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“LAB MANUAL OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING”

SUBMITTED TO:
MAM ZARA AND MAM SUNDAS

SUBMITTED BY:
MUHAMMAD JUNAID
(2015-MIN-04)

SUBMISSION DATE:
DECEMBER 20,2017.

Department of Mining Engineering


University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
LAB # 4
1-AIM:
Digitalization of a map.

2-ABSTRACT:
Digitization of given map by making shapefiles using a vector method.

3-INTRODUCTION:
Digitizing in GIS is the process of converting geographic data either from a hardcopy or a scanned image
into vector data by tracing the features. During the digitizing process, features from the traced map or image
are captured as coordinates in either point, line, or polygon format.

3.1-HEADS UP DIGITALIZING:
Heads up digitizing is the method of tracing geographic features from another dataset (usually an aerial or
satellite image).

3.2-SCREEN DIGITALIZING:
Screen digitizing is the process of creating and/or editing a segment or point map while an existing raster
map is displayed as a background in a map window. The raster map can be for instance a band of a satellite
image, a color composite, a scanned map, or a scanned photograph.

3.3-AUTOMATIC DIGITALIZING:
It is automated raster to vector conversion using image processing and pattern recognition techniques. In
this technique computer traces all the lines, which results in high speed and accuracy along with improved
quality of images.

3.4-SHAPE FILE:
A shapefile is an Esri vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic
features. It is stored as a set of related files and contains one feature class.

4-PROCEDURE:
The following steps included in digitization of map.
STEP-1:
Open “ARC GIS”.
STEP-2:
Add data in GIS.

STEP-3:
Select the photo and added it.
STEP-4:
Opened the catalogue window.

STEP-5:
Right clicked on the catalogue window and clicked new from this tab then a new tap appeared from this
clicked on shapefiles.
STEP-6:
Made the shapefiles named building 2 selected the polygon.

STEP-7:
Clicked the edit and from this selected the projected coordinate system. Then clicked the state plane.
STEP-8:
Clicked on NAD 1983 meters.

STEP-9:
Selected “NAD 1983 State Plane Illinois West FIPS 1202(Meters)” and pressed ok.
STEP-10:
Using the same method made shape files for others components in map named river, road and trees by
selecting polyline, and point respectively. Then start editing.

STEP-11:
Digitized the blocks using polygon, trees using point and stream and roads using polyline.
STEP-12:
Complete digitization of given map appeared in this form.

STEP-13:
Clicked the layout view.
STEP-14:
By adding north arrow, scale bar and title final view of image is appeared in this form.

5-Result:
In this lab we digitized the given map by making shapefiles.

6-References:
1. https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=digitization+in+arcgis&oq=digitization+in+arc&aqs=chrome
.1.69i57j0l5.13777j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
JOB # 5
1-AIM:
Add the map layers, change the map symbol properties, create map
layout, create a locator map, and add a title scale bar and north
arrow.
2-ABSTRACT:
We changed the Pakistan map properties, add layers in it, created map layout and added a title scale bar and
north arrow.

3-INTRODUCTION:
3.1-MAP LAYERS:
A map layer is a GIS database containing groups of point, line, or area (polygon) features representing a
particular class or type of real-world entities such as customers, streets, or postal codes. A layer contains
both the visual representation of each feature and a link from the feature to its database attributes. Maps in
a Geographic Information System are made by combining multiple layers.
Each map, globe, or scene document in ArcGIS is assembled by adding a series of layers. Layers are
displayed in a particular order displayed in the map's table of contents. Layers listed at the bottom are
displayed first, followed by the layers above them.

3.2-LOCATOR MAP:
Locator maps provide a reference to map users when the spatial location of the detailed map might be hard
to determine. They can also be used to track where the current page falls within an area.

3.3-NORTH ARROW:
A north arrow (sometimes also called a compass rose) is a figure displaying the main directions, North,
South, East and West. On a map it is used to indicate the direction of North.

3.4-MAP SCALE:
The majority of maps need the scale to be stated (maps without scales are essentially diagrams). This
should always be given by Statement of Scale (eg 1:1,000,000) and ⁄ or by showing a Scale Bar.

The decision as to which of the following alternatives is used is usually based on:
1-The purpose of the map
2-An assessment of the needs of the map user
3-Likelihood of being photographically or electronically enlarged or reduced.

4-PROCEDURE:
Following steps were followed to perform this lab.
STEP-1:
Open the Arc GIS software and click on the add data option.

STEP-2:
From the pop up menu select “Pakistan. trf” and click on add.
STEP-3:
Now GIS window had look like this.

STEP-4:
Now click on the “Layout view” option.
STEP-5:
Click on the “INSERT” and then select “Add Data Frame.”

STEP-6:
Selected the Add data frame option and again click on “add data.”
STEP-7:
Again selected “Pakistan trf” and add data frame box will showed Pakistan map in it.

STEP-8:
Now from the table of contents bar, right clicked on new data frame and then select properties from that
menu.
STEP-9:
Clicked on the “extent indicator” and selected layer.

STEP-10:
Moved this layer to the right side and then applied it.
STEP-11:
Now the “RED BOX” appeared in the new data frame on Pakistan map. It showed that which part of map
is zoom in.

STEP-12:
Clicked on insert and then select “NORTH ARROW”.
STEP-13:
Selected an appropriate arrow and added it on the map.

STEP-14:
Clicked on insert and selected “SCALE BAR”.
STEP-15:
Again selected an appropriate scale bar and added it on map.

STEP-16:
Final view of our data was like that.
5-RESULT:
The objective was successfully achieved.

6-REFRENCES:
1. http://www.caliper.com/glossary/what-is-a-map-layer.htm
2. http://www.icsm.gov.au/mapping/marginalia.html
JOB#9

1-AIM:
Brief introduction about creating slope aspect and hill shade map and also perform their respective
classification.

2-INTRODUCTION:
2.1-DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL:
The most common digital data of the shape of the earth's surface is cell-based digital elevation
models(DEMs). This data is used as input to quantify the characteristics of the land surface. A DEM is a
raster representation of a continuous surface, usually referencing the surface of the earth.
2.2-DIGITAL ELEVATION MAP:
A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a specialized database that represents the relief of a surface between
points of known elevation. By interpolating known elevation data from sources such as ground surveys and
photogrammetric data capture, a rectangular digital elevation model grid can be created.
2.3-TYPES:
1. Slope map
2. Aspect map
3. Hill shade map
2.3.1-SLOPE MAP:
This map provides a colorized representation of slope, generated dynamically using a server-
side slope function on the Terrain layer followed by the application of a color map.
2.3.2-ASPECT MAP:
An aspect map shows the direction of slope (north, northwest, east, etc.)
2.3.3-HILL SHADE MAP:
A hill shade is a grayscale 3D representation of the surface, with the sun's relative position taken into
account for shading the image. This function uses the altitude and azimuth properties to specify the sun's
position.
The inputs for this function are the following:
1. Input DEM
2. Azimuth
3. Altitude
4. Scaling
5. Pixel Size Power
6. Pixel Size Factor
7. Remove Edge Effect

3-PROCEDURE:
Following steps will be followed to perform this lab.
STEP-1:
Data was added in Arc GIS.

STEP-2:
Clicked the spatial tool analysis from the tool box.
STEP-3:
Selected the surface.

STEP-4:
Then selected the slope.
STEP-5:
Pop up menu opened, Then input data.

STEP-6:
Basin.tiff file were added.
STEP-7:
Surface looked like this.

STEP-8:
Right clicked on the slope and properties were selected.
STEP-9:
Clicked the symbology and then selected the classify option.

STEP-10:
Divided the values into 5 categories.
STEP-11:
Then assigned the values and named them like steep, moderate steep, very steep, gentle, very gentle.
Clicked apply and then Ok.

STEP-12:
Then a classified slope map was appeared.
STEP-13:
Then for aspect map clicked the aspect from arc tool box.

STEP-14:
Again, basin file was added.
STEP-15:
Then right clicked on the aspect properties. Again, symbiology selected. And then classify the map into 4
categories and assigned the values.

STEP-16:
Then classified the values by giving them names like north, south, east, west.
STEP-17:
Then classified aspect map was formed.

STEP-18:
Then right clicked on the slope, properties were selected and then selected the display and made the
transparency 50%.
STEP-19:
Then a mixture of slope and aspect map was formed.

STEP-20:
Then for its reclassification clicked the reclass from arc tool box. Then selected the reclassify. And then
again “basin.tiff” file was added.
STEP-21:
Reclassified slope and aspect map was formed.

4-RESULT:
Aspect and slope maps were made and their classification were performed in this lab.

5-REFERENCES:
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_elevation_model
2. https://www.arcgis.com/features/index.html
3. https://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=1b243539f4514b6ba35e7d995890db1d
“JOB #10”
1-AIM:
Working with tables, how to join tables so as to use only one table for the reference.

2-INTRODUCTION:
ArcGIS allows associate records in one table with records in another table through a common field, known
as a key. These associations can be made in several ways, including by joining or relating tables temporarily
in map or by creating relationship classes in geodatabase that maintain more permanent associations.
When we join two tables, we append the attributes from one onto the other based on a field common to
both. Relating tables defines a relationship between two tables—also based on a common field—but doesn't
append the attributes of one to the other; instead, we can access the related data when necessary.
2.1-Essentials of joining tables:
• Summarizing your data before joining it
• Editing and joining tables
• Join validation
• Performance tips for joining data
• Reasons joining tables may fail.

3-PROCEDURE:
Following steps were taken to perform this lab.

STEP-1:
Add data in “Arc Gis”.
STEP-2:
From pop up menu add “Pakistan District shape file”.

STEP-3:
After “Pak_District .shp file”. It appeared as follow.
STEP-4:
Now open “Districts_pop.xls” file and selected “Pak_Districts$ file”.

STEP-5:
Right clicked on “Pak_district file” and select “open attribute table”.
STEP-6:
If Districts menu was not in alphabetically order double click on that bar and it would automatically came
in order.

STEP-7:
Right clicked on “Pak_district $” file, select “open”, then “Data” and “Export”.
STEP-8:
Clicked on the highlighted option.

STEP-9:
Select “Dbase” table from file type.
STEP-10:
Right clicked on “Export_output” and change the Table name as “population”.

STEP-11:
Removed the “Pak_District$” map.
STEP-12:
Then opened the “Population” and start editing.

STEP-13:
Removed the spaces between Abbottabad, Hyderabad, Jacobabad, Jaffarabad, etc.
STEP-14:
Now “Stop Editing”.

STEP-15:
Then clicked on Table Options >Add field > Name population_density.
STEP-16:
Right clicked on it and select “Field Calculator”.

STEP-17:
Assigned function to it which calculate “Population Density”.
STEP-18:
“Population Density” was calculated as shown.

STEP-19:
Then selected Population >Join and Relates >Join Data .
STEP-20:
Select District and clicked ok.

STEP-21:
Then selected Pak District >Data >Export Data.
STEP-22:
Just clicked Ok.

STEP-23:
Clicked on “Identify” option.
STEP-24:
Now clicked anywhere on the map. It provides every information about that part.

4-RESULTS:
The objective was successfully attained.
JOB # 10
1-TITLE:
WORKING WITH MODEL BUILDER FOR VISUALIZATION OF PROGRAMING LANGUAGE TO
DEVELOP WORK FLOWS.

2-INTRODUCTION:
2.1-MODEL BUILDER:
An application of ArcGIS for
Desktop that is used to create,
edit and manage models within
its Geoprocessing Framework.
Models are workflows that
string together sequences of
geoprocessing tools, feeding the Figure 1-Model Builder
output of one tool into another
tool as input.
Model Builder can also be thought of as a visual programming language for building workflows.

3-PROCEDURE:
STEP-1:
Select Add toolbar from Arc Tool box.
STEP-2:
Add the “Merge.tbx” Tool from the menu.

STEP-3:
A “Merge” tool is made in the Arc toolbox column.
STEP-4:
Right click on “merge” in Arc Tool box and select “new” and then “model”.

STEP-5:
Add Data in new model.
STEP-6:
Select the files (e.g. Buner, Mardan and swat) and add it.

STEP-7:
All the districts was shown as under.
STEP-8:
Select Merge tool and drag and drop it on the new model. It was shown as under and then clicked on
“Connect” option.

STEP-9:
Right clicked on the Merge box and clicked “INPUT DATABASE”.
STEP-10:
Connect all the three districts with it.

STEP-11:
Select the model and clicked on “model properties”.
STEP-12:
In general named the layer as “districtmerge” and write description.

STEP-13:
From “iteration” select how many times the model should run and then apply it.
STEP-14:
Clicked on the Run icon.

STEP-15:
The model will start execute as shown below.
STEP-16:
Right click on window and select add to display.

STEP-17:
Right clicked on “swabi layer” and select open attribute table.
STEP-18:
The spreadsheet was opened as below.

STEP-19:
Now export this file “To GRAPHICS”.
STEP-20:
Save image as “JPEG Image” at a specified location.

STEP-21:
The output of the image is
STEP-22:
Now export it in “PYTHON SCRIPT”.

STEP-23:
Save the file with a proper file name.
STEP-23:
The output of the Python script is as follow.

4-REFERENCES:
1. https://gis.stackexchange.com/tags/modelbuilder/info
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADMB