model is shown in Fig. 3(a), where the proposed

model and the ﬂow in sector B are implemented by an S-

Function builder with three inputs and one output. S1 is

output voltage of the PV module, and I out is the output

current of the PV module. I out connecting to a controlled

current source is used for sim ulating the output current of

the PV module. A bypass diode is connected in parallel

with the controlled current source.

are incorporated into a subsystem block in following steps.

Step 1: Enclose the blocks and connect lines in Fig. 2(a) Fig 3.Screen shot of S-function builder

within a bounding box.

III. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE MODEL

Step 2: Choose the option of create subsystem from the

Edit menu. MATLAB-Simulink replaces the selected blocks

with a subsystem block, which is shown in Fig. 2(b). This section describes the procedure and results using

the proposed MATLAB-Simulink based model. It is

important to understand how the model works under

The subsystem block in Fig. 2(b) will be a basic PV module different conditions. A PV module, EGing-50W, produced

mode of MATLAB-Simulink in this paper. In the subsystem by EGING PV with 36series-

block, port of out + is the positive terminal of the PV connectedmonocrystallinecells,is chosen to evaluate the

module, port of out− is the negative terminal of the PV proposed model in this paper. The electrical characteristics

module, port of S is the in-plane irradiance, and T is the

temperature of the PV module. The subsystem blocks can

be connected in series/parallel according to the actual PV This section describes the procedure and results using the

array; then it can be simulated in MATLAB-Simulink. proposed MATLAB-Simulink based model. It is important

to understand how the model works under different

conditions. A PV module, EGing-50W, produced by EGING

Fig. 3 shows the details of the screen shot of a S-Function PV with 36series-connectedmonocrystallinecells,is chosen

builder block [see Fig. 2(a)]. The pane of port/parameter to evaluate the proposed model in this paper. The

displays the ports and parameters that the dialog box electrical characteristics speciﬁcations under STC from

speciﬁes for the target S-function; they are S1, T1, V , and manufacturer are shown in Table I. Electrical

Iout. All ports are in complexity of real and dimension of 1- Specifications of E-Ging 50W

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2182

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Parameters Variable Value

To evaluate the availability of the proposed

Maximum Pmax 50W model, three measurement I–V curves and P–V

power

curves of single EGing-50W PV module under

Voltage at Vmpp 17.98V outdoor condition are selected to compare the

pmax results of simulation using the proposed model.

Testing conditions are irradiance at 890

Current at Impp 2.77A W/m2with module temperature at 50 ◦C.

pmax

correction factor in ,and coefficient kref have to be

determined. It is well known that the derivative of the PV

module power with respect to the PV module voltage is

zero at MPP. An additional equation to obtain an analytical

solution for Rs can be achieved [25]. The following formula

can be obtained at MPP:

brings

dI dV =−ISC

Fig 4 Simulation of I- V curve

1+Rs dI dV VOC kV + R s I V OC −1 lnk. (16)

dI dV |V =VMPP=−ISC

expression of Rs will be obtained as follows:

Rs = VMPP,ref + IMPP,ref(VOC,ref−VMPP,ref)

(ISC,ref−IMPP,ref) ln(1−IMPP,ref ISC,ref)/

ISC,ref) (18)

B. Study Case of a PV Array under the

Rs of a PV module EGing-50W is 0.085 Ω by Conditions of Non -uniform Irradiance

substituting the parameters in Table I into (18) and the

coefﬁcient kref is 3 047 214 by using (9). Rs is assumed to Fig. 9 shows the I–V and P–V characteristics

be a constant at its reference value under STC [23]. under the different irradiance as follows: S1=340

W/m2,S2=612 W/m2, and S3 = 612 W/m2. The

module’s temperature is 39 ◦C. It is named test A.

There are two power peaks in Fig. 9. It should be

noticed that the temperature of al l PV modules

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2183

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

measuring immediately.

irradiance

condition

irradiance

plane irradiance levels in the series of PV modules .Note

that the short circuit current of each PV module under

different irradiance is different ;the associated bypass

diode would be conducted when the passi ng current is

greater than its short-circuit current. That means the PV

module is cut off and is not able to produce any

electricity power. So, different in-plane irradiance levels

in the series of PV modules might cause different

numbers of power peaks depending on how many PV

modules are bypassed. Given a PV array which consists of

six PV modules arranged into two parallels, each having

three modules connected in series. The corresponding Fig 10 Simulation of PV curve under bypass diode

simulation diagram is shown in Fig.8 condition

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2184

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

condition

Converter

combining with dc/dc converter, a simulation

schematic is presented in Fig.11.It consists of

series-connected three PV module models and a

boost circuit. The boost circuit is a typical ldc/dc

converter, and the parameters are set as follows:

10μF

same layout of the simulation schematic in Fig. 14. A same

global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) strategy is

applied in both simulation and testing platform. There

were some complicated GMPPT strategies [26].For

convenience, a simple strategy is adopted; its ﬂow is

shown in Fig. 15. Some parameters in the control ﬂow are

as follows: initial duty of pulse width modulation is 0.125,

V min is 27 V, ΔD is 0.020, duty step in perturb and observe

method is 0.020, and control period is 10 ms.

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2185

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

IRRADIANCE

RESULTS OF SIMULATION IN THE CASE OF NON-

UNIFORM IRRADIANCE

IV CONCLUSION

in this paper, which includes a controlled current source

and an S-Function builder. Various PV array simulation

schematic could be created by the proposed model, and

parameters of irradiance and temperature of each PV

module model can be set independently. The PV array

simulation model allows us to investigate the

characteristics of a PV array under various conditions of

different irradiance and temperature, especially under

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2186

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 |Aug -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

performance of the proposed model is that a PV array,

created by using a proposed model, allows to be combined if (V1<V[0])

with an electronic circuit to simulate the behavior of circuit {

and control strategies. The model is proposed not only to

study the behavior of PV array, but also to validate new Iref=Iref-DIref;

electronic circuit and MPPT strategies.

}

APPENDIX else if (V1>V[0])

{

//source code of s-function as follow

Iref=Iref+DIref;

Float Isc_ref, Voc_ref, Impp_ref, Vmpp_ref, Rs, Isc, Voc;

}

Float S ref, T ref;

n=100;

Float a, b, c;

}

Float DT;

V1=Voc-Rs*Iref*Isc/Isc_ref+Voc_ref*log

Double k, I ref, n, V1, D Iref;

(1-Iref/Isc_ref)/log (k);

Isc_ref=3;

I out [0]=Iref*Isc/Isc_ref

Voc_ref=22;

References:

Impp_ref=2.77;

Vmpp_ref=17.98; 1.H. Patel and V. Agarwal, “MATLAB-based modeling to

study the effects of partial shading on PV array

a=0.0004; characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 1,

pp. 302–310, Mar. 2008.

b=-0.0033;

c=0.066; 2. ] W. De Soto, S. A. Klein, and W. A. Beckman,

“Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic

Rs=0.085; array performance,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 78–88,

Jan. 2006

Sref=1000;

Tref=25; 3. L. Sandrolini, M. Artioli, and U. Reggiani, “Numerical

method for the extractionofphotovoltaicmoduledouble-

DT=T[0]-Tref; diodemodelparametersthrough cluster analysis,” Appl.

Energy, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 442–451, 2010.

Isc=Isc_ref*(S1[0]/Sref)*(1+a*DT);

Voc=Voc_ref*(1+b*DT+c*log(S1 [0]/Sref)); 4. E. V. Paraskevadaki and S. A. Papathanassiou,

“Evaluation of MPP voltage and power of mc-Si PV modules

k=POW (1-Impp_ref/Isc_ref, Voc_ref/ (Vmpp_ref- in partial shading conditions,” IEEE Trans. Energy

Voc_ref+Rs*Impp_ref)); Convers., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 923–932, Sep. 2011.

Iref=1.5;

5. A. K.Sinha, V.Mekala, and S. K. Samantaray,“Design and

DIref=1.5; testing of PV maximum power tracking system with

MATLAB simulation,” in Proc. IEEE Region 10 Conf., Nov.

V1=Voc-Rs*Iref*Isc/Isc_ref+Voc_ref*log (1-

2010, pp. 466–47.

Iref/Isc_ref)/log (k);

//Solving (14) in paper via numerical method 6. E. Matagne, R. Chenni, and R. El Bachtiri, “A photovoltaic

cell model based on nominal data only,” in Proc. Int. Conf.

For (n=0;n<50;n++) Power Eng., Energy Electr. Drives, 2007, pp. 562–56

© 2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2187

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