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University of Chicago

Although sociologists increasingly recognize the importance of networks in social move-

ment mobilization, efforts to understand networkfactors have been hampered by the opera-
tionalization of network factors as individual-level variables. I argue that disaggregating
relational data into individual-level counts of social ties obscures the crucial issues of net-
work structure and multiplexity. I analyze data on insurgency in the Paris Commune of 1871
and show that organizational networks and pre-existing informal networks interacted in the
mobilization process, even in thefinalmoments of the insurrection. Network autocorrelation
models reveal that enlistment patterns in the Paris National Guard created organizational
linkages among residential areas that contributed to solidarity in the insurgent effort, but the
efficacy of these linkages depended on the presence of informal social ties rooted in Parisian
neighborhoods. Thus the role of networkfactors can only be understood by studying the joint
infiuence of formal and informal social structures on the mobilization process.

A decade ago. Snow, Zurcher, and Ekland- tions are structured and, more precisely, on the
Olson (1980) pointed to the importance of correspondence between organizational and in-
social networks for understanding the mobiliza- formal networks. I use data on pattems of insur-
tion of social movements, but the state of research gency during the Paris Commune of 1871 to show
in this area is still best described as inchoate, that successful mobilization depended not on the
Despite widespread acceptance of the idea that sheer number of ties, but on the interplay be-
"network" or "structural" factors play a role in tween social ties created by insurgent organiza-
mobilization or recruitment, only a handful of tions and pre-existing social networks rooted in
studies have made genuine progress toward un- Parisian neighborhoods. Organizational networks
derstanding the significance of these factors. maintained solidarity because they were stmc-
A principal reason for this state of affairs is tured along neighborhood lines. Paradoxically,
that — often because of data considerations — neighborhood ties even determined the impor-
researchers have typically used purely scalar vari- tance of organizational links that cut across neigh-
ables to measure networks of social relations, borhoods.
"Network effects" are examined by simply count- Previous studies have rarely demonstrated that
ing social ties and using these counts as interval structural properties of relational systems are
variables in regression equations, so that the pro- important for social movements, and there is no
cess by which social ties influence mobilization discussion in the literature of the ways in which
is analyzed as though it operates exclusively on formal and informal networks interact in the
the individual level. This in tum means that two mobilization process. In the conclusion, I argue
key issues — network structure and multiplexity that these issues are best addressed through data
— have received insufficient consideration in collection procedures and analytic strategies that
theory and research. respect the structure of networks rather than re-
My goal is to demonstrate that the effect of ducing networks to individual-level counts of
social relations on the mobilization of collective social ties,
action depends on the way in which these rela-
European Studies, and a Chateaubriand Fellowship in
* Direct all correspondence to Roger V. Gould, the Social Sciences. I thank Roberto Femandez, Pa-
Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1126 trice Higonnet, Doug McAdam, Amy McCready, Pe-
East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. This research ter Marsden, Joel Podolny, Theda Skocpol and the
was supported by a National Science Foundation Grad- editor and reviewers for their helpful comments and
uate Fellowship, a Krupp Foundation Fellowship in suggestions.

716 American Sociological Review, 1991, Vol. 56 (December:716-729)


NETWORK FACTORS IN MOBILIZATION in a social structure to play a role in movement

recruitment. A simulation sttidy by Marwell, Ol-
The notion of social structure, in various guises, iver, and Prahl (1988) explored the effect of
has played a role in theories of collective action group-level variables — rKtwotk centralization
for a long time (Smelser 1963; Oberschall 1973). and resource heterogeneity — on aggregate con-
However, it was only widi the publication of tributions to a collective good.
Snow, Zurcher, and Ekland-Olson's (1980) sem- While diese research efforts represent an im-
inal article that a specifically network-based con- portant advance inasmuch as they refuse to treat
ceptualization of structure gained currency in social ties in piecemeal fashion and place an em-
social movement research. Reacting to the un- phasis on networks as such, they focus on single
dersocialized view of human behavior character- networks and thus neglect the second key issue,
istic of early versions of the resource mobiliza- network multiplexity.' Yet one of the key rea-
tion perspective (McCarthy and Zald 1973,1977; sons network structure is significant is that mo-
Gamson 1975), Snow and his colleagues demon- bilization typically creates organizational net-
strated that social ties to members of Nichiren works that overlay and interact with pre-existing
Shoshu of America were instrumental in draw- informal networks. Thus, a focus on network
ing new members into the organization. This was structure entails a simultaneous examination of
a significant finding because it focused attention formal and informal networics.
on the "microstructural" bases of social move- There are three principal reasons why the Par-
ment recruitment. is Commune of 1871 is an especially useful set-
Subsequent research has yielded similar re- ting for an investigation into the problem of so-
sults, most notably in McAdam's (1986, 1988) cial networks and social movements. First, in-
study of recruitment to the 1964 Mississippi Free- surgent mobilization was effected through a high-
dom Summer project. But in each case, suppos- ly visible formal organization, the Paris National
edly "structural" factors in recruitment are mea- Guard, so that it is possible to make precise state-
sured as individual-level variables: Ties between ments about how participants were recruited to
participants and movement activists that predate the uprising. Second, National Guard units were
recruitment are counted and the resulting num- generally organized along neighborhood lines,
ber used as an independent variable in a regres- with the important exception of 35 volunteer bat-
sion equation. In some cases, organizational af- talions. This means that mobilization outcomes
filiations or respondents' subjective evaluations across units can be compared with respect to a
about how integrated they are have been substi- critical variable: the availability of neighborhood
tuted for network data (see, e.g.. Cable, Walsh, social ties as a source of solidarity. Finally, the
and Warland 1988). connection between the organizational structure
While die difficulty of collecting and analyz- of the insurgent effort and the social structure of
ing true network data make this a practical ap- neighborhoods permits an examination of the
proach, it masks the complexity inherent in so- extent to which social networks and organiza-
cial networks and does not permit inquiry into tional networks interact in affecting social move-
the possibility that network infiuences on mobi- ment mobilization,
lization operate on a supra-individual level. The
effect on A of a social tie to B may depend on ^^^ COMMUNAL REVOLUTION OF 1871
whether A is also tied to C, but this kind of inter-
lock disappears when networks are reduced to The late 1860s were a period of social and polit-
numerical counts of ties. ical ferment in Paris as well as the rest of uri>an
Recently, researchers have begun to address France.- In part because of an 1864 law legaliz-
this issue by exploring the effects of specifically
structural aspects of social networks. In a later ' I" Marwell, Oliver, and Prahl's (1988) simulation
study of the Freedom Summer project, Feman- ^^^^y, only one kind of relation is assumed to exist:
dez and McAdam (1988) analyzed die effect on Individuals are either tied to each other or not, and
_. . . ^ . J- . . ,, , • there IS no provision for multiple social ties. Similar-
participation of an individual s network promi- pemandez and McAdam (1988) restricted their
nence — a measure of centrality diat uses die attention to the networic of social ties generated by
first eigenvector of die network matrix to weight joint membership in activist organizations, thus ne-
each person's ties by die centrality of die people giecting the effects of any social ties nm specifically
to whom he or she is tied. This specification of connected with the mobilizaticm of activism,
network effects permits an individual's position ^ TTiis historical account is necessarily brief. De-

ing strikes and an 1868 law liberalizing controls ed by the working-class battalions of the Guard
on the press and public meetings, but also be- in February 1871. The next day, the Committee
cause of growing discontent widi the regime of announced elections to the Commune, simulta-
Emperor Louis Napoleon, strikes became more neously invoking therevolutionaryCommune of
frequent throughout France's industrial regions 1789 and die tradition of municipal independence
and calls for social and political reforms became favored nineteenth-century socialists like Proud-
more vociferous. Although France's economy had hon (Greenberg 1973).
grown and industrialized since the declaration of The proclamation of the Commune on March
the Second Empire in Bonaparte's "Eighteenth 26 initiated a two-month experiment in democratic
Brumaire" of 1851, the growing prosperity had socialism. The Commune established workers'
chiefiy benefitted propertied classes and finance cooperative enterprises throughout the city, insti-
capitalists at the expense of the woridng popula- tuted universal free education, declared die sepa-
tion, which included proletarianized industrial ration of churched state, and passed resolutions
workers as well as artisans (Edwards 1971). on specific economic issues such as the abolition
Unlike the revolutions of 1789 and 1848, the of night woik for bakers. But as Marx (1940),
events of 1871 were not preceded by a nation- noted, "The greatest social measure ofthe Com-
wide agricultural crisis. Tlhe combination of an mune was its own working existence. Its special
economic recession and a misguided war with measures could but betoken the tendency of a
Prussia over the succession of a HohenzoUem govemment ofthe people by the people" (p. 65).
prince to die Spanish throne were sufficient to Although the Commune was not a class war in
sweep away the Empire without a shot being the sense of a proletarian revolt against capital-
fired. A series of embarrassing defeats of France's ism, its suppression was every bit as brutal as if it
armies, including the encirclement of one force had been motivated by the class hatred Marx
at Metz and die capture of a second — along attributed to the French bourgeoisie. From the
with the Emperor himself—at Sedan, led to the first hostilities between the Paris National Guard
proclamation of a Republic in Paris on Septem- and the government on March 30, the Versailles
ber 4,1870. forces chose to execute rather than detain many
The defeats continued, however, and Paris was of the insurgents they captured. The fighting in-
subjected to a four-month winter siege by the creasingly absorbed the Commune's attention,
Prussian army. In January 1871, the rural popu- until the Versailles army re-entered Paris on May
lation of France elected a National Assembly de- 21. In a re-enactment of the June Days of 1848,
termined to sign a peace treaty with Bismarck, the people of Paris tore up cobblestones, grat-
the Prussian Chancellor. The radical deputies ings, and anything else that was available to build
from Paris, who wanted to continue the war rath- barricades and defend the city against the gov-
er than surrender, were outvoted, and the capital emment troops. Officers and soldiers of the
was ceded to the Prussian army (although the French army continued to execute those they cap-
victorious forces were permitted only to march tured at each barricade, prompting the massacre
through, not occupy, the city). A struggle ensued by Parisians of dozens of hostages taken by the
between the conservative govemment of Adolphe Commune. At the end of the semaine sanglante
Thiers and the people of Paris over the disposi- (or "bloody week") of May 21 to 28 when the
tion of the artillery of the Paris National Guard, city hadfinallybeen subdued, about 25,(XX) Pari-
the popular militia force of 300,0(X) men that had sians were dead, most of them shot after surren-
been armed during the Prussian siege. A poorly dering to the army. In contrast, of the 15,(X)0
planned attempt by the French army to seize the Communards actually tried for their role in the
cannon on March 18 became a complete fiasco insurrection (about 40,(XX) were arrested, but most
when the troops refused to fire on the crowds of these were dismissed after a preliminary inter-
protecting the artillery parks. Thiers ordered the rogation), only 23 were executed by the military
army to retreat to Versailles, leaving Paris by courts (Appert 1875). About one-fifth of those
default in the hands of the Central Committee of tried were acquitted; the rest were either deport-
the National Guard, a largely radical group elect- ed to the French penal colonies in New Cale-
tailed histories in English may be found in Home donia or imprisoned in France for periods rang-
(1965) and Edwanis (1971); Tombs (1981) focussed "^8 ""^^^ ^"^ ^o 20 years,
on the military aspects of the uprising. The classic I" die short term, the upheaval of 1871 imper-
account in French is Lissagaray [1876] (1969); Ser- iled the infant French republic by reinforcing
man (1986) provided a recent synthesis. Bourbon and Bonapartist calls for the mainte-

nance of social order through a strong monarchy, policy of recruitment along residential lines was
But in 1879, after nearly a decade of right-wing crucial for mobilization until die last moments of
reaction under the presidency of Marshal Mac- fighting because it linked die informal social net-
Mahon, the monarehist general who had engi- woiks defined by neighborhoods to the formal
neered the crushing of the Commune, Republi- network generated among insurgents by joint
cans finally gained a majority in bodi houses of membership in die National Guard. Members of
the legislature. Less dian a year later, a general each battalion were tied to each odier not only
amnesty was approved for all diose still impris- dirough dieir shared organizational affiliation, but
oned for participating in die 1871 uprising. In die also by the fact diat diey were neighbors,
ensuing mondis, thousands of convicted insur- The importance of neighborhood solidarity in
gents returned to France — leaving behind hun- maintaining the cohesiveness of residentially or-
dreds who had died serving their sentences. ganized units was clearly evident in the persis-
tence with which rank-and-file National Guards-
SOCIAL NETWORKS AND SOCIAL "^^" associated their participation in the insur-
MOVEMENT MOBILIZATION ^^"^ ^^^^ ^** ^ neighborhood-based identity.
One group of Guardsmen in the second battal-
Mobilization does not just depend on social ties; ion, which was recruited primarily in the eighth
it also creates them. Although members of a pro- Paris arrondissement, protested their inclusion
test organi2ation may have joined because of a in a Guard unit from another neighborhood:
pre-existing socialtieto an activist, they also form
new social relations while participating in col- T^^ undersigned National Guards, inhabitants of
, ^ ^ . re J- • f r .LU the chaussee d Antin m the ninth arrondissement,
ective protest (for a discussion of some of the formingpartof the 2nd battalion of which four com-
long-term effects of such ties, see McAdam 1988). p^i^^ ^side in the eighth arrondissement;
Widiout addressing die matter directiy, the cur- Request that the companiesresidingin the ninth
rent view of how social networks infiuence mo- be turned over to one of the battalions of the ninth
bilization implies that pre-existingtiesdo not mat- arrondissement, or any other assignment deemed
ter once someone has been recruited. For exam- useful for the communal defense. (Archives Histo-
ple, Marwell, Oliver, and Prahl's (1988) Simula- riques de I'Armde de Terre, Series Ly, carton 35)*
tion treated an actor's contribution to a collective
good as unproblematic once he or she had been Similarly, a group of officers ofthe 148th battal-
contacted by a movement organizer. Femandez ion expressed their desire "to perform no service
and McAdam (1988) argued that their focus on but that of their own arrondissement,'' arguing
die organizational affiliations of applicants to the that this was the only way to ensure the protec-
Freedom Summer project was "ideally suited for tion of their neighborhood from reactionary fore-
studying the network or other factors that main- es. Moreover, they viewed the deployment of an
tain commitment to the project among the set of outside battalion in their arrondissement as "a sign
applicants" (p. 360). These approaches implicit- of mistrust, and consequentiy as an insult to their
ly presuppose that the ties established during the republican patriotism" (Archives Historiques de
process of mobilizationtellus everything we need 1' Armee de Terre, Series Ly, carton 44).
to know about continued participation; pre-exist- Petitions and letters were not the only means
ing ties may have helped create these new ties by by which insurgents expressed their neighbor-
facilitating initial recruitment, but they have no hood loyalty. The localism of National Guard
further infiuence. battalions is a recurrent theme in historical treat-
Evidence from thefinalweek of the Paris Com- ments of barricade fighting during the semaine
mune strongly suggests diat this view is incor- statement that insurgents belonged to the same unit as
rect. The residential recruitment system of the their neighbors should therefore be taken literally:
National Guard, which assigned people to battal- Participants in the insurrection routinely fought be-
ions on die basis of the neighborhood in which side people who lived on the same street, even in the
diey lived, provided more than an organizational same building,
framework for the insurgent effort.^ Radier, die ' ^s this example makes clear, the continual re-
shuffling of Nauonal Guard comparues m the early
'The Paris National Guard was divided into 20 weeks of the Communeresultedin numerous organi-
legions, each corresponding to one of the city's 20 zationai anomalies, so that most battalions included
arrondissements, or administrative districts. Each le- some Guardsmen who lived outside the appropriate
gion was subdivided into battalions drawnfirompar- neighbortiood. The implication of these enlistment
ticular neighboriioods within the arrondissement. The ovedaps is dealt with in detail below.

cruited without regard to residence, differences

between these two types of battalions were min-
imal. While volunteer battalions remained incte-
pendent of the administrative apparatus of the
National Guard Federation, even tiiis distinction
became irrelevant as all traces of central control
vanished in the last week of fighting.
Figure 1 reveals critical differences between
the two groups with respect to the cumulative
u o-l^'i'MHHi'HtBBJHiiWl'BtlHf distribution of arrests across the eight days of the
semaine sanglante. Raw data for this figure are
drawn from the army's official report to the Na-
Figure 1. Cumulative Distribution of Arrests of National tional Assembly (Appert 1875). For die volun-
GuardsmenbypayJorVolunteerBattalionsmid ^^^^ battalions, nearly half (45.2 percent) of all
Residential Battalions: Pans Commune, May 21- , , , . , / - . , , ,
28^ 1871 those arrested dunng the fighting had already
been detained by the second day. In contrast, the
proportion for residentially based units at this
sanglante. Accoitling to numerous accounts, the point was a little over one-fourth (26.4 percent),
central obstacle to a concerted defense of the city The insurgents' typical approach to resistance
against the Versailles army was the obstinate re- during the "bloody week" was to defend each
fusal of Guardsmen to fight outside their resi- barricade until it was overcome and then either
dential areas. Rougerie (1971) argued that the to surrender or, if they were not trapped, to re-
final call to the barricades issued by the Com- treat to another barricade (Edwards 1971; Tombs
mune's War Delegate, Charles Delescluze, served 1981). Thus this difference in the timing of ar-
to "dismande what was left of the organized Com- rests appears to refiect a higher level of solidarity
munard troops, each one running to the defense in residential battalions than in volunteer units,
of its quartier [neighborhood] rather than form- The pattem for the first two days is particularly
ing a front" (p. 252). Edwards (1971) reported striking in light of the fact that there was very
that Jean AUemane, a battalion commander in little serious fighting during this period; most
the fifth arrondissement who rose to prominence arrests at this point were the result of surrender
as a labor leader in the 1880s, was unable to ratherthancapture. For example, on the morning
prevent two units from the eleventh and twelfth of May 22, the second day of the semaine sang-
arrondissements from going home to fight dur- lante, 1,500 National Guards from several bat-
ing the final week. Clifford (1975) reported a talions surrendered when an army regiment en-
similar incident in which Guardsmen from the tered the city gates at the Porte Maillot and over-
Right Bank abandoned a large barricade they were ran the battery of cannon in the Pare Monceau
defending on the Left Bank, saying they were (Clifford 1975; Edwards 1971). Given that this
going to protect their own areas from the army, incident accounted for half of the 3,(XX) arrests
Clearly, neighborhood social structure left its reported for that day (Appert 1875), it is clear
imprint on the behavior of insurgents long after that at this stage the army had not yet encoun-
the initial stages of recruitment. tered much resistance.
Historical accounts of the Commune have con- For battalions recruited along neighborhood
sistendy pointed to the damaging effects of neigh- lines, 42.7 percent of the total arrests for the week
boriiood loyalty on efforts to mount a coordinat- were made in the last two days, compared with
ed military struggle against the Versailles army. 31.9 percent for Guardsmen in volunteer battal-
But this emphasis on strategy misses the crucial ions. In general, insurgents in neighborhood-
sociological point that the mapping of National based units were arrested at considerably later
Guard units onto resictential areas had unmistak- stages in the fighting, indicating that these battal-
ably positive effects on mobilization. In fact, ions were more cohesive than those that were not
neighbortiood social structure was the principal organized residentially.
source of commitment to the insurgent effort. It is apparent from these data that informal so-
TTiis is evident when t t e arrest pattems of resi- cial networks are implicated in social movement
(fentially recruited battalions are compared with mobilization well past the initial stages of recruit-
die pattems for the 35 volunteer units. Aside frx)m ment. Pre-existing social ties helped to maintain
the fact that Guards in volunteer units were re- solidarity in the 1871 insurrection even after par-

ticipants were firmly embedded in organizational that explicitly takes enlistment overlaps into ac-
networks because National Guard battalions tied count by means of a term for netwoik autocorre-
people together in ways that mirrored the division lation. The model takes the following form:
of the Parisian social world into well-defined _ -^ + Yft 4.
neighborhoods. Thus, neighborhood social struc- ^"P y
ture contributed not only to the formation of in- where W is a matrix of weights representing net-
surgent organizations, but also to their effective- work links among the 20 arrondissements of Par-
ness as tools for mounting collective protest. is, p is a coefficient representing the degree of
interdependence among the observations, y is a
Solidarity and Structure "'^f'"! °^ outcomes on the dependent variable
and the remainder of the equation is the standard
These findings could be inteipreted as showing linear regression model. This model posits an in-
only that social ties need to be counted more ac- fiuence process in which a district's resistance
curately, i.e., network multiplexity might only level is a function of a set of exogenous variables
imply that different kinds of ties contribute addi- and of the resistance levels of all the other dis-
tively to mobilization and the maintenance of trictjs, weighted by the strength of its links with
solidarity. If this were true, sociologists would them. This specification implies that each district
still not need to consider structure: they would simultaneously infiuences and is infiuenced by
simply need to remember that pairs of people can each other district in the network, resulting in
be tied in more than one way and that multiple "endogenous feedback" (Erbring and Young
ties (friendship, shared organizational member- 1979) that operates through network ties. More-
ship, and so on) can exert simultaneous but inde- over, because the entire network is taken into ac-
pendent effects on mobilization. count, neighborhoods are hypothesized to infiu-
But this is not the whole story. Neighborhood ence each other directly, through dieir ties to each
ties and organizational ties created by the Nation- other, and indirectly, through their ties to other
al Guard actedyomr/y to maintain solidarity in the neighborhoods. My arguments imply that we
ranks of Parisian insurgents; and it is because of should observe positive values of presultingfrom
this interaction between the two networks that their the network of overlapping enlistments. Estima-
structure must be taken into account. tion of the model is accomplished through maxi-
Despite the general policy of residential re- mum-likelihood techniques (Doreian 1981; Od-
cruitment, a substantial number of Guardsmen land 1988).
were enlisted in battalions outside their own Data are drawn from both archival and pub-
neighborhoods. Thus, they were linked by the lished sources. Because variation in levels of re-
insurgent organization to people who were not sistance is difficult to capture widi a single vari-
tied to them as neighbors; conversely, they were able, two dependent measures are used. The first
linked as neighbors to other insurgents widi whom is the average battalion size for each arrondisse-
they did not have organizational ties. In other ment. The number of battalions formed in each
words, diese insurgents constituted organizational arrondissement was based on the number of adult
links across neighborhoods and neighborhood males living there, and in principle each battalion
links across organizations. should have consisted of 1,5(X) men. Despite a
The analysis presented below shows that the series of decrees issued by the Commune's War
network of social ties created by overlapping en- Delegates to the effect that men who failed to
listments had important consequences for the in- perform their Guard service would be disarmed
surgent effort. These overlaps made levels of com- and imprisoned, the exigencies of the war effort
mitment to the insurrection interdependent across and the inefficiency of the organization made
residential areas: die degree to which each neigh- enforcement impracticable. Consequently, the
borhood was successful in mounting resistance number of Guardsmen actuallyreportingfor duty
to the Versailles army depended on levels of re- varied considerably and usually fell well below
sistance in the other neighborhoods to which it the target. Since diese shortfalls presumably re-
was linked. suited from apathy or a lack of resolve on the part
of recruits, the average battalion size measures
n A T A A Mi-i xyrc'por^r.c ^^ch district's success in mobilizing its male pop-
DATA AND METHODS ^1^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^j^^ insurrection.
The most effective test ofdie claim that resistance Battalion commanders filed daily dispatehes
levels are interdependent is a regression model to die Commune's War Ministry reporting on

Average Battalion Size:

Figure 2. Average Battalion Size in Late May, by Arrondissement: Paris Commune, 1871
Note: Although battalion sizes vary from early to late May, the differences are not noticeable in this form of presenta-

the discipline and morale of their units and on the variable is attributable to differential rates of par-
number of men actually serving. These dispatch- ticipation in the fighting rather than to variation
es were seized by the army during the final week in the death rates from other causes. There is one
of fighting and are preserved in the Archives other source of measurement error: the dozens of
Historiques de 1'Armee de Terre at Vincennes wounded insurgents who died in military hospi-
(Series Ly, cartons 37 through 123). Although tals during the semaine sanglante tend to infiate
the^ records are incomplete, reports are avail- the totals for arrondissements containing large
able for 176 of the 215 battalions active under hospitals.^ Consequentiy, the analyses of death
the Commune. For this study, battalion size was rates include a term for the number of deaths
recorded at two time points: The first week in from military injuries that occurred in each dis-
May, after enlistment lists were closed and dis- trict in February 1871. Since fighting with the
loyal or "recalcitrant" battalions had been dis- Prussians ceased in January, any military deaths
solved or reorganized; and the end of the third in February presumably occurred in hospitals;
week in May, on the eve ofthe Versailles army's this variable should therefore correct for distor-
fmal assault on the capital. This makes it possi- tions in the death rates for May 1871 that result
ble to determine if the extent of interdependence from the presence of large hospitals. Data for
among neighboriioods changed in the course of these measures come from the city's monthly
the uprising. Figure 2 depicts average battalion bulletin of vital statistics (Ville de Paris 1872).
size in late May. Not surprisingly, there are no Figure 3 shows death rates by arrondissement.
reports dated arfter May 21, the day the army W is a 20 X 20 matrix in which each element,
entered the city's westem gates. Wjj, is the number of Guards living in the ith ar-
The second dependent variable is the number rondissement who served in theyth legion, divid-
of deaths per 1,(XX) inhabitants for each ar- ed by the total number of that district's Guards
rondissement during the month of May. Ideally, who served in other legions (each legion corre-
deaths firom natural causes should be subtracted sponds to a particular arrondissement). Thus W
from arrondissement totals, but this information ' For example, the Hdpital des Invalides in the up-
is unavailable. Given the large increase in die per-class, politically conservative seventh arrondisse-
number of deaths during the insurrection, how- ment probably explains many more ofthe deaths that
ever, it is likely that most of the variation in this occurred there in May 1871 than insurgency could.

Standardized Deaths
per 1,(KX) Inhabitants:

Figure 3. Standardized Deaths per 1,000 Inhabitants, by Arrondissement: Paris Commune, May 1871
Note: Since death rates are confounded by the presence of military hospitals in some neighborhoods, these data represent
deaths net of this confounding factor. These rates are standardized residuals form an OLS regression of raw death rates on
deaths from military injuries in February 1871 (see text).

is a non-symmetric, row-normalized matrix of census as skilled salaried workers; the percentage

weights in which the diagonal elements are set to classified as unskilled (day-laborers); and the
zero.* Raw data for this matrix are drawnfromthe percentage who were white-collar employees
official military report on the insurrection and its (Loua 1873). The contrast category consists of
repression (Appert 1875). Figure 4 shows these people with bourgeois or professional occupations.
enlistment overlaps for each arrondissement. Poverty is hypothesized to have contributed
The exogenous variables measure aspects of positively to resistance levels for two reasons.
each arrondissement's social composition that First, the poor people of Paris had suffered the
may have infiuenced resistance levels: the num- greatest hardship during the four-month Prus-
ber of poor people per 1 ,(XX) inhabitants; the per- sian siege and were therefore most likely to be
centage ofthe population classified in the 1872 hostile toward the French govemment for having
surrendered. Second, National Guardsmen were
^ Row-normalization of W is required for the esti- paid a small daily indemnity (1 franc 50 cen-
mation procedure used here. The likelihood function times) under the Commune. This incentive to
for the estimates of p and the other coefficients is in
general undefined when any of the eigenvalues of W
exceeds 1; consequently, the rows of W must sum to If the absolute number of ties were the key deter-
unity to ensure that the largest eigenvalue of W ajuals 1. minant ofthe magnitude of network influence, it would
Although row-normalization is a technical neces- be undesirable to make this assumption. In the present
sity, it also has substantive implications. Forcing all case, however, this limitation of the model does not
the rows of W to sum to 1.0 means that the effect on pose a problem. Indeed, row-normalization provides
A of a network tie to B can only be modeled relative a necessary control for variation in population size
to the total number of ties A has to other nodes. Thus, across arrondissements. For each arrondissement, the
the model is insensitive to variation in degree (num- total number of Guardsmen enlisted in outside le-
ber of ties) across nodes in the network: A node with gions is roughly proportional to the size of the adult
1,000 ties is assumed to be subject to the same amount male population (r = .78). Row-normalization per-
of network influence as a node with 2,(XX) ties. This mits the model to reflect the theoretical supposition
situation could be rectified if the model permitted the that 1,000 cross-enlisted insurgente fix>m a district
value of p to vary across nodes, but techniques to with 40,0(X) men would have about the same effect as
estimate such a model have not been developed. 2,(XX) insurgents fifom a district with 80,(X)0 men.

Number of Guards:
" 100 to 399
— « 400 to 699
——fl 700to 1,000

Figure 4. Numbers of National Guardsmen Serving in Legions Outside Their Arrondissement of Residence, by Arrondisse-
ment : Paris Commune, 1871
Note: Enlistment overlaps of fewer than 100 National Guardsmen are not shown; inclusion of such links would connect
each arrondissement with nearly every other. Directionality is indicated by a hollow square, i.e., if 150 inhabitants of
District A serve in a National Guard battalion from District B, this would appear as a thin line from A ending in a square
near B.

participate in the insurrection probably had the depended on the social integration of urban neigh-
greatest effect among the poorest segments of borhoods. For this reason, my analyses separate
the population. the working population of each district into
Following similar reasoning, the percentage skilled, unskilled, and white-collar workers.
of each district's population with a working-class Since my hypotheses are directional, all of the
occupation is expected to exert a positive effect statistical tests are one-tailed. Thus, estimates of
on resistance levels because the openly pro-labor p and of coefficients for the exogenous variables
policies of the Commune's elected govemment are treated as statistically significant only if they
presumably generated greater support in work- deviate from chance levels in the predicted di-
ing-class sections ofthe city and greater hostility rection.
in bourgeois areas. Voting records for the March
26 elections to the Communal Council demon- RESULTS
strated a clearrelationshipbetween class compo-
sition and support for radical and socialist candi- The first four columns of Table 1 present esti-
dates (for election data, see Rougerie 1971). At mates for the models predicting battalion size in
the same time, however, it is important to distin- both early May and late May; columns 5 and 6
guish white-collar workers, who often came from report results for the models predicting death rates
middle-class families, from salaried artisanal during the month of May. To test whether auto-
workers with a tradition of activism (Moss 1976; correlation is a result of cross-district enlistments
Sewell 1980). Likewise, unskilled day-laborers rather than simple geographical diffusion, two
were more marginal and geographically mobile versions ofthe model are estimated. The "spatial
than skilled artisanal workers and consequendy model" substitutes a spatial adjacency matrix for
less likely to participate in an insurrection that the enlistment network used in the "network
Table 1. Coefficient Estimates for Average Battalion Size•• and Death Rate on SelectedIndependent Variables: Paris
Commune, 1871

Battalion Size
Early May Late May Death Rate, May 1871
Networic Spatial Network Spatial Network Spatial
Model Model Model Model Model Model
Independent Variable (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Autocorrelation (p) .289* -.118 .477" .038 .487* .030
February military deaths — — — — .076" .068"
Poverty rate 2.217 2.419 2.217 2.320 16.818 18.103
Percent skilled workers 9.163' 9.311" 8.040'" 8.164" .064 .054
Percent unskilled workers 7.671 7.743 8.523 7.765 .081 .068
Percent white-collar employees 8.438 6.667 12.074 10.869 .066 .036
Constant -148.918 180.656 -347.618 8.597 -4.650 -1.715
Fit" .728 .722 .703 .674 .471 .441
Number of arrondissements 20 20 20 20 20 20
*p < .05 (one-tailed) **p < .01 (one-tailed)
* "Fit" is the square of the correlation between the observed and predicted values of the dependent variable. While it
corresponds roughly to R^ in standard regression analysis, it is not strictly comparable and should not be interpreted as the
percentage of variance explained.

model." The hypothesis is that autocorrelation in all models, although the only statistically sig-
through the enlistment network is larger (more nificant effect is that for percentage salaried work-
positive) than autocorrelation through spatial con- ers. Since the reference category for the occupa-
tiguity. In the spatial model, Wy is coded as 1 if tional composition variables is bourgeois/profes-
district / borders on district j , and 0 otherwise; sional, the coefficients confirm the hypothesis that
the W matrix is then row-normalized as with the resistance was stronger in areas that were poor
network model. Because sampling logic is inap- and working-class. The expectation that white-
propriate for these data, standard significance tests collar and unskilled workers would play less prom-
are not used. The significance levels reported are inent roles in the insurrection is not supported.
based on a null model of "randomization" of the The most important finding is that the autocor-
observed values of y with respect to the W and X relation term, p, is positive and significant in the
matrices (Odland 1988). The estimates of p and network models for battalion size in early May
B are compared with the distribution of the esti- and late May. A significant autocorrelation ef-
mates that would result from a random assign- fect is observed only when W represents cross-
ment ofthe observed values of y to the 20 cases.^ district enlistments; there is no evidence of auto-
Coefficient estimates are statistically significant correlation dirough spatial adjacency in either
at the .05 level if fewer than 5 percent of random early or late May. In addition, the estimate of p in
assignments produce estimates of equal or great- the network model for late May is significantly
er value. larger (p < .05) than the estimate in the spatial
As predicted, all ofthe exogenous variables con- model.^ Similar results obtain for the number of
tribute positively to battalion size and death rates deaths per 1,(XX) inhabitants (columns 5 and 6).
The network of militia enrollments made levels
^Doreian (1981) provides formulae for computing
standard errors based on the assumption of sampling * Tests for differences in p between the two equa-
observations from a normally distributed population. tions are performed in a manner analogous to those
Because the 20 arrondissements analyzed here con- for the point estimates within each equation. Esti-
stitute the population in question, the randomization mates are iteratively calculated for random assign-
model is more appropriate. The distributions of p and ments of the values of y to the observations, and for
8 are generated through simulation in which the model each iteration the estimate of p is computed once for
isrepeatedlyestimated with randomly generated per- each specification of the W matrix. This procedure
mutations of the values of y with respect to the 20 generates a distribution of differences between esti-
arrondissements. mates of p for a given set of data and two networks.

Table 2. Coefficient Estimates for the Network Model Us- onstrating that resistance levels were rendered
ing the Transpose of the Enlistment Network: interdependent across districts through a funda-
Paris Commune, 1871
mentally social network.
Independent Battalion Size
Death Rate,
Even more intriguing is the fact that this influ-
Variable Early May Late May May 1871 ence process worked in one direction only: Neigh-
bortioodsrespondedto events in other areas where
Autocorrelation (p) -.271 -.017 .268 their residents served in National Guard units.
February military — — .072* For instance, resistance in the fifth arrondisse-
deaths ment was positively affected by the fact that many
Poverty rate 2.617 2.371 16.177 of its residents served in the thirteenth legion,
Percent skilled 9.063* 8.162" .058 whose members demonstrated a strong commit-
workers ment to the insurgent effort. However, this does
Percent unskilled 7.446 7.868 .079 not imply that resistance in the thirteenth ar-
workers rondissement was affected by the presence of
Percent white-collar 6.827 10.576 .044
Guardsmen from the fifth."'
employees Indeed, Table 2 shows that this was not the
Constant 302.492 47.489 -3.070
case by estimating the network models using the
transpose of the enlistment matrix W (written
Fit .724 .673 .441
W ) . Here, each element (w'jj) represents die num-
Number of 20 20 20 ber of Guards serving in the /th legion who live
arrondissements in the jth district, divided by the total number of
"p < .05 (one-tailed) "p < .01 (one-tailed) Guards in the ith legion who live outside the ith
district. Under this model, each district is influ-
enced by other districts through the Guardsmen
of insurgency significantiy interdependent across who lived in these other areas, not by its own
districts, whereas spatial proximity did not.^ The residents serving as Guardsmen in other areas."
fit of the models predicting late May battalion Using W instead of W, the coefficient esti-
size and death rates improves when the enlist- mate for autocorrelation through the enlistment
ment network rather than spatial adjacency is network is not significant for any of the depen-
used. dent variables. Furthermore, the model for bat-
These findings show that insurgents in differ- talion size in early May yields an estimate of p
ent neighborhoods influenced each other's de- that is significantly lower (p < .05) than the esti-
gree of commitment to the insurrection through mate using W. The fit for the equation predicting
the network of links created by overlapping en- battalion size in late May drops from .703 in the
listments. High levels of commitment in one area model using W to .673 in the model using W ;
enhanced commitment elsewhere when enlist- the fit for the model predicting death rates drops
ment pattems provided a conduit for communi- from .471 to .441.
cation and interaction. This effect cannot be ex- This analysis indicates that levels of resistance
plained in terms of purely spatial diffusion, dem- in each arrondissement were affected by the ex-
periences of its own residents serving in the Na-
' This result could reflect a causal relationship in tional Guard in other districts, but not by the
which battalion size influenced the pattem of enlist-
ment overlaps rather than the reverse. For instance, if enlistment rates, a stronger effect would have been
neighborhoods with extremely high enlistment rates observed in early May rather than in late May. Final-
sent their overflows to other neighborhoods, but not ly, the fact that the analysis of death rates produces
to neighborhoods with very low rates, a positive auto- the same result suggests that the autocorrelation in
correlation effect would be observed. Three consider- Table 1 is not an artifact of the way resistance levels
ations militate against this interpretation, however. are measured.
First, it seems unlikely that cross-district enlistments '" Table 1 does indicate, however, that commit-
were the result of oversubscription in some areas be- ment to the insurrection in the thirteenth arrondisse-
cause battalion sizes nowhere reached the target level ment was influenced by the enlistment of some of its
of 1,500 men: The largest average battalion size was residents in the fifth legion.
1,155 for the fifteenth arrondissement (1,287 in early '' The spatial adjacency matrix is by defmition sym-
May). Second, enlistment rolls were closed at the end metric, so that for spatial data, W = W . Consequent-
of April, so if autocorrelation were the result of the ly, it would be redundant to re-estimate the spatial
restructuring of battalions inresponseto disparities in models for Table 2.

experiences of Gtiardsmen who lived in other ganizations, even when discussing the latest phas-
districts. On an individual level, then, the influ- es of mobilization.*^
ence process occurred because insurgents serv- But it is precisely because mobilization is si-
ing away from home had an impact on die be- multaneously affected by more than one network
havior of dieir neighbors serving at home; but diat netwoik structure cannot be ignored.'^ Tlie
these insurgents did not affect the behavior of die cross-distiict infiuence process uncovered in the
Guardsmen widi whom diey served. Paris Commune resulted from die interaction of
Thisfindingprovides strong evidence diat for- informal neighborhood networks widi die orga-
mal and informal networks do not affect mobili- nizational network of the Paris National Guard,
zation independentiy. The organizational links Cross-neighborhood solidarity could not have
the National Guard generated through overlap- emerged in the absence of enlistment overlaps
ping enlistments established a kind of cross- that linked each residential area widi Guard units
neighborhood solidarity in the form of interde- in other areas; but these overlaps only made re-
pendent levels of resistance, but this interdepen- sistance levels interdependent across areas be-
dence only emerged because the insurgents cause mobilization was rooted in social ties
whose battolion memberships constituted these among neighbors.
organizational ties also had informal ties to peo- The interaction of multiple networks demon-
pie in their own neighboriioods. Thus, the infiu- strates the importance of structure in two ways,
ence of formal and informal networks on mobi- First, the notion of a network of overlapping en-
lization cannot be described in additive terms; listments presupposes that informal ties grouped
rather, neighborhood and organizational ties in- people into neighborhoods and organizational ties
teracted to forge and maintain solidarity among grouped people into residentially based National
insurgents. Guard units. That is, it is not even possible to
discuss enlistment overlaps without first recog-
nizing that residential areas linked people infor-
mally as neighbors, and that National Guard bat-
The reductionist treatment of network factors in talions linked people formally as members of an
social movement research has obscured impor- insurgent organization. To recognize that formal
tant aspects of their effects on mobilization. So- and informal ties clustered people into neighbor-
ciologists have typically treated network data as hoods and organizational units is to recognize
diey would any odier variable: Information on that these ties exhibit a structure,
social ties among movement participants has been Second, the process by which neighborhoods
collected and analyzed at the individual level. A influenced each other through these overlapping
few scholars (Femandez and McAdam 1988; enlistments can only be analyzed by considering
Marwell, Oliver, and Prahl 1988) have pointed the entire network of overlaps. Each neighbor-
to the advantages of an approach that is more sen- hood simultaneously affected and was affected
sitive to structural properties of networks, but die by die levels of resistance in other neighborhoods,
issue of network multiplexity has not been stud- bodi direcdy (to die extent diat it was direcdy
ied until now.
This study demonstrates not only that multi- '^ Femandez and McAdam (1988) noted that their
plexity and structure are both central to an under- data permit a discussion only of the later stages of
standing of network effects on mobilization, but mobilization, and acknowledge that other (unobserved)
that the impact of structure cannot even be ap- networks may have played significant roles earlier in
preciated without taking multiplexity into ac- ^he recruitment process. But they do not consider the
count. The importance of neighborhood identity Vo^f'^My that informalrelationshipsmay continue
and the pattem of arrests showed diat pre-exist- '^f^^' recruitment late m the mobilization process^
. , . ... J . Effects of pnor networks are thus implicitly assumed
ing social ties among neighbors and organiza- ^^ ^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ interacting with, the
tional ties formed by the National Guard worked ^^^^^^^ ^^ organizational affiliations,
together to maintain solidarity m die insurgent n^^^^ j^ nothing particularly original in the claim
ranks. Formal ties alone cannot explain die local- that structure is closely related to network multiplex-
istic behavior of residentially recruited battalions jty. white, Boorman and Breiger (1976) made multi-
or the fact that diey were more cohesive during pie networks a pivotal component ofthe blockmodel-
the fmal week of fighting than volunteer battal- ling approach to social structure. Still, this issue has
ions. Thus, it is inappropriate to focus exclusive- not come up in social movement research despite in-
ly on networks created by formal movement or- creasing interest in networic factors.

linked to each of the^ neighborhoods) and indi- The intermediate case, in which mobilization
rectly (to the extent that each of these other neigh- groups peq)le in ways that largely follow the
borhoods was itself influenced by still odier neigh- contours of indigenous social structtire but also
borhoods, and so on). In other words, die influ- generates some interaction across pre-existing
ence process occurred not just between isolated boundaries, provides the greatest potential for
pairs of neighboriioods, but through chains of formal and informal networks to jointly influence
neighboriioods linked directly and at various re- solidarity and commitment to social movements.
moves. The interdependence of resistance levels Most instances of social movement mobilization,
across residential areas was thus intimately tied like the present one, fall into this middle category.
not only to the quantity, but also to the structure of ConsequenUy, future research should focus on
overlapping erilistments. This intricate pattem informal and organizationaltiesconcurrendy rath-
would be obscured in an analysis that disaggre- er than individually. This shift in focus will make
gated networks into scalar counts of ties. discussion ofthe structureratherthan the number
I have concentrated on the interplay between of network ties indispensable.
two specific social networks: one consisting of
neighborhood ties, and the other defined by ROGER V. GOULD is Assistant Professor in the Depart-
membership in a military organization. This fo- ment of Sociology at the University of Chicago. His
cus derives from the nature of the event because research interests include social movements, social
mobilization in the 1871 uprising revolved networks, and historical sociology. He is currently
around the construction and defense of barricades working on a book about class consciousness and la-
— a distincdy neighborhood-oriented revolution- bor protest in nineteenth-century Paris.
ary tactic — by a militia recruited along resi-
dential lines. REFERENCES
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