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This document summarizes the revisions made to the ASD provisions contained in the 2005

AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05) compared to the 1989

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design.

CHAPTER A

GENERAL PROVISIONS

A1. SCOPE

The scope was expanded to include “other structures” in addition to structural steel buildings. Alternate

methods of design based on tests and analysis are permitted subject to the approval of the authority having

jurisdiction. Paragraphs pertaining to design of single angle members and structural joints were removed.

Recommendations for design of cold-formed steel structural members were removed and replaced with a

User Note.

When the seismic response modification coefficient, R, is equal to or less than 3, the

design, fabrication, and erection of structural steel buildings and other structures shall

comply with the Specification.

A1.2. High-Seismic Applications (new)

When the seismic response modification coefficient, R, is greater than 3, the design,

fabrication, and erection of structural steel buildings and other structures shall comply

with the requirements in the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, in addition

to the provisions in the Specification.

A1.3. Nuclear Applications (new)

Nuclear structures shall be designed in compliance with Specification for the Design,

Fabrication, and Erection of Steel Safety-Related Structures in Nuclear Facilities.

Additional specifications, codes, and standards were included and updated and titles of each are now

shown.

A3. MATERIAL

The last paragraph in Section A3.1a in the 1989 Specification was moved into this

section.

A3.1a. ASTM Designations

ASTM specifications were divided into six sections: hot-rolled structural shapes,

structural tubing, pipe, plates, bars, and sheets. ASTM A913, A283, A1011 standards

were added. Discussion of material testing reports was moved to Section A3.1.

A3.1b. Unidentified Steel

The condition that unidentified steel is permissible if surface conditions are acceptable

according to ASTM A6/A6M was changed from “free of surface imperfections” to “free

of injurious defects”.

A3.1c. Rolled Heavy Shapes

The Heavy Shapes section was divided into Rolled Heavy Shapes (A3.1c) and Built-up

Heavy Shapes (A3.1d). It was revised that ASTM A6/A6M hot-rolled shapes with flange

thickness greater than 2 in. must be subjected to a Charpy V-Notch impact test in

accordance with ASTM A6/A6M, Supplementary Requirement S30, Charpy V-Notch

Impact Test for Structural Shapes – Alternate Core Location if it is spliced using

complete-joint-penetration (CJP) groove welds that fuse through the thickness of the

weld. The reference and exceptions to the ASTM A673/A673A standard procedure for

impact testing were removed for rolled shapes.

A3.1d. Built-Up Heavy Shapes (new)

It was revised that the Specification requirements apply to built-up cross-sections

consisting of plates exceeding 2 in. that are welded with complete-joint-penetration (CJP)

groove welds to the face of other sections, formerly “connected by CJP welded joints

through the thickness of the thinner material to the face of the heavy material”.

A3.2. Steel Castings and Forgings

Cast Steel requirements were changed to conform to ASTM A216/A216M, Gr. WCB

with Supplementary Requirement S11. The clause that states “allowable stresses shall be

same as those provided for other steels” was removed.

A3.3. Bolts, Washers, and Nuts (was A3.4)

This section is now separated into categories Bolts, Nuts, Washers, and Compressible-

Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators. ASTM standards are listed for each material.

Provisions restricting the use of A449 bolts were removed.

A3.4. Anchor Rods and Threaded Rods (was A3.5)

The terminology “anchor rods” replaces “anchor bolts”. The ASTM A449 standard was

added. Permitted use of steel bolts as anchor rods under specified conditions was

removed. The User Note, “ASTM F1554 is the preferred material specification for anchor

rods,” was added.

A3.5. Filler Metal and Flux For Welding (was A3.6)

The paragraph stating that filler metals with a specified Charpy V-Notch toughness shall

be used in specified joints was removed.

A3.6. Stud Shear Connectors (was A3.7)

Unchanged. The User Note “studs are made from cold drawn bar, either semi-killed or

killed aluminum or silicon deoxidized, conforming to the requirements of ASTM

A29/A29M-04” was added.

This section was condensed and it states that design drawings and specifications shall meet the

requirements in the Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges, except for deviations

specifically identified in design drawings. Paragraphs pertaining to the required drawing indication of

construction types, connection types, camber, and welding were removed.

CHAPTER B

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

This section states that the design of members and connections shall be consistent with the intended

behavior of the framing system and the assumptions made in the structural analysis. Unless restricted by the

applicable building code, lateral load resistance and stability may be provided by any combination of

members and connections. In the absence of a building code, the provisions specified in SEI/ASCE 7 shall

apply instead of ANSI A58.1, which was specified in the 1989 Specification.

A User Note was added stating that for ASD designs, load combinations in SEI/ASCE 7, Section 2.4 shall

apply. Specifications regarding impact, crane, and environmental loads were removed.

Design shall be made according to provisions of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) or Allowable

Strength Design (ASD).

This section states that the required strength of members and connections shall be

determined by structural analysis for the appropriate load combinations. Provisions for

elastic, inelastic, and plastic analysis are referenced.

B3.2. Limit States (was A5.1)

This section was reworded and includes serviceability limit states.

B3.3. Design For Strength Using Load And Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) (new)

This section states that according to LRFD provisions, the design strength of each

structural component must equal or exceed the required strength determined by LRFD

load combinations. The equation relationship between design strength and required

strength is given.

B3.4. Design For Strength Using Allowable Strength Design (ASD) (new)

This section states that according to ASD provisions, the allowable strength of each

structural component must equal or exceed the required strength determined by ASD load

combinations. The equation relationship between allowable strength and required

strength is given.

B3.5. Design For Stability (was B4)

This section refers to Chapter C for determining stability.

B3.6. Design Of Connections (was J1.1)

This section refers to the provisions in Chapters J and K for connection design.

B3.6a. Simple Connections (was J1.2)

This section was reworded for clarity.

B3.6b. Moment Connections (was J1.3)

This section was revised such that two types of moment connections, Fully-Restrained

(FR) and Partially-Restrained (PR), are permitted.

B3.7. Design for Serviceability (was A5.4)

Unchanged.

B3.8. Design for Ponding (was K2)

This section now states that roof systems shall be investigated through structural analysis

to assure strength and stability under ponding conditions, unless the roof surface is

provided with a slope of ¼ in. per ft or greater toward points of free drainage or an

adequate system of drainage is provided to prevent accumulation of water. Appendix 2,

Design for Ponding, which provides methods of checking ponding, is referenced.

B3.9. Design for Fatigue (was K4)

Design for members and their connections subject to repeated loading is referenced to

Appendix 3, Design for Fatigue.

B3.10. Design for Fire Conditions (new)

This section references Appendix 4, Structural Design for Fire Conditions: Qualification

Testing and Engineering Analysis Compliance, which provides two methods of design

for fire conditions. Compliance with the fire protection requirements in the applicable

building code shall satisfy the requirements in this section and Appendix 4.

B3.11. Design for Corrosion Effects (was L5)

Unchanged.

B3.12. Design Wall Thickness For HSS (new)

This section specifies the design wall thickness, t, to be taken equal to 0.93 times the

nominal wall thickness for electric-resistance-welded (ERW) HSS and equal to the

nominal thickness for submerged-arc-welded (SAW) HSS.

B3.13 Gross and Net Area Determination

Determination of gross and net areas was combined into one section.

B3.13a. Gross Area (was B1)

This section was revised stating that the gross area, of a member, Ag, is the total cross-

sectional area.

B3.13b. Net Area (was B2)

The net area, An, of a slotted HSS welded to a gusset plate was added.

This section references Table B4.1 for determining limiting width-thickness ratios.

B4.1. Unstiffened Elements (was B5.1)

A User Note references Table B4.1 for a graphical representation of unstiffened element

dimensions.

B4.2. Stiffened Elements (was B5.1)

Paragraphs a, b, c, and d were revised for clarity. A User Note references Table B4.1 for

a graphical representation of stiffened element dimensions.

Table B4.1. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios For Compression Elements (was Table B5.1)

The compact and noncompact limits, λp and λr, were introduced. Graphical figures and

numbers were assigned to each case. Descriptions of elements were revised. For example,

“flanges of I-shaped welded beams in flexure” was revised to “flexure in flanges of

doubly and singly symmetric I-shaped built-up sections.”

Case 2—Built-up sections were added. I-shapes restricted to singly and doubly

symmetric.

Case 3—Uniform compression of I-shaped sections is specified. Flanges of channels

were added.

Case 4—Uniform compression of I-shaped sections is specified.

Case 5—New case. Uniform compression in legs of single angles, legs of double angles

with separators, and unstiffened elements.

Case 6—New case. Flexure in legs of single angles.

Case 7—New case. Flexure in flanges of tees.

Case 8—Uniform compression is specified.

Case 9—Flexure in webs of double symmetric I-shaped sections and channels is

specified. Limiting width-thickness ratio for d/t was removed.

Case 10—New case. Uniform compression in webs of doubly symmetric I-shaped

sections.

Case 11—New case. Flexure in webs of singly-symmetric I-shaped sections.

Case 12—Square box terminology was removed.

Case 13—New case. Flexure in webs of rectangular HSS.

Case 14—Description was rephrased.

Case 15—Uniform compression is specified.

Case thickness

λp λr λp λr

ratio

1 b/t 0.38 E / Fy 1.0 E / Fy 65 / Fy 95 / Fy

3 b/t — 0.56 E / Fy — 95 / Fy

4 b/t — 0.64 k c E / Fy — 95 / Fy / k c

5 b/t — 0.45 E / Fy — —

10 h/tw — 1.49 E / Fy — —

hc E

hp Fy

11 hc/tw 2

≤ λr 5.70 E / Fy — —

⎛ Mp ⎞

⎜⎜ 0.54 − 0.09 ⎟

M ⎟

⎝ y ⎠

12 b/t 1.12 E / Fy 1.40 E / Fy 190 / Fy 238 / Fy

15 Compression d/t — 0.11E / Fy 3300 / Fy —

• Unstiffened elements simply supported along one edge, such as legs of single-

angle struts, legs of double-angle struts with separators and cross or star-shaped

cross sections.

• Unsupported width of cover plates perforated with a succession of access holes.

• Webs in combined flexural and axial compression.

This section references Chapter M.

This section references Appendix 5 for provisions for the evaluation of existing structures.

CHAPTER C

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (was Frames and Other Structures)

The acceptable stability design methods are now included. The Direct Analysis Method,

which is introduced in Appendix 7, will satisfy these requirements. Elastic Design is

permitted based on Section C2.2 and the connection design requirements. Inelastic

(Plastic) Design shall follow Appendix 1.

C1.2. Member Stability Design Requirements (new)

Individual member stability must satisfy the provisions of Chapters E, F, G, H, and I.

Bracing requirements are referenced to Appendix 6, Stability Bracing for Columns and

Beams.

C1.3. System Stability Design Requirements (new)

This section states that lateral stability shall be provided by a lateral load resisting

system. Effects of overturning drift, gravity loads, force sharing and force are considered.

C1.3a. Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems (was C2.1)

This section was moved from Section C2.1 from the 1989 Specification and from A5.2a

from Supplement No.1. This paragraph was reworded for clarity.

C1.3b. Moment-Frame Systems (was C2.2)

This section states that the effective length factor K or elastic critical buckling stress, Fe,

shall be determined as specified in Section C2.

C1.3c. Gravity Framing Systems (new)

This section states that analysis of gravity framing systems shall be based on actual

lengths (K=1.0), and lateral stability shall be provided by moment frames, braced frames,

shear walls, and/or other equivalent lateral load resistant systems. Second order effects

shall also be transferred to the lateral load resisting system.

C1.3d. Combined Systems (new)

This section states that all combined systems shall meet the requirements of their

respective systems.

This section states that required strengths shall be computed using a second-order analysis in Section C2.1,

except as permitted in Section C2.2b.

This section states “second-order analysis shall conform to the requirements in this

Section.”

C2.1a. General Second-Order Elastic Analysis (new)

This section states that any second-order elastic analysis that considers P-Δ and P-δ

effects is permitted.

C2.1b. Second-Order Analysis by Amplified First-Order Elastic Analysis (new)

This section provides a method to account for second-order effects in frames by

amplifying the axial forces and moments in members and connections from a first-order

analysis. Equations for this method are also provided. A list of symbols and their

definitions are shown.

C2.2. Design Requirements (new)

This section states that if the first-order drift divided by the second-order drift is less than

or equal to 1.5, then first-order and second-order analyses are applicable. If the ratio is

larger, one of the methods specified in C2.2a, C2.2b or by the Direct Analysis Method in

Appendix 7 shall be used.

C2.2a. Design by Second-Order Analysis (new)

This section sets guidelines by which design by second-order analysis shall follow.

C2.2b. Design by First-Order Analysis (new)

This section sets guidelines by which design by first-order analysis shall follow. It

provides a list of symbols and their definitions.

CHAPTER D

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION (was Tension Members)

A User Note was added referencing sections that address cases not covered in this chapter. The term “prismatic

member” was removed.

The slenderness ratio limit for compression was removed. A preferred limit of 300 for the slenderness ratio,

L/r is suggested in a User Note. Hangers in tension were added as an exception to this suggestion. The

clause that states that members designed to perform in tension that experiences some compression loading

was removed.

The definition of allowable tensile strength for yielding in the gross section and rupture in the net section

was revised with the introduction of the safety factor of Ωt = 1.67 and Ωt = 2.0, respectively (effectively the

same as 0.60Fy and 0.50Fu). The nominal strengths of tensile yielding and rupture are defined as follows:

For tensile rupture in the net section Pn = Fu Ae (D2-2)

The clause about block shear strength referring to another section was removed. References to pin-

connected members and eyebars were removed. Cases where effective net area is required are explained

and referenced to Equation D2.2 and Section D3.

For all members, the gross area, Ag, was redefined as the member’s total cross-sectional

area.

D3.2. Net Area (was B2)

Rivet holes were removed from the clause stating “the width of bolt holes shall be 6 in.

(2 mm) greater than the nominal dimension of the hole.” The net area of a slotted HSS

member welded to a gusset plate is defined. Determination of the critical net area, An, was

removed as well as the term itself. A User Note was added that states “Section J4.1(b)

limits An to a maximum of 0.85Ag for splice plates with holes.”

D3.3. Effective Net Area (was B3)

Terminology for U was changed from “reduction coefficient” to “shear lag factor”. The

phrase that states that the net area is equal to the gross area when the load is transmitted

by welds was removed. Also, an added provision states that the use of a value of U less

than 0.60 is permitted if the tension members are designed for the effect of eccentricity in

accordance with Section H1.2 or H2.

Table D3.1. Shear Lag Factors For Connections To Tension Members (was B3)

For each element, the table displays a description, its corresponding shear lag factor

equation, an example figure, and an assigned case number. Additional elements were

added to include round HSS members with a single concentric gusset plate, rectangular

HSS members, and single angles. The phrase “in the direction of stress” was replaced

with “in the direction of loading”. The terminology “bolts and rivets” was replaced by the

term “fasteners”. The term “rivet” was removed entirely. If a calculated U value is less

than the value produced by the equation in Case 2, then the latter shall be used for W, M,

S, or HP shapes or Tees cut from these shapes. The phrase stating that a shear lag factor

of U = 0.75 shall be used for all members having only two fasteners per line in the

direction of stress was removed.

Maximum longitudinal spacing of connectors between elements in continuous contact was referenced to

Section J3.5. Restrictions on longitudinal spacing of fasteners and intermittent welds connecting two or

more shapes in contact were removed. The slenderness ratio limitation was inserted into a User Note.

The allowable stress on the net area of the pin hole for pin-connected members has

changed from 0.45Fy to the lower value obtained according to the limit states of tensile

rupture, shear rupture, bearing, and yielding.

Pn = 2tbeff Fu (D5-1)

For bearing on the projected area of the pin, see Section J7.

For yielding on the gross section, use Equation D2-1.

D5.2. Dimensional Requirements (was D3.2)

Net area restrictions were removed. Dimensional requirements were removed and plate

width restrictions were included.

The term “allowable stress”, which is defined as 0.60Fy on the body area, was redefined

as “available tensile strength”, which is determined in accordance with Section D2, with

Ag taken as the area of the body.

D6.2. Dimensional Requirements (was D3.3)

Unchanged.

CHAPTER E

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION (was Columns and Other Compression Members)

A User Note references members not included in this chapter to other sections.

The allowable compressive strength Pn/Ωc is determined by the lowest nominal compressive strength value,

Pn, obtained according to the limit states of flexural, torsional, and flexural-torsional buckling, where Ωc =

1.67. Types of members that apply to certain limit states are specified.

A User Note was added which states that the slenderness ratio, KL/r, should preferably not exceed 200 for

members designed for compression.

SLENDER ELEMENTS (was E2)

The allowable compressive strength is Pn/Ωc, where Pn = FcrAg and Ωc = 1.67 (Equation E3-1). The flexural

buckling stress, Fcr, is calculated instead of the allowable stress, Fa. The safety factor, Ωc, replaces the built-

in safety factors in the 1989 Specification. The 2005 Specification is also based on a different column

curve. The symbol for the length term has changed from “l” to “L”.

Defined limit between 2π 2E ⎛ E ⎞ E

elastic and inelastic Cc = ⎜ = 4.44 ⎟ 4.71

Fy ⎜ F ⎟ Fy

buckling ⎝ y ⎠

⎡ (KL / r )2 ⎤

⎢1 − ⎥ Fy

⎣⎢ 2C c 2 ⎦⎥

KL Fa =

≤ Cc 5 3 (KL / r ) (KL / r )

3 —

r + −

3 8C c 8C c 3

(E2-1)

KL E

≤ 4.71 or ⎡ Fy

⎤

r Fy — Fcr = ⎢ 0.658 Fe ⎥ Fy

⎣ ⎦

Fe ≥ 0.44Fy

(E3-2)

12π2E

KL Fa =

> Cc 23 (KL / r )

2

—

r

(E2-2)

KL E

> 4.71 or Fcr = 0.877Fe

r Fy —

(E3-3)

Fe < 0.44Fy

π2 E

Fe = 2

(E3-4)

⎛ KL ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ r ⎠

in the 2005 Specification. A User Note indicates that when torsional unbraced length is larger than the

lateral unbraced length, Section E4 may control the design of W shapes and similar columns.

OF MEMBERS WITHOUT SLENDER ELEMENTS (was E3)

This section contains provisions for torsional and flexural-torsional buckling. There were no provisions in

the 1989 Specification. The equation for nominal compressive strength is defined as well as the equations

for the flexural buckling stress for double-angles and tee-shaped members. For all other cases, equations for

the elastic buckling stress, Fe, are provided to be used in conjunction with Fcr as defined in Section E3 for

doubly symmetric, singly symmetric, and unsymmetric members. A User Note provides a simplified

equation for the warping constant, Cw, for doubly symmetric I-shaped sections. It also provides a simplified

approach for calculating Fez for tees and double angles.

Nominal compressive strength shall be determined in accordance with Section E3 or Section E7, as

appropriate. For special conditions, the effects of eccentricity can be neglected and equations for effective

KL/r values are provided.

This section was broken down into two parts, members composed of two or more shapes

that are interconnected by bolts or welds and members with at least one open side

interconnected by perforated cover plates or lacing with tie plates.

E6.2. Dimensional Requirements (was E4)

References to other sections for spacing and edge distance requirements for weathering

steel members were removed. The following provisions were added. End connections

shall be welded or pretensioned bolted with Class A or B faying surfaces. At the ends of

built-up compression members bearing on base plates or milled surfaces, all components

in contact with one another shall be connected by a weld with a specified length not less

than the maximum width of the member. The factor that is multiplied by the thickness of

the outside plate to determine the maximum bolt spacing was non-dimensionalized.

Cover plates may substitute lacing with tie plates on open-sided built-up members. The

inclination of lacing bars was inserted into a User Note.

Similar to Section E3, the flexural buckling strength is defined instead of the allowable stress.

Defined limit between 2π 2E ⎛ E ⎞ E

elastic and inelastic Cc ' = ⎜ = 4.44 ⎟ 4.71

QFy ⎝ QFy ⎠ QFy

buckling

⎡ (KL / r ) 2 ⎤

Q ⎢1 − ⎥ Fy

⎣⎢ 2C c' 2 ⎦⎥

KL Fa =

≤ Cc ' 5 3 (KL / r ) (KL / r )

3 —

r + −

3 8C 'c 8C c' 3

(A-B5-11)

KL E

≤ 4.71 or ⎡ QFy

⎤

r QFy — Fcr = Q ⎢0.658 Fe ⎥ Fy

⎣ ⎦

Fe ≥ 0.44QFy

(E7-2)

12π 2E

KL Fa =

> Cc ' 23 (Kl / r )

2

—

r

(A-B5-12)

KL E

> 4.71 or

r QFy — Fcr = 0.877Fe

Fe < 0.44QFy (E7-3)

The elastic critical buckling stress, Fe, and Q are defined. A User Note elaborates on how Q is calculated.

The width-thickness limits and reduction factor equations were non-dimensionalized by

factoring out E.

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

b E Qs = 1.0

≤ 0.56 —

t Fy (E7-4)

E b E ⎛ b ⎞ Fy

0.56 < < 1.03 — Qs = 1.415 − 0.74 ⎜ ⎟

Fy t Fy ⎝t⎠ E

(E7-5)

Built-up Columns

Built-up Columns

⎛ b ⎞ Fy

0.64

Ek c b

< < 1.17

Ek c — Qs = 1.415 − 0.65 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ t ⎠ Ek c

Fy t Fy

(E7-8)

95.0 b 195 ⎛ b ⎞ Fy

< < Qs = 1.293 − 0.00309 ⎜ ⎟ —

Fy t Fy ⎝ t ⎠ kc

kc kc

(A-B5-3)

Rolled Columns Rolled Columns

b E 0.69E

≥ 1.03 — Qs = (E7-6)

( )

2

t Fy Fy b t

0.90Ek c

b Ek c — Qs = (E7-9)

≥ 1.17 ⎛b⎞

2

t Fy Fy ⎜ ⎟

⎝t⎠

b 195 26,200k c

> Qs = (A-B5-4)

t

( )

Fy 2

Fy b t —

kc

Single Angles

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

b E Qs = 1.0

≤ 0.45 —

t Fy (E7-10)

E b E ⎛ b ⎞ Fy

0.45 < ≤ 0.91 Qs = 1.34 − 0.76 ⎜ ⎟

— ⎝t⎠ E

Fy t Fy

(E7-11)

76.0 b 155

Fy

< <

t Fy

Qs = 1.340 − 0.00447 b t ( ) Fy

—

(A-B5-1)

b E 0.53E

> 0.91 Qs = (E7-12)

—

( )

2

t Fy Fy b t

b 155 15,500

≥ Qs = (A-B5-2)

( ) —

2

t Fy Fy b t

Stems of tees

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

d E Qs = 1.0

≤ 0.75 —

t Fy (E7-13)

E d E ⎛ d ⎞ Fy

0.75 < ≤ 1.03 Qs = 1.908 − 1.22 ⎜ ⎟

— ⎝t⎠ E

Fy t Fy

(E7-14)

127 b 176

Fy

< <

t Fy

Qs = 1.908 − 0.00715 b t ( ) Fy (A-

—

B5-5)

d E 0.69E

> 1.03 Qs = (E7-15)

—

( )

2

t Fy Fy d t

≥ Qs = (A-B5-6)

( ) —

2

t Fy Fy b t

E7.2 Slender Stiffened Elements, Qa (was Appendix B5.2b and Appendix B5.2c)

rectangular sections of uniform thickness

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

b E E ⎡ 0.34 E ⎤

≥ 1.49 b e = 1.92t ⎢1 − ⎥≤b

t f — f ⎣ b t f ⎦

(E7-17)

95 253t ⎡ 44.3 ⎤

b

> be = ⎢1 − ⎥≤b

t Fy f ⎣⎢ ( b t ) f ⎦⎥ —

(A-B5-8)

Flanges of square and rectangular slender-element sections of uniform thickness

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

b E E ⎡ 0.38 E ⎤

≥ 1.40 b e = 1.92t ⎢1 − ⎥≤b

t f — f ⎣ b t f ⎦

(E7-18)

> be = ⎢1 − ⎥≤b

t Fy f ⎢⎣ ( b t ) f ⎥⎦ —

(A-B5-7)

Case 1989 Specification 2005 Specification

0.038E 2

E D E Q = Qa = +

0.11 < < 0.45 — Fy (D t ) 3

Fy t Fy

(E7-19)

662

3, 000 D 13, 000 Fa = + 0.40Fy

< < Dt —

Fy t Fy

(A-B5-9)

A User Note was added that facilitates the calculation of f. The reduction factor, Qa, for

axially-loaded circular sections is also added. Wind and seismic loading were removed

from this section.

CHAPTER F

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE (was Beams And Other Flexural Members)

Method for distinguishing beams from plate girders was removed. References to other sections pertaining to shear

strength were removed. Applicable members subject to this chapter were generalized to “simple bending about one

principal axis”. A User Note was added that references other chapters for members not covered in this chapter. The

term “hybrid member” was removed. The sections were categorized by symmetry, compactness, and/or axis at

which member is bent. Previously in the 1989 Specification, the sections were organized by member shapes and

unbraced length.

The nominal flexural strength, Mn, safety factor for flexure, Ωb = 0.90, and allowable flexural strength,

Mn/Ωb, are defined. The lateral-torsional buckling modification factor, Cb, for nonuniform moment is

defined, and a revised equation for calculating Cb is introduced. Restrictions to lateral-torsional buckling

strength of singly symmetric members are made. A User Note provides provisions to Equation F1-1 for

doubly symmetric members with no transverse loading.

1989 Specification

2

⎛M ⎞ ⎛M ⎞

Cb = 1.75 + 1.05 ⎜ 1 ⎟ + 0.3 ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝ M2 ⎠ ⎝ M2 ⎠

2005 Specification

12.5M max

Cb = Rm ≤ 3.0 (F1-1)

2.5M max + 3M A + 4M B + 3M C

F2. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC COMPACT I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND CHANNELS BENT ABOUT

THEIR MAJOR AXIS (was F1)

A User Note lists members that do not have compact flanges. Moment reduction proportioning were

moved into Appendix 1 of the 2005 Specification.

The nominal flexural strength based on the yielding limit state is calculated using

Equation F2-1. The plastic section modulus, Zx, is introduced.

F2.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling (was F1.3)

The lateral-torsional buckling limit state is introduced. Limiting lengths equations for Lp

and Lr are introduced, and variable Lc was removed. Equations for nominal lateral-

torsional buckling strength are provided for various conditions regarding the unbraced

length Lb. Equation for critical lateral-torsional buckling strength is also shown. A User

Note allows for a conservative assumption when calculating Fcr. Another User Note

suggests an approximation of rts as the radius of gyration of the compression flange plus

one-sixth of the web in the calculation for the limiting length, Lr.

F3. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT WEBS AND NONCOMPACT

OR SLENDER FLANGES BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS (was F1.2)

A User Note lists shapes with noncompact flanges for Fy = 50 ksi.

The provisions of Section F2.2 apply.

F3.2. Compression Flange Local Buckling

Equations for the nominal strength of sections with noncompact and slender flanges are

provided.

F4. OTHER I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH COMPACT OR NONCOMPACT WEBS BENT ABOUT

THEIR MAJOR AXIS (was F1)

This section replaces portions of Section F1. It is noted that the nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the

lowest value obtained according to limit states of compression flange yielding, lateral-torsional buckling,

compression flange local buckling, and tension flange yielding.

The nominal compression flange yield strength is calculated using

Equation F4-1.

F4.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

Nominal lateral-torsional buckling strengths are provided for various Lb conditions.

Under specific provisions, the torsional constant, J, may be taken as zero. The limiting

laterally unbraced length for limit states of yielding, Lp, and inelastic lateral-torsional

buckling, Lr, is provided. The web plastification factor, Rpc, is introduced.

F4.3. Compression Flange Local Buckling

Nominal strengths for local buckling are given.

F4.4. Tension Flange Yielding

Tension flange yielding is a new limit state. Nominal strengths for tension flange yielding

under various conditions are given.

F5. DOUBLY SYMMETRIC AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC I-SHAPED MEMBERS WITH SLENDER

WEBS BENT ABOUT THEIR MAJOR AXIS (was G2)

The nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the lowest value obtained according to the limit states of

compression flange yielding, lateral-torsional buckling, compression flange local buckling and tension

flange yielding.

Equation F5-1 was introduced to calculate the nominal compression flange yield strength.

F5.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

For different unbraced length conditions, equations for the lateral-torsional buckling

critical strength, Fcr, are provided. The bending strength reduction factor is introduced

and the equation is provided.

F5.3. Compression Flange Local Buckling

For several compactness conditions, the nominal flange local buckling strength equation

is provided.

F5.4. Tension Flange Yielding

The equation for nominal flange yielding strength is given for

Sxt < Sxc.

F6. I-SHAPED MEMBERS AND CHANNELS BENT ABOUT THEIR MINOR AXIS (was F2)

The nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the lowest value obtained according to the limit states of flange

yielding and flange local buckling.

F6.1. Yielding

Equation F6-1 was introduced to calculate the nominal yield strength of members

pertaining to this section.

F6.2. Flange Local Buckling

The equations for nominal flange local buckling strength are provided for noncompact

flanges and slender flanges. Yielding shall apply to sections with compact flanges. A

User Note lists shapes with slender flanges.

F7. SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR HSS AND BOX-SHAPED MEMBERS (was F3.1)

This section applies to members bent about either axis, having compact or noncompact webs and compact,

noncompact, or slender flanges. Depth and flange thickness restrictions for compact box-shaped members

were removed. Lateral bracing provisions were removed from this section.

F7.1. Yielding

Equation F7-1 was introduced to calculate the nominal yield strength of square and

rectangular HSS members.

F7.2. Flange Local Buckling

For sections with noncompact flanges and slender flanges, the equations for nominal

flange local buckling strength are provided. This limit state does not apply to compact

sections. The effective section modulus, Seff, is introduced.

F7.3. Web Local Buckling

For sections with noncompact webs, the equation for nominal flange local buckling

strength is provided.

This section applies to round HSS members having D/t ratios of less than 0.45E/Fy. The nominal flexural

strength, Mn, shall be the lower value obtained according to the limit states of yielding and local buckling.

F8.1. Yielding

Equation F8-1 was introduced to calculate the nominal yield strength of round HSS

members.

F8.2. Local Buckling

Equations for nominal local buckling strength are provided for noncompact and slender

sections. This limit state does not apply to compact sections. A User Note lists shapes

with slender flanges.

F9. TEES AND DOUBLE ANGLES LOADED IN THE PLANE OF SYMMETRY (new)

The nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the lower value obtained according to the limit states of

yielding, lateral-torsional buckling, and flange local buckling.

F9.1. Yielding

Mn = Mp (F9-1)

where

Mp = FyZx ≤ 1.6My (for stems in tension) (F9-2)

Mp ≤ My (for stems in compression) (F9-3)

F9.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

The equation for nominal lateral-torsional buckling strength is provided. A negative B

value shall be used if the tip of the stem is in compression anywhere along the unbraced

length.

F9.3. Flange Local Buckling of Tees

The general equation for nominal flange local buckling strength of tees is provided.

Design on the basis of geometric design bending is permitted if the member has continuous lateral-torsional

restraint along the length. The nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the lower value obtained according to

the limit states of yielding, lateral-torsional buckling, and leg local buckling.

F10.1. Yielding

Equation F10-1 was introduced to calculate single angle yield strength.

F10.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

A new equation for nominal lateral-torsional buckling strength is provided.

F10.3. Leg Local Buckling

This limit state applies when the toe of the leg is in compression and the section is

noncompact or slender. New equations for nominal leg local buckling strengths are

introduced.

F11. RECTANGULAR BARS AND ROUNDS (was F2)

The nominal flexural strength, Mn, shall be the lower value obtained according to the limit states of yielding

and lateral-torsional buckling.

F11.1. Yielding

New equations for nominal strengths for major and minor axis bending are introduced. A

restriction on rectangular bars bent about their major axis was added.

F11.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

For various rectangular bar sizes, new equations were introduced to calculate the nominal

lateral-torsional buckling strength. This limit state does not apply to rounds and

rectangular bars bent about their minor axis.

This section applies to all unsymmetrical shapes excluding single angles. The nominal flexural strength,

Mn, shall be the lower value obtained according to the limit states of yielding, lateral-torsional buckling,

and local buckling.

F12.1. Yielding

Equation F12-2 was introduced to calculate the yield strength of unsymmetrical shapes.

F12.2. Lateral-Torsional Buckling

Equation F12-3 was introduced to calculate the lateral-torsional buckling strength of

unsymmetrical shapes.

F12.3. Local Buckling

Equation F12-4 was introduced to calculate the local buckling strength of unsymmetrical

shapes.

For 0.5Fu Afn ≥ 0.6Fy Afg

— No deductions made

(B10-1)

— For Fu Afn ≥ Yt Fy Afg Tensile rupture does not apply

5 Fu

For 0.5Fu Afn < 0.6Fy Afg Afe = Afn

— 6 Fy

(B10-2)

(B10-3)

FA

M n = u fn S x

— For Fu Afn < Yt Fy Afg Afg

(F13-1)

Singly symmetric I-shaped members must satisfy a restriction regarding moment of

inertia.

No stiffeners or h 14,000

≤

a

> 1.5

tw

yf (

F F + 16.5 yf ) —

h (G1-1)

h 2, 000 ⎛h⎞ E

a ≤ ⎜⎝ t ⎟⎠ = 11.7

For ≤ 1.5 tw Fyf w max Fy

h

(G1-2) (F13-3)

⎛h⎞ 0.42E

a ⎜⎝ t ⎟⎠ =

For > 1.5 — w max Fy

h

(F13-4)

h

No stiffeners — ≤ 260

tw

Unchanged.

F13.4 Built-Up Beams (was F6)

The connection interval restriction of 5 feet was removed. When two or more beams or

channels are used side-by-side to form a flexural member, they shall be connected

according to Section E6.2. The use of through-bolts and separators is no longer permitted.

CHAPTER G

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR (was F4)

Design for members for shear now has a chapter of its own. This chapter addresses webs of singly or doubly

symmetric members subject to shear in the plane of the web, single angles, and HSS sections, and shear in the weak

direction of singly or doubly symmetric shapes. A User Note indicates member sections not covered.

The symbol for shear, Vn, was introduced. The safety factor for shear is Ωv = 1.67, except for webs of rolled

I-shaped members with the provisions in G2.1a. This section provides two methods to calculate shear

strength. One utilizes the post buckling strength of a member (tension field action), and the other does not.

The 1989 Specification references Chapter G for utilizing tension field action.

h 380 Fv = 0.40Fy

For ≤ —

t Fy (F4-1)

h 380 Fy

For > Fv = Cv ≤ 0.40Fy

t 2.89 —

Fy

(F4-2)

All — Vn = 0.6Fy Aw Cv (G2-1)

These ratios were non-dimensionalized. Cv values are calculated based on the h/tw ratio. The web plate

buckling coefficient, kv, is calculated for stiffened and unstiffened webs.

45, 000k v

For Cv < 0.8 Cv = —

Fy (h / t w )

2

190 kv

For Cv > 0.8 Cv = —

h / tw Fy

For 1.10 k v E / Fy

1.10 k v E / Fy ≤ h / t w ≤ 1.37 k v E / Fy Cv =

— h / tw

(G2-4)

1.51Ek v

Cv =

For h / t w > 1.37 k v E / Fy — (h / t w ) Fy

2

(G2-5)

5.34

For a / h < 1.0 kv = 4 + —

(a / h )2

4

For a / h > 1.0 k v = 5.34 + —

(a / h ) 2

—

kv = 1.2 for stems of tees

2

⎛ 260 ⎞

For a / h > 3.0 or a / h > ⎜ ⎟ — kv = 5.0

⎝ (h / t w ) ⎠

5

All other cases — kv = 5 +

(a / h )2

A list of sections for which Cv = 1.0 was added in a User Note.

Transverse stiffeners are required when:

h / t w > 260 h / t w > 2.46 E / Fy

AND max shear stress fv is OR when required shear strength

greater than that permitted by is greater than the available shear

Equation F4-2 strength

This section lists conditions under which tension field action is not permitted.

G3.2. Nominal Shear Strength with Tension Field Action (was G3)

⎤

Fv = ⎢Cv + ⎥ ≤ 0.40Fy (G3-1)

1.0 2.89 ⎢ 1.15 1 + ( a / h ) 2 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

Case 2005 Specification

Vn = 0.6Fy Aw

For h / t w ≤ 1.10 k v E / Fy

(G3-1)

⎛ ⎞

1 − Cv

Vn = 0.6Fy Aw ⎜ Cv + ⎟

⎜⎝ 1.15 1 + ( a / h ) ⎟⎠

2

For h / t w > 1.10 k v E / Fy

(G3-2)

Limitations were added to transverse stiffeners subject to tension field action.

This section provides the nominal shear strength of single angles using tension field action.

This section provides a new equation along with other provisions to calculate the nominal shear strength of

rectangular HSS and box members.

This section provides a new equation to calculate the nominal shear strength according to the limit states of

shear yielding and shear buckling.

G7. WEAK AXIS SHEAR IN SINGLY AND DOUBLY SYMMETRIC SHAPES (new)

This section contains provisions to calculate the nominal shear strength of these member sections. A User

Note lists shapes with Cv = 1.0.

This section states that adequate reinforcement shall be provided when the required strength exceeds the

available strength of the member at the opening.

CHAPTER H

DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION (was Combined Stresses)

H1. DOUBLY AND SINGLY SYMMETRIC MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE AND AXIAL

FORCE

H1.1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members in Flexure and Compression (was H1)

A User Note adds that Section H2 is permitted to be used in lieu of the provisions from

this section.

fa C mx f bx C my fby

+ + ≤ 1.0 (H1-1)

Fa ⎛ fa ⎞ ⎛ fa ⎞

1 −

⎜⎝ F ' ⎟⎠ Fbx 1 −

⎜ F ' ⎟ by F

All ex ⎝ ey ⎠

fa f fby

AND + bx + ≤ 1.0 (H1-2)

0.60Fy Fbx Fby

fa f a f bx fby

If ≤ 0.15 + + ≤ 1.0 (H1-3)

Fa Fa Fbx Fby

Case 2005 Specification Interaction Equations

Pr Pr 8 ⎛ M rx M ry ⎞

For ≥ 0.2 + ⎜ + ⎟ ≤ 1.0 (H1-1a)

Pc Pc 9 ⎝ M cx M cy ⎠

Pr Pr ⎛M M ry ⎞

For < 0.2 + ⎜ rx + ⎟ ≤ 1.0 (H1-1b)

Pc 2Pc ⎝ M cx M cy ⎠

H1.2. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members in Flexure and Tension (was H2)

For doubly symmetric members, Cb may be increased by

Pu

1+

Pey

The former interaction Equation H2-1 was removed.

H1.3. Doubly Symmetric Members in Single Axis Flexure and Compression (new)

New limit states “in-plane instability” and “out-of-plane buckling” were added along

with their respective interaction equations.

H2. UNSYMMETRIC AND OTHER MEMBERS SUBJECT TO FLEXURE AND AXIAL FORCE

(new)

A new interaction equation which is very similar to Equation H1-3 from the 1989 Specification was

introduced. The new equation states that if the axial force is compression, second order effects shall be

included.

H3. MEMBERS UNDER TORSION AND COMBINED TORSION, FLEXURE, SHEAR AND/OR

AXIAL FORCE (new)

The equation for nominal torsional strength is defined for round and rectangular HSS

members. Equations that yield conservative values for the torsional shear constant, C,

were added.

H3.2. HSS Subject to Combined Torsion, Shear, Flexure, and Axial Force (new)

A new interaction equation shall be used if the required torsional strength, Tr, exceeds

20% of Tc.

H3.3 Strength of Non-HSS Members Under Torsion and Combined Stress (new)

This section provides the allowable torsional strength, Fn/ΩT according to the limit states

of yielding under normal stress, shear yielding under shear stress, or buckling.

CHAPTER I

DESIGN OF COMPOSITE MEMBERS (was Composite Construction)

Filled and concrete-encased composite columns composed of rolled or built-up structural steel shapes or HSS are

now addressed.

The design, detailing, and material properties related to the concrete and reinforcing steel portions of

composite construction shall comply with the reinforced concrete and reinforcing bar design specifications

stipulated by the applicable building code or the provisions in ACI 318 in the absence of the building code.

This section provides two methods for determining the nominal strength of composite

section: the plastic stress distribution method and the strain-compatibility method. The

tensile strength of the concrete shall be neglected.

I1.1a. Plastic Distribution Method (new)

This section states that the nominal strength shall be computed under the assumption that

steel components have reached their yield stress in either tension or compression and

concrete components in compression have reached a stress of 0.85f′c. For round HSS

filled with concrete, a stress of 0.95f′c is permitted to be used if the concrete components

are in uniform compression.

I1.1b. Strain Compatibility Method (new)

This method assumes a linear distribution of strains across the section. A User Note

points out that this method should be used to determine nominal strength for irregular

sections.

I1.2. Material Limitations (new)

This section imposes material property restrictions on concrete and steel.

I1.3. Shear Connectors (was I4)

This section defines minimum shear connector length and the acceptable material (refers

to Sections A3.1 and A3.6). Shear stud design values are referenced to Sections I2.1g and

I3.2d(3).

This section applies to two types of composite axial members, encased and filled sections.

I2.1a. Limitations (new)

This section defines limitations that must be met in order to qualify as an encased

composite column.

I2.1b. Compressive Strength (new)

Allowable compressive strength shall be determined according to the flexural buckling

limit state.

I2.1c. Tensile Strength (new)

The allowable tensile strength shall be determined according to the yielding limit state. A

new nominal tensile strength equation is introduced.

I2.1d. Shear Strength (new)

The available shear strength shall be calculated based on either the shear strength of the

steel section alone plus the shear strength provided by the tie reinforcement or the shear

strength of the reinforced concrete alone. A User Note adds the equation for the nominal

shear strength of the tie reinforcement and references ACI 318, Chapter 11 for the shear

capacity of reinforced concrete.

I2.1e. Load Transfer (new)

Depending on whether the external force is applied to the steel section, concrete

encasement, or concrete, the shear connectors shall be required to transfer shear force, V’.

New equations are introduced to calculate the shear force.

I2.1f. Detailing Requirements (new)

Shear connector spacing requirements are defined in this section.

I2.1g. Strength of Stud Shear Connectors (was I4)

This section provides an equation for the nominal strength of a stud shear connector.

Limitations that must be met in order to qualify as a filled composite column are defined

in this section.

I2.2b. Compressive Strength (new)

The allowable compressive strength for axially loaded filled composite columns shall be

determined according to the flexural buckling limit state.

I2.2c. Tensile Strength (new)

The allowable tensile strength shall be determined according to the yielding limit state. A

new equation for nominal tensile strength equation is introduced.

I2.2d. Shear Strength (new)

The available shear strength shall be calculated based on either the shear strength of the

steel section alone plus the shear strength provided by the tie reinforcement or the shear

strength of the reinforced concrete alone. A reference to ACI 318, Chapter 11 on the

topic of shear strength of reinforced concrete is provided in a User Note.

I2.2e. Load Transfer (new)

This section states that the force transfer mechanism providing the largest nominal

strength may be used. A new equation for nominal bearing strength is introduced.

I2.2f. Detailing Requirements (new)

Shear connector spacing is defined.

I3.1. General

Unchanged.

I3.1a. Effective Width (was I1)

Editorial changes were incorporated.

I3.1b. Shear Strength (new)

The available shear strength of composite beams with shear connectors, concrete-

encased, and filled composite flexural members is stipulated.

I3.1c. Strength During Construction (was I2)

The clause that states “stresses in the steel section shall not exceed 0.90Fy” was removed.

When temporary shores are not used during construction, the steel section alone shall

have adequate strength prior to the concrete attaining 75% of its specified strength, f′c.

I3.2. Strength of Composite Beams with Shear Connectors

Unchanged.

I3.2a. Positive Flexural Strength (was I2)

Composite Beam Fb = 0.66Fy —

Steel Beam Alone Fb = 0.76Fy —

For h / t w ≤ 3.76 E / Fy Mn shall be determined from the

—

plastic stress distribution for yielding

Mn shall be determined from the

For h / t w > 3.76 E / Fy — superposition of elastic stresses for

yielding

The allowable negative flexural strength shall be determined according to Chapter F.

Alternatively, under a few restrictions, the available negative flexural strength can be

determined from the plastic stress distribution for the yielding limit state.

I3.2c. Strength Of Composite Beams With Formed Steel Deck (was I5)

The provision stating that shall be at least ½ in. of concrete cover above the top of the

installed shear studs was added. The maximum spacing was increased from 16 to 18 in.

Limitations on stud shear connector spacing on supporting beams were removed.

Allowable horizontal shear load reduction factor was removed for both orientations

(perpendicular and parallel) of the deck ribs with respect to steel beam or girder.

I3.2d. Shear Connectors (was I4)

The limit states for load transfer for positive moment were defined as concrete crushing,

tensile yielding of the steel section, and strength of the shear connectors, with the lowest

value controlling.

Concrete Crushing Vh = 0.85f ' c Ac / 2 (I4-1) V ' = 0.85f ' c Ac (I3-1a)

Positive

Moment Tensile yielding of steel Vh = Fy As / 2 (I4-2) V ' = Fy As (I3-1b)

Negative

Moment Strength of connectors Vh = nq V' = ∑Q n (I3-2b)

The horizontal shear equations apply to half the span in the 1989 Specification and the

full span in the 2005 Specification. This is why the equation is no longer divided by two.

The equations for the nominal strength of one stud shear connector and one channel shear

connector were added. The effective moment of inertia equation was removed. The

equation for the number of shear connectors required between any concentrated load in

that area and the nearest point of zero moment was removed. Minimum center-to-center

spacing of shear connectors shall be four diameters in any direction when the ribs of the

formed steel decks are oriented perpendicular to the steel beam. Maximum center-to-

center spacing of shear connectors shall not exceed eight times the slab thickness nor 36

in. (the latter was new in the 2005 Specification). The maximum stud diameter limit does

not apply if it is located on the web.

I3.3 Flexural Strength Of Concrete-Encased And Filled Members (new)

This section stipulates the flexural strength of concrete-encased and filled members.

Three methods are shown.

I4. COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND FLEXURE (new)

This section contains provisions on composite members with combined axial force and flexure.

This section states that when composite construction does not conform to the provisions in this chapter,

strength of shear connectors and details of construction (added since the 2005 Specification) shall be

established by testing.

CHAPTER J

DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS

The effects of eccentricity shall now be considered where the gravity axes of intersecting

axially loaded members do not intersect at one point.

J1.2. Simple Connections

The meaning of inelastic deformation is explained by adding, “self-limiting deformation

in the connection is permitted to accommodate the end rotation of a simple beam.”

J1.3. Moment Connections

Response criteria for moment connections are now provided in Section B3.6b.

J1.4. Compression Members With Bearing Joints

The clause, “all compression joints shall be proportional to resist any tension developed

by the specified lateral loads acting in conjunction with 75% of the calculated dead-load

stress and no live load,” was removed. It is now permissible to use “the moment and

shear resulting from a transverse load equal to 2% of the required compressive strength

of the member,” when compression members other than columns are finished to bear at

splices.

J1.5. Splices In Heavy Sections (was J1.7)

A full-penetration groove weld was renamed as a complete-joint-penetration groove

weld. In the 1989 Specification, the clause stating “welding preheat requirements as given

in J2.7” in paragraph two and paragraphs three and five were removed. The clause, “the

foregoing provision is not applicable to splices of elements of built-up shapes that are

welded prior to assembling the shape,” was added to the 2005 Specification. A User Note

was added explaining the detrimental effects of weld shrinkage for CJP groove welded

splices at heavy sections and PJP groove welds on the flanges and fillet-welded web

plates.

J1.6. Beam Copes And Weld Access Holes (was J1.8)

The access hole height requirement is now defined as 1½ times the thickness of the

material with the access hole, tw, but not less than 1 in., nor does it exceed 2 in. Also, no

arc of the weld access hole shall have a radius of less than a in. The reference to Group 4

and 5 shapes was deleted in the last paragraph. Several requirements on the preparation

of weld access holes and beam copes were revised.

J1.7. Placement Of Welds And Bolts (was J1.9)

Rivets are excluded from the 2005 Specification. The last sentence of the first paragraph

in the 1989 Specification, which refers to the eccentricity of statically loaded members,

was deleted. The note “See Sect. J3.10 for placement of fasteners in built-up members

made of weathering steel” was also removed.

J1.8. Bolts In Combination With Welds (was J1.10)

Bolts shall not share the load with welds except for shear connections when bolts are

installed in standard holes or short slots transverse to the direction of the load, if they are

designed to share the load with a longitudinally loaded fillet weld. The available strength

of the bolts in such connections shall not exceed 50% of the available strength of bearing-

type bolts in the connection.

J1.9. High Strength Bolts In Combination With Rivets (was J1.11)

This section added the clarification that the design provisions for slip-critical connections

are included in Section J3.

J1.10. Limitations On Bolted And Welded Connections (was J1.12)

This section now lists four different connections that must use pretensioned joints, slip-

critical joints, or welds. Column splices in all multi-story structures over a height of 200

ft was changed to over 125 ft. The definition of a “tier structure” and related terminology

was deleted. Also, the provision that, “any other connections stipulated on the design

plans,” should use fully-tensioned high-strength bolts or welds was deleted.

J2. WELDS

All provisions from AWS D1.1 still apply to this section with the exception of certain specified sections.

J2.1a. Effective Area

Table J2.1 was expanded. Different welding positions now correspond to unique groove

types and a unique effective throat dimension. Table J2.2 includes flare bevel and flare V

groove welds and was renamed “Effective Weld Sizes of Flare Groove Welds.” Also, the

weld sizes listed in the table are now listed by welding process instead of the type of

weld. Table J2.3 is now based on the thinner part of the material being joined not the

thicker.

J2.1b. Limitations

The throat thickness of a partial-joint-penetration groove weld must now be thick enough

to transmit calculated forces.

J2.2. Fillet Welds

J2.2a. Effective Area

An increase in effective throat is now permitted if consistent penetration beyond the root

of the diagrammatic weld is demonstrated by tests using the production process and

procedure variables. The clause “except that for fillet welds made by the submerged arc

process, the effective throat thickness shall be taken equal to the leg size for a in. and

smaller fillet welds, and equal to the theoretical throat plus 0.11 in. for fillet welds larger

than a in.” was removed.

J2.2b. Limitations

Minimum fillet weld sizes must not be less than the size required to transmit the

calculated force. The provisions of this section do not apply to fillet weld reinforcement

of partial or complete-joint-penetration groove welds. Table J2.4 was modified. The

minimum fillet weld size is now based on the thinner of the two parts being joined, not

the thicker. Also, if the end-loaded fillet weld exceeds 100 times the weld size, the

effective length shall be determined by multiplying the actual length by the reduction

factor, β, which is defined by Equation J2-1. If the weld size exceeds 300 times the leg

size, the value of β shall be 0.60. Provisions for fillet weld terminations are revised and

listed.

J2.3. Plug And Slot Welds

J2.3a. Effective Area

Unchanged.

J2.3b. Limitations

Unchanged.

J2.4. Strength

The allowable strength of welds shall be the lower value of the base metal and the weld

metal strength based on the limit states of tensile rupture, shear rupture, and yielding.

These values can be calculated using Equations J2-2 and J2-3 and Table J2.5. Table J2.5

now lists φ and Ω, and nominal strengths instead of allowable stresses. Three loading

conditions for fillet welds were added:

(a) Linear weld group loaded in-plane through the center of gravity. Equations J2-4 and

J2-5 were introduced.

(b) Weld elements within a weld group that are loaded in plane and analyzed using an

instantaneous center of rotation method. Equations J2-6, J2-7, and J2-8 were

introduced.

(c) Fillet welds concentrically loaded and consisting of elements that are oriented both

longitudinally and transversely to the direction of applied load. Equations J2-9a and

J2-9b were introduced.

J2.5. Combination Of Welds

Unchanged.

J2.6. Filler Metal Requirements (new)

Requirements for filler metals shall comply with AWS D1.1 and this section. The

manufacture’s Certificate of Conformance is sufficient evidence of compliance.

J2.7. Mixed Weld Metal (was J2.6)

The term “notch-toughness” was replaced with “Charpy V-Notch toughness”.

Rivets were deleted from the title.

Table J3.7, Minimum Pretension for Fully-tightened Bolts, in the 1989 Specification was

moved into this section and is now Table J3.1, Minimum Bolt Pretension. This section

now explicitly requires that A325 and A490 bolts be tightened to a minimum bolt tension

given in Table J3.1. Table J3.2, Allowable Stress on Fasteners, was modified and is now

called, “Nominal Stress of Fasteners and Threaded Parts. The table now lists nominal

tensile and shear stress in bearing-type connections instead of allowable tension and shear

stresses. Shear strength provisions for slip-critical conditions were removed from the

table. Table J3.1, Nominal Hole Dimensions, in the 1989 Specification is now Table J3.3.

All joint surfaces shall now be free of scale except tight mill scale. All ASTM A325,

A325M, A490, and A490M must be tightened in accordance with Table J3.1 or J3.1M. A

nut may be tightened using the turn-of-nut method, a direct tension indicator, calibrated

wrench, or alternative design bolt unless the bolts are permitted to be installed as snug

tight in bearing-type connections and tension or combined shear applications. If ASTM

A490 or A490M bolts over 1 in. are used in oversized holed or external piles a hardened

washer in conformance with ASTM F436 must be used. Adequate strength must be

available in slip-critical connections. When bolts exceed the size and length requirements

provided by ASTM A325 and A325M, F1852, or ASTM 490 and ASTM 490M, bolts

and threaded rods are permitted to be used based on the provisions provided in Table J3.2

and conforming to ASTM A354 Gr. BC, A354 Gr. BD or A449. The last sentence of this

section in the 1989 Specification requiring a ASTM F436 hardened washer to be installed

under the bolt head if the bolt is required to be tightened more than 50% of the minimum

bolt tensile strength was removed.

J3.2. Size And Use Of Holes

Short-slotted holes parallel to the load or long-slotted holes are now allowed if they are

approved by the Engineer of Record. The last paragraph of this section in the 1989

Specification, which describes washer requirements for A490 bolts over 1-in. diameter,

was deleted.

J3.3. Minimum Spacing (was J3.8)

A center-to-center distance of three times the diameter of the bolt is now preferred.

Equation J3-5 in the 1989 Specification and Table J3.4, Values of Spacing Increment C1,

were removed.

J3.4. Minimum Edge Distance (was J3.9)

Table J3.5, Minimum Edge Distance, (Center of Standard Hole to Edge of Connected

Part) in the 1989 Specification is now Table J3.4, Minimum Edge Distance, from Center

of Standard Hole to Edge of Connected Part. This distance may be calculated using the

tables or as required by Section J3.10.

J3.5. Maximum Spacing And Edge Distance (was J3.10)

For painted or unpainted members not subject to corrosion, the provision that spacing

shall not exceed 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate or 12 in. (305 mm) is new.

Also, the max edge distance requirement for unpainted built-up members of weathering

steel exposed to atmospheric corrosion was deleted.

J3.6. Tension And Shear Strength Of Bolts And Threaded Parts (was J3.4)

This section modified the section “Allowable Tension and Shear.” The allowable tension

or shear strength for a snug-tight or pretensioned bolt or threaded part for limit states of

tensile rupture and shear rupture may now be calculated using Equation J3-1. Tensions

and shear strength values were revised in Table J3.2. The table below compares the

allowable stress values based on the two specifications.

Allowable Shear

Allowable Tension, Allowable Tensile Bearing Type Stress in Bearing-

Description of Fasteners

Ft, ksi Stress, Fnt / Ω, ksi Connections, Fv, ksi Type Connections,

Fnv/ Ω, ksi

44 45 21 24

are not excluded from shear planes

44 45 30 30

are excluded from shear planes

54 56.5 28 30

are not excluded from shear planes

54 56.5 40 37.5

are excluded from shear planes

requirements of Section A3.4, when

0.33Fu 0.375Fu 0.17Fu 0.20Fu

threads are not excluded from shear

planes

Threaded parts meeting the

requirements of Section A3.4, when

0.33Fu 0.375Fu 0.22Fu 0.25Fu

threads are excluded from shear

planes

A set of equations is provided in the 2005 Specification to calculate the available tensile

strength of a bolt subject to the limit states of tension and shear rupture. In the 1989

Specification, shear and tension were checked independently against the shear and

tension allowable strengths. The 3 stress increase for wind and seismic loading was

removed. Table J3.3, Allowable Tension Stress, Ft for Fasteners in Bearing-Type

Connections was removed.

J3.8. HIGH Strength Bolts In Slip-Critical Connections (new)

This section allows high-strength bolts in slip-critical connections to be designed to

prevent slip as either a serviceability or a required strength limit state. Equation J3-4 is

used to calculate the design slip-resistance.

J3.9. Combined Tension And Shear In Slip-Critical Connections (was J3.6)

If a slip-critical connection is subjected to an applied tension that reduces the net

clamping force, the available slip should be multiplied by the factor ks. Equations J3-5a

and J3-5b are used to calculate this factor instead of the reduction factor offered in the

1989 Specification. The equations are listed below:

1989 Specification

⎛ fA ⎞

Reduction factor = ⎜ 1 − t b ⎟

⎝ Tb ⎠

where

Ab = bolt cross-sectional area at its major thread diameter

Ft = average tensile stress due to a direct load applied to all to

bolts in the connection

Tb = pretension load of the bolt specified in Table J3.7

2005 Specification

1.5Tu

ks =

Du Tb N B

where

Nb = number of bolts carrying the applied tension

Ta = tension force due to ASD load combinations, kips (kN)

Tb = minimum fastener tension given in Table J3.1, kips (kN)

Tu = tension force due to LRFD load combinations, kips (kN)

Equations J3-6a, J3-6b, and J3-6c are used to calculate the available bearing strength

depending on the type of connection being designed. Upper strength limits were added to

each of these equations. The equations are now based on the area, Lct, instead of the

projected area of bolts. The distance from the free edge to the center of the bolt, Le, was

replaced by Lc, the clear distance between the edge of the hole and the next adjacent hole

or the edge of the material. The minimum limit on end distance and bolt spacing was

removed.

J3.11. Special Fasteners (new)

The nominal strength of all special fasteners not listed in Table J3.2 must be verified by

testing.

J3.12. Tension Fasteners (new)

This section refers to bolts or other fasteners that attach to an unstiffened box or HSS

Wall. The strength of the wall shall be determined by rational analysis.

Stiffeners and panel zones were removed from the list of applicable connecting elements.

New Equations J4-1 and J4-2 were developed to calculate the allowable strength for

connecting elements subjected to the limit states of tensile yielding and tensile rupture.

J4.2. Strength Of Elements In Shear

New Equations J4-3 and J4-4 were developed to calculate the available shear yield

strength for connecting elements subjected to the limit states of shear yielding and shear

rupture.

J4.3. Block Shear Strength

New Equation J4-5 was developed to calculate the available strength for connecting

elements subjected to the limit state of block shear rupture.

J4.4. Strength Of Elements In Compression

New Equation J4-6 was developed to calculate the available strength of connecting

elements for connecting elements subjected to the limit state of yielding and buckling.

A new provision for the case where the fillers are equal to or less than ¼ in. thick was introduced. Items 2,

3, and 4 are new requirements.

This section was reworded for clarity.

This section modified the “Allowable Bearing Stress” section in the 1989 Specification. Two different

equations are provided for expansion rollers and rockers based on the diameter to calculate the allowable

bearing strength for the limit state of bearing (local compressive yielding).

New nominal strength Equations J8-1 and J8-2 were developed to calculate the allowable bearing strength

for connecting elements subjected to the limit state of concrete crushing. Provisions for masonry were

deleted.

This section was previously called, “Anchor Bolts.” Detail was added to the section for clarity. All rods

should be designed in accordance with Table J3.2.

A statement indicating the application of the limit states, either single or double concentrated forced, is

explained.

The allowable strength for the limit state of flange local bending is calculated using

Equation J10-1 instead of K1-1. The provision that allows the computed force to be

multiplied by 5/3 or 4/3 depending on the load case was removed. If the concentrated

force is applied at a point less than 10 times the thickness of the flange, the design

strength may now be reduced by 50%.

J10.2. Web Local Yielding (was K1.3)

Equations J10-2 and J10-3 are rearranged versions of Equations K1-2 and K1-3,

excluding the 0.66Fy limit.

J10.3. Web Crippling (was K1.4)

The equations are non-dimensionalized by factoring out the modulus of elasticity in

Equations K1-4 and K1-5, which are now Equations J10-4, J10-5a, and J10-5b. When the

compressive force is applied at a distance that is less than the depth of the member

divided by 2, and the length of bearing divided by the overall depth of the member is less

than or equal to 0.2, the available strength is calculated using J10-5a. If the length of

bearing divided by the overall depth of the member is greater than 0.2, the available

strength is calculated using J10-5b.

J10.4. Web Sideway Buckling (was K1.5)

Equations J10-6 and J10-7 are modified versions of Equations K1-6 and K1-7 providing

higher allowable strength.

J10.5. Web Compression Buckling (was K1.6)

A new equation is introduced. Also, a 50% reduction in available strength is required

when compressive forces are located at a distance less than d/2 from the member’s end.

J10.6. Web Panel Zone Shear (was K1.7)

A set of equations were developed to calculate the available strength of a panel zone

based on the limit state of shear yielding.

J10.7. Unframed Ends Of Beams And Girders (was K1.8)

A pair of stiffeners must be provided at unframed ends of beams and girders if they are

not restrained against rotation about their longitudinal axis.

J10.8. Additional Stiffener Requirements For Concentrated Forces (was K1.8)

This section was reorganized for clarity. Stiffeners designed to resist tensile forces shall

now be designed in accordance with Chapter D and stiffeners designed to resist

compressive forces shall be designed in accordance with Sections E6.2 and J4.4.

Equation K1-9 was deleted. A new provision states that the thickness of a stiffener shall

not be greater than or equal to the width divided by 15.

J10.9. Additional Doubler Plate Requirements For Concentrated Forces (new)

This section refers to the design of doubler plates, which shall be designed in accordance

with Chapter E, D, and G as well as special criteria given on the thickness of the doubler

plate and the weld required to develop the proportion of the total force transmitted to the

doubler plate.

CHAPTER K

DESIGN OF HSS AND BOX MEMBER CONNECTIONS (new)

This chapter discusses the strength design considerations for HSS members and box sections of uniform wall

thickness that are used to make connections.

CHAPTER L

DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY

Serviceability shall now be evaluated based on the appropriate load combinations for the serviceability

limit state identified. The section was reworded for clarity.

L2. CAMBER

The provisions that trusses spanning 80 ft or more must be cambered based on the dead load and that crane

girders spanning 75 ft or more must be cambered based on the dead load and half the live load were

removed. Also, the provision that beams and trusses without specified camber shall be fabricated so that

after erection the camber due to rolling or shop assembly shall be upward was removed. Camber involving

preload is not required to be noted in the design documents.

Deflections of structural members shall not impair the serviceability of the structure based on the service

load combinations is a new provision. A maximum live-load deflection of 1/360 over the length of the span

for beams and girders was removed.

L4. DRIFT (new)

Drift will be evaluated under service loads to protect the integrity of interior and exterior partitions and

shall not cause collision with an adjacent structure or exceed the drift limits that may be specified in the

applicable building code.

Vibration due to pedestrian walking, vibrating machinery, and others identified for the structure must now

be considered.

This section states that a wind-induced motion must not affect the comfort of a building’s occupants.

Damage from expansion or contraction to the cladding should now be considered to avoid water

penetration that may cause corrosion.

The effects of connection slip should now be included in the design of the connection to avoid

deformations that impair the serviceability of the structure. When appropriate, connections should be

designed to preclude slip.

CHAPTER M

FABRICATION, ERECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL

This section was reworded for clarity.

M2. FABRICATION

The provision that limits the temperature to 1050 °F of a heated area for A852 steel was

increased to 1100 °F. The temperature limits for A709 steel were removed.

M2.2. Thermal Cutting

All thermally cut edges must now meet the requirements of AWS D1.1. Galvanized beam

copes and weld access holes shall now be ground. A new provision states that all shapes

with a flange thickness not exceeding a thickness of 2 in. shall have a surface toughness

no greater than 2,000 μin. Any crack found is unacceptable.

M2.3. Planing Of Edges

Unchanged.

M2.4. Welded Construction

Exceptions to AWS D1.1 requirements for weld workmanship, quality, and appearance

are now acceptable if they are in accordance with Section J2.

M2.5. Bolted Construction

Bolt holes should now comply with the provisions of the RCSC Specification for

Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, Section 3.3 with the exception that

the bolt hole roughness should not exceed 1,000 μin. All provisions referring to the

manner at which holes are made in the material were removed. Slope requirements for

parts in contact with the bolt head and the nut are no longer applicable. Also, limitations

on scale, burrs, and coatings on the surface of connected parts were removed. Gouges

shall now not exceed a depth of 6 in.

M2.6. Compression Joints

Unchanged.

M2.7. Dimensional Tolerances

Unchanged.

M2.8. Finish Of Column Bases

The provision that all column bases other than rolled steel bearing plates shall be milled

for all bearing surfaces was removed.

M2.9. Holes For Anchor Rods (new)

This section allows anchor rods to be thermally cut in accordance with Section M2.2.

M2.10. Drain Holes (new)

This section requires all HSS members to be sealed and provided with a drain hole or

protected by some other means if water can collect inside the member.

M2.11. Requirements For Galvanized Members (new)

This section requires that any galvanized member be designed, detailed, and fabricated to

prevent pressure build-up in enclosed parts.

Steelwork is no longer required to be painted unless noted on the contract documents.

M3.2. Inaccessible Surfaces

Unchanged.

M3.3. Contact Surfaces

Unchanged.

M3.4. Finished Surfaces

Unchanged.

M3.5. Surfaces Adjacent To Field Welds

Unchanged.

M4. ERECTION

Unchanged.

M4.2. Bracing

It is no longer a provision to account for stresses resulting from piles, material erection

equipment, or other loads during erection.

M4.3. Alignment

Unchanged.

M4.4. Fit Of Column Compression Joints And Base Plates

Unchanged.

M4.5. Field Welding

A new provision states that field welding of attachments to installed embedments in

contact with concrete shall be done to prevent excessive thermal expansion.

M4.6. Field Painting

Unchanged.

M4.7. Field Connections

Unchanged.

M5.1. Cooperation

Unchanged.

M5.2. Rejections

Unchanged.

M5.3. Inspection Of Welding

The inspection of welding can now be modified if in accordance with Section J2. If visual

inspection of welds is required, it must now be specified in the design documents.

M5.4. Inspection Of Slip-Critical High –Strength Bolted Connections

Unchanged.

M5.5. Identification Of Steel

It is no longer required to verify proper material applications relating to material

specification designation, heat number, or material test reports when identifying steel.

APPENDIX 1 (new)

INELASTIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

This appendix provides provisions for inelastic analysis and design. Some of these provisions, such as the

redistribution of moments (from Section F1.1), existed in the 1989 Specification in other sections.

APPENDIX 2 (new)

DESIGN FOR PONDING

This appendix includes 1989 Section K2 provisions and discusses the design of a roof for ponding effects.

The simplified design method for ponding can be found in section K2 of the 1989 Specification. The

method and equations are unchanged.

This section gives provisions that may be used if a more exact determination of framing stiffness is

required.

APPENDIX 3

DESIGN FOR FATIGUE (was Appendix K)

Fatigue was originally defined as the “damage that may result in fracture after a sufficient number of

fluctuations of stress.” The definition was changed to the “limit state of crack initiation and growth

resulting from repeated application of live load.” The stress range should now be calculated from the point

of probable crack initiation. Other provisions were added that should be taken into consideration when

designing for fatigue. Table A-K4.1, Number of Loading Cycles, in the 1989 Specification was removed.

Table A-K4.2, Type and Location of Material was renamed, Table A-3.1, Fatigue Design Parameters, and

was expanded to include the Constant, Cf, (used in the design equations), the threshold stress value, and the

potential crack initiation point.

This section discusses the calculated stresses, maximum stresses, and stress ranges based on an elastic

analysis.

This section allows for the calculation of a design stress range that is computed with newly developed

equations instead of Table A-K4.3 in the 1989 Specification. Table A-K4.3 was removed from the 2005

Specification.

Equation A-3-6 is now used to calculate the net tensile forced on a bolt or threaded part instead of the

provisions in the 1989 Specification.

This section discusses special fatigue provisions.

APPENDIX 4 (new)

STRUCTURAL DESIGN FOR FIRE CONDITIONS

This appendix discusses the design and evaluation of structural steel components, systems, and frames for fire

conditions.

APPENDIX 5 (new)

EVALUATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES

This appendix discusses the strength and stiffness of existing structures by structural analysis, load tests, or by a

combination of the two when specified by the engineer of record.

APPENDIX 6 (new)

STABILITY BRACING FOR COLUMNS AND BEAMS

This appendix addresses the minimum brace strength and stiffness necessary to provide member strengths based on

unbraced length with an effective length factor, K, equal to 1.0.

APPENDIX 7 (new)

DIRECT ANALYSIS METHOD

This appendix addresses the direct analysis method to account for second order effects in structural systems

comprised of moment frames, braced frames, shear walls, or combinations thereof.

CHAPTERS:

Chapter N - Plastic Design

SECTIONS:

A2. Limits of Applicability

A3.3. Rivets

B5.2. Slender Compression Elements

B8. Simple Spans

B9. End Restraint

B11. Proportioning of Crane Girders

E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members

E6. Column Web Shear

F7. Web-Tapered Members

I3. End Shear

J1.5. Connections of Tension and Compression Members in Trusses

J1.6. Minimum Connections

J2.4. Allowable Stresses

J2.7. Preheat for Heavy Shapes

J3.3. Effective Bearing Area

J3.11. Long Grips

J4. Allowable Shear Rupture

L5. Corrosion

TABLES:

Table I4.1. Allowable Horizontal Shear Load for One Connector

Table I4.2. Coefficients for Use with Concrete made with C330 Aggregates

APPENDICES:

Appendix F - Beams and Other Flexural Members

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