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MAY, 2016
About 79% of the over 100 million tonnes of edible oils and fats
produced worldwide annually are derived from plant sources and are
referred to as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils play important functional
and sensory roles in food products, and they act as carrier of fat
soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. They also provide energy and
essential linoleic and linolenic acids responsible for growth and they
are one of the main ingredients used to manufacture soaps,
cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Vegetable oils are mostly
used for cooking and frying of foods and snacks. In both
applications, the oils are subjected to elevated temperatures in the
range of 35 to 180°C.The optimum design of heating and cooling
systems for cooking and frying, and the fundamental understanding
of cooking and frying processes require that the thermo-physical
properties of the major ingredient involved (such as vegetable oil) in
these processes be known. Three of the important thermo physical
properties to be observed are viscosity, density and specific heat.
The sizing and selection of pumps and pipes for handling the hot oil
also require that the viscosity of the oil be known. It has been well
established that temperature has a strong influence on the viscosity
of fluid products, with viscosity generally decreasing with increase
in temperature.


Groundnut is an important food; feed and principal oil seed crop
which is cultivated on a large scale throughout the world. It is an
annual crop principally for its edible oil and protein rich seeds, borne
in pods which develop and mature below the soil surface (Ayoola
and Adeyeye, 2010). In India, 80% of the groundnut produce is
crushed for extraction of oil and accounts for 36.10% of the total oil
production. Although India has achieved great success in cereal
production. Groundnut seed contains 44 – 56% oil and 22 – 30%
protein on a dry seed and is a rich source of mineral (Phosphorous,
calcium magnesium and potassium) and vitamins E, K and B group
(Savage and Keenan, 1994). Edible oil from plant sources are of
interest in various food and application industries. They provide
characteristic flavours and textures to foods as integral diet
components (Odoemelam, 2005) and can also serve as a source of
oleochemicals (Morrison et al., 1995). Oleochemicals are completely
biodegradable and so could replace a number of petrochemicals
(Ayoola and Adeyeye, 2010). Vegetable oils has made an important
contribution to the diet in many countries, serving as a good source
of protein, lipid and fatty acids for human nutrition including the
repair of worn-out tissues, new cells formation as well as a useful
source of energy (Grosso et al., 1997). Groundnut provides an
inexpensive source of high quality dietary protein and oil. The vast
food preparations incorporating groundnut improve the protein level
have helped in no small way in reducing malnutrition in the
developing countries. The special taste and flavours of foods
containing groundnut is important in the acceptance of these food
preparation (Asibuo et al., 2008). The quality of the oil and
groundnut products depends to a large extent on quality, the relative
proportion of fatty acids, geographical location, seasons and growing
conditions (Adeyeye and Ajewole, 1992). Beneficial effect of
Rhizobium inoculation has been observed by several workers who
reported an increase in yield and oil content of groundnut with such
inoculation. Anandham and Sirdar (2004) concluded that double
inoculation of Thiobacillus and Rhizobium increased the oil content
of groundnut seed. Poultry manure application significant increased
the herbage, essential oil content and drymatter yield in Java
Citronella plants (Adholeya and Prakash, 2004).
Groundnut oil (arachis oil) is an organic material oil derived from
groundnuts, noted to have the aroma and taste of its parent legume.
Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (56.6% ) and linoleic
acid (26.7%). The oil also contains some palmitic acid, arachidic
acid, arachidonic acid, lignoic acid and other fatty acids. Refractive
index plays an important role in many branches of physics,biology
and chemistry. Knowledge of refractive index of aqueous solutions
and oil is one of the crucial importances in applications of
adulteration of oil and purity (Yunus et al., 2009). A small quantity
of free fatty acids is usually present in oils along with the
triglycerides. The free fatty acids content is known as acid number or
acid value. The keeping quality of oil therefore depends upon the
free fatty acid content (Sadasivam and Manickam, 2008). The fatty
acid composition of the oil in seedcrops plays an important role in
determining the functional properties, shelf-life, nutritional value and
flavours of the food products derived from them (Lea, 1962).The
saponification value is a measure of the alkali reactive groups in fats
and oils and is expressed as the number of milligrams of potassium
hydroxide which react with one gram of sample. The iodine value is
a measure of the degrees of unsaturation in oil. It is constant for a
particular oil or fat. Iodine value is useful parameter in studying
oxidative rancidity of oils since higher the unsaturation the greater
the possibility of the oils to go rancid (Sadasivam and Manickam,
2008). Fats are oxidized at the sites of unsaturated bonds in fatty acid
chains. Oxidation of unsaturated bonds results in a variety of
compounds being formed including free radicals and
hydroperoxides. The peroxide value Ip is the number that expresses
the milliequivalents of active oxygen the quantity of peroxide
contained in 1000 g of the substance. Groundnut may be one of the
most cardioprotective foods readily consumed according to the
groundnut institute. The health benefits of groundnut come from its
monosaturated fatty acid content. Diets higher in monosaturated fatty
acids from groundnut butter improve blood lipid profiles (Kris-
Etherton, 1999). The regular consumption of groundnuts and
groundnut products help to lower the blood cholesterol level (Lokko,
2007). Kris-Etherton (2007) reviewed the scientific data concerning
groundnut consumption and coronary heart disease and concluded
regular consumptions of groundnuts significantly reduce risk. The
monosaturated fats and antioxidant properties found in the
groundnuts protect against the oxidation of low density lipoprotein
This work is aim at determining the density, viscosity and the specific
heat capacity of locally produced groundnut oil. Physical properties
showed that groundnut could be put to more economical use other than
food. This thought made us to set out to investigate some physical
properties of the locally produced groundnut oil.
This study will give the students practical experience in the
extraction of oil from groundnut seed and also practical knowledge in
the experimental determination of the physical properties of the locally
produced groundnut oil.


The above research primarily sets out to determine the viscosity,
density and specific heat capacity of locally produced groundnut oil
which was obtained in Bwari market.


This work is limited to the determination of the physical properties
such as viscosity, density, and specific heat capacity of locally produced
groundnut oil.


 Groundnut: Groundnut (peanut) common name for an annual
warm season plant of the legume family and for its seed.
Groundnut originated in South America probably in Brazil and
has been cultivated since ancient time by Native Americans.
 Viscosity: The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance
to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For
liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness".
Viscosity is a property arising from collisions between
neighboring particles in a fluid that are moving at different
 Density: Density () is the proportion of mass (m) to
volume in an amount of material.
 Specific heat capacity: The specific heat capacity of a
substance is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of
it through 1 degree. It is expressed in joules per kilogram per
Kelvin (J/Kg/K) and is denoted by c.
This chapter reviews and examine a wide range of literature that
has been written on the determination of the density, viscosity and the
specific heat capacity of groundnut oil.
The cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaeaL.) is one of the
major oilseed crops of the tropics and subtropics, although it is also
cultivated in the warm areas of the temperate regions (Hammons, 1994).
It is a valuable source of edible oil (43-55%) and protein (25-28%) for
human beings, and of fodder for livestock. About two thirds of world
production is crushed for oil and the remaining one third is consumed as
Groundnut is an allotetraploid with 2n = 4X (2A + 2B) = 40 (Husted,
1936; Stebbins, 1957; Seijo et al., 2004). It belongs to the subfamily
Papilionoideae, family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae). Groundnut is
a self-pollinating, indeterminate, annual, herbaceous legume. Natural
cross pollination occurs at rates of less than 1% to greater than 6% due
to atypical flowers or action of bees (Coffelt, 1989). The fruit is a pod
with one to five seeds that develops underground within a needle like
structure called a peg, an elongated ovarian structure. Groundnut
originated in the southern Bolivia/north west Argentina region in South
America and is presently cultivated in 108 countries of the world.It is
cultivated on 26.5 million ha in the world, with an average annual
production of 35.7 million tons in the year 2003 (FAO, 2003). The
average yield world over is 1348 kg/ha. Groundnut is a valuable cash
crop for millions of small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics. It
generates employment on the farm and in marketing, transportation and
processing. The largest producers of groundnut are China and India,
followed by Sub-Saharan African countries and Central and South
America. China leads in production of peanut having 37.5% share of
overall world’s production followed by India (19%) and Nigeria (11%).
In India peanut occupies a prominent position in the national edible oil
economy. The major abiotic factors affecting groundnut production
include drought, high temperature, low soil fertility, low soil pH, and
iron chlorosis. Groundnut is prone to several diseases, the fungi and
viruses being the major pathogens compromising its cultivation and
economic profit around the world. The major fungal diseases are early
leaf spots (Cercospora arachidicola), ( late leaf spots Phaeoisariopsis
personata), rust (Puccinia arachidis), collar rot (Aspergillusspp.), root rot
(Macrophomina phaseolina), stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) and
rhizoctonia damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani. These diseases
cause yield losses of 40 to 60% either singly or in combination (Nigam
and Lenne, 1996). Wild Arachisspecies are a reservoir of high levels of
resistances to several stress factors. Because of the low genetic diversity
in the peanut crop, wild relatives are an important source of novel genes.
Differences in ploidy rendered peanut sexually isolated, giving this
species a very narrow genetic base (Stalker et al., 1995; Raina et al,
2001). Thus, introgression of wild genes into groundnut is only possible
through complex crosses or genetic transformation (Proite et al, 2007).
Breeding efforts have been successful to some extent in the development
of groundnut varieties with varying levels of resistance to different
diseases. However, the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood.
Conventionally strategies for disease resistance and management have
met with less success due to lack of proper understanding of the
mechanism of resistance (Anjana et a., 2007). A better understanding of
the mechanisms of plant defense against pathogens might lead to
improved strategies for enhancement of disease resistance in groundnut.
Efforts are needed to gain insights into the early biochemical defense
responses for identification of markers for resistance which accelerates
the groundnut improvement.
Peanut Nutrition

Experts recommend more plant-centered eating, including plant source

of protein like peanuts. Not only tasty and versatile, peanuts can help
you get more nutrition in every bite, giving you more energy to live a
vibrant life. Some people worry about the fat in peanuts, but it’s
important to remember that most of the fat is good fat – 12 grams of the
14 grams total fat are unsaturated – the kind that we should eat more
often. As part of a balanced diet, peanuts and peanut butter provide
great tasting nutrition.
Most often thought of as a nutrient in animal foods like meat, eggs, and
dairy, protein is also in plant-based foods. Eating a variety of protein
sources, including plant-based foods like peanuts, can help provide
needed nutrients and reduce the amount of cholesterol (which experts
recommend we eat less of) in the diet. For vegetarians, it’s important to
eat a variety of plant-based protein to help provide all essential amino
acids, since most vegetable sources are deficient in one or more.
With seven grams per ounce, peanuts have more protein than any nut.
Protein is essential for muscle growth and maintenance.
Vitamins, Minerals and More
Peanuts are a good source of (≥10%):
 Vitamin E: Vitamin E is a dietary antioxidant that helps to protect
cells from oxidative stress, a normal, yet damaging, physiological
process .
 Magnesium: Magnesium is important for muscle function
including the heart, enzyme function and energy production .
 Folate: Folate is needed for cell division, which means that
adequate folate intake is especially important during pregnancy
and childhood when tissues are growing rapidly .
 Copper: Copper is essential for red blood cell formation and for
healthy blood vessels, nerves, immune system and bones .
 Phosphorus: Phosphorus is important for the formation of teeth and
bones, cell growth and muscle function, as well as helping the
body use vitamins to create energy for cells .
 Fiber : Fiber adds bulk to your diet and helps you feel full longer,
while aiding in digestion . In fact, the Dietary Guidelines for
Americans urge Americans to consume more fiber-rich plant foods
for better health. Peanuts are an excellent source of (≥20%):
 Niacin: Niacin is an important B vitamin that helps to convert food
to energy, aids with the digestive and nervous system, and helps
the skin .
 Manganese: Manganese is important for processing cholesterol,
and nutrients like carbohydrates and protein .
Peanuts also contain other nutrients, including:
 Arginine
 Phytosterols, such as beta-sisterol
 Potassium
 Resveratrol
 Selenium
 Zinc

Good Fats
The unsaturated fat make-up of peanuts helps link them to a reduced risk
of heart disease. According to the Food and Drug Administration,
“Replacing saturated fat with similar amounts of unsaturated fats may
reduce the risk of heart disease. To achieve this benefit, total daily
calories should not increase.” One serving of dry-roasted peanuts (30
grams) contains 12 grams of unsaturated fat, only two grams of saturated
fat, and no trans fat. In addition, scientific evidence suggests, but does
not prove that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, including peanuts,
as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk
of heart disease.
Oil is extracted from a number of fruits, nuts and seeds for use in
cooking and soap making or as an ingredient in other foods such as
baked or fried goods. Oil is a valuable product with universal demand,
and the possible income from oil extraction is therefore often enough
to justify the relatively high cost of setting up and running a small-scale
oil milling business.


Oilseeds and nuts should be properly dried before storage, and cleaned
to remove sand, dust, leaves and other contaminants. Fruits should be
harvested when fully ripe, cleaned and handled carefully to reduce
bruising and splitting. All raw materials should be sorted to remove
stones etc. and especially nuts, which can cause aflatoxin poisoning.
When storage is necessary, this should be weatherproof, ventilated
rooms which are protected against birds, insects and rodents. Some raw
for example groundnuts, sunflower seeds need dehusking (or
decorticating). Small manual machines are available to give higher
production rates than manual dehusking (Figure 1).
Figure 1 : A decorticating machine

Dehusking is important to give high yields of oil and reduce the bulk of
material to be processed` but in groundnut oil extraction about 10% by
weight of husk should be added back to the nuts to allow oil to escape
more freely from the press. Coconut is dehusked and split by skilled
operators as this is faster than the available small-scale machines. Most
nuts need grinding before oil extraction to increase the yield of oil.
Small mills are available for grinding copra, palm kernels and
groundnuts. Some seeds (e.g. groundnuts) are conditioned by heating to
80-90oC using a seed scorcher (Figure 2), and all oil-bearing materials
need to have the correct moisture content to maximize the oil yield.
Other oilseeds and nuts are usually processed cold provided that their
moisture content is below about 7%.


There are basically three methods of removing wet processing or dry

processing. Solvent extraction processing because of high capital
solvents and the complexity of the process. Equipment for wet or dry
processing is available at different scales of operation from household to
industrial scale. Traditional methods of extraction are described below,
followed by higher output manual machines and mechanised extraction.


Oil is extracted from fresh coconut, olives, palm fruit Shea nut etc. by
separating the flesh and boiling it in water. Salt is added to break the
emulsion and the oil is skimmed from the surface. In palm oil processing
the fruit is first heated in a ‘digester’.


Oil can be extracted by pressing softer oilseeds and nuts, such as

groundnuts and shea nuts, whereas harder, more fibrous materials such
as copra and sunflower seed are processed using ghanis. Pulped or
ground material is loaded into a manual or hydraulic press to squeeze
out the oil-water emulsion. This is more efficient at removing oil than
traditional hand squeezing, allowing higher production rates. Fresh
coconut meat is removed from the shell using a manual reamer (Figure
3) or are pressed in a similar way to extract the oil emulsion. The
emulsion is broken and the oil is then separated and clarified (see

Figure 2: A manual reamer

Presses have a number of different designs, which can be grouped into

screw or hydraulic operation. Both types can be manual or motor driven.
In all types, a batch of raw material is placed in a heavy-duty perforated
metal ‘cage’ and pressed by the movement of a heavy metal plunger.
The amount of material in the cage varies from 5-30 kg with an average
of 20 kg. Layer plates can be used in larger cages to reduce the thickness
of the layer of raw material and speed up removal of oil. The pressure
should be increased slowly to allow time for the oil to escape. Screw
types are more reliable than hydraulic types but are slower and produce
less pressure. Except where a lorry jack is used (Figure 4), hydraulic
types are more expensive, need more maintenance, and risk
contaminating oil with poisonous hydraulic fluid.

Ghanis are widely used in Asia but less so in other areas. A heavy
wooden or metal pestle is driven inside a large metal or wooden mortar
(Figure 5a). The batch of raw material is ground and pressed and the oil
drains out. They have relatively high capital and maintenance costs and
need skilled operators to achieve high oil yields.
Figure 3: Hydraulic oil expeller

Mechanised extraction

Motorised presses are faster than manual or animal types (Figure 5a) but
are more expensive. Motorised ghanis (Figure 5b) are also available, but
their higher capital and operating costs require a larger scale of
production for profitability. Expellers are Figure 5a: Animal powered
extraction Figure 5b: motorised extractioncontinuous in operation and
work by grinding and pressing the raw material as it is carried through a
barrel by a helical screw (Figure 6a). The pressure inside the barrel, and
hence the yield of oil, are adjusted using a ‘choke’ ring at the outlet. The
equipment has higher production rates than similar sized presses but is
more expensive to buy and operate.

Figure 4 : Animal powered extraction and motorised extraction

Figure 5a: Powered oil expeller and
Manual oil expeller

Although manual expellers are available (Figure 5a), small scale oil
millers more often use powered equipment to reduce the time and labour
involved in processing. Some designs also have an electric heater fitted
to the barrel to increase the rate of oil extracton. The production on rate
using presses and ghanis depends on the size of the equpment and the
time taken to fill, press and empty each batch. The production rate of
expellers depends on the size of the equipment, the speed of the screw
and the settng of the choke ring.

Packaging and storage of oil

If incorrectly stored, some types of oil rapidly go rancid and develop an

unpleasant odour and flavour. The main factors that cause rancidity (in
addition to moisture, bacteria and enzymes above) are light, heat, air and
some types of metals. To obtain a shelf life of several months, oils
should be stored in lightproof, airtight and moisture-proof containers in a
cool place. Tin coated cans, glazed pottery, coloured glass and certain
types of plastics are each suitable when properly sealed. Great care is
needed to remove all traces of oil from re-useable containers, and to
thoroughly dry them before re-filling, because any residual moisture or
rancid oil on the inside will rapidly spoil fresh oil. The materials used to
make processing equipment and containers should not contain copper as
it promotes rancidity. Stainless steel, galvanised iron, enamelled iron
and aluminium are suitable
Use of by-products

Groundnut meal is widely used for human food (biscuits, soups etc.)
when it is extracted by manual methods which do not burn the by-
product. Other fruits, nuts and oilseeds produce by-products that can be
used for fuel and animal feeds (Table 1). The high temperatures
employed in expellers burn by-products and they are only suitable for
animal feeds. However, all oil extraction businesses need to identify
markets for their by-products for economic viability.
Before any research work could be carried out successfully, data or
information has to be collected. In this regard, this chapter aims at
discussing the various methods used.
The density of water is 1000kg/m3 since water is the most common
liquid, it is most convenient to use it as a standard for comparing the
density of liquid. This comparison is termed Relative Density (R.D). But
to compute the density of a substance we have to get the mass of the
substance and volume of that substance.
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑖𝑙
Density of oil =
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑖𝑙

The density of oil is obtained using a pyknometer. The pyknometer is

weighed empty to get its weight and then filled with the oil whose
density is to be determined.
Specific Heat Capacity is the measurement of the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one
degree. The experiment to determine this property employs the formula.
Q= 𝑀𝐶∆𝜃
Q=the quantity of heat required
C= the specific heat capacity of the substance.
M= the mass of the substance and
∆𝜃 = The change in temperature of the substance.
The common methods of these procedures are;
1. Electrical method.
2. Continuous flow method
This work employs the use of electrical method.



To measure the specific heat capacity of liquid groundnut oil

An aluminum calorimeter with known specific heat capacity is used. The
oil is poured into the calorimeter and then current was supply to the
heating coil of the calorimeter. A steady current was maintained for 5
minutes. Meanwhile, the liquid is stirred continuously. At the end of the
5 minutes the current is switched off and the final steady temperature of
the liquid is noted. The results may be recorded, as shown, symbols
being replaced by actual readings. Note that the energy supplied equals
the heat gained by the calorimeter and the liquid Groundnut.

Readings (Units)

Mass of calorimeter and stirrer = m1 (g)

Mass of calorimeter, stirrer and liquid = m2 (g)

Mass of liquid (m2-m1) = m (g)

Initial temperature of liquid = θ1 (0C)

Final temperature of liquid = θ2 (0C)

Rise in temperature (θ2-θ1) = θ (0C)

Current = I (A)

P.d. Across heat heater coil = V (V)

Time = t (S)

Assume, specific heat of copper (c) = 400 J/kg/K


Energy supplied by heater = VIt (J)

Specific heat capacity of heater = c (J/Kg)

Heat received by liquid = mcθ(J)

Heat received by calorimeter and stirrer = m1×400×c (J)

Hence mcθ + 400m1θ = VIt

VIt− 400m1θ
Or specific heat capacity of liquid (c) = (J/Kg)


Viscosity of liquid is measured with devices called viscometer but
in the laboratory, viscosity is measured experimentally using methods
such as poisseulles (continuous flow method), stoke’s method, etc.
Because of the variation of viscosity with temperature, the temperature
of the investigated liquid and its surrounding should be noted and
maintained steadily. This work uses stoke’s method for the determining
of the viscosity of the oil.


Stokes' Law is written as,
Where Fd is the drag force of the fluid on a sphere, m is the fluid
viscosity, V is the velocity of the sphere relative to the fluid, and d is the
diameter of the sphere. Using this equation, along with other well-
known principle of physics, we can write an expression that describes
the rate at which the sphere falls through a quiescent, viscous fluid. To
begin we must draw a free body diagram (FBD) of the sphere. That is
we must sketch the sphere and all of the internal and external forces
acting on the sphere as it is dropped into the fluid. The figure below
shows a sketch of the entire system (sphere dropping through a column
of liquid). The FBD is the dashed cross-section that has been removed
and exploded in the left portion of this figure.

Free-body diagram of a sphere in a quiescent fluid.

The FBD in this figure lists three forces acting on the sphere; Fb, Fd,
and mg. The first two forces arise from the buoyancy effect of displacing
the fluid in question and from the viscous drag of the fluid on the sphere,
respectively. Both forces act upwards -- buoyancy tending to 'float' the
sphere (Fb) and the drag force (Fd) resisting the acceleration of gravity.
The only force acting downwards is the bodyforce resulting from
gravitational attraction (mg). By summing forces in the vertical we can
write the following equation,
Fb +Fd = mg
The buoyancy force is simply the weight of displaced fluid. As you may
recall from earlier work in science and math, the volume of a sphere
(vsphere) is written as,
vsphere= 𝜋 r3
Combining this volume with the mass density of the fluid, fluid, we can
now write the buoyancy force as the product,
Fb= m df g= π r3ρfluidg

Where g is the gravitational acceleration and r is the radius of the

sphere. Combining all of the previous relationships that describe the
forces acting on the sphere in a fluid we can write the following
π r3ρfluid g+6π𝑉𝑑 = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝐴 = 𝑚𝑔

Rearranging and regrouping the terms from the above equation we arrive
at the following relationship,
2𝑟 2 (𝜌𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 −𝜌𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 )

While Stokes’ Law is straight forward, it is subject to some limitations.

Specifically, this relationship is valid only for ‘laminar’ flow. Laminar
flow is defined as a condition where fluid particles move along in
smooth paths in lamina (fluid layers gliding over one another). The
alternate flow condition is termed ‘turbulent’ flow. This latter condition
is characterized by fluid particles that move in random in irregular paths
causing an exchange of momentum between particles.
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