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Well discuss motion observed from an accelerating frame of reference and motion of an object through a viscous medium
6.1 NEWTON S SECOND LAW FOR A PARTICLE IN UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION we discussed the model of a particle in uniform circular motion, in which a particle moves with constant speed v in a circular path of radius r the particle has an acceleration that has a magnitude: ac= this acceleration is called centripetal acceleration because is directed toward the center of the circle ac is always perpendicular to v if there were a component of acceleration parallel to v, the particle s speed would be changing a ball of mass m tied to a string of length r and is being whirled at constant speed in a horizontal circular path as illustrated in Figure 6.1, weight supported by a frictionless table why does the ball move in a circle? o According to Newton s first law, the ball would move in a straight line if there were no force on it; the string, however, prevents motion along a straight line by exerting on the ball a radial force Fr that makes it follow the circular path o This force is directed along the string toward the center of the circle If Newton s second law is applied along the radial direction, the net force causing the centripetal acceleration can be related to the acceleration as follows: o (EQUATION 6.1) A force causing a centripetal acceleration acts toward the center of the circular path and causes a change in the direction of the velocity vector If this force vanishes, the object would no longer move in its circular path o Would move in a straight line path tangent to the circle at the position of the object

6.2 NONUNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION If a particle moves with varying speed in a circular path, there is, in addition to the radial component of acceleration, a tangential component with magnitude dv/dt o The force acting on the particle must also have a tangential and a radial component The total acceleration is a = ar + at, the total force exerted on the particle is F= Fr + Ft The vector Fr is directed toward the center of the circle and is responsible for the centripetal acceleration The vector Ft tangent to the circle is responsible for the tangential acceleration, which represents a change in the particle s speed with time

6.3 MOTION IN ACCELERATED FRAMES Newton s laws of motion describe observations that are made in an inertial frame of reference o How they are applied by an observer in a nonintertial frame of reference, that is, one that is accelerating o Example: air hockey table on a train The train moving at constant velocity represents an inertial frame

An observer on the train sees the puck at rest remain at rest Accelerating train is not an inertial frame As the observer on this train, there appears to be no force on the puck, yet it accelerates from rest toward the back of the train, appearing to violate Newton s first law On the accelerating train, as you watch the puck accelerating toward the back of the train, you might conclude based on your belief in Newton s second law that a force has acted on the puck to cause it to accelerate This force is called a fictitious force b/c it is due to observations made in an accelerated reference frame A fictitious force appears to act on an object in the same way as a real force y Real forces are always interactions between two objects, however, and you cannot identify a second object for a fictitious force y Simple fictitious forces appear to act in the direction opposite that of the acceleration of the noninertial frame Coriolis force: an apparent force caused by changing the radial position of an object in a rotating coordinate system
6.4 MOTION IN THE PRESENCE OF RESISTIVE FORCES the force of kinetic friction exerted on an onbject moving on some surface The medium of that object has a big influence: liquid or gas The medium exerts a resistive force R on the object moving though it Air resistance (air drag) and the viscous forces that act on onjects moving through a liquid o The magnitude of R depends on factors such as the speed of the object o The direction of R is always opposite the direction of the object s motion relastive to the medium The magnitude of the resistive force can depend on speed in a complex way, and there are two simple models o First model: the resistive force is proportional to the speed of the moving object o Valid for liquid and dust particles moving through air o Second model: a resistive force that is proportional to the square of the speede of the moving object, large objects

Model 1: Resistive Force Proportional to Object Velocity The resistance force in this case can be expressed as: R= bv (EQUATION 6.2) o B is a constant whose value depends on the properties of the medium and on the shape and dimensions of the object and v is the velocity of the object relative to the medium o The negative sign indicates that R is in the opposite direction to v A small sphere of mass m released from rest in a liquid The only forces acting on the sphere are the resistive force R= bv and the gravitational force Fg, describe its motion If you apply Newton s second law to the vertical motion, choosing the downward direction to be positive, and noting that o Fy = mg bv, so we get:

(EQUATION 6.3) The acceleration of the sphere is downward

Noting that the acceleration a is = dv/dt :

This is called a differential equation, and the methods of solving it may not be familiar to you Notice, however, that initially when v= 0, the magnitude of the resistive force increases and the acceleration decreases o Acceleration approaches 0 when the magnitude of the resistive force approaches the sphere s weight o The speed of the sphere approaches its terminal speed vT o The equation is: o The equation for v for all times t if v=0 and t=0:
o
Model 2: Resistive Force Proportional to Object Speed Squared For objects moving at high speeds through air, the resistive force is reasonably well modeled as proportional to the square of the speed o The magnitude of the resistive force can be expressed as: Where D is a dimensionless empirical quantity called the drag coefficient, is the density of air, an d A is the cross sectional area of the moving object measured in a plane perpendicular to its velocity o The drag coefficient is about 0.5 for spherical objects but can have a value as great as 2 for irregularly shaped objects o Analyze the motion of a falling object subject to an upward air resistive force of magnitude R= ½ DpAv2 o An object of mass m is releasesd from rest o The object experiences two external forces: the downward gravitational force Fg= mg and the upward resistive force R The magnitude of the net force is: positive vertical direction the object has a downward acceleration of magnitude: (EQUATION 6.9) the terminal speed vT by noticing that when the gravitational force is balanced by the resistive force, the net force on the object is 0 and therefore its acceleration is 0 if a=0, and downward is the


Terminal Speed for Various Objects Falling Through Air Object Skydiver Baseball Golfball Hailstone Raindrop Mass (kg) 75 .145 .046 4.8 x 104 3.4 x 105 CS Area (m2) .70 4.2 x 103 1.4 x 103 7.9 x 105 1.3 x 105 VT (m/s) 60 43 44 14 9