NEMATODES

CN FH IH H Life span MOT DS IS Morphology Color Anterior Esophagus Anus Posterior Capillaria philippinensis Pudoc worm Man & Other vertebrates Glass fishes [Bagsang, Bagsit, Bagtu, Birot, Ipon] (intestines) Small intestines Trichinella spiralis Trichina worm, Muscle worm [Tissue worm] Man, Pig, Rat, Dog, Cats, Bears, Foxes, Walruses, other carnivore/omnivores Adult: Small intestines (subepithelial cells) Larva: Encysted in skeletal muscle Female [30 days] Ingestion Encysted larva Half cooked/uncooked pork] Whitish

Ingestion Ova, Larva, Adult Larva in Intermediate Host Thin filamentous anterior [secretory cells] Stichocytes >> Stichosome Subterminal Slightly thicker La Union, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Leyte, Davao, Zambales

Male

Caudal appendages 2 Pair of conical Papillae Size Sheathed Spicule Testis 1.5-3.9 mm [unspined] Sheathed 1 [230-300 m] 1.5 mm

Single

Female

Size Type Vulva Posterior Eggs Uterus

2.3-5.3 mm [[Vivi/Ovivi]] At the junction of anterior and middle third

Vulva + Seminal receptacle + Oviduct 3.5 mm Viviparous Anterior fifth of ventral side Ovary [1] 1,500 eggs in life time [30 days] Club shaped

Embryo

Size Size Shell [Double walled] Shape

36-45 m [Soil/Water] Capillaria Trichuris Smaller Bigger Striated Non-striated Peanut shaped Guitar shaped Flattened Japanese lantern shaped Foot ball shape Prominent

80-120 m

Spear-like burrow anterior tip

Pathology

Mucus plug Abdominal pain Severe diarrhea [leads to dehydration] Borborygmus [gurgling sound] Hyperinfection [due to a typical female] & Autoinfection Severe protein-losing entropathy Ulceration of intestinal mucosa [Malabsorption of fluid, protein & electrolytes]

<10 Harbor eggs ± AYSMPTOMATIC 50-500 Worms ± Moderate infection >1,000 larvae ± Severe infection Stages: 1. Incubation and intestinal invasion 2. Larval migration and muscle invasion 3. Encystment & encapsulation Diarrhea/Constipation, Vomiting, Abdominal cramps, Malaise, Nausea Cardinal signs: Severe myaglia, periobital edema & eosinophilia Paralysis of extrimities Tissue biopsy Beek¶s Xenodiagnosis Bentonite Focculation Test Severe: Adenocorticosteroids [inhibit severity of disease/protect organs from significant damage] Thiabendazole Mebendazole >Prevent ingestion of raw/insufficiently cooked meat of infected animal<

Dx

DFS Wet mount

Tx

Concentration Tech. =AECT =FECT Albendazole [destroys larva stages] Mebendazole

Prevention

Good sanitary practices Educational programs