You are on page 1of 116

Basic Occupational Safety &

Health Training Manual


2

Table of Contents

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH LEGISLATION 1

FUNDAMENTALS OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT 5

BASIC WORK ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES 11

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 13

HAZARDS RECOGNITION, IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL 17

ERGONOMICS 23

MATERIALS HANDLING & WAREHOUSING 26

TASK EXPOSURE ANALYSIS/JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS 29

FIRE PROTECTION AND CONTROL 35

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS 39

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 45

MACHINE AND EQUIPMENT SAFETY (LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT) 50

ELECTRICAL SAFETY/LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT 56

SAFETY INSPECTION 60

WORK ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND CAUSAL ANALYSIS 63

MOTIVATING FOR SAFETY 76

SAFETY COMMUNICATION 82

HUMAN ELEMENTS IN SAFETY 87

TRAINER’S SUBJECTS 89

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGIES OF ADULT LEARNING 91

PERSONAL AND GROUP COMMUNICATIONS 94

ORGANIZING AND PLANNING FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH 99

RE-ENTRY PLAN 106


3
1

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH LEGISLATION


Objective: To familiarize the participants with the guidelines governing Occupational Safety and
Health In various Industries.

PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION

Constitutional mandate to safeguard the worker’s social and economic well-being as well as his
physical safety and health

LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

As embodied in Article 162, Chapter II of Book IV of the Labor Code of the Philippines, “The
Secretary of Labor and Employment shall, by appropriate orders, set and enforce mandatory
occupational safety and health standards to eliminate or reduce occupational safety and health
hazards in all work places and institute new and update existing programs to ensure safe and
healthful working conditions in all places of employment.”

RELEVANT LAWS AND REGULATIONS


 Commonwealth Act No. 104 (1936) - First Industrial Safety Law
 Republic Act No. 184 (1947) - Electrical Engineering Law
 Republic Act No. 1054 (1954) - Free Emergency Medical and Dental Treatment Law
 Presidential Decree 442 (1974) - Labor Code of the Philippines
 Occupational Safety and Health Standards (1978)
 Department Order No. 13 Series of 1998 - Guidelines Governing Occupational Safety and
Health in the Construction Industry

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS


 Formulated in 1978
 Adopted through the tested democratic machinery of tripartism
 Considered as a landmark in Philippine labor and social legislation
 It was amended in 1989 to provide all establishments with better tools in promoting and
maintaining safety and health in the working environment.

 Rule 1000 - General Provision


 Rule 1010 - Other Safety Rules
 Rule 1020 - Registration
 Rule 1030 - Training of Personnel in Occupational Safety and Health
 Rule 1040 - Health and Safety Committee
 Rule 1050 - Notification and Keeping of Records of Accidents and/or Occupational
Illnesses
 Rule 1060 - Premises of Establishments
 Rule 1070 - Occupational Health and Environment Control
 Rule 1080 - Personal Protective Equipment and Devices
 Rule 1090 - Hazardous Materials
 Rule 1100 - Gas and Electric Welding and Cutting Operations
 Rule 1120 - Hazardous Work Processes
2

 Rule 1140 - Explosives


 Rule 1150 - Materials Handling and Storage
 Rule 1160 - Boiler
 Rule 1170 - Unfired Pressure Vessels
 Rule 1200 - Machine Guarding
 Rule 1210 - Electrical Safety
 Rule 1220 - Elevators and Related Equipment
 Rule 1230 - Identification of Piping System
 Rule 1410 - Construction Safety
 Rule 1420 - Logging
 Rule 1940 - Fire Protection and Control
 Rule 1950 - Pesticides and Fertilizers
 Rule 1960 - Occupational Health Services
 Rule 1970 - Fees
 Rule 1980 - Authority of Local Government
 Rule 1990 - Final Provision

Duties of the Employers (Rule 1005)


1. Provide a safe place of employment
2. Give complete job safety instructions to all workers
3. Use only approved devices & equipment
4. Comply with the requirements of the OSHS

Duties of the Workers


1. Cooperate with the employer
2. Make proper use of safeguards and devices
3. Report any work hazards
4. Follow all instructions in compliance with OSHS

Administrative Report Requirements:


1. Registration (Rule 1020)
2. Report of work-related accidents (Rule 1050)
3. Report of health & safety committee organization (rule 1040)
4. Quarterly report of safety program and minutes of meetings of health and safety committee
(Rule 1040)
5. Annual work accident / illness exposure data report (Rule 1050)
6. Annual medical report (Rule 1965)

1. Rule 1020 – Registration


Free of charge
Valid for the lifetime of the company

Requirements: lay-out plan, use Form IP-3

2. Rule 1050- Notification and Keeping of Records of Work-related accidents/illnesses

Submission of work accident reports (disabling injuries)


3

Forms : Employer’s Work Accident/Illness Report


Annual WAI Exposure Data Report
(Work Accidents Frequency & Severity Rates)

3. Rule 1040- Health & Safety Committee

Types of committee
Composition and Members
Functions
The Safety Officer/man

Yearly Re-organization
Quarterly submission of minutes of HSC meetings

4. Rule 1960–Occupational Health Services

Provisions:

1. Preventive Health Services,


2. Emergency Health Services,
3. Training of OH Personnel
4. OH Program at the workplace Report: Annual Medical Report

Rule 1030- Training and Accreditation of OSH Personnel/Organization

Accreditation: OSH Practitioner


OSH Consultant
Safety Training Organization
OSH Consultancy Organization

ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

DOLE shall be responsible for the administration and enforcement of OSH laws in all workplaces.

Local government units may be authorized by the Secretary of DOLE to enforce safety and health
standards within their respective jurisdiction.

Technical Safety Inspection

Refers to inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, internal combustion engines, electrical


installation, elevators, hoisting and other equipment to determine if their safe.
4

General Health and Safety Inspection

Refers to inspection of the work environment, including the location and operation of
machinery other than those covered by technical safety inspection, adequacy of work space,
ventilation, lighting, conditions of work environment, handling, storage or work procedures,
protection facilities and other safety and health hazards in the workplace

Art. 128 Visitorial and Enforcement Power

The Secretary of Labor or his duly authorized representatives, including labor regulation officers,
shall have access to employer’s records and premises at any time of the day or night whenever work
is being undertaken therein, and the right to copy therefrom, to question any employee and
investigate any fact, condition or matter which may be necessary to determine violations or which
may aid in the enforcement of this Code and of any labor law, wage order or rules and regulations
issued pursuant thereto.
5

FUNDAMENTALS OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT


The bottom line of all safety programs is accident prevention, more often called “loss control”.
The primary responsibility for safety and accident prevention rests with top management. They, in
turn, share this responsibility with middle management and through them, with the first line
supervisors. Your manager should hold you accountable for accident prevention, because he or she
is also held accountable, and so on up the line. Unfortunately, there are still some supervisors and
managers who do not consider accident prevention an important part of their job until after an
accident occur, causing a serious injury or illness. The concerned manager or supervisor then
investigates to determine how and why the accident occurred. This approach is not accident
prevention, it is accident reaction. Certainly, if an accident occurs, we must identify the causes and
eliminate them to prevent a recurrence. As Supervisors, our job is to prevent accidents and control
the hazards that produce them.

Safety Management will help you understand your safety responsibilities, take positive actions to
prevent accidents, and give you a way of measuring how well you perform your safety duties. By
taking this approach, you will perform the safety portion of your supervisory job in the most efficient
manner. And by doing it well, you’ll have more time for the other important part of your job.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Let’s define our terms before we go any further.

Accident is an unplanned, undesired event that may result in harm to people, damage to property or
loss to process.

Let’s examine this definition. Accidents are clearly unplanned events. When they occur, they
not only upset your schedule but demand all of your attention. You must stop what you are doing
and handle the many problems associated with accident.

A “near” accident or “near miss” is an example of an incident resulting in neither an injury nor
property damage. However, a near accident has the potential to inflict injury or property damage if
its cause is not corrected. About 75 percent of industrial injuries are forecast by near accident or
near misses. It’s in a supervisor’s best interest to find and eliminate these causes to keep near
misses from recurring or becoming serious accidents.

For example, an employee feels the tingle of a slight electric shock while using a defective
portable drill. This is a near-accident because no injury or property damage results. If the defective
drill is removed from service, a potential injury or fatality is prevented.

Hazard is any existing or potential condition in the workplace that, by itself or by interacting with
other variables, can result in death, injuries, property damage, and other losses.
Keep two factors of this definition in mind. First, potentially hazardous conditions and those that
exist at the moment must be considered. Second, hazards may result not from independent failure
of workplace components but from one workplace component acting upon or influencing another.
6

Hazard Control involves developing a program to recognize, evaluate, and eliminate (or at least
reduce) the destructive effects of hazards arising from human errors and from condition s in the
workplace.

As a necessary part of the management process, hazard control is made up of safety audits and
evaluations; sound operating and design procedures operator’s training; inspection and testing
programs; and effective communication regarding hazards and their control. A hazard control
program coordinates shared responsibility among departments and underscores the
interrelationships among workers, their equipment, and the work environment.

Loss Control is accident prevention achieved through a complete safety and health hazard control
program. Loss control involves preventing employee injuries, occupational illnesses, and accidental
damage to the company’s property. It also includes preventing injuries, illnesses, and property
damage to visitors and the public.

Many supervisors mistakenly believe that accidents are only those incidents that result in serious
injuries. If a minor injury or property damage results in an accident, some supervisors shrug off the
incident and return to their routine work. They let the results of an accident determine their level of
interest in investigating its causes and preventing a recurrence. But we know that the results of an
accident (the degree of loss resulting from it) are a matter of chance. It would be better to try to
control the hazards that lead to accident than try to minimize the damage done once an accident
occurs.

AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY

There are four areas that supervisors must control:

1. Production
2. Quality
3. Cost
4. Accident/illness

Survey shows that supervisors willingly accept responsibility for the first three areas, but ignore
or procrastinate about the fourth. This is because they may have assumed that the responsibility for
accident loss control belongs to a safety director or someone in the human relations department.
This assumption is incorrect. Loss control is the job of the supervisor. If line managers and
supervisors do not assume responsibility for safety, no company program, no matter how good, will
work.

Loss control through accident prevention must be accomplished at all times. For instance, you
ask yourself this question: “When should supervisors perform safety inspections?” If your answer is
“once a week” or “once a month,” you do not understand your responsibility. You should conduct an
informal safety inspection every time you walk through your department, even if your primary
purpose is only to check the attendance or to determine whether supplies are adequate. During your
inspection, be alert for anything that may cause an accident, such as tripping hazards, fire hazards,
poorly stacked materials, poor housekeeping, safeguards are missing from machines, and/or unsafe
worker practices. Safety responsibilities cannot be separated from the other parts of your work. In
7

fact, the best way to describe your job is to say that you are responsible for safe production. With
this in mind, you will soon handle your accident prevention responsibilities almost automatically.

SAFETY RESPONSIBILITY AS PERFORMANCE MEASURE

Many progressive companies include the supervisor’s performance of safety responsibilities as


part of the performance evaluation. Production, quality, cost and loss control are of equal
importance in measuring job performance and cannot really be separated. When you accept a
supervisory job, you also assume responsibility for the safety of your people, whether you supervise
a group of machinist, assemblers, a construction crew, or an office staff. Every supervisor in any
company is responsible for the safety of his or her workers.

The top manager cannot handle all the details of every job, so he or she delegates accident
prevention responsibilities, along with commensurate authority, to various middle managers. In turn,
the middle manager, such as your boss, will delegate responsibility for safety and accident
prevention to someone like you, the front line supervisor. Thus, you are accountable to your
manager for accident prevention, just as he or she is accountable to the top manager. Let’s define
the principal terms we are using:

1. Responsibility has to answer to higher management for activities and results.


2. Authority is the right to correct, command, and determine the courses of action.
3. Delegation is sharing authority and responsibility with others. Even though we delegate
responsibility, we cannot be completely relieved of it.
4. Accountability is an active measurement taken by management to ensure compliance with
standards.

The question is “who is responsible in safety?”

THE OLD APPROACH TO SAFETY PERFORMANCE

Let us take a closer look at the way many supervisors have measured their safety performances
in the past. The measurement was made according to the number of lost time accidents. As long as
no one was injured seriously, supervisors felt they were doing a good job. Too many times, minor
injuries, property damage, or near misses were ignored. In 1931, H.W Heinrich conducted a famous
accident study. He showed that for every accident resulting into a serious injury, there are
approximately 29 resulting in only minor injuries and 300 producing no injuries. If you react only to
major injury accidents, you are ignoring 99.7 percent of the accident that happens in your operation.
Heinrich stressed that the same factors causing a near miss at one time can cause a major injury the
next time. If you look only at the major injury in your department, you miss many opportunities to
find and eliminate the cause of near miss accidents and property damage. Effective hazards or loss
control requires being aware of the possibilities for all types of accidents and knowing how to
prevent them from occurring.
8

A BETTER APPROACH TO SAFETY PERFORMANCE

Include loss control as a regular part of your job and expect to have this part of your
performance measurement. For example, you are expected to perform periodic inspection of your
responsible areas. Your manager can verify that you conduct these inspections, check on their
quality, and determine how well you follow up on the items needing attention. Although safety and
housekeeping inspections and the problems you discover are important, what you do about them is
more important. If a problem can be corrected by your people, assign the appropriate tasks as soon
as possible. If, on the other hand, service or maintenance personnel must be involved, issue a work-
order request immediately. Be sure to make a follow up to see that the job is done. It may be
necessary to have your manager help expedite the work by getting assistance from other
departments.

1. Job Safety Instruction


You are responsible for training the workers in your area, and it’s up to you to monitor their
work habits. One of the most effective ways to avoid accidents is to make sure that employees
are following the safe work procedures in which they have been trained. Consider some of these
points:
 What is the quality level of job safety instruction training (JIT)?
 How many people in the department are responsible for the training?
 Are all new employees trained?
 Are transferred employees trained?

2. Job Safety Analysis


You are also responsible to look for ways to improve operating procedures in your area while
maintaining a safe and healthy working condition. Occasionally, you will conduct job safety
analyses (JSA’s) or assign them to others. Points to consider include:
 Are the assigned numbers of job safety analyses being performed?
 Is the quality improving?
 Are the operations revised after a JSA review?
 How well are they being used?

3. Other Measures
Another positive measure of safety management is to have your people use the appropriate
personal protective equipment (PPE). New employees should be informed about the need for
personal protective equipment. Some PPE, like those for eye protection, should be fitted; while
others, like some respiratory protective equipment, should be demonstrated so that the workers
will know how to use them properly. You should emphasize that people will be expected to wear
and use safety equipment on the job. Likewise, anyone visiting the area must also comply with
the requirements for wearing the proper equipment. Make sure all visitors put on the
appropriate gear before they enter the work area.

As the number of accidents in your department declines, department operations will run
more smoothly. You can then devote more time to the other parts of your jobs, such as
production planning, quality improvements and other cost controls.
9

4. Help with Your Loss Control Work


Where can first line supervisors turn for help and guidance with their safety activities? First,
look to your manager for help. He or she should be most concerned with your control of losses.
This is part of your manager’s job performance measurement, as well as your own. Your efforts
in this area can play an important part in helping both of you successfully carry out employment
safety performance on the job.

The safety director or manager in your company can be another source of help and can serve as
a catalyst for your program. His or her job is to work with company management to plan the
overall loss (hazard) control program and to assist supervisors in carrying it out. It is wise for you
to cooperate completely with the safety director’s program for your area of responsibility.

SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS

To summarize what we’ve covered so far:

1. Many supervisors measure their safety performance by the number of lost-time accidents
that occur in their department. This is accident reaction, not accident prevention. To do your
job properly, you should work to prevent accidents from occurring.
2. Treat all near misses and incidents, not just more serious mishaps, as accidents and
investigate their causes. Minor accidents or incidents provide an “early warning system” that
can help you prevent more serious accident later on.
3. The responsibility to prevent accidents through a hazard (loss) control program is a line
function. The company’s top manager delegates the responsibility to your boss, who in turn
delegates the responsibility to you.
4. Hazard or loss control is as important part of your job as your production, cost and quality
control responsibilities. Your objective is safe production. As a result, you must establish
effective job safety training programs for your workers and see that safety rules and policies
are observed.
5. Indirect and direct accident costs are higher than most people realize. Direct costs represent
only a small portion of the total. Indirect costs, such as worker downtime, accident
investigation and reporting, and equipment replacement or repair adds significantly to the
total accident costs.
6. An effective approach to safety includes several features:
a. Conduct safety inspections as a regular part of your day-today routine and take
immediate steps to correct any problems.
b. Train your employees thoroughly in safe work procedures.
c. Conduct job safety analyses or assign them to others.
d. Make sure employees and visitors wear safety gears.
e. Ask your boss or the safety director for help in addressing your safety problems.
10
11

BASIC WORK ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES

MANAGEMENT LACK OF CONTROL


ORIGIN (S) BASIC CAUSE (S)
SYMPTOMS IMMEDIATE CAUSE (S)
EVENT INCIDENT
LOSS PEOPLE - PROPERTY

MANAGEMENT - LACK OF CONTROL

FAILURE TO MAINTAIN WORK PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR:


 Hiring and Selection  Supervisory Training
 Engineering Controls  Proper Job Instruction
 Purchasing Controls  Standard Job Procedures
 Incident Investigation  Protective Equipment
 Planned Inspection  General Promotion
 Incident Recall  Personal Communication
 Rules and Practices  Behavior Reinforcement
 Group Meetings
13

ORIGIN - BASIC CAUSE (S)

PERSONAL FACTORS
 Lack of Knowledge or Skill
 Improper Motivation
 Physical or mental problems

JOB FACTORS
 Inadequate work standards
 Inadequate design or maintenance
 Inadequate purchasing standards
 Normal wear and tear
 Abnormal Usage

SYMPTOMS - IMMEDIATE CAUSE(S)


 Behavioral Changes
 Emotional Distress
 Health Problems
 Performance Changes

EVENT - INCIDENT

PHYSICAL HARM

DAMAGE TO PROPERTY
Type of incidents
 Struck against
 Struck by
 Fall to below
 Fall to same level
 Caught on
 Caught in between
 Overexertion
 Contact with electricity, heat, cold, radiation, etc.

LOSS - PEOPLE-PROPERTY
 Property Damage
 Personal Injury
 Production Delays
 Material Waste
 Rejects and Reworks
 Lost Sales
14

 Overtime
 Loss of Skill and Experience
 Recruiting and Placement
15

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
RULE 1960
These are services entrusted with essentially PREVENTIVE functions and RESPONSIBLE for
advising the employers, workers and their representatives in the establishments of the following:

 Occupational Health Personnel


 First Aid Treatment
 Emergency treatment room
 Emergency Clinic

SERVICES PROVIDED BY EMPLOYERS:

PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY
 Identification and assessment of the risk from health hazards in the workplace.
 Surveillance of workers health.
 Advice on planning and organization of work, including the design of the workplace,
maintenance and condition of machinery/equipment, substances used in work.
 Participation in the development of programs for the improvement of working practices.
 Promoting the adaptation of work to the workers.
 Providing information, training and education in the fields of OH and hygiene and
ergonomics.
 Organizing a first-aid and emergency treatment.
MEDICINES AND FACILITIES
 Every employer shall keep in his workplace at least the minimum quantity of
medicines, medical supplies and equipments as well as medical facilities

OBJECTIVES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAMMING


 Promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of
workers in all types of occupation.
 Prevent among workers departures from health caused by their working conditions.
 Protect workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health.
 Place and maintain workers in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and
psychological capacity.

DEFINITIONS:
 Adaptation of work to man and man to his work / job
 Occupational Health Program
 Deals with health of employees as related to their work
 Health services that the employer provides to employees

THREE (3) BASIC FACTORS


16

 Working environment
 Working method
 Workers

THE NEED TO HAVE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM


WHO estimates that by year 2000:
 Increased global labor force to 3B
 Increasing women participation in the workforce
 217 M cases of occupational diseases every year
 250 M cases of injuries at work every year, 330,000 fatal cases

RULE 1966.01: OSHS


Assess workers’ physical, emotional and psychological assets, as well as liabilities, in order
to:
 Facilitate proper placement
 Ensure the suitability of the individuals according to their physical capacities, mental
abilities and emotional make-up in the work;
 Protect employees against health hazards in their working environment, to prevent
occupational and non-occupational diseases;
 Provision for first-aid, emergency services and treatment depending on the nature of
the industry;
 Assure adequate medical care of ill and injured workers;
 Encourage personal health maintenance, physical fitness and proper nutritional
practices; and
 Provide guidance, information and services for family planning programs.

DEVELOPING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM

1. Defining the problem


2. State the nature of the problem
3. Identify the factors that contribute to the problem

Interpret problems based on:


 Appraisal of the potential hazard and need of the workers
 Comparison of present conditions with recommended standards
 Health policies / standards established by company, if any

Specify the program objectives.


 The characteristics of well-stated objectives include:
 Consistent with the problems / needs identified
 Must be SMART
 Identify activities needed to implement the objectives
 Factors to consider:
 Selection of most appropriate means to attain objectives
 Available resources and cost to support the activities
 Specify actions to be undertaken by program personnel
17

IMPLEMENTATION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM


 Should follow the specification set forth in the approved OHP plan and budget
 Should identify the necessary staff/personnel, as well as the facilities, equipment and
supporting services
 Should ensure that the specified resources are in place
 Management should be informed when changes in the OHP becomes necessary
PLANNING FOR EVALUATION AND MONITORING

Determines whether the plan has been implemented according to the approved plan of action.

KEY ELEMENTS OF AN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM

1. HEALTH PROMOTION
 Assessment of health risk
 Employee information and assistance program

2. HEALTH PROTECTION
 Health risk management
 Information, instruction and training
 First-aid
 Sickness/absenteeism monitoring
 Record keeping

SCOPE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM (Rule 1966.02, OSHS)

The Health Program should include the following activities:


 Maintenance of a healthful working environment through periodic inspection of the
premises and facilities
 Health Examinations (Rule 1967;OSHS)
 Entrance / Pre-employment P.E.
 Periodic / Annual P.E.
 Special examination
 Diagnosis and treatment of all injuries, occupational and non-occupational diseases
 Immunization programs
 Accurate and complete medical records of each employee
 Nutrition program
 Health Education and Counseling
 Lectures / Training
 Information dissemination regarding health and safety, to employees in
coordination with occupational health and safety personnel and supervisors
 Health hazards
 Safe work practices
 Habits of cleanliness
 Use and maintenance of personal protective clothing and devices
 Use of available health services and facilities
18

PRE-EMPLOYMENT PHYSICAL EXAMINATION


 Determines the physical condition of the prospective employee at the time of hiring
 Prevents placement of a worker on a job where he may endanger his fellow workers or
property

PERIODIC/ANNUAL MEDICAL EXAMINATION (Rule 1967.03; OSHS)


OBJECTIVES:
 To allow early detection of occupational and non-occupational diseases;
 To determine the effect of exposure of employees to health hazards; and
 To follow-up any previous findings among the employees

BASIC ELEMENTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM


 Management commitment
 Facility and equipment design – should include analysis OSH team
 Safety and Health training and education – workers must be appraised of the hazards
and the methods of protection
 Safety and Health Inspection – control measures to evaluate effectiveness of established
program; should be conducted by one who knows the program and their objectives
 Health Hazard Evaluation – tool to determine the level of risk associated with exposure,
as well as to measure the effectiveness of any hazard control mechanism
19

HAZARDS RECOGNITION, IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT


AND CONTROL
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
It is a science and art devoted to the ANTICIPATION, RECOGNITION, EVALUATION and
CONTROL of environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace which may cause
sickness, impair health and well-being or cause significant discomfort among workers or among
the citizens of the community.

CONCERNS OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE


The conservation of the health and prosperity of the workers and his community

BASIC CONCEPTS OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE


 Recognize - to identify potential or actual workplace health hazards or stresses
 Evaluate - to determine the magnitude or environmental factors and stresses arising in the
workplace through qualitative and quantitative measurement
 Control - to apply corrective measures by either reducing or eliminating the exposure

I. Hazard Recognition
Basic procedures in hazard recognition:
a. Conduct a walk-through survey to pinpoint the location of existing hazards
b. Determine the process involved
c. Know the raw materials used and its by-products
d. Educate the workers
e. Conduct a regular safety inspection

II. Hazard Evaluation


a. Determine the magnitude or level of hazards with the use of industrial hygiene
instruments.
b. Analyze the samples and compare results with existing standard
c. Monitor the work environment

Work Environment Measurement - is the direct measurement of hazards,


environmental stresses and their hazardous effects on the worker's health

Purpose of Work Environment Measurement (WEM)


 Determine the magnitude of harmful environmental agents
 Predict the harmfulness of new facilities, processes and methods
 Monitor workers' exposure to hazards
 Evaluate the effectiveness of control measures adopted for improvement
 Maintain a favorable working conditions
20

III. Control of Hazards


The following methods of control may be applied:

1. Engineering Control - engineer out the hazards either by initial design specifications
or by applying the methods of substitution, isolation or ventilation.

2. Administrative Control - control of employees’ exposure by scheduling or reducing


work times in contaminated areas, and/or applying other work rules.

3. Personal Protective Equipment - considered as the method of last resort when


engineering and administrative controls are not sufficient to achieve acceptable
limits of exposure.

TYPES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS

1. Physical Hazards - include noise, vibrations, extreme temperature and pressure, non-
ionizing and ionizing radiations
2. Chemical Hazards - excessive airborne concentration of vapors; gases, aerosols, and other
contaminants that may be in the form of dusts, fumes or mists.
3. Biological Hazards - include insects, molds, fungi, bacterial, viral, etc., and other agents.
4. Ergonomic Hazards - include improperly designed tools, equipment or work areas; unusual
and unnecessary lifting or reaching, poor visual conditions; excessive vibration; repeated
forceful motions in awkward postures.

In the recognition and evaluation phase, the following questions will guide the safety
personnel:
 What is produced?
 What raw materials are used?
 What other materials are added in the production stage?
 What other by-products are produced?
 What equipment is involved?
 What is the cycle of the production0peration?
 What operational procedures me followed?
 What safety and health controls are utilized?
 Who takes responsibilities on the safety and health aspects of the workers exposed?
 What is the level of exposure to harmful chemicals or physical agents?

After a general assessment of the potential or existing hazards in the workplace, a


quantitative measurement to note the extent of the hazard can be attained and thus, results can
now be compared to the various guidelines such as the exposure standards or threshold limit
values (TLV).

Threshold Limit Values (TLV's) - refer to the time-weighted concentrations of airborne


contaminants for an 8-hour workday and 40-hour per week exposure.
21

Types of TLV’s:
1. TLV-TWA - is the time weighted average concentration of airborne contaminants for a
normal 8-hr. workday and 40-hr. workweek, to which nearly all workers may be exposed
day after day, without adverse effects to their health.

2. TLV- STEL - is a time weighted average calculated over a 15 minute period. This is
applied in situations where brief excursions could be experienced, (while not exceeding
the 8- hour TLV-TWA).

3. TLC - C - are values which should not be exceeded even briefly. It is used in situations
where acute effects might be experienced, as with sensitizers, irritants, and other quick
acting substances/materials.

If any of these three TLV’s is exceeded, a potential hazard from that substance is presumed
to exist. The degree of hazard from exposure to harmful environmental factors or stresses would
depend on the following:

 Nature of the material or energy involved


 Intensity of exposure
 Duration of exposure
 Individual susceptibility

WORK ENVIRONMENT MEASURING INSTRUMENTS (WEM):

I. Physical Agents:
1. Noise:
Sound Level meter- is the basic instrument used to measure sound pressure variations in
the air.
Frequency analyzer- determines the distribution of noise levels according to the
frequencies. Usually the sound level mete comes together with an octave band
analyzer in a set.

2. Light:
Luxmeter or Light meter- is a photometer, which converts the light into an electric
current; the intensity of illumination in lux can be read from the scale of the
instrument.

3. Extremes of Temperature:
Evaluation of heat stress is done using the Heat Stress Monitor
 Dry bulb thermometer
 Wet bulb thermometer
 Globe thermometer
 Sling thermometer
22

4. Radiation:
 Film badge
 Thermoluminiscense
 Pocket dosimeter
II. Chemical Agents
Gap and Vapors monitors:
Direct- reading instrument exemplified by colorimetric-type devices, thermal, gas
chromatography.

III. Biological Agents


 Microscope

Other Useful Equipments:


 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer- for heavy metals
 Gas Chromatography - for organic solvents
 X-ray diffraction- for dust, asbestos fibers
 High performance liquid chromatograph - for inorganic chemicals

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE CONTROL METHODS:

 Substitution- from a highly toxic material to a less toxic or nontoxic one.


 Changing the process- to improve quality or reduce the cost of production.
 Isolation- can be a physical barrier; can be in terms of time, or enclosure of a worker or
equipment or a process.
 Wet Methods - minimizes the presence of airborne dust hazards.
 Local Exhaust Ventilation - removes air contaminants at their source; requires less airflow
than dilution ventilation systems.
 General Ventilation- adds or removes air from work areas to keep the concentration of an
air contaminant below hazardous levels.
 Personal Protective Devices (PPE) - eye and face protection hearing protection, protective
clothing, and respiratory protective devices.
 Personal Hygiene - industrial hand cleaner, washing facilities; food handling / storage.
 Housekeeping and maintenance - immediate cleanup of any spills of toxic material; periodic
shutdown of equipment for maintenance
 Waste Disposal - done by highly trained individuals by neutralizing or detoxifying chemicals
that we no longer needed
 Special Control methods - shielding; administrative controls like reduction of work periods,
shilling etc.
 Medical Controls - involves pre-placement, periodic, routine and secondary monitoring.

OSH HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT & CONTROL

Occupational safety and health hazards can mean conditions that may cause legally
compensable illness or it may mean any conditions in the workplace that can impair the health
of employees enough to make them lost their time from work or to work at less than full
efficiency. Occupational diseases are caused by hazardous environment factors; the exposure is
23

peculiar to a particular process, trade or occupation and is generally dangerous to workers when
exposed.

The exposure to occupational diseases is generally widespread in manufacturing and mining,


and the expanding use of chemicals continually extends the exposure in all occupations. New
chemicals and new processes bring in new hazards and new exposures.

CLASSES OF HEALTH HAZARDS

1. Chemicals:
These are poisons or corrosive substances that directly attack the body. They can either be in
the following state:
 Gases
 Vapors
 Liquids
 Solids
 Dusts
 Or any combination thereof

2. Biological:
 Anthrax
 Parasites
 Athlete’s foot
 Viruses
 tuberculosis

3. Environmental conditions:
These are exposures to:
 Excessive noise
 Radiant energy
 Extremes of temperature
 Pressure
 rapid temperature changes

Manner of entry in the body


 Inhalation
 Skin Contact
 Ingestion

Preventive/control measures:

1. Eliminate sources of contamination or reduce the amount of exposure:


 Design of equipment
 Substitution of less toxic for toxic materials
 Change the process
 Good housekeeping
24

2. Prevent the dispersion of contaminants


 Isolate the process
 Enclose the process
 Apply wet methods
 Improve local exhaust ventilation
 Maximize worker education

3. Protect workers:
 Apply general ventilation
 Provide personal protective equipments

Prevention Fundamentals:
 Know the nature of potential hazardous substances, conditions or exposures
 Set up and maintain control measures
 Purchasing
 Handling
 Storage
 Use/application
 Waste disposal

Assign responsibility for prevention program


 Fire brigade teams
 Health and safety committee
 Emergency and fire drills
 Regular safety inspection
 Monitoring
 safety audit system
25

ERGONOMICS
Basically, ergonomics is not a discipline; rather it is a technique that brings together
several disciplines to solve problems arising from work and the working environment.

 Anatomy
 Physiology
 Psychology
 Engineering Sciences

Ergonomic - mismatch between the worker and his work

1. Improper Tools and Equipment Design


2. Unnecessary and Unusual Lifting or reaching
3. Repetitive Motions
4. Stress at Work

Components of Ergonomics:

Job
 The task needed to achieve a result
 Governed by guidelines designed to prevent muscle overload
 Requires learning, training and skill

Workstation
 Place of deployment
 Where duties are carried out
 Where equipment are located
 Machines are the tools
 8 hours are spent
 Where most accidents happen

Tool
 Integral part of the man-machine system
 Powerful, fast, tireless
 Enables man to accomplish his job with reduced effort
 An extension of man's body
 Increases man's strength and versatility
 Enables him to handle other less-structured equipment
 Enables the risk of associated hazards

Man
 An integral part of the man-machine-system
 Intelligent, adaptive and versatile
 The basis of existence- survival

Ergonomic hazards
26

Fatigue
 A deterioration of mental and physical performance
 In everyday experience, fatigue is the accumulation of the effects of various
sources.

Risk Factors of the JOB/TASK:

Position
 There are positions where the muscles have the most strength, less fatigue, less
strain on tendons and ligaments.
o Wrist straight
o Back and neck as close to their natural alignment as possible
o Shoulders relaxed
o Elbows near the side, bent at a 90° angle to reach the work.

Force
 It strains muscle tendons;
 If a job requires much force, it is important to control the frequency of repetition,
and to position the work with muscles at their maximum strength.

Frequency
 It is more difficult to control frequency than position & force, t herefore, it is more
important to make it possible for employees to work in the
best position they can to reduce the force applied.

Control Methods
 Task interruption
 Job enlargement
 Exercise
 Job rotation
Workplace Design
 Provide an environment free of unnecessary stress.
 Risk factors: Height, weight, distance
 Height for 5'5" individuals, keep frequently used items 50-150 cm.
 Weight: Maximum carrying capacity for men: 25kg; for women: 12.5kg
 Distance: keep items close to the body: primary reach zone

Tool Design
 Fit the tool to the worker, not the worker to the tool
 Keep the wrist in a straight line

Man
 Personnel selection
 Experienced worker teaches new hires
 Acquired skills

Signs of Ergonomic hazards:

 Wearing wristbands
 Shoulder turning
 Arm stretching
 Absenteeism,
 Increase clinic visit
 Intake of pain-relief medication

Workstations and tools are designed in such a way to accomplish the job effortlessly. It
makes work more "human".
MATERIALS HANDLING & WAREHOUSING

INTRODUCTION

Almost every Supervisor, at one time or another, had to handle materials on the job. Materials
handling may be done manually or with mechanical equipment, but either way, materials handling
can be a source of occupational injury.

Handling of materials accounts for 20 - 25 % of all occupational injuries. These injuries occur in
every part of an operation, not just in the stockroom or warehouse.

Strains, sprains, fractures & contusions are the common injuries.

MATERIAL HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS

 Can the job be engineered to eliminate or reduce manual handling?


 Can the materials be conveyed or moved mechanically?
 In what ways can the materials being handled (such as chemicals, dusts, rough & sharp
objects) cause injury?
 Can employees be given handling aids, such as properly sized boxes, adequate trucks, or
hooks that will make their job safer?
 Would protective clothing, or other personal equipment, help prevent injuries?
 Would training and more effective management help reduce injuries?

MATERIAL HANDLING PROBLEMS

 Common injuries are strains, sprains, fractures and bruises. These are primarily caused by
unsafe practices --- improper lifting, carrying too heavy load, incorrect gripping, failing to
observe proper foot or hand clearance, failing to use or wear proper equipment and/or
personal protective equipment and clothing.
 Property damage and serious injury / fatality caused by mechanical equipment.
TYPES OF MATERIAL HANDLING

MANUAL
 Individual Capacity
 25 kg…female
 50 kg…male
 Accessories
 2 wheeled hand trucks
 4 wheeled hand trucks
 Crowbars
 Shovel

MECHANICAL
 Powered Hand Truck  Railroad Cars
 Crane  Conveyors
 Hoist  Pipelines
 Forklift  Pallets
 Boom Truck  Carton Clamps
 Heavy - Duty Truck  Wire Ropes
 Tractors  Lifting Bars

GUIDELINES FOR MANUAL LIFTING

 Inspect materials for slivers, jagged edges, burrs, rough or slippery surfaces.
 Get a firm grip on the object.
 Keep fingers away from pinch points, especially when putting materials down.
 When handling lumber, pipe or other long objects, keep hands away from the ends to
prevent them from being pinched.
 Wipe off greasy, wet, slippery, or dirty objects before handling them.
 Keep hands free of oil and grease.

LIFTING & CARRYING

 Never let workers overexert themselves when lifting. If you think the load will take more
than one person to handle, assign more persons to do the job.
 Lift gradually, without jerking, to minimize the effects of acceleration.
 Keep the load close to the body.
 Lift without twisting the body.
 Follow the six-step lifting procedure.
 Keep feet parted - one alongside, one behind the object.
 Keep back straight, nearly vertical.
 Tuck your chin in.
 Grip the object with the whole hand.
 Tuck elbows and arms in.
 Keep body weight directly over feet.

PERSONNEL SELECTION FOR MATERIAL HANDLING


 Screening before employment
 Capabilities
 Medical examination

HAND TRUCK HAZARDS


 Running wheels over feet
 Jamming hands between the truck and other objects
 Colliding with other trucks or obstructions
 Running wheels off bridge plates or platforms

MECHANICAL LIFTING
 Equipment and accessories inspection
 Maintenance
 Licensed operators
 Experienced rigger/spotter

STORAGE OF SPECIFIC MATERIALS


 Temporary and permanent storage should be secure, neat and orderly
 Allow adequate ceiling clearance under the sprinklers (18-36”)
 Keep all the exits and aisles clear at all times
 Use bins and racks to facilitate storage and reduce hazards
 Segregation and isolation
 6 M safe distance
 Cartons…..Lumbers…..Bagged Materials…..Barrels…..Pipes…..Liquid
Containers…..Paints & Thinners…..Gasoline / Diesel…..Oxygen & Acetylene Cylinders!

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
 Flammable
 Combustible
 Acid
 Gases
 Oxidizer

SHIPPING & RECEIVING

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


 Safety shoes
 Gloves
 Goggles
 Aprons
 Leggings
 Back Belt
TASK EXPOSURE ANALYSIS/JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS
Introduction

The process of determining the hazards associated with a job is often referred to as Job Safety
Analysis, however a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is a more accurate term since a JHA looks for the
hazards associated with a job, those that present risks not only to employee’s safety, but also to
employee’s health and the environment. Ultimately, every job should be analyzed. This analysis will
identify the hazards associated with each steps, and will enable the supervisor to recommend the
appropriate control measures.

Establishing JHA Priorities

When more than one job needs to be analyzed, choosing which one to do first is an important
decision. Some jobs present a greater risk to health and safety than others and should take priority.
In most cases, the priorities are based on the following criteria:

 High Frequency or Accidents or Near-Misses. Jobs with a high frequency of accidents or


near-misses pose a significant threat to health and safety.

 History of Serious Accidents or Fatalities. Jobs that have already produced fatalities, disabling
injuries, illnesses or environmental harm - regardless of the frequency - should have a high
priority

 Potential for Serious Harm. Jobs that have the potential for causing serious injury or harm
should be analyzed, even if they have never produced an injury or illness.

 New Jobs. Whenever a new job is introduced in your area, a thorough JHA should be
performed before any employee is assigned to it.

 Changes in Procedures and standards. Priority should also be given to jobs that have
undergone a change in procedure, equipment or materials, and jobs whose operation may
have been affected by new regulations or standards.
Note: Even the most routine jobs can include unrecognized hazards. By performing a thorough JHA
you may be able to discover a safer or healthier way of performing the job.

Selecting a JHA Team

JHA should always be a team effort. By involving others in the process, the possibility of
overlooking an individual job step or a potential hazard is reduced. The likelihood of identifying the
most appropriate measures for eliminating or controlling hazards is also increased. JHA is a team
effort. An effective JHA team should generally include:

 The Supervisor
 The employee most familiar with how the job is done and its related hazards
 Other employees who perform the job
 Experts or specialists, when necessary, such as maintenance personnel, Occupational
hygienists, ergonomists, or design engineers.

By involving as many knowledgeable and experienced people as possible, you ensure the JHA will be
accurate and complete.

Performing a Job Hazard Analysis

Once the JHA team has been selected, make sure everyone involved is familiar with what a job
hazard analysis is and how it is performed.

Job hazard analysis is a three-stage process.


1. List the basic steps necessary to perform the job from start to Finish.
2. Identify every existing or potential hazard associated with each job step.
3. Develop recommendations for ways to eliminate, or control each hazard.

JHA forms can differ from company to company. The form should be completed one column at a
time. In other words, all of the basic job steps should be listed before moving to the second column.
Then, all the existing and potential hazards for each job should be identified before listing any
recommended solutions in the third column. Concentrating on one column at a time helps ensure
that the information in each column is accurate and complete.

1. Identifying Basic Job Steps

It is always a good practice to begin a JHA with a general discussion of how the job is
performed and a review of any related hazards. Once the team has a general familiarity with the
operation, they are ready to begin identifying the basic job steps. The most effective way for the
JHA team to do this is to watch carefully as an operator performs the entire job at least once.
Then, as the operator performs the job again, the individual steps are noted in the JHA form
using simple action phrases that are short and to the point: "Compress boxes" or "Remove tied
bale from baler", for example. The job steps should always be numbered to indicate the order in
which they are performed. Two of the most common errors made during this stage of a JHA are:

 Describing the job in too much detail; or,


 Describing the job in too little detail.
Supervisors or team leaders can often avoid these errors by listing as steps only those tasks that
would be described to someone being trained to perform the job. The purpose of the JHA is to
identify hazards associated with a job and to make recommendations for ways to eliminate or
control those hazards. Describing job steps in terms of what they are supposed to accomplish
provides maximum opportunity to explore alternative ways of performing the job in a safer,
healthier manner.

In preparing for a JHA, actions that are necessary to accomplish a specific purpose into more
global job steps should be combined. This will keep the JHA form from being unnecessarily long
and complicated, yet still provides an adequate description of the complete job.

2. Determining Existing and Potential Hazards

Beginning with the first job step, the team needs to identify all the existing or potential actions
or conditions that could lead to an injury or illness, or harm to the environment. Each step must
be carefully examined for any hazardous behaviors or conditions that might reasonably occur
during the normal performance of that step. To avoid confusion, each hazard should be labeled
in a way that corresponds to the related job step. Explanations of hazards should be short
phrases, which describe both the agent causing the hazard and the potential result. If there are
no hazard associated with a particular job step it is important to write the word "none" in the
middle column, and to number it to make it clear that the step has been examined for possible
hazards. Since job steps are often a series of related actions and movement, it is sometimes
difficult to identify all of the associated hazards. A simple technique to make sure that each step
is examined thoroughly is to consider four focuses.

a. The physical actions required for that specific step


b. The materials used
c. The equipment used
d. The conditions under which the step is normally performed

a. Physical Actions. Many jobs require the operator to perform specific physical activity
that, if done incorrectly can result in an injury or illness. For example, when heavy
objects must be lifted or moved by hand, the potential for back injury or muscle
strain always exists. Or, if the action must be performed repeatedly, employees can
suffer fatigue or physical stress that increases the chance of an accident. Other jobs
that present the possibility of injury or illness include those that require the
operator to work in an awkward or unstable body positions or to use excessive force.

b. Materials. Whenever hazardous chemicals or other dangerous substances are


involved in a job step, there is always the possibility of injury, illness, or
environmental harm. The job step should be carefully examined to determine if
there is any way in which employees might be exposed to the material, if fire or
explosion could occur, or if the material could be released into the environment.

c. Equipment. Sometimes the equipment used during job step can expose employees
to mechanical hazards such as nip-points, shear points, or other hazards associated
with unguarded moving parts. Each job step should be examined for ways
employees might possibly be caught in, on or by any part of the equipment, and to
see if any electrical or other energy source of hazards is present.

d. Conditions. The team also needs to consider whether there are any environmental
conditions that could threaten an employee's health and safety. These could include
poor housekeeping, too much or too little light, hazardous noise levels, exposure to
temperature extremes, and adverse weather.

"What if” Questions

In addition to identifying those hazards that are possible when the job is performed in the
normal manner. or under normal working conditions, some teams carry the process of
identifying hazards a step further by asking some "what if” questions. "What if” questions allow
the team to anticipate hazardous situations that might occur if normal operating conditions were
to suddenly change or if a job step were performed incorrectly or out of sequence. For example,
these questions can be considered:

 What could happen if the operator tried to save time by skipping a job step or bypassing
a safety device?
 What if the wrong size or type of material is used?
 What if the power supply is interrupted?

A common problem encountered when asking "what if” questions is deciding when to stop
considering possibilities. The key is to keep the discussion focused only on possibilities that the
team considers most likely. Consulting previous JHA and accident investigation reports and
talking with experienced operators will usually be enough to keep the “What if” questioning
from becoming unrealistic. Keep in mind that the purpose of the JHA is to identify all the
possible hazards. Each job step must be thoroughly examined until all of the team members are
satisfied that the list of hazards is complete.

3. Recommending Corrective

The third and final phase of the JHA process involves recommending ways to eliminate or
control the hazards associated with each of the job steps. Recommendations should be
developed at the job site whenever possible. It is always best to work through possible solutions
at the job site. This allows the JHA team to check the feasibility of changes as they are proposed,
in order to avoid making recommendations that won't work or that may interfere with other
jobs.

Recommendations should be developed in sequence, beginning with the first hazard. The
team should begin with the first job step and work their way down the list until
recommendations have been made for each of the hazards listed in the form. Dealing with the
hazards in sequence allows the team to study what effects their recommendations might have
on subsequent steps.
Recommendations must be specific. A general statement such as "Wear PPE" is much too
vague. The JHA team needs to make certain that each recommendation adequately explains
what corrective measure is supposed to be carried out. For example, "wear heavy gloves, arm
protection, safety glasses" is a more effective recommendation, providing specific direction.

List down as many solutions you can think of as possible. Frequently, a JHA team will be able
to suggest several different ways to eliminate or control a particular hazard. It is essential that all
of the precautions or corrective measures be listed even those that may already be in place.
Since JHA's often serve as the basis for developing standard operating procedures, or are used to
deliver training, all of the precautions necessary to perform the job safely need to be included.
The most effective recommendations are those that eliminate hazards altogether. Many times,
however, it not immediately possible and temporary measures must be recommended until
a more permanent solution can be implemented. For example, it may be necessary to
recommend the temporary use of respirators until an adequate ventilation system is installed. In
most cases, effective recommendations for corrective measures can be developed by
considering the same four factors used to identify hazards:

1. The physical actions necessary to perform the job


2. The materials used
3. The equipment used
4. The conditions under which the job is performed

Physical Actions. If the physical actions associated with a particular job step pose risk to the
employee, it may be possible to eliminate the risks by modifying, rearranging, or combining
actions. It is also good practice to always list personal protective equipment (PPE) that may
be used to control the employees' exposure to the hazards associated with a particular
physical action even when recommendations for eliminating the hazard have been
proposed.

Materials. If materials associated with a job present hazard, it may be possible to substitute
a less hazardous material. If substitution is not possible, it may be necessary to recommend
ways to control the employee's exposure to that material by suggesting the use of PPE or the
installation of protective devices such as splashguards or shields.

Equipment. When equipment hazards exist, recommendations for corrective measures can
include the installation of machine guards, automatic safeguard devices, or perhaps even the
replacement of a particular piece of equipment. Once again, recommending the use of PPE
should also be considered

Work Area Conditions. Recommended corrective measures for changing conditions in a


work area could include such things as: improved housekeeping procedures; installation of
additional lighting, ventilation, or noise reduction systems; the use of PPE; or the relocation
or redesign of the work area.

Using the Job Hazard Analysis


The information provided by a thorough job hazard analysis can be used as the basis for:
 Developing or updating standard operating procedure
 Training employees
 Observing employee performance
 Conducting inspections
 Investigating accidents

Developing or Updating Standard Operating Procedure. The results of a JHA provide an


excellent foundation for creating or improving the standard operating procedures for a job. Each
of the steps necessary to perform the job is listed and all the hazards and control measures
associated with the job are identified. Supervisors can use this information to develop written
procedures for performing the job in the safest and healthiest way possible.

Training Employees. Completed JHAs are especially useful when training employees. The JI-1A
can be used as a step-by-step guide for ensuring that each step is performed safely and
efficiently, and to point out particular job steps or hazards that require special precautions. JHAs
can also be used to provide refresher training on jobs that are performed infrequently, to ensure
that employees are aware of any hazards that may be present and know how to protect
themselves from those hazards.

Conducting Inspections. JSA’s can also be used as guides during employee performance
observations. A JHA allows supervisors to focus on especially hazardous steps to ensure that the
employee is performing those steps according to standard procedure.

Investigating Accidents. In the event of an accident, a JHA can provide a valuable investigating
tool. Comparing the procedures which led up to the accident with those outlined in the JHA will
allow the supervisor to determine if the job was being performed incorrectly, or if a hazard was
overlooked in the initial analysis.

Summary

JHA involve steps, which, if performed incorrectly, can cause injury, illness, or harm to the
environment. Others require employees to work with or around hazardous materials or to work
under hazardous conditions. Supervisors and team leaders need a reliable and accurate method of
identifying and eliminating or controlling those hazards. One of the most effective tools available to
help supervisors protect the health and safety of their employees is a job hazard analysis or JHA.
Including job hazard analysis as part of the overall health and safety management approach is one of
the most effective steps taken toward preventing accidents and illnesses in your department.
Performing JSA’s on all of the jobs supervised, keeping them up to date, and using them to their
fullest advantage allows the supervisor to anticipate and eliminate or control anything that might
lead to injury, illness, or environmental harm.

To perform an accurate and complete JHA, you need to:


 Select the job to be analyzed; and,
 Assemble a team of knowledgeable and experienced personnel to conduct the JHA. Then,
the team as a whole needs to:
 Observe the job as it is performed to break it down into basic steps;
 Analyze each step to determine what, if any, hazards could possibly occur; and,
 Develop recommendations for eliminating or controlling the hazards associated with
each step.
When JHA is made a regular part of the management system, several important things are
accomplished. In addition to preventing accidents, illnesses, and environmental harm, JSAs provide
an opportunity to reinforce positive employee attitudes. The more employees are involved in a
process that concerns their own, health and safety, the more likely they are to regard health and
safety as an important issue.
FIRE PROTECTION AND CONTROL

FIRE is the result of the chemical combustion of combustible materials (fuel) with oxygen in the
presence of enough heat.

CHARACTERISTICS and BEHAVIOR OF FIRE:

It is virtually impossible to predict exactly when a fire will occur and, upon its inception, the
extent of its destructive potential. However, through scientific knowledge of ignition, the
combustibility of solids, liquids and gases, the products of combustion and effective ways to control
the dangers of fire and explosion can be determined.

Ordinary fire (one that can be extinguished by ordinary extinguishing agents) results from the
combustion of fuel, heat and oxygen. When a substance is heated to a certain critical temperature
called its “ignition temperature”, it will ignite and continue to burn as long as there is fuel, proper
temperature and a supply of oxygen.

For many years, the three sided figure of the fire triangle has adequately been used to explain
and describe the combustion and extinguishing theory. If any one of the three elements is removed,
fire cannot exist. A new theory has developed to explain combustion and extinguishments further.
This is the transition from the plane geometric triangular figure, which we recognize as the fire
triangle, to a four-sided solid geometric figure, a tetrahedron, which resembles a pyramid.

BASIC CHEMISTRY OF FIRE:

 FUEL or combustible material – one which contains chemical elements that will react with
oxygen and, under proper conditions, produce fire.
 OXYGEN – 16% of this is needed to sustain fire.
 HEAT (sufficient) – to raise the temperature of the fuel surface to a point where chemical
union of the fuel and oxygen occurs.
 CHEMICAL CHAIN REACTION – vapors of gases, which are distilled during burning process of
a material, are carried into the flame.

3 Methods of Heat Transfer:

1. Conduction – direct conduct of heat from one body to another.


2. Convection – the circulating medium of heat transfer, always occur in upward direction.
3. Radiation – when energy travels through space or material in waves.

Products of Combustion:
 Fire gases – refers to the vaporized products of combustion.
 Flame – the visible luminous body of burning gas, which becomes hotter and less luminous
when mixed with increased amounts of oxygen.
 Heat – a form of energy which is measured in degrees of temperature to signify its intensity.
It is responsible for the spread of fire.
 Smoke – a visible product of incomplete combustion.

Phases of Burning:
 Incipient phase or Beginning Phase
 Flame Producing Phase or Free-Burning Phase
 Smoldering Phase

Fire Extinguishing Method:

Under the theory of the fire triangle, there are three methods of fire suppression. With the
introduction of the tetrahedron concept, a fourth suppression measure --- stop the chain reaction ---
has to be considered. The method of stopping a rapid chemical reaction (burning) depends upon the
size and the type of fuel involved.
 Isolation – by eliminating the combustible material
 Smothering – by cutting off the oxygen supply
 Quenching – by cooling to a point below the ignition temperature
 Inhibition – by inhibiting the rapid oxidation of the fuel

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES AND EXTINGUISHING METHODS

Class A Fires – Fires involving ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and
many plastics.

Class A Extinguishment – water is used in a cooling or quenching effect to reduce the


temperature of the burning material below its ignition temperature.

Class B Fires – Fires involving flammable liquids, greases and gases

Class B Extinguishment – the smothering or blanketing effect of oxygen exclusion is most


effective. Other extinguishing methods include removal of fuel and temperature reduction.

Class C Fires – Fires involving energized electrical equipment.

Class C Extinguishment – this fire can sometimes be controlled by a non-conducting


extinguishing agent. The safest procedure is always to attempt to de-energize high voltage circuits
and treat as a Class A or B fire depending upon the fuel involved.

Class D Fires – Fires involving combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium
and potassium.

Class D Extinguishment – the extremely high temperature of some burning metals makes
water and other common extinguishing agents ineffective. There is no agent available that will
effectively control fires in all combustible metals. Special extinguishing agents are available for
control of fire in each of the metals and are marked specifically for that metal.
FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Most fires are relatively small when they start, they can be easily handled with portable fire
extinguishers. Therefore, industrial firefighters should be familiar with the types and location of fire
extinguishers distributed throughout the plant. Brigade members should know how fire
extinguishers work, how they are used, and how they are maintained.

Proper use of fire extinguisher:


 Determine the class of fire and use the appropriate type.
 Check the content/pressure
 Pull safety pin
 Extend discharged horn toward the base of fire
 Approach the fire with the wind at your back
 Apply with back and forth horizontal sweeping motion
 Direct the stream at base of fire, for burning liquid direct the stream on top of the open
container.

Requirements for Fire Extinguisher:


 Be kept fully charged and in their designated places
 Be located along normal paths of travel
 Not be obstructed or obscured from view
 Not be mounted higher than 5 ft. or 1.5m. to the top of the extinguisher if they weigh 40 lbs.
or 80 kg. or less.
 Be inspected by management or a designated employee monthly to make sure they are in
their designated places, have not been tampered with or actuated and have no corrosion or
other impairments.
 Be examined at least quarterly and / or re-charged or repaired to ensure operability and
safety. A tag must be attached to show the maintenance or re-charged date and the
signature or initials of the person performing the service.
 Be hydrastically tested.
 Be selected on the basis of type of hazard, degree of hazard, and area to be protected.
 Be placed so that the maximum travel distances, unless there are extremely hazardous
conditions, do not exceed 75 ft. or 23 cm. for Class A extinguisher, or 50 ft. for Class B
extinguisher.

After use:
 Have extinguisher re-charged or replaced immediately even if only partially discharged.
 Momentary discharged could cause total loss of pressure.
 Bring extinguisher to a qualified service agency for recharging, repair or test.
 Non-refillable should be identified and a replacement should be obtained immediately for
continued fire protection.
 Do not dispose used fire extinguisher by throwing it in the fire.
 Do not refill your extinguisher with any material other than that specified on the nameplate.
This may cause damage to the extinguisher which may cause rupture, resulting to bodily
injuries.
Fundamentals of Protection, Prevention and Control:

The fundamentals of fire protection, prevention and control can be best summarized in the
following objectives:
 Provide for early detection
 Prevent the spread of fire
 Provide for prompt extinguishing of fire
 Prevention of outbreak of fire
 Provide for the immediate evacuation of personnel.

Ordinarily, oxygen is the most difficult of the three factors to control since it is in the air and is a
necessity of life. Fuel and heat can be controlled, and therefore the simplest control measures will
have to do with them. Actually, control in this sense means merely keeping them separated.

Most fires start out as small ones, except for explosions. The prompt detection of fire and
signaling of an alarm are therefore of prime importance. When fire is detected by personnel, it is
important that they have been trained to act effectively. The first impulse of many individuals on
discovering a fire is to try to extinguish it; this has frequently led to long delays in sounding the
alarm. All employees should be trained to sound the alarm as soon as the fire is discovered, and if
possible, try to extinguish it.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Emergencies and Disasters --- at offices and plant facilities --- and their associated costs can be
devastating in terms of employee casualties, business interruption, loss of assets, etc.

Emergencies may happen in spite of preventive measures. Management can reduce the
frequency of occurrence and severity of injuries or damage with correct identification and evaluation
of hazards, effective preparation/planning, training, and implementation.

Objectives

This can be accomplished by having Emergency Preparedness Plans that will trigger Emergency
Response Procedures developed by the organization. Effective Emergency Preparedness Planning
requires that all employees be made familiar with emergency procedures before a crisis situation
happens TO MINIMIZE THE POSSIBILITY OF PANIC, TO ENABLE EMPLOYEES TO LEAVE AN
ENDANGERED PLACE IN THE SHORTEST PRACTICABLE TIME, TO ENABLE EMPLOYEES TO RESPOND IN
THE SHORTEST PRACTICABLE TIME.

General Guidelines
 The assignment of leadership and administration responsibilities to certain individuals.
 Facility vulnerability analysis
 Development of emergency management, planning, response procedures, agency contacts,
documentation, and
 Development of training drills and updates.

Leadership & Administration


An Emergency Control Organization (ECO) must be established as follows:
 Chairman: Chief Executive Officer
 Alternate: Head of Human Resources
 Alternate: Head of Safety & Security
 An Emergency Control Organization (ECO) must be established as follows:
 ECC Officer: Manager to man the Emergency Control Center (Plant Mgr)
 EC Operations Officer: Field Officer to be at emergency site (Safety Officer)
 An Emergency Control Organization (ECO) must be established as follows:
 EC Finance: Provide money & purchasing resources
 EC HR: Provide human resources / medical needs
 An Emergency Control Organization (ECO) must be established as follows:
 EC Security
 EC Press and Community Relations
 EC Legal Advisory
 An Emergency Control Center (ECC) must be established as follows:
 Office must be near Company entrance
 Safe site, continuous power supply, light, aircon
 Communications /Recording Equipment (2-way radio, am-fm radio with recorder, tv
with vcr, telephone, fax, cell phones, directories, computer, email internet,
videocams, still cams, whiteboard, logbook, or writing pens and pencils)
 Access to food, toilet, medical, change of clothes
 Nearby press conference room

Functions of the ECO


 Decide on whether to convene an Emergency Preparedness Team
 Decide on whether to stop normal operation or evacuate facility;
 Issue an all clear alarm and return to work signal.

[Note: The Chairman or his designated representative is responsible for informing the public of the
emergency as needed.)

Facility Vulnerability Analysis


 Determine courses of action to take regarding threats such as fire, typhoon, earthquake,
bomb threat, civil strife, etc.

Emergency Planning
 Involves the development of a specific plan which details actions to be taken by trained
personnel during an emergency in an effort to efficiently control the emergency, and
minimize its negative impacts
 It provides management guidance for action to be taken in case of an emergency.

FOUR STEPS IN THE PLANNING PROCESS


1. Establish a Planning Team
2. Analyze Hazards and Capabilities
3. Develop the Plan
4. Implement the Plan

STEP 1. ESTABLISH A PLANNING TEAM

 A Planning Team is in charge of developing the Emergency Control Plan.


 The size of the Planning Team will depend on the facility’s requirements and resources. A
bigger Team is best because:
a. More people participate in the process;
b. It increases the amount of time and energy invested
c. It enhances the visibility and stature of the planning process; and
d. It provides for a broader perspective.

In most cases, one or two people will be doing the bulk of the work. Others can serve in an
advisory capacity. Members should come from all functional areas in the company:

a. Upper Management f. Sales


b. Line Management g. Marketing
c. Labor h. HR
d. Security i. Legal
e. Community Relations j. R&M
k. Finance /Purchasing l. Safety

EC Team members to be appointed in writing by Top Management.

 Establish Authority.
 Demonstrate management’s commitment and openly promote its support for the EC Plan.
 Issue a Mission Statement. Have the CEO or Plant Manager issue a mission statement. The
statement should:
a. Define the purpose of the plan and indicate that it will involve the entire
organization.
b. Define the authority / structure of the planning group.
 Set a Schedule and Budget.
 Establish a work schedule and EDCs.
 Provide an initial budget for such things as research, printing, seminars, consulting services
and other expenses that may be necessary during the development process.

STEP 2. ANALYZE CAPABILITIES AND POTENTIAL HAZARDS

This step entails gathering information about current capabilities and about possible hazards and
emergencies. Conduct vulnerability analysis to determine facility’s capability to handle emergencies.

NB: It is possible that seemingly unrelated events can trigger a site emergency.

Assess Present State of Preparedness


 Review internal plans and policies. Look for documents such as:
 Evacuation Plans, Fire Protection Plan, Safety and Health Program, Environment Policies,
Security Procedures, Insurance Programs, Finance & Purchasing Procedures, Employee
Manuals, MSDS, Process Safety Assessment, Risk Mgmt Plan, and Cap-Ex Plan

Meet with Outside Groups


 Meet with GOs and NGOs. Ask about potential emergencies, plans and available resources.
 Sources of Information include: NDCC, Mayor’s Office, BFP, PNP, PNRC, PAGASA,
DPWH, Telecom Companies, MERALCO, Neighboring Businesses
 Identify Codes and Regulations - applicable National and Local regulations such as:
 Occupational Safety and Health Manual
 Environmental Regulations
 Building Code of the Philippines
 Electrical Code
 Fire Code of the Philippines
 Zoning Regulations

Identify Critical Products, Operations and Services


 Absence of Critical POS may be a source of potential emergencies. Determine need for
backup systems. Areas to review:
a. Company products and services and the facilities and equipment to produce them;
b. Products and services provided by suppliers, especially sole and strategic suppliers;
c. Utilities such as water, electrical power, fuel, waste disposal/treatment, transportation,
telecommunications
d. Any other facility uniquely needed by company.

Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities


 Emergency Control Resources include:
a. Personnel – EC Team, Fire brigade, hazmat team, EMT, security, emergency control team,
evacuation team, PR dept
b. Equipment – FA & FB equipment, PA & telecoms, emergency supplies, emergency power
sources, decon equipment.
c. Facilities – ECC, Food and water supplies, shelter, clothing, FA Station, ECC, Radio/TV,
media briefing area, washing, sanitation & disposal.

Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities


 Resources and capabilities that could be needed in an emergency. This include:
a. Organizational Capabilities – training, evacuation plan, employee support system.
b. Backup system – Payroll and Petty Cash, UPS, communications, customer services, MIS,
Business Interruption & Recovery Systems.

Identify External Resources


 There are many external resources that would be needed in an emergency. Formal
agreements or “Mutual Aid” may be necessary with the following:
 Ambulance and Rescue  Rescue NGOs
 Response Units  Utilities
 Hospitals  Suppliers
 BFP  Suppliers of Emergency Equipment
 HazMat Response  Insurance Carriers
 PNP  industries in the area

Do an Insurance Review
 Meet with insurance carriers to review policies.

Conduct Facility Vulnerability Analysis


 Assess the vulnerability of your facility -- the probability and potential impact of each
emergency.

STEP 3. DEVELOP THE PLAN

You are now ready to develop an Emergency Control plan.

PLAN COMPONENTS

Executive Summary
The executive summary gives management a brief overview of:
 the purpose of the plan
 the facility's emergency control policy
 authorities and responsibilities of key personnel
 the types of emergencies that could occur and need emergency control

Emergency Control Elements


a. Direction and Control
b. Communications
c. Life safety
d. Property protection
e. Community outreach
f. Recovery and restoration after the business interruption

Emergency Response Procedures


The procedures spell out how the facility will respond to emergencies. Whenever possible,
develop them as a series of checklists that can be quickly accessed by senior management,
department heads, response personnel and employees.

Determine what actions would be necessary to:


 Assess the situation
 Protect employees, customers, 3rd Party, equipment, vital records and other assets,
particularly during the first week of the onset of emergency
 Control Emergency and Stabilize the Situation

Emergency Response Actions


 Communicating with the immediate community
 Evacuation of personnel
 Activation and manning of the ECC
 Activate ER personnel
 Shutting down operations;
 Protecting vital equipment/records; and
 Stabilize Emergency/ Restore operations

Supporting Documents
 Lists (wallet size if possible) of all persons on and off site who would be involved in
responding to an emergency, their responsibilities and their Residence Addresses (in case
they have to be fetched).

 Company-issued cellphones to contain Names of EC Personnel and their Cellphone Numbers


in their Directories.

 Building and site maps that indicate:


a. Utility shutoffs g. Electrical cutoffs
b. Water hydrants h. Electrical substations
c. Water main valves i. Storm drains
d. Water lines j. Sewer lines
e. Gas main valves k. Floor plans
f. Gas lines l. Alarms
 Building and site maps that indicate:
a. Fire Extinguishers and suppression systems
b. Fire Exits and Stairways
c. Escape routes
d. Restricted areas
e. Hazardous materials (including cleaning supplies and chemicals), and
f. High-value items

 Resource List.
 Lists of major resources (equipment, supplies, services) that could be needed in an
emergency; mutual aid agreements with other companies and government
agencies.

STEP 4. IMPLEMENT THE PLAN

Implementation means:
 Organize, train, and do mock drills (announced and unannounced.) Benchmark.
 Evaluate and update at least once a year
 Implement boldly when the Emergency happens.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Many industrial operations involve potentially hazardous equipment, materials or environment
that could lead to serious or even fatal injuries. Many of these hazards are eliminated or controlled
through engineering measures such as machine guards and safeguards, the substitution of non-
hazardous materials, and ventilation systems. In some cases, standard operating procedures are
developed to reduce exposure to specific hazards, however, even with engineering controls, personal
protective equipment (PPE) maybe required as part of normal safety procedures. If a control fails, or
something unexpected happens, it would be best if the worker is wearing the required PPE that will
provide the protective barrier between the worker and the hazard. The PPE should match the
specific hazard associated with the job, properly fit and correctly worn and be maintained in good
condition.

HEAD PROTECTION

The most common form of protective equipment for your head is the hard hat. Primarily, a hard
hat is intended to protect your head from an impact. Some types of hard hats also offer protection
from electrical shock. Most job related head injuries are the result of an impact from falling or
moving object. A hard hat is constructed to reduce the effects of the impact by deflecting or
absorbing some or all of its force. It consists of:

 An outer shell made of an impact resistant material such as high


strength plastic, fiberglass or metal.
 A suspension harness or webbing attached to the outer shell that
provides protective clearance between the outer shell and your head.
 An adjustable headband attached to the suspension harness.

Together these components form a shock absorption system that allows the force of an impact to be
deflected or spread enough to reduce the possibility of a serious head injury.

In addition to providing protection from impacts, some hard hats are also designed to provide
protection from electrical shock. Hard hats are classified according to the amount of electrical
protection they offer.
 Class A hard hats use metal chips to attach the suspension harness to the outer shell.
Therefore, they may not provide adequate protection from high voltages.
 Class B: High Voltage Protection. Class B hard hats contain no metal parts and are approved
for use around high voltages.
 Class C: No electrical protection. Many Class C hard hats have metal outer shell and would
never be worn around exposed electrical components.

Note:
Bump caps are intended for use only in situations that might produce a minor bump or abrasion.
Never substitute a bump cap for an approved hard hat if there is any possibility of a serious impact.
Proper Fit
In order to provide the necessary protection, a hard hat must be worn correctly. The headband
needs to be worn correctly. The headband needs to be adjusted so it is snug enough to keep the
hard hat from falling off when the worker bends over. It should not be so tight, however, to cause
headache. Make certain the harness provides at least 1 ½ inch clearance between the top of the
harness and the inside of the shell from hitting the head in the event of an impact.

Never wear the hard hat backward. The suspension harness is designed to work with the
headband in the proper position and wearing the hat backward could affect the amount of
protection it provides.

Inspection and Maintenance


It is good practice to examine the hard hat carefully at the beginning of your work shift. It is
essentially important to inspect if it has been struck or dropped from a substantial height. Inspect to
make certain:
 The shell has no cracks, deep cuts, gouges, or areas where the material has been rubbed
thin.
 The suspension harness is not stretched, frayed, rotted, or worn thin.
 The connection between the harness and the shell are not loose or broken.
 The headband is not frayed or damaged.
 The clearance between the top of the harness and the shell is at least 1 ½ inches when you
push on the harness.

EYE/FACE PROTECTION

With eye/face protection, there are five types of hazards to deal with:
 Impact - material fragments, chips or other flying objects that can strike the eyes or face.
 Irritating dusts - particles in the air that can settle in the eyes, making it difficult to work
safely.
 Chemical Splashes - contacts with hazardous substances that can cause skin or eye injuries.
 Extreme Heat- exposures to temperatures high enough to burn skin or eyes physically.
 Optical Radiation and Glare - direct or indirect exposure to sources of extremely bright or
harmful wavelengths of light.

The most common type of face protection is the full-face shield. The shield is made from high
strength plastic that can withstand a great deal of force without cracking or shattering. However,
face shields are only intended to prevent objects from striking the face. It is not designed to serve as
primary eye protection; the worker must wear either safety glasses or safety goggles.

The kind of eye protection the worker needs to wear when working around an impact hazard
depends mainly on the direction the particles or fragments can come from. As a minimum, the safety
glasses the worker must wear must have side shields to protect the eyes from the front or the side.
When there is an additional possibility of materials coming at the top or below, the safety glasses
must have side shields to protect the eyes from the front or the side. When there is an additional
possibility of materials coming at the top or below, the safety glasses must include top shields as
well.

Safety goggles are usually worn when particles can approach from any direction. They are
available in either the cup or cover styles, both are designed to form a complete seal around the
eyes to provide maximum protection from flying materials. While the seal does prevent your eyes
from getting struck by flying debris, it can cause the lenses to fog easily. To reduce the possibility of
fogging, some goggles have ventilation holes to allow air to circulate behind the lenses.

Chemical Hazards
If the job presents any possibility of hazardous chemicals splashing or spilling onto the face
and into the eyes, the workers need to wear a face shield and the appropriate type of safety
goggles. Goggles with direct ventilation holes are not recommended when working with
chemicals since the holes will allow liquid to get inside. It is best to wear goggles with no
ventilation holes or goggles with direct ventilation where the holes are hooded. Indirect
Ventilation forces air and any liquid to make at least one right angle turn to enter the goggles.
This technique reduces the chances of liquid reaching the eyes

Dust Hazards
Some operations create fine dusts that remain suspended in the air. The most effective type
of eyewear is goggles without ventilation holes or those with direct ventilation holes.

Heat Hazards
Whenever there is a possibility of the eyes or face being burned from contact with an
extremely hot surface, hot liquid or other source of intense heat, the worker needs to wear a
heat-resistant face shield and either safety glasses or goggles. Some face shields are available
with a special coating to reflect heat away from the face. Another type comes with a metal
screen instead of the more common plastic shield. Those specially-type face shields are often
necessary for jobs that involve working around furnaces or molten metals.

Optical Radiation Hazards


Generally speaking, optical radiation hazards involve exposure to potentially harmful types
of light --- primarily ultra violet (UV) and infrared (IR) light. These are parts of the ordinary
sunlight that causes sunburn and eye irritation, which may lead to painful and, in some cases,
irreversible eye injuries. The most common industrial cause for these eye hazards is welding
operation. If the job involves working with or around a welding area, the worker needs to wear
appropriate eye and face protection, welding masks and goggles with shaded lenses.

Proper Fit
 Face shields, safety glasses and safety goggles must fit properly.
 Face shields should provide enough clearance between the plastic shield and your face for
safety glasses or goggles. The adjustable headband should be snug enough to keep the face
shield in place as the worker tilts the head forward or when the shield is lifted up out of the
way.
 Safety glasses should rest comfortably on the worker's nose or can and should be secure
enough to keep them from slipping down the nose when the worker bends over.
 The headband on safety goggles needs to be tight enough to maintain the seal between the
goggles and your face.

Inspection and Maintenance


Examine each item for these problems:
 Worn or damaged headbands on face shields and goggles
 Loose or damaged ear and nose pieces on safety glasses
 Cracked, scratched, pitted, or loose lenses on face shields, safety glasses or goggles
 Plugged ventilation holes on goggles
 Damaged, loose missing side or top shields on safety glasses
 Cleaning and decontaminating face shields, safety glasses and goggles
 Should be done according to manufacturers' instructions.

HAND PROTECTION

The most common hand hazards to which the hands must be protected from include the
following:
 Abrasions - Bruises, scrapes, and scratches from routine materials handling.
 Appropriate glove type: Leather or heavy fabric or a combination of both.
 Cuts - Lacerations from knives and other cutting tools or materials with sharp edges.
 Appropriate glove type: gloves made of stainless steel or aramid fibers (KEVLAR)
 Temperature Extremes - Burns from exposure to extremely hot or cold surface, materials or
environment.
 Appropriate glove type: gloves or liners with temperature rating usually KEVLAR
 Chemical - Injuries or illness caused by contact with hazardous substances.
 Appropriate glove type: rubber type gloves such as neoprene, nitrite, polyvinyl
chloride, natural rubber, butyl rubber, etc.
 Electrical Shock - Injuries caused by contact with live current.
 Appropriate glove type: made of non-conductive materials such as vulcanized rubbers
called elastomers.

Note: No single type of glove can protect your hands from all of these hazards. The gloves must be
matched to the specific type of hazard the worker will likely encounter.

Proper Fit
Wearing Gloves that fit properly can be just as important as wearing the right kind of gloves.
When gloves are too large, they can make it difficult to handle materials safely. And when gloves are
too small, they may not allow the workers to flex their fingers completely.

Inspection and Maintenance


 Regular and thorough inspection of all types of gloves is important. These gloves should be
inspected carefully for:
 Punctures
 Tears
 Cracks
 Abrasion
 Changes in the texture of the material, such as swelling, softening, hardening or
sticky spots
 All gloves should be stored right side out, and left in their natural shape with cuffs unrolled.

FOOT PROTECTION

The type of protective footwear needed depends upon the specific kinds of hazards
encountered. Most common hazards are:
 Impact - Heavy falling or rolling objects that can injure the toes or instep.
 Appropriate Foot Protection: safety shoes or boots with metal or high strength
plastic box built into the toe end
 Puncture - Sharp objects that can pierce the bottom of the foot.
 Appropriate Foot Protection: safety shoes or boots with reinforced soles or insoles
 Chemical - Direct contact with hazardous substances that can cause serious injuries or
illness.
 Appropriate Foot Protection: chemical(rubber, vinyl, neoprene and nitrite resistant
boots that will provide good traction)
 Electric Shock - Contact with exposed electrical components
 Appropriate Foot Protection: safety shoes with non-conducting soles and insoles
contain no exposed metal parts.

Proper Fit
Safety shoes or boots that do not fit properly can be extremely uncomfortable. At the end of a
workday, the feet can get very tired and sore. During selection of safety shoes or boots, the following
must be considered:
 Size - Almost all safety shoes come in the same size as regular shoes.
Note: Make sure to wear the same type of socks when trying the safety shoes. Safety shoes
are available in a wide variety of styles.
 Support - Since most industrial floors are concrete, the shoes need to provide a good arch
support.
 Toe Room - The toes must have room to move
 Traction - Safety shoes and boots come with various types of skid resistant soles. Select the
type that will provide the best traction for the conditions in the workplace.

Inspection and Maintenance


Protective footwear for chemical and electrical hazards requires special attention. Both types
must be inspected often for:
 Holes that could allow a hazardous chemical or electrical current to reach the skin.
 Worn or abraded places where the protective material may be thin
 Nails or other metal objects imbedded in the soles or heels.
 Discoloration, cracks, cuts swelling, or other signs of damage to the material.
 Broken or missing fasteners used to close the top of the boot.
 When cleaning and decontaminating safety footwear, follow manufacturer’s
recommendations.
MACHINE AND EQUIPMENT SAFETY
(LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT)
MACHINE GUARDING

Contact between people and the moving parts of machinery often result in some of the most
serious forms of industrial injury. The earliest advances in injury prevention dealt with the hazards
associated with overhead transmission shafts. Transmission shaft involved that part of the power
source which provided motion to the actual operational parts of the machine. The transfer of
energy from the overhead transmission shaft to the machine usually occurred through a series of
belts. Initially, the use of guards was introduced to prevent contact or "trapping" with the belts.
Ultimately, "stand alone" machines replaced the overhead transmission shaft.

This change in engineering led to an immediate reduction in belt related injuries. However, the
new machines still presented a significant hazard to operators. Today, there is a requirement to
guard machines so that contact between the moving parts and operator, or passer-by, cannot occur.
Often, machine designers fit guards for the purpose of satisfying some legal requirement or standard
without considering the effects of the yard on the operational or production performance. The
purchaser, usually an employer, may modify the equipment in order to achieve both safety and
efficiency. Countries around the world have different standards and requirements for machine
guarding.

General Guarding Requirements

The purpose of machine guarding is to prevent any part of a person's body or clothing from
coming into contact with any dangerous moving part of the machine. Guards should be designed
and constructed to satisfy the following criteria:

 Provide positive protection


 Prevent all access to the danger area during operation
 Cause no discomfort or inconvenience to the operator
 Be compatible with the production process
 Operate with minimum effort
 Preferably built-in
 Provide for maintenance, inspection and servicing
 Be durable enough to withstand extreme conditions
 Not to constitute a hazard in themselves
 Protect against unforeseen operational conditions
 Comply with relevant standards and legal requirements

There are several techniques available in guard design using electronic systems; however the
vast majority of guarding on machines is still mechanical. Wherever machinery is used, there is
likelihood of a hazard resulting from transverse, rotating and reciprocating motions: in-running nips;
shearing, bending and punching actions or cutting actions. The type of guard necessary to be fitted
to a particular part of the machine depends on the design purpose of that part. Where protection
against machine parts is necessary, guards can be considered under two broad categories:
 Non operational - for use on transmission gears, belt drives, shafts and parts that usually do
not require frequent adjustments or approach by the operator: and,
 Operational - where the part performs the function or purpose of the machine, such as
cutters, blades and chucks.

Safety of machinery may be provided through several options. These include specific techniques or,
where necessary, combinations of different methods.

 Tool or machine design


 Fixed guards
 Adjustable fixed yards
 Interlocked yards
 Automatic guards
 Trip or quick-stop devices

Tool or Machine Design

Tool or machine design can eliminate the need for separate guards. Using remote control,
automatic feeding or enclosure, the operator is isolated from the dangerous area. Two-handed
operating devices, requiring simultaneous action by the operator, are used to prevent the operator's
hand entering the danger area. However, this technique doe not account for a second person
becoming involved in the process, thereby reducing the reliability of the guarding system. This
method of guarding may require the addition of a mechanical guard. Especially designed jigs and
tools may be used for manipulating work in conjunction with fixed guards, allowing the operator's
hands to be kept clear of the danger points. Automatic and semi-automatic feeding mechanisms are
also used in combination with fixed guard. Whatever technique is used, it is important that it does
not create additional danger points.

Fixed Guards

Fixed guards are the enclosures that provide a high level of protection. The advantages include
no moving parts, enclosure of the dangerous area at all times, allowing the feeding and ejecting of
material but preventing hands entering the danger zone, enclosing power transmission, and
restraining bursting parts from flying about. The essential requirements of a fixed guard system
include effective prevention of access of any part of the body to the danger area from any direction,
strong rigid construction, effective attachment and failure to observe the fundamentals leaves the
guard partially ineffective and likely to fail in its main purpose.

Adjustable Fixed Guards

The positioning of fixed guarding around the operations point on a machine may not allow
sufficient flexibility during production, severely limiting the use of the machine. An option is to
provide adjustable sections to permit the machine to accept different sized materials. The method,
while increasing flexibility, increases the potential for error.

Interlocked Guards
When fixed or adjustable guarding is impractical, an interlocked device should be considered.
The interlocked guard provides access to the danger area when the moving part of the machinery
come to rest the guard is required to:
 Shut off or isolate the power source to prevent operation when the guard is open.
 Remain closed until the moving parts have stopped.
 Stop the machine immediately when the guard is opened.
 Completely enclose the moving parts in the danger area.

Both mechanical and electrical interlocking is used in this technique, depending on the type of
machine to be guarded. The system must be designed such that should a fault occur, the guard will
safely make the machine inoperable.

Automatic Guards

The machine itself through a connection to the die operating system activates the automatic
guard. The guard is linked to the working cycle of the machine and is designed to protect the
operator even in the event of a machine fault. Speed conditions and stroke are critical to the
effectiveness of automatic guards. Considerable skill and judgment are called for in setting and
testing the device, and attention is needed to ensure the guard itself does not create a shear point
during operation.

Trip or Quick-Stop Guards

In special circumstances, where physical guarding is not fully possible, the application of Quick-
Stop devices can be incorporated. In particular, use is made of photoelectric beams. As in the case
with automatic yards, these types of devices present technical difficulties and reliability concerns if
not properly installed and integrated into the operations of the machines.

Maintenance of Guards

A guard should be as close as possible to the part which it protects. This allows safe approach to
the machine's control, lubricating points and other functions, which require regular monitoring. All
guard should remain in a position whenever the machinery is in motion or used. The guard should
only be removed by an authorized person when a machine is at rest and must be placed back prior
to start-up. Accidents have occurred during maintenance when machines have been started with
people still working on moving parts. A danger tag and lockout system must always be used when
guards have been removed from machinery to allow work to be carried out.

Fences around Machines

Fences should be designed to prevent people from crawling under or reaching over them and
coming in contact with dangerous parts of the machinery. Where gates are required, normal
interlocks may be inadequate. If it is possible to enter the fenced area, special provision must be
made to ensure the equipment does not operate if the gate is accidentally closed.

Summary

Guards and safety devices should be considered when the machinery is being planned,
fabricated or purchased. The guard should, as far as possible, appear and function as part of the
total machine.

MACHINE SAFETY
Person-Machine-Environment

The relationship between a person, machine and the working environment forms an important
consideration in a work system. The work process and system is linked together by procedures that
are adopted to actually perform task. It is reliant on the Person-Machine-Environment relationship
being effective and efficient. The interface or linking between these factors can be disrupted if a
compromise in safety occurs.

Possible questions which may reveal a hazard:

Person-Procedure
 Are the people familiar with the procedure to be followed for the job?
 Is the procedure understandable to the people doing the job?

Procedure-Machine
 Is the equipment designed for the use spelled out in the procedure?
 Is the machine maintained in good order?

Machine-Environment
 Does the environment prevent the use of certain machinery, e.g., ground too soft for a
mobile crane, or do nearby high volt age lines require conductive rather than electrically
resistive footwear?

Person-Machine
 Are the people trained and experienced with the equipment they are working with?

Person-Environment
 Does the environment create hazards for the people working there, i.e. wind, precipitation,
Temperature, people working above, others who may be subject to falling hazards?

Procedures –environment
 Does the environment prevent procedures (safe work procedures) from being followed, i.e.
adjacent live apparatus outside safety limits?

Person-Machine Interface

When we view the working relationship between person and machinery, we need to examine
the primary hazards of machinery.

"Machinery" is an assembly of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves, with the
appropriate actuators, control and power circuits, joined together for a specific application in
processing, treatment, moving or packaging of materials. This includes an assembly of machines
which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and controlled so that they function as an
integral unit.

A person may be injured by machinery through:


a) Coming into contact with it, or being trapped between the machinery and any material in or
at the machinery or fixed structure.
b) Being stuck by, or becoming entangled in motion in the machinery.
c) Being stuck by parts of the machinery ejected from it.
d) Being struck by material elected from the machinery.

Design faults in machinery are often responsible for operating equipment hazards. If we consider
that machinery is composed of power driven moving parts, omitting the guards from moving parts
would place the operator at a great risk if he or she were working in close proximity to the
machinery.

Areas on machinery, which can present a hazard to operators include:


a) A reciprocating trap – a horizontal trap occurs when there is a vehicle or horizontal motion
for example the operation of a press.
b) Shearing traps – where one or two moving parts cuts across each other, for example the
action of garden shears.
c) In-running nips where moving belts or chains meet.
d) Ejection of machinery parts or supplies used on the equipment.
e) Direct contact with machines, which can expose an individual to the potential for burns.

Machine Guarding

Serious injury may occur should there be contact between people and the moving parts of
machinery. Although design engineering has reduced the incidence of such injuries in more modern
equipment, accidents continue to occur with aged machines, which may not have adequate safety
guards in place. Injuries may also occur from maintenance oversight where work has not been
attended to on machinery, safety systems are not replaced, and/or there has been lack of
maintenance on machines. It should also be noted that guarding alone might not be the only
answer to manage machinery hazards. If the guard can be removed while the machinery continues
to operate, operator hazard still remain.

The following Occupational Safety and Health Standards cover Machine Guarding:

 In general, design and construction requirements involved in machinery safety guarding can
be summarized to include the following:
 The owner of machinery shall provide and at all times, safety devices, fences, barriers, or
guards in accordance with the minimum requirements.
 Safety devices, fences, barriers and guards shall be provided on every dangerous part of
machinery.
 Safeguarding of machinery should be planned into the design of machinery. Safety devices,
fences, barriers, and guards should not in themselves create hazard.
 Safeguarding shall be designed to prevent persons reaching into the danger area of
machinery. Human capabilities have to be considered when determining minimum
clearances.

Machine Safety Checklist

Machine Safety Checklist can be used to identify potential and actual hazard in the workplace.
Checklist provides a baseline for hazard identification and action planning that may be required to
correct a hazard. It is important to remember that checklist items will vary in their requirements
depending upon the industry type and the workplace that they will be applied to.

Pressure Vessels
A pressure vessel is a vessel, which is subjected to either internal or external pressure. This
includes all parts of the vessel up to point of connection. Because such vessel contains compressed
gas in some form, safety is maximized through correct handling, maintenance, storage, use and work
within the workplace.

Common Pressure Vessels in the Workplace

The most common pressure vessels in the workplace are boilers and cylinders containing oxygen
or fuel gas. A boiler is a closed vessel in which water is heated by combustion of fuel or heat from
other sources to form steam. It is hot water, or high temperature water under pressure. Gas
cylinders may vary depending on the type of fuel, which is under pressure and may include:
 LPG gas cylinders
 Oxyacetylene cylinders
 Nitrous oxide cylinders
 Helium cylinders

Note: this list is not exclusive.

Risks associated with pressure systems can be summarize to include:


 Structural or corrosion damage to the cylinder or boiler may result in the release of uncontrolled
stored energy. The release of the stored energy from these systems, such as in the case of a gas
cylinder, is akin to a missile and will be so until all energy has been released.
 The release of volatile gases may also place the environment at risk of vapor and potential fire or
explosion, therefore regular maintenance and structural checks should be attended.
 Unsafe operating and handling practices. Regulations, which outline storage and handling of
pressure vessels may vary between states, however the following principles apply:
 Secure gas cylinders to prevent cylinders from falling and accumulating damage.
 Keep grease away from cylinder connections.
 Store cylinders in an upright position to prevent safety valves from being blocked by
liquid.
 Don't fill damaged, corroded or out-of-test cylinders.
 Store cylinders in a cool area to prevent gas expansions.
 Do not over fill gas cylinders as this may result in the opening of the safety valve or
splitting of a weak cylinder.

Boilers should be regularly maintained and inspected to ensure that the integrity of the system is
maintained.

ELECTRICAL SAFETY/LOCKOUT AND TAGOUT


HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY
Electricity is energy looking for some place to go. When it finds the part of least resistance, whether
it's a light bulb, motor or a human being, it is going to take that path. Until a circuit is completed,
electricity is in the form of potential energy, an energy waiting to be used.

To understand the hazards of electricity is it not necessary to know precisely what it is, even
though such knowledge might be both helpful and desirable What is more important in handling
electricity safety is to understand:

 How it acts.
 How it can be directed
 What hazards it presents.
 How these hazards can be controlled

Shock is the most serious electrical hazard. This happens when you touch a live wire, a tool or
machine with poor insulation. You then become a conductor. The shock that you feel is the electrical
current going through your body.

Results of shock
 Pain
 Loss of muscle control and coordination
 Internal bleeding
 Nerve, muscle, or tissue damage
 Cardiac arrest
 Death

Severity of shock
 The quality of current flowing through the body
 The path of the current flowing through the body
 The length of time body in contact.
 Physical condition of the victim

Body Reaction to Shock


 8-15 ma. – pain
 15-20 ma. – pain and loss of muscular control
 20-100 ma. – intense pain and paralysis of breathing muscles
 Over 200 ma. – heart movements stops; recovery possible if treated within 3 minutes; burns
also occur.

Even if the shock itself doesn't kill you, it could cause you to fall and come into contact with
dangerous equipment.

Other Electrical Emergency includes Fire, Explosions and Equipment damage. This happens when
you touch a live wire, a tool or machine with poor insulation you the
Electrical Hazards
 Defective appliances and tools  Arcing
 Defective wiring installations  Overheating
 Personal factor  Group gradient
 Overloading of circuit  Step potential
 No proper rated protective device  Distribution lines
 Using unapproved electrical
appliances & equipment
Control of Electrical Hazards
(Electrical Safety Devices)
 Grounding
 insulation
 Enclosure
 Fuse or Circuit Breaker
 Lockout Tag out
 Maintenance of Equipment

LOCKOUT/TAGOUT

Lockout is blocking the flow of energy from the power source to the equipment and keeping it
blocked out. It is your key to safety.

Tag out means placing a tag on the power source to WARN co-workers and others not to turn the
power ON. Tags don't provide physical restraint that locks provide, but they are just as important.

Information written on tag:


 Do not start
 Do not Open
 Do not Close
 Do not Energize
 Do not Operate

It might also include the name of the worker who put it there, the date and time the work began
and the type of work being performed.

A tag is sometimes used alone when it's not possible to lock the energy source. Tags should l be
treated as locks. They are not to be removed without authorization. Tags are never to be bypassed or
ignored.

Exercise:
List the ways to disconnect or block energy to the machines or equipment you use in your
department. You should familiarize yourself with your machines. Some machines may be damaged if
you pull or disconnect switches while they’re under load.

Machine Equipment Disconnect Point

Note: Know the machines and their power source. Some may have more than one source of power.
Be sure to disconnect all sources before you continue.

ENERGY SOURCES may come from different ways:


 Electrical
 Mechanical
 Pneumatic
 Hydraulic
 Thermal
 Chemical

Stored or residual energy found in springs, elevated machine parts or in air, gas, steam or water
pressure are also hazards.

Who uses lockout/tag out?


 Authorized employees who perform repair, servicing and maintenance operations.
 Affected employees who work with the equipment to be locked out or tagged out.
 Other workers.
 Lockout/Tag out safeguards are designated to protect workers as they perform servicing and
maintenance of machines, equipment or processes.

Lockout/Tag out program includes:


 Written procedures on all aspect of the lockout/tag out program.
 Effective initial training authorized affected and other employees to help them recognize
hazardous energy sources.
 Identification of hazardous energy sources
 Training authorized affected and other employees on the company’s lockout/tag out.
 Issuing padlocks and tag out tags for authorized workers for use in the lockout/tag out
operations.
 Effective retraining as needed for all three groups of employees.
 Certification of training which identifies each employee by name and date of training.
 Conduct of periodic and annual inspection of lockout/tag out procedures, equipment and
machines to verify the effectiveness of the company’s program.

How to Lockout/Tag out


1. Turn off the equipment and disconnect the energy source. Notify all affected employees that a
lockout/tag out procedure is being implemented.
2. Lockout energy sources. Pulling a fuse or flipping a circuit breaker is no substitute for locking out.
Use a lock to prevent the flow of energy from being restored. Snap your lock on the control lever
or on the multiple-lock adapter.
3. Tag at disconnect point. Even though you are using a lock, it is also a good idea to place a tag at
the disconnect point. A tag provides vital information for extra protection.
4. Release residual energy. Zero mechanical state means a machine has been put in a state in which
the possibility of an unexpected mechanical movement has been reduced to a minimum.
5. Restore energy safely. When you are finished working, check to make sure all tools have been
removed, all lines have been reconnected or unblocked, all guards have been replaced and other
workers are safely out of harm’s way before removing your lock and tag and turning the machine
ON. Be sure you are not exposing another person to danger when removing your lock.

In restoring the energy:


 Keep all employees within a safe distance from the machine or equipment.
 Remove tools and other equipment from the work area.
 Reinstall the machine safeguards.
 Remove lockout/tag out devices.
 Restore energy
 Test for safe operations
 Notify affected employees that the equipment or machinery is in service and safe to
operate.

SAFETY INSPECTION
The most important step in identifying and eliminating hazards in the workplace is through
creating a systematic Safety Inspection. Safety inspections can reveal hazards and, following through
the necessary corrective actions, will result in a safer workplace.

Safety Inspection - is a monitoring function to locate and report existing and potential hazards in a
workplace.
Inspections can be very simple or very complicated, depending on the type and complexity of the
workplace and the hazards involved. The essential point is that the inspection must be repeated at
intervals and the information must be used.

Purpose:
 To correct potential hazards
 To improve operations, thereby increasing efficiency, effectiveness and profitability.

TYPES:
1. Continuous/on-going inspection – conducted by employees, supervisors, and maintenance
personnel as part of their job responsibilities.
2. Planned inspection – is deliberate, scheduled, thorough and systematic by design. This is of
three sub-types:
 Periodic inspection
 Intermittent
 General

PLANNING and CONDUCTING AN INSPECTION:

What to inspect?
A safety inspection can be structured in various ways ranging from a full scale inspection of a
company’s safety management and technical systems, to a mini inspection of a specific procedure or
work area. It can also be used to check on particular aspects such as fire protection, electrical safety
or first aid arrangements.

Suggestions of things to inspect may be found in the guidelines, the risks known to be in the
area, the volume of problems as revealed in previous safety audits, and on the accident records of
the company.

How to inspect?
Before conducting a safety inspection, the inspector should prepare the materials he will need,
such as the company’s floor plans, to determine his route of travel or to determine the specific
location he intends to cover during the inspection. Other needs, like inspection checklist/guide, will
also be necessary for him so as not to forget or omit certain points which may be important to recall.
Of course the tools he will need includes pen/pencil, paper to jot on with other data, flashlight,
standards, wooden stick , measuring tape and PPEs.

Who inspects?
Ordinarily, the Supervisor conducts the inspection, but site inspections should be carried out by
groups of, probably, three people. One person in the group should write down the findings during
inspection.

Other persons who conduct inspection are: Safety committee members, Safety engineers,
Specialists or experts in the operation affected, Representative from management, government
safety representatives, and Insurance company safety engineers

Requisites for inspection:


 Sound knowledge of the plant/area – an inspector should be familiar with every corner and
nook of the place he will be inspecting. If new in the company, he should allot some time for
familiarization before going into inspection rounds.
 Knowledge of relevant standards, regulations and codes – it is very important that the
inspector has sound knowledge of relevant standards, regulations and codes, be it of the
government or of the company. He should be able to surely declare and easily identify any
deviation from the standards or violation of the rules of conduct, so that he can immediately
give his side when asked why.
 Knowledge of systematic inspection steps – in order for the inspector to come up with
accurate findings of his inspection, he should be systematic with his rounds. Thorough and
complete inspection would mean leaving some areas or some points unnoticed and
uncovered. This will also give a fair and balanced result of inspection.
 Knowledge of a method for reporting, evaluating and using the data – the inspector should
always bear in mind that the product of his inspection is highly important. Inspection results
may not only for the supervisor’s guidance and the management compliance of government
regulations, but can sometimes be used for legal cases and court settlements. The
inspectors’ method of reporting and data evaluation may bring destruction to the company
or to the accident victim, when not done properly.

WHAT CONDITIONS NEED TO BE INSPECTED?


The unsafe conditions for each part of a machine, equipment, tool, facilities, etc. should be
inspected and reported specifically and clearly. It can be indicated by words like broken, missing,
frayed, jagged, exposed, rusted, and corroded.

Factors to consider in determining frequency of inspection:


 The lost severity potential of the problem
 The potential for injury to workers
 The past history of failures, accidents
 The emergence of an item to become unsafe

Steps to follow in its conduct:


 PREPARE
 INSPECT
 DEVELOP REMEDIAL ACTION
 TAKE FOLLOW-UP ACTION
 PREPARE INSPECTION REPORT

THE INSPECTION REPORTS:


Reports serve several functions:
 For local site management to use as a basis for planning and improvement purposes;
 For chief executive and senior management assurance that safety systems are in place, that
they are being continually reviewed;
 For insurance reports or government inspectors.

The report should be presented in such a way that will allow simple evaluation of the extent of
accomplishment of the management and supervisors in removing the hazards or improving the
safety characteristics of the workplace.
There should also be feedback from the supervisor on the area that was inspected to discuss his
findings and proposals. Reports are often ideal agenda item for health and safety committee
meetings.

A timetable for the implementation of the agreed recommendations should be made and progress
should also be checked and monitored at regular intervals, e.g., quarterly. If there is no follow up
made, the value of the inspection will simply be lost.
WORK ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND CAUSAL ANALYSIS
OVERVIEW OF AN ACCIDENT SCENARIO
 Swift Investigation is a must.
 Understand what you are up to.
 Eliminating the root cause of accident.

INCIDENT
 Is an undesired event, which, under slight different circumstances, could have resulted in
harm to people, damage to property or loss to process.

ACCIDENT
 Is an undesired event that results in physical harm to a person, damage to property or loss to
process.
 It is usually the result of a contact with a source of energy (i.e., kinetic, electrical,
chemical, thermal, etc.) above the threshold limit of the body or structure.

NEAR-MISS
 Is also an event that may or may not result into a loss.
 Incidents with no visible injury and/or property damage

ACCIDENT is caused by
 Hazardous Act – unaware, unable, unmotivated
 Hazardous Condition - unidentified, uncorrected

HAZARDOUS PRACTICES/ACT
 Operating without authority
 Improper lifting
 Operating at improper speed
 Taking improper position
 Making safety devices inoperable
 Servicing equipment in motion

HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS
 Inadequate guards or protection
 Gases, dust, fumes, vapors
 Excessive noise
 Radiation exposure
 Fire and explosion hazard

INCIDENT RESULTS
 Physical Harm
 Property Damage
 Humane Aspect
 Environmental Aspect

INCIDENTS THAT NEEDS TO BE INVESTIGATED


 Work Injury
 Occupational Diseases
 Environmental Damage
 Property damage
 Near-miss

What is an investigation?
It is an analysis, evaluation and report of an incident, based on information gathered by an
investigator (most frequently the supervisor). The quality and usefulness of the information is
directly related to the degree of thoroughness and conscientiousness of the investigation.

A complete investigation includes the objective evaluation of all the facts, opinions, statements
and related information, as well as action plan, or steps to prevent or control a similar recurrence.

When is the "right time" to investigate?


As soon as possible. Any experienced supervisor knows that the less time intervening between
an accident and an investigation, the more accurate the information that can be obtained.

Good judgment should be applied to the timing of investigations of such items, with a "worst-
first" or "urgent-first" rule generally being the indicated guidepost.

Why are Accidents investigated?


To prevent or control a future recurrence on a similar incident. This purpose is exactly what
many investigators destroy by blame-fixing, faultfinding, and witch-hunting exercise, which is why
factual information is withheld.

SUPERVISOR AS THE GREAT INVESTIGATOR:


 He has a personal interest to protect
 He knows the most about people and condition
 He knows best how to get information.

SUPERVISOR BENEFITS:
 They evidence and reflect concern for people.
 They increase his production time.
 They reduce his operating cost
 They focus attention on a manager with "control".

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCEDURE


 Gather as much information as possible about accident.
 Analyze the facts to determine the causes.
 Make recommendation for corrective measures to prevent future accidents.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION
 Witness
 Physical Evidence at the scene
 Existing Records

INTERVIEWING WITNESS
 Interview separately
 Interview at an appropriate place
 Put the person at ease
 Get the individual's version
 Ask the necessary questions at the right time
 Give the witness some feedback
 Record critical information quickly
 Use visual aids
 End on a positive note
 Keep the line open

INCIDENT/ACCIDENT RE-ENACTMENT SHOULD ONLY BE USED UNDER THE FOLLOWING


CIRCUMSTANCES:
 When the information cannot be gained in another way
 When it is vital to the development of remedial action
 When it is necessary to verify key facts given by a witness or victim of an accident.
If evidence is to be removed from the accident scene:
All evidence must be labeled with at least the name of the object or substance (if known), where
it came from, when it was collected, the investigator's name and any appropriate health or safety
warnings.

ANALYZING CAUSES
 Write down each loss.
 Under each loss, write all the contacts with forms or energy or substance that were
responsible for the loss.
 Under each contact factor, list the substandard actions and renditions that created it.
 Under each standard action or condition list all basic causes which prompted it.
 Review of programs, its standards and compliance with standards.

CASE ANALYSIS (example)


Ador, a maintenance mechanic, was performing routine service on a fork truck in his service bay
workstation. At one point in the operation, Ador dropped a container of engine oil on the floor,
spilling a small amount of the oil on the floor. The spill was small, so Ador decided to clean it up after
he finished the service work on the fork truck. While Ador continued his work, David , another
maintenance mechanic, decided to take a short cut through Ador‘s service bay on his way back to his
own workstation. David, who was carrying a large, heavy box of parts, stepped into the oil spill, lost
his footing and injured his back while attempting to maintain his balance.

APPLICATION:
PROPER PROCEDURE DIFFERENCE
Floors must be kept clear Oil existed on floor shop
Spills must be cleaned up immediately Ador did not clean it up
Heavy or bulky objects must be transported by David hand carried the objects
two-wheeled dolly
Pedestrian traffic is restricted to designated David was not within the designated path
paths

RECOMMENDATION FOR CORRECTIVE ACTIONS


Recommendation must state what specific action will be taken, by whom, when, and how the
supervisor will assure that it is carried out correctly.

Example:
Beginning immediately, all Lead Operators will be instructed by the department supervisor to
perform a formal, standardized housekeeping inspection of their work area at the beginning of their
shift.

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION FORMAT


 General Information
 Summary
 Analysis
 Recommendation

NOTIFICATION AND KEEPING OF RECORDS OF ACCIDENTS AND/OR OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESSES


Occupational Safety and Health Standards - RULE 1050

Definitions:

(1) "Medical Treatment Injury" shall mean an injury which does not result in a disabling injury but
which requires first aid and medical treatment of any kind.

(2) "Disabling Injury" shall mean a work injury which results in death, permanent total disability,
permanent partial disability or temporary total disability.

(3) "Death" shall mean any fatality resulting from a work injury regardless of the time intervening
between injury and death.

(4) "Permanent Total Disability" shall mean any injury or sickness other than death which
permanently and totally incapacitates an employee from engaging in any gainful occupation or
which results in the loss or the complete loss of use of any following in one accident:
a. both eyes
b. One eye and one hand, or arm, or leg or foot;
c. any two of the following not in the same limb, hand , arm, foot, leg;
d. permanent complete paralysis of two limbs;
e. brain injury resulting in incurable imbecility or insanity.

(5) "Permanent Partial Disability" shall mean any injury other than death or permanent total
disability which results in the loss of use of any member or part of a member of the body
regardless of any pre-existing disability of the injured member or impaired body function.

(6) "Temporary Total Disability" shall mean any injury or illness which does not result in death or
permanent total or permanent partial disability but which results in disability from work for a
day or more.

(7) "Regularly Established Job" shall mean the occupation or job description of the activities
performed by an employee at the time of the time of the accident and shall not mean one which
has been established especially to accommodate an injured employee, either for therapeutic
reason or to avoid counting the case as disability.
(8) "Day of Disability" shall mean any day in which an employee in unable, because of injury or
illness, to perform effectively throughout a full shift the essential functions of a regularly
established job which is open and available to him.

(9) "Total Days Lost" shall mean the combined total, for all injuries or illnesses of injury of:
a. All days of disability resulting from temporary total injuries or illnesses; and/or
b. All scheduled charges assigned to fatal, permanent total and permanent partial injuries
or illnesses.

(10)"Scheduled Charges" shall mean the specific charge (in full days) assigned to a permanent
partial, permanent total, or fatal injury or illness.

(11)"Employee" for the purpose of counting injuries or illness or calculating exposures shall be as
defined in Rule 1002 (2) and shall include working owners and officers.

(12)"Exposure" shall mean the total number of employee-hours worked by all employees of the
reporting establishment or unit.

(13)"Disabling Injury Frequency Rate" is the number of disabling injuries per 1, 000, 000 employee-
hours of exposure rounded to the nearest two (2) decimal places.

(14)"Disabling Injury Severity Rate" is the number of days lost per 1, 000, 000 employee-hours of
exposure rounded to the nearest whole number.

Special Provision:

Reports made by the employer shall be exclusively for the information of the Regional Labor
Office or duly authorized representative in securing the data to be used in connection with the
performance of its accident and illness prevention duties and activities and is a requirement distinct
from that of the Employee's Compensation Commission or any other law. These reports shall not be
admissible as evidence in any action or judicial proceedings in respect to such injury, illness or death
on account of which report is made and shall not be made public or subject to public inspection
except for prosecution for violations under this Rule.

The definitions and standard used here are independent of those establishments by the
Employee's Compensation Commission.

Reportorial Requirements:

Rule 1053.01:
1. All work accidents or occupational illness in places of employment, resulting in disabling
condition or dangerous occurrence as defined in 1053.2 shall be reported by the employer to the
Regional Labor Office or duly authorized representative in duplicate and a copy furnished the
employee or his duly authorized representative using form DOLE/BWC/HSD-IP-6. The formal
report shall be submitted by the employer on or before the 20 th day of the month following the
date of occurrence of the accident or when the illness is established and an investigation report
in the prescribed form shall be submitted by the Regional Labor Office or duly authorized
representative o or before the 30th day of the same month. In case of temporary total disability
where the injured or ill employee has not reported back to duty on the closing date of reporting,
an estimate of the probable days of disability shall be made and entered in the report and
corrected after the return of the injured. In all computations, this estimate shall be used. After
the return of the injured, the corrected days of absence shall be used.

2. Where the accident or illness result death or permanent total disability, the employer, in
addition to the written report required under sub-paragraph (1) above, shall initially notify the
Regional Labor Office or duly authorized representative within twenty four (24) hours after
occurrence using the fastest available means of communication.

3. All deaths and permanent total disabilities shall be investigated by the Regional Office or duly
authorized representative within forty eight (48) hours receipt of the initial report of the
employer, prepared in duplicate using the prescribed form DOLE/BWC/OSHD-IP-6a.

Rule 1053.02:
1. Any dangerous occurrence as specified in sub-paragraph (2) hereunder, which may or may not
cause serious bodily harm to workers employed or seriously damage the premises of
employment shall be investigated and reported by the employer upon occurrence to the
Regional Labor Office or duly authorized representative having jurisdiction in duplicate using the
prescribed form DOLE/BWC/HSD-IP-6.

2. The following are dangerous occurrence which shall be investigated and reported:
a. Explosion of boilers used for heating or power.
b. Explosion of a receiver or storage container, with pressure greater than atmospheric, of any
gas or gases (including air) or any liquid resulting from the compression of such gases or
liquid.
c. Bursting of a revolving wheel, grinder stone or grinding wheel operated by mechanical
power.
d. Collapse of a crane, derrick, winch, hoist or other appliances used in raising or lowering
persons or goods or any part thereof, the over-turning of a crane, except the breakage of
chain or rope sling.
e. Explosion or fire causing damage to the structure of any room or place in which persons are
employed or to any machine contained therein resulting in the complete suspension of
ordinary work in such or place, or stoppage of machinery or plant for not less than twenty
four (24) hour, and;
f. Electrical short circuit or failure of electrical machinery, plant or apparatus, attended by
explosion or fire causing structural damage thereto and involving its stoppage and misuse for
not less than 24 hours.

Keeping of Records:

1. The employer shall maintain and keep an accident or illness record which shall be open at all
times for inspection to authorized personnel containing the following minimum data:
a. Date of accident or illness;
b. Name of injured or ill employee, sex and age;
c. Occupation of injured or ill employee at the time of accident or illness;
d. Assigned causes of accident or illness;
e. Extent and nature disability;
f. Period of disability;
g. Whether accident involved damaged to materials, equipment or machinery, kind and extent
of damage, including estimated or actual cost; and
h. Record of initial notice and/or report to the Regional Labor Office or authorized
representative.

2. The employer shall accomplish an Annual Work Accident/ Illness Exposure Data Report in
duplicate using the prescribed form DOLE/BWC/HSD-IP-6b, which shall be submitted to the
Bureau copy, furnished the Regional Labor Office or duly authorized representative having
jurisdiction on or before the 30th day of the month following the end of each calendar year.
Evaluation of Disability:

Charges:

(1) Death resulting from accident shall be assigned a time charge of 6,000 days.

(2) Permanent partial resulting from work accident shall be assigned a time charge of 6,000 days.

(3) Permanent Partial disability either traumatic or surgical, resulting from work accident shall be
assigned the time charge as provided in Table 6 on Time Charges. These charges shall be used
whether the actual number of days lost is greater or less than the scheduled charges or even if
no actual days are lost at all.

(4) For each finger or toe, use only one charge for the highest valued bone involved. For
computations of more than one finger or toe, total the separate charges for each finger or toe.

(5) Charges due to permanent impairment of functions shall be a percentage of the scheduled
charges corresponding to the percentage of permanent reduction of functions of the number or
part involved as determined by the physician authorized by the employer to treat the injury or
illness.

(6) Loss of hearing is considered a permanent partial disability only in the event of industrial
impairment of hearing from traumatic injury, industrial noise exposure or occupational illness.

(7) The charge due to permanent impairment of visions shall be a percentage of the scheduled
charge corresponding to the percentage of permanent impairment of vision as determined by
the physician authorized by the employer to treat the injury or illness.

(8) For permanent impairment affecting more than one part of the body parts, the total charge shall
be the sum of scheduled charges for the individual body parts. If the total exceeds 6, 000 days,
the charge shall be 6, 000 days.

(9) Where an employee suffers from both permanent partial disability and a temporary total
disability in one accident, the greater days lost shall be used and shall determine the injury
classification.

(10)The charge for any permanent partial disability other than those identified in the scheduled of
time charges shall be a percentage of 6, 000 days as determined by the physician authorized by
the employer to treat the injury or illness.

(11)The charge for a temporary total disability shall be the total number of calendar days of disability
resulting from the injury or illness as defined in Rule (8), provided that:
a. The day of injury or illness and the day on which the employee was able to return to full-
time employment shall not be counted as days of disability but all intervening period or
calendar days subsequent to the day of injury or illness shall be counted as days of
disability;

b. Time lost on a work day or on a non-workday subsequent to the day of injury or illness
ascribed solely to the unavailability of medical attention or necessary diagnostic aids
shall be considered disability time, unless in the opinion of the physician will be able to
work on all those days subsequent to the day of the injury.

c. If the physician, authorized by the employer to treat the injured or ill employee, is of the
opinion that the employee is actually capable of working a full normal shift of a regularly
established job nut has prescribed certain therapeutic treatments, the employee may be
excused from work for such treatments without counting the excused time as disability
time.

d. If the physician, authorized by the employer to treat the injured or ill employee, is of the
opinion that the employee was actually capable of working a full normal shift of a
regularly established job, but because of transportation problems associated with his
injury, these employee arrives late at his place of work or leaves the workplace before
the established quitting time, such lost time may be excused and not counted as
disability time. However, the excused time shall not materially reduce his working time,
and that it is clearly evident that his failure to work the full shift hours was the result of a
valid transportation problem and not a deviation from the "regularly established job".

e. If the injured or ill employee receives medical treatment for his injury, the determination
of the nature of his ability to work shall rest with the physician authorized by the
employer to treat the injured or ill employee. If the employee rejects medical attention
offered by the employer, the determination may be made by the employer based upon
the best information available to him if the employer fails to provide medical attention,
the employee's determination shall be controlling.

Measurement of Performance:

Exposure to Industrial Injuries:

Exposure to work injuries shall be measured by the total number of hours of employment of all
employees in each establishment or reporting unit. The exposure of a central administrative office or
central sales office of a multi-establishment-concern shall not be included in the experience o any
one establishment, nor prorated among the establishments, but shall be included in the over-all
experience of the multi-establishment.

Determination of Employee-Hours of Exposure:

Employee-hours of exposure for calculating work injury rates are intended to be actual hours
worked. When actual hours are not available, estimated hours may be used. Employee-hours shall
be calculated as follows:
(1) Actual Exposure Hours - Employee hours of exposure shall be, if possible, taken from the payroll
or time clock records and shall include only the actual straight time hours worked and actual
overtime hours worked.

(2) Estimated Exposure Hours - When actual employee-hours of exposure are not available
estimated hours may be used. Such estimated hours should be obtained by multiplying the total
employee days worked for the period by the average number of hours worked per day. If the
hours worked per day vary among departments, a separate estimate should be made for each
department, and these estimates added to obtain the total hours. Estimates for overtime hours
shall be included.

If the employee-hours are estimated, indicate the basis on which estimates are made.

(3) Hours not Worked - Employee-hours paid for but not worked, either actual or estimated, such as
time taken for vacation, sickness, Barangay duty, court duty, holidays, funerals, etc., shall not be
included in the total hours worked. The final figure shall represent as nearly as possible hours
actually worked.

(4) Employee Living in Company-Property - In calculating hours of exposure for employees living in
company property, only those hours are during which employees were actually on duty shall be
counted.

(5) Employee with Undefined Hours of Work - Traveling salesmen, executives and other whose
working hours are defined, an average eight hours day shall be assumed in computing exposure
hours.

(6) All stand-by hours of employees, including seamen aboard vessels, who are restricted to the
confines of the employer's premises, shall be counted as well as all work injuries occurring
during such hours.

Measures of Injury/ Illness Experience:

1. Disabling Injury/ Illness Frequency Rates - The disabling injury/ illness frequency rate is based
upon the total number of deaths, permanent total, permanent partial, and temporary total
disabilities, which occur during the period, covered by the rate. The rate relates those injuries/
illnesses to the employee-hours worked during the period and expresses the number of such
injuries/ illness in terms of a million man-hour unit by the use of the formula:

Disabling Injury/Illness = Number of disabling injury/illness x 1,000,000


Frequency Rate (FR) Employee-hours of exposure

The frequency rate shall be rounded to the nearest two decimal places.

2. Disabling Injury/Illness Severity Rate - The disabling injury/illness severity rate is based on the
total of the all scheduled charges for all deaths, permanent total and permanent partial
disabilities, plus the total actual days of the disabilities of all temporary total disabilities, plus the
total actual days of the disabilities of all temporary total disabilities which occur during the
period covered by the rate. The rate relates these days to the total employee-hours worked
during the period and expresses the loss in terms of million man-hour unit by the use of the
formula.

Disabling Injury/Illness = __total days lost x 1,000,000__


Severity Rate (SR) employee-hours of exposure

The severity rate shall be rounded to the nearest whole number.

3. Average Days Charged per Disabling Injury - The average days charged per disabling injury/illness
expresses the relationship between the total days charged and the number of disabling
injuries/illness. The average may be calculated by the use of the formula:

Average days charged per = __________Total Days Lost ___________


Disabling injury/illness total number of disabling Injuries/illness

or

Average days charge per = ___Injury severity rate______


Disabling injury/illness injury/illness frequency rate
DOLE/BWC/OHSD/IP-6 Republic of the Philippines
Department of Labor and Employment
BUREAU OF WORKING CONDITIONS

EMPLOYER’S WORK ACCIDENT/ILLNESS REPORT


(This report shall be submitted by the employer for every accident or illness to the Regional Office having jurisdiction on or before the 20 th
day of the month following the date of occurrence)

1. Establishment:________________________________________________________________
2. Address : _____________________________________ Nature of Business:_______________
EMPLOYER
3. Name of Employer :__________________________________ Nationality:________________
4. No. Employees: Male:_____________ Female: _____________ Total :__________________
5. Name:__________________________________ Age: ______ Sex: _____ Civil Status: ______
INJURED OR ILL 6. Address: ____________________________________________________________________
PERSON 7. Average Weekly Wage: P____________________________ No. of Dependents: __________
8. Length of service prior to accident ________________________________________________
OCCUPATIONAL 9. Occupation: ___________________________ Experience at Occupation:_________________
HISTORY 10. Work Shift: ____ 1st ____ 2nd ____3rd ________Hours of work/day: _________ Day/Week:
11. Date of Accident ________________________________ Time _________________
12. The accident involved : __________ Personal injury ________ Property Damage _________
ACCIDENT/ILLNESS 13. Description of accident/illness: (Give full details on how accident/illness occurred):
______________________________________________________________________________
14. Was injured doing regular part of job at the time of accident or illness? If not, why?
______________________________________________________________________________
15. Extent of Injury: __________ Fatal: _____________ Permanent Total: __________________
NATURE & EXTENT Permanent Partial ______Temporary Total _______Medical Treatment:____________
OF INJURY OR 16. Nature of Injury or Illness:_________________ Part of body affected: __________________
ILLNESS 17. Date Disability Begun:______________ Date Returned to Work:_______________________
18. Days Lost:_____________________ or Days Charged: _______________________________
19. The Agency Involved: _________________________________________________________
20. The Agency Part Involved: _____________________________________________________
CAUSE OF ACCIDENT 21. Accident Type: ______________________________________________________________
OR ILLNESS 22. Unsafe mechanical or physical condition: _________________________________________
23. The Unsafe Act: ______________________________________________________________
24. Contributing Factor: ______ ____________________________________________________
25. Preventive Measures (taken or recommended): ____________________________________
PREVENTIVE
26. Mechanical guards, PPE and other safeguards provided: ______________________________
MEASURES
27. Were all safeguards in use? ________________ If not, why? _________________________
28. Compensation: ________________________________ P ____________________________
29. Medical and Hospitalization: ___________________________________________________
30. Burial:______________________________________________________________________
MANPOWER 31. Time Lost on day of injury: ______________Hrs. ____________________Mins. __________
32. Time Lost on Subsequent Days: (treatment of other reasons) _____ Hrs.______ Mins. _____
33. Time on light work or reduced output: __________________ Day ____________________
Percent Output: ______________________
34. Damage to Machinery and Tools (describe): _______________________________________
MACHINERY AND
35. Cost of repair or replacement: __________________________________________________
TOOLS
36. Lost Production Time: ______________________________ Cost: _____________________
37. Damage to Machinery and Tools (describe): _______________________________________
MATERIALS 38. Cost of repair or replacement: __________________________________________________
39. Lost Production Time: ______________________________ Cost: _____________________
40. Damage to Machinery and Tools (describe): _______________________________________
EQUIPMENT 41. Cost of repair or replacement: __________________________________________________
42. Lost Production Time: ______________________________ Cost: _____________________
I HEREBY CERTIFY on my honor to the accuracy of the foregoing information:
________________________________ _____________________________
(Investigating Officer & Position) Employer
Date _____________________
DOLE/BWC/OHSD/IP-6a

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Labor and Employment
Regional Office No. ______

GOVERNMENT SAFETY ENGINEER’S ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT


(This report shall be submitted to the Bureau of Working Conditions not later than the 30 th day of the month following the
date of occurrence)

1. [ ] Establishment [ ] Police [ ] Other (Name)


ORIGIN
2. [ ] Telephone [ ] Telegram [ ] Messenger: Other
(NOTICE)
Other _________
3. Establishment ______________________________ Nature of Business___________
4. Address ______________________________________________________________
EMPLOYER
5. Manager __________________________________ Nationality _________________
6. Employees & Workers: M _____________ F ______________ Total ______________
7. Name _____________________________ Age ______ Sex ______ Civil Status______
8. Address ____________________________________ No. of Dependents __________
INJURED
9. Occupation __________________________ Average Weekly Wage P_____________
10. Length of service prior to accident _____________ Accident Record _____________
11. Date of Accident ________________________________ Time _________________
12. This accident involved : __________ Personal injury __________ Property Damage
13. Description of accident: (Give full details on how accident occurred):
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
THE ACCIDENT
________________________________________________________________________
14. Activities performed before accident ______________________________________
Was this part of regular job? _______ If not, why? ___________________________
16. No. of similar accidents in the past 2 years __________________________________
17. No. of injuries in the past 12 months _______________________________________
Total ___________ Non-Disabling __________ Disabling _________ Fatal ____________
17. Extent of Injury: __________ Fatal _____________ Permanent Total _____________
18. Nature of Injury:_______________________________________________________
INJURY 19. Part of body affected __________________________________________________
20. The Agency Involved ___________________________________________________
21. Part of Agency Involved _________________________________________________
22. Unsafe mechanical or physical condition ___________________________________
23. Accident Type _______________________________________________________
CAUSE
24. The Unsafe Act ________________________________________________________
25. Contributing Factor ____________________________________________________
26. Describe kind and extent of damage to equipment, materials, machinery and tools
PROPERTY ____________________________________________________________________
DAMAGE _____________________________________________________________________

PREVENTIVE 27. Preventive measures taken : ______________________________________________


MEASURES ______________________________________________________________________
28. Supervisor/Foreman (Name) ______________________________________________
WITNESS 29. Worker (Name ) _________________________________________________________
30. Others (Name ) _________________________________________________________
31. _____________________________________________________________________
REMARKS
_____________________________________________________________________
RECOMMENDATIONS

Investigation conducted in the presence of:

________________________________ _____________________________
(Name of Position) Industrial Safety Engineer

Date _____________________

DOLE/BWC/HSD/IP-6b Republic of the Philippines


Department of Labor and Employment
BUREAU OF WORKING CONDITIONS
Manila

ANNUAL WORK ACCIDENTAL/ILLNESS EXPOSURE DATA REPORT

Name of Establishment: _____________________________________________________________________


Nature of Business: _________________________________________________________________________
Address: __________________________________________________________________________________

Exposure Data _____________________________________________ January to December 19 ___________


Number of Employees ________________________________________________________________
Total Hours Worked by All _____________________________________________________________
Employees during the Year ____________________________________________________________
Injury Summary _______________________ ____________________________________________________
Total – All Disabling Injuries/Illness ______________________________________________________
Total – Non-Disabling _________________________________________________________________
Frequency Rate _____________________________________________________________________
Severity Rate _______________________________________________________________________

___________________________
General Manager

1. This report shall be accomplished whether or not there were accident/illness occurrences during the
period, covered and submitted to the Regional Labor Office or local government having jurisdiction not
later than the 30th day of the month following the end of each calendar year.

2. Frequency Rate is the total number of disabling injuries per million employee hours of exposure.

Number of disabling injuries x 1,000,000


Frequency Rate =
Employee –hours of Exposure

3. Severity Rate is the total number of days lost or charged per million employee hours of exposure.

Number of days lost or charged x 1,000,000


Severity Rate =
Employee-hours of Exposure

4. Exposure is the total number of hours worked by all employees in each establishment including employees
or operating production, transportation, clerical, administrative, sales and other departments.
5. Disabling Injuries – work injuries which result in death, permanent total disability, permanent partial
disability or temporary total disability.
6. Non-Disabling Injuries (Medical Treatment) – Injuries which do not result into disabling injuries but require
first-aid or medical attention of any kind.
MOTIVATING FOR SAFETY

Motivating Employees:

Factors that influence employee attitudes

1. Employee Wants and Desires


2. The Group
3. Employee selection and placement
4. Training
5. Supervision
6. Special emphasis on programs
7. Safety Media

Employee Wants and Desires

1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Belongingness
4. Self-esteem
5. Self-actualization

The Group

Characteristics of a Strong Group:

 Members voluntarily try to:


- Deserve praise from the rest of the group
- Seek recognition from group leaders
- Exert pressure on weak group members
- Put special efforts into achievement of the group goals
-
Characteristics of a Weak Group

 Members form subgroups


 Exhibit little cooperation
 Are unfriendly
 Use no initiative
 Avoid responsibility
 Have no respect for company policies
Building strong groups

 Individual competence
 Individual maturity
 Individual strength
 Common objectives

Employee Background and Experience

 Employee personal characteristics (attitude, skill, experience, expectations, etc.) are


vital indicators of the way the employee will perform for the company
 inexperienced or unqualified persons performing the work cause accidents.
 Proper screening, testing and selection of employees can deal with this factor.

The selection process and screening should be guided by data from:

 Biographical Information
 Evaluation Tests

Sources of Biographical Information

 Application
 Interviews
 Employment References
 School References
 Police Records
 Community References

Types of Evaluation Tests

 Physical examinations
 Psychological tests
 Reading and Comprehension tests
 Employment qualifications
 Skill testing
 Job knowledge test

Training

 address only three areas of concern:


 Lack of knowledge
 Lack of skill
 Lack of motivation
Objective

 needed for a training program to be effective


 should always be spelled out before course content and methods are decided.
 should state how the participant is expected to perform when he or she has
completed the training.
Training

 Is ineffective when management decides to give a training program without


understanding the real cause of the problem.

Training must be given when:

 There is a new employee – Orientation to the company


 There is a new employee – On-the-Job training
 There is a new procedure, process or equipment.
 An employee transfer
 There is a definite lack of skill, knowledge and motivation.

Supervision

 Supervisor’s goal must be in line with the company’s goal to achieve an improvement
in employee safety attitudes.
 Has great influenced on all motivational attempts on the workforce

Special-emphasis Programs

 is a coordinated campaign aimed at a definite purpose


 A well-run and well-devised special-emphasis program can exert an important
influence on employees.

Special-emphasis programs are effective because:

 aim at a defined/specific problem

 utilize a recall symbol which triggers response over and over, and

 contain enough elements to convince employees that management is really


interested in their safety.
Safety Media

 extremely valuable when heard by receptive employees.


 Its value and effectiveness is greatly influenced by the employees’ judgment of the
company’s safety activities.
 can only create a temporary interest and result in a temporary improved record.

Motivating Supervisors

Supervisors

 the first line representatives of management.


 must also be motivated.

Factors that influence a supervisor’s safety performance:

 Effort
 Ability
 Role perception

Effort

 Two basic factors which determine a person’s effort in performing a job:


1. person’s opinion of the value of the rewards
2. probability of receiving those rewards

Ability

 the inherent capabilities


 specialized knowledge in the field of endeavor being performed in.

Role Perception

 determines the direction in which he will apply his efforts.


 A clear understanding of the role he/she must perform will direct his efforts to
achieving that role

To help supervisors understand their role ask the following questions:

1. Does he know what management wants in terms of accident prevention?


2. Does he know what his duties and responsibilities are?
Motivating Management

 The safety professional must have access to information from various departments
within the organization to support his/her proposal.
 Management is interested in the relationship of the safety professional’s ideas to the
profits of the organization

The best tool in motivating management

A monthly or annual safety report to management that include items such as:

 the beneficial improvements of the safety program,


 items for improvement and
 an economic picture of the cost (profit and losses) of the risks.

Areas of approach

1. Profit or loss indicators


2. Company reputation
3. Legal implications

Profit or Loss

 accidents result in unwanted costs.


 Losses due to accidents are either:
 Direct Costs
 Indirect Costs

An effective safety program results in increased productivity from:

1. Improved employee morale


2. Improved quality of products
3. Less production downtime

Company Reputation

Progressive organizations realize the value of the company’s reputation with clients,
community and the general public.

A company with a bad safety reputation will face difficulties in


 Securing contracts with higher profit potential – these contracts have quality and
production standards
 Securing lower Insurance premiums when it is known to have a poor accident record.
 Securing the help and support of the community – locals will not cooperate or even
oppose company development / expansion plans if it is considered a threat to their
health and environment

A company with a good reputation will:

 Easily gain the assistance and support of the local community


 Be often endorsed for high paying contracts
 Have less difficulties in securing lower insurance premiums
SAFETY COMMUNICATION
Effective Communication for Safety

Communication Defined

 Basically, communication is the transfer of ideas from one person to another. It is the act of
informing someone or disseminating information.

Purposes of Communication in an Organization

 To provide the necessary information about a job, a machine, a decision, an action taken,
etc.
 To recognize good performance
 To prevent misunderstanding due to misinformation that may lessen a person’s working
efficiency
 To allay fears, worries and suspicions an individual may have in his work or toward his
employer
Communication as a Tool

 To serve as a real tool of management, communication must:


 Not end with the transmission or orders downward
 Consider the rights and needs of people below to communicate upwards
 Be a two way exchange

Types of Communication

Downward communication

 Flows from upper levels of management to the next lower level, down to the rank-and-file
 Used when management wants to inform employees of policies, procedures, directives, etc.
 It is the supervisor’s responsibility to make sure that he as well as those below him
understand what is communicated.

Upward communication

 Proceeds from the lower levels of the organization up to higher management.


 Necessary to improve efficiency as well as to ensure that downward communication from
management is received and understood.
 It is the supervisor’s responsibility to help his men express themselves clearly and relay
exactly what they want to say.

Lateral communication

 Takes place among employees of the same level.


 Usually concerns the dissemination of information pertaining to areas of responsibility
and/or reports of levels of achievement in jobs involving more than one work group.
 It ensures avoidance of duplication of work effort in achieving management goals

Essentials of Good Communication

Communication Levels:

1. Cognitive -receiver understands


2. Affective -receiver is motivated
3. Behavioral -receiver translates into action
4.
What to communicate to workers

 Work assignment
 Work flow in offices
 Machine repair
 Materials
 Methods of operation
 Overtime
 Responsibilities
 Vacation policy
 Company services
 Recreation
 Management policy
 Pay
 Rules and regulations
 Acknowledgement of good performance
 Workers should be told every thing that directly affects them.
 Things indirectly related with the work or physical conditions surrounding the job should be
communicated, such as those which have to do with work coordination, company
organization, plans for growth and expansion

When to communicate

 As a general rule, people should be informed about any event well in advance of rumors,
gossips, conjectures.
 If the information deals with vacations, shutdowns, etc. It should be released soon enough
to be useful to individuals who will benefit from them
 All announcements should be so timed that the reasons given for them would not conflict
with other information fresh in the employee’s mind
 In all cases, a supervisor should receive the information before his subordinates do.

How to communicate

 Give reasons meaningful to those being informed. This is one of the best way to gain
acceptance.
 Where persuasion is necessary, employ verbal communication. This is more effective than
print since you see the other’s reaction and hence are able to adapt your presentation
accordingly
 Invite response from workers
 Use more than one medium of communication. A meeting may be good, but a meeting
reinforced by a letter is more effective than an announcement which gets only one
treatment.
Situations in Communication

 Face-to-face interview, i.e., for personnel selection, induction, evaluation, counseling, etc.
 Job instruction, e.g. new techniques, alterations, etc.
 Transmitting information, e.g., policies procedures, etc.
 Giving instructions
 Obtaining information and reports
 Heading conferences and group meetings.

Other Aspect of Communication

 COMMUNICATION is a very personal process involving at least two (2) persons: the sender
and the receiver.

 For one to get through the other

 They must be tuned in on the same wave length


 They must speak the “same language”
 The sender must use the language the receiver understands.
 The communicator makes use of certain aids of devices:
The communicator makes use of certain aids of devices:

1. WORDS are precision instruments

 Use the right words for the purpose in hand


 Avoid imprecise words like “few”, “some”, or “many” when meaning will be
conveyed better by actual numbers and percentages.
2. TONE sometimes convey more than content does. It is how the thing is said rather than
what is said that may set road-blocks and cause a communication gap.

 reacts on the thoughts and emotions of the receiver. It is, therefore, wise to use the
correct tone in your messages.

LETTERS can be made appealing to the receiver’s self interest:


1. Catch your reader’s interest in the opening salvo
2. Close with an appeal to action
3. Don’t let your message dangle without clear indication of just what it is you want
him to do.

 Communications should be brief:

 Long enough, and no longer, to get the point across


 Not wordy, redundant or long-winded

 Speeches and written reports must be well-organized and well-presented.

 Effective presentation should include the following


o A clear-cut identification of the problem, idea or program to be presented
o A careful organization of the subject matter

 By identifying major and minor points


 By organizing thoughts and information points to put across a specific outline.

o Judicious use of visual aids

 Charts, graphs, slides, transparencies, movies have an important part. Used


improperly, however, they can be boring and, worse, may give the wrong emphasis.

Careful consideration of the background and interests of the audience


 A minor point for one group can be a major point for another
 What is interesting to one group can be boring to another.

o Sensitivity to audience reaction as a presentation progresses

 Part of a presentation may have to left out and others elaborated on to meet the
situation
 Boring speakers are usually insensitive to audience reaction.

3. LISTENING is an important aspect of communication. In communicating, don’t do too much


of the talking yourself, listen to what the other has to say. This way, you establish rapport
with your receiver.

Devices used for communicating

 Bulletin board notices


 Circulars
 Inter-office memos
 Company papers
 Official notice
 Posters
 Exhibits
 Letters
 Interviews
 Informal talks
 Meetings
 Conferences

Handling Difficult Communications

ANGER

 Keep your own emotions under control


 Lower your own voice and speak slowly
 Acknowledge the employee’s anger
 Observe the employee’s behavior closely after your discussion

INDIFFERENCE

 Determine why the employee is not paying attention


 Be patient and use silence to your advantage to communicate effectively, pay attention
to messages.

Spoken Communication

- Effective Speaking
- Message Delivery
- Pause Occasionally & Encourage Questions
- Pay Attention to How You Say Something
- Decide on the Most Appropriate Time and Place
- Present the Information in a Logical Order.
- Keep the Language Simple.

REVIEW: Three Major Concerns in Effective Speaking

The message content

- The message delivery


- Ensuring understanding
HUMAN ELEMENTS IN SAFETY
OBJECTIVE
At the end of the session the participants will be able to identify the importance of human
elements and qualities of a supervisor in getting along with his employees, apply techniques and
practices to maintain a good relationship efficiently in every way possible to do their work well.

INTRODUCTION
Production will suffer unless the supervisor knows how to get people to work safely and
efficiently and to do this he must know how to get along with them. He must understand why
people behave as they do and to act upon that understanding.

A successful supervisor knows how to get people to work safely and to do it because they want
to. Under such a supervisor, each worker does his best, and both the company and the individual
are benefited.

FOUR BASIC NEEDS OF A WORKER


1. They want to know that the job they perform has value – that it is an essential function and
not one that can easily be dispensed with.
2. They want to know that their work is appreciated.
3. They want to feel secure in their jobs.
4. They want to belong to the group.

Recognition of these facts about human beings, supervisors and workers alike, should serve as a
foundation for supervisor’s decision in dealing with his people for a safe and efficient production.
Their desire and enthusiasm to do their best will diminish if the work environment fails to satisfy
their basic needs.

KNOWING THAT WORK HAS VALUE


A man’s work is an extension of himself. He wants it to be appreciated.
1. To belittle a man’s work is to belittle him.
2. To praise his work – with good reason – is to make him and others aware of his
importance.
3. The supervisor must give credit when credit is due.
4. Praising a worker for following safe practices will help impress upon him how important
his supervisor considers safety to be, as well as encourage him to continue to do his job
safely.

HAVING A SENSE OF SECURITY


 A worker needs a feeling of security in his job.
 Security means not only good pay and steady work but also knowledge of his exact job and
doing it safely and efficiently.
 Supervisor must see to it that the workers under him are thoroughly trained for the job
assigned to him.

THEY WANT TO BELONG TO THE GROUP


 Teamwork for safety is very important. Worker must know how to work safely with others.
He needs to be a part of the group in which he works.
 If a group works safely and efficiently, each man in that group would strive to work hard as
the group works, because he would like to belong to the group.

WORKERS WITH SPECIAL PROBLEMS


A supervisor need not be an expert in psychology but he must know the effective methods of
training and motivating people to do their work.

Two types of problem-workers:


1. Normal Personality – those who can perform their job acceptably and get along with their
fellow workers. But sometimes, some of their normal personalities may have unwholesome
dispositions that interfere with the primary purpose of the departments --- production of goods.
If the supervisor finds someone who does not respond to ordinary measures, he could refer the
problem to personnel department.

2. Abnormal Personality – those workers who bring to work their personal inclinations and traits
that may affect their safety and efficiency. Here, the supervisor needs to know the effective
methods of treating and motivating people to do their work.

A supervisor has the responsibility of helping his workers in every way possible to do their work
well. He must have good personal relations with them and knowledge of their personal problems,
habits and attitudes; however, this does not mean to say that it is his responsibility to solve their
personal problems.

TEMPORARY PROBLEMS
1. Misplaced worker who cannot do their work properly. It is better to place him in a proper job he
could very well handle or could learn to handle.
2. Temporary problems of normal workers may find relief in their absorption in work, but if the job
is affected, it is best to refer them to the personnel department for help.
3. Some abnormal personalities constitute long-term problems. Supervisor should be alert in these
cases so he can easily find remedy or else refer the worker to the personnel department.
4. A supervisor who could get group participation in his department would have fewer problems. If
the group works safely and efficiently, follows habit of good housekeeping, uses guards, wear
personal protective equipment and adheres to safe practices, then the individual workers will do
likewise.

ACCIDENT PRONE
A term for an individual’s repetitive accident experience. The misuse of the term misleads the
fundamental factors involved in an accident, since it is used as cause of accident. In reality, it is no
cause at all. If a person does experiences repeated accidents, the cause may be any one of a number
of inherent conditions related to his physical or mental state of well-being or the environment where
he works. Every effort must be made to seek out these causes and should not be overlooked. A
better term would be “accident repeater”.
TRAINER’S SUBJECTS

Methods of Instruction

Good presentation
1. Well-modulated voice
2. Professional appearance
3. Time management
4. Knowledge of subject matter

The Presentation
Content
1. organization
2. language –relevance to the audience
3. knowledge of the subject matter
4. clarity of the objective

Process
1. voice- variability, intonation
2. non-verbal appropriate gestures
a. facial expression
b. body movements
3. blocking
4. use of audio-visual aids
5. sensitivity to the audience

Manage process:
Process observation
Process elements

*factual –inferences
 communication
 participation
 atmosphere
 feelings
 influence style

Purpose – State it and stick to it.

Dealing with problem participants


 Latecomer  Attacker
 Early leaver  Interpreter
 Broken record  Gossiper
 Doubting Thomas  Know-it-all
 Head shaker  Backseat driver
 Dropout  Busybody
 Whisperer  Interrupter
 Loudmouth  Teacher’s pet

Dealing with problem participants

1. Accept
2. Legitimize
3. Defer
4. Graduated response

Steps in preparing
1. Prepare the worker
2. Present the operation
3. Try out the performance
4. Follow – up

Discussion Leading
1. Open the meeting
2. Present the subject for discussion
3. Direct the discussion
4. Crystallize the discussion
5. Get acceptance for action

Preparing to Lead the Discussion Meeting


1. Establish the purpose of the meeting
2. Explore the subject
3. Outline the meeting
4. Have everything ready

The Management Cycle


1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Executing
4. Controlling
5. Communicating
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGIES OF ADULT
LEARNING
Introduction:
Learning is a complex process. It is defined as a change in behavior that can be seen and
measured. An awareness of how people learn is helpful in planning instructional events that make
learning easier and encourage recall.

Adult students have specific characteristics that affect what an instructor does in the classroom
to promote learning. An awareness of these characteristics can help the instructor respond in a way
that will motivate trainees and create a positive learning environment.

STEPS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS


According to the Gagne Briggs model of the learning process:
 Attention
 Motivation
 Encoding
 Storage and Recall
 Practice
 Feedback
 Transfer

LEARNING STEPS AND INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS


Learning Steps Instructional Events
Attention Direct Selective Perception
 Use focused training aids
 Emphasize important aspects
Motivation Establish a State of Expectancy
 Establish relevance
 State objectives
 Relate the new to the old
Recall Cue : Retrieval of Previous Learning
 Provide practice activities
 Use questioning
Encoding & Storage Assist Encoding and Storage
 Structure content
 Use examples
 Use analogies
 Use memory aids
 Provide a meaningful context
Feedback Reinforce Correct Knowledge/Skills
 Evaluate performance
 Diagnose strengths/weaknesses
Transfer Enhance Retention and Transfer
 Apply to different situations
 Reinforce job-related applications
ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES
LEARNING IS:
 A transformation that takes place over time.
 A continuous cycle of action and reflection.
 Most effective when it addresses issues relevant to the learner.
 Is most effective when people learn with others.
 Occurs best in a supportive and challenging environment

ADULT LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS


 They have EXPERIENCE
 Education
 Job
 Real world
 They are TASK ORIENTED
 Goal Directed
 Organized
 Application-Based
 They minimized RISK
 Lack of Confidence
 No Recent Schooling
 Need for Self Esteem
 Anxious in New Situations
 They are RESISTANT TO CHANGE
 What They Know/Do
 How They Learn
 How They View Things
 They want INVOLVEMENT
 Success/Advancement
 Recognition
 Participation
 Job/Personal Improvement

ADULT LEARNERS have DIFFERENCES:


 Physical Differences
 Emotional Differences
 Intellectual Differences
 Learning Style Differences

TECHNIQUES TO MOTIVATE ADULT LEARNERS:


 Show a need
 Develop an intent to learn
 Maintain interest
 Encourage early success
 Give recognition and credit
 Avoid emotional response
 Use honest praise and avoid blame
 Be professional

GAINING RESPECT FROM ADULT LEARNERS:


1. Display genuine interest
 Lesson preparation
 Responsive in discussion
2. Have a positive attitude toward learners
 Maturity
 Skill and Knowledge base
3. Be responsive to learners needs
 Pace of Class
 Individual Differences/Learning Styles
 Relevance of Material
4. Be intellectually honest in response to questions
5. Be consistent and objective
6. Avoid sarcasm or ridicule
PERSONAL AND GROUP COMMUNICATIONS
OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the session, the participants will be able to conduct an effective group
communication within or outside the organization using the guiding principles and appreciate the
benefits of having a well trained workforce.

DEFINITIONS

Personal Communication – usually conducted on a person-to-person basis aimed at individuals and


or, their particular jobs.

Group Communication – usually conducted by a group of individuals concerning specific topics that
generally concern any one or all of them.

Any of the two applies at any one time in the whole workplace. Aside from motivation, both
play an indispensable tool in overcoming losses in the company. Managers must do a good job of
meeting their responsibility for developing their staff aside from their taking steps in controlling loss.

It is always difficult to control losses in the company when the workers do not have the
following:
 Knowledge
 Interest
 Information
 Training
 Skill

COMPANY BENEFITS OF HAVING A WELL TRAINED WORKPLACE:


1. Increased productivity
2. Greater efficiency
3. Higher profitability
4. Less confusion
5. Decreased errors
6. Improved methods
7. Fewer accidents
8. Reduced labor turnover
9. Technical competence
10. Better employee morale

LEARNING PRINCIPLES

The following are learning principles that will guide a good supervisor in his attempt to develop
his workers:

1. Principle of Readiness – it is useless to teach one who does not have the required basic
education, maturity and experience.
2. Principle of Repetition – learning is best retained and strengthened by repetition.
3. Principle of Association – learning is easier when associated with something already known by
the individual.
4. Principle of Application – the more an idea is put to use the better it is remembered and
understood. “Learning by Doing”.

For a good supervisor to become a good leader, he must be able to persuade his men to abide by
his decisions and actions. Motivation will certainly play a major role; however, a good and effective
communication would be another indispensable requirement.

Communication is basically the transfer of ideas from one person to another. It is a two way
process of sending and receiving information, words, signs, symbols and action.

COMMUNICATION

1. Reasons For Having a Communication:


 To provide the necessary information about a job, a machine, a decision, an action taken,
etc.
 To recognize good performance;
 To avoid misunderstandings due to misinformation;
 To avoid fears, worries, suspicions, anxieties of a person towards his physical, emotional,
social and environmental surroundings.

Communication is an effective tool in linking management ideas and worker’s concepts.


Frequently, meanings are distorted and messages don’t get across. To serve as a real tool of
management, communication must:
 Not end with the transmission of orders downward;
 Consider the rights and needs of people bellow to communicate upwards;
 Be a two-way process.

2. Types of communication:
 Downward communication – information flows from upper levels of management to the
next lower level, down to rank-and-file. Commonly used for informing employees of
policies, procedures, directives, etc. Supervisors should make sure that he, as well as, those
below him understands what is being communicated.
 Upward communication – this proceeds from the lower level of the organization up to the
higher management. This is necessary to confirm that the downward communication from
the management is received and understood. Controls must be established to ensure that
communication is channeled properly. Supervisors have the responsibility to help his men
express themselves clearly and relay exactly what they want to say.
 Lateral communication – takes place among employees of the same level. This concerns
dissemination of information pertaining to areas of responsibility and/or reports of levels of
achievement in jobs involving more than one group. This also ensures avoidance of
duplication of work effort in achieving management goals.

3. Levels Of Communication:
 Cognitive level – the receiver understands the message clearly and accurately.
 Affective level – the receiver is properly motivated to want to carry out the instruction,
request, etc.
 Behavioral level – the receiver translates the message into action.

Workers should be told everything that directly affects them. This may include:
 Work assignments/procedures
 Work flow in offices
 Materials methods of operation/maintenance
 Work duties and responsibilities
 Company policies
 Acknowledgement of good performance
 Company plans for growth and expansion
 Work coordination

4. Factors Affecting Communication Breakdown:


 “We hear what we expect to hear” – understanding of what we hear is largely shaped by
own experience and background. We tend to have preconceived ideas of what people
mean.
 “We have different perception” – some people interpret the same stimulus in different ways
depending on their own perception.
 “We evaluate the source” – it is extremely difficult to separate what we hear from our
feelings and opinions about the person who says it.
 “We ignore information and conflicts with what we already know” – communications
sometimes fail to have the desired effect because they run counter to other information the
receiver has.
 “Words mean different things to different people” – Neither words, nor meanings are
conveyed, the same may suggest different meaning for different people. The meaning is in
the people, not in the words.
 “Words have symbolic meaning” – a particular word may have a symbolic meaning that
others overlook.
 “Our emotional state conditions what we hear” – when insecure, worried, fearful, and
depressed, what we hear seems more threatening than when we are secure and at peace
with the world and with ourselves.
 “We don’t know how the other man perceives the situation” – don’t assume that every
message sent would be received in the form you intended.

5. Techniques In Overcoming Barriers To Communication:


Feedback utilization – without feedback, false perception creeps in and even a small remark that
goes uncorrected may become magnified into a major distortion.

 Maximize feedback by using many channels of communication, through:


 Observation
 Listening with a third ear
 Checking on reception
 Use face to face communication
 Be aware of symbolic meanings
 Time your message carefully
 Reinforce words with action
 Use direct, simple language
 Listen

COMMUNICATION WITH OUTSIDE GROUP:

Communication should not only be confined within the company, problems of communication in a
company also extend outside of the organization.

With the customers – they are more interested in the products and services the company can offer, if
needs are not satisfied, problems would likely occur.

“COMMUNICATION IS: THE RIGHT SOURCE SAYING THE RIGHT MESSAGE THROUGH THE RIGHT
CHANNEL AT THE RIGHT TIME TO THE RIGHT PEOPLE.”

1. Peculiar Characteristics of Group Members


 EAGER BEAVER – quick, helpful, first to jump in with an opinion. In spite of good intentions,
this person makes it difficult by keeping others out.
 OBSTINATE – couldn’t be budge with a bulldozer. Either she hasn’t seen your point or she’s
just plain prejudiced.
 THE DAMPENER – point out the worst in every idea put forward. Seldom volunteers an
alternative.
 INDISCRIMINATING – an amiable sort who will agree wholeheartedly with ANY suggestion.
 HIGHLY ARGUMENTATIVE – combative personalities or professional hecklers or just upset
with personal problems. A clash between two such members can divide the group into
fictions.
 INARTICULATE – has ideas but finds difficulty in expressing his thoughts.
 SIDE CONVERSATIONALIST – whether related to subject or not, this member distracts other
members and especially the speaker.
 THE RAMBLER – becomes loquacious on every subject except the one being discussed. After
a few of her farfetched analogies, the entire group is hopelessly lost.
 THE “I WON’T TALK” – may feel timid, insecure, superior, indifferent or bored. Whatever his
reasons, he won’t be an asset to the group unless you draw him out.

 INATTENTIVE – physically present, mentally absent


 THE GRIPER – keeps giving legitimate complaints
 THE POOL LOSER – admitting she’s wrong is not her strong point.

2. Purposes of Asking Questions:


 To open a discussion
 To stimulate interest
 To provoke thinking
 To accumulate data
 To distribute discussion
 To develop a subject
 To check member knowledge
 To change discussion trends
 To arrive at a conclusion
 To end or limit a discussion

3. Preparing To Lead A Discussion:

 Establish the purpose of the meeting


 Determine an object – overall and intermediate
 Explore the subject
 Gather information on the subject
 Outline points that need discussion
 Prepare, assemble orientation materials
 Outline the meeting
 Set the end objective
 Set intermediate objectives
 Make time-date for the meeting
 Plan possible close
 Have everything ready
 Check on the meeting place and arrangements
 Arrange for meeting facilities
 Provide charts, other needed aids, handouts, etc.

4. Leading Discussion
 Open the meeting – out the group at ease; state the purpose and outline the overall
program.
 Present the subject for discussion – state problem or situation clearly; arouse interest – state
on opinion, ask provoking questions.
 Direct the discussion
 Crystallize the discussion – present points of agreement and clear up points to
disagreements or misunderstanding.
 Get acceptance for action – summarize and get agreement on action; check that all
understands.
ORGANIZING AND PLANNING FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
AND HEALTH
SAFETY PROGRAMMING

A safety program is a plan or outline of activities conducted to promote consciousness among


management and workers in the workplace in order to eliminate or minimize accidents and/or illness
to the lowest reducible level. Safety program organization is the method employed by management
to assign responsibility for accident prevention and to ensure performances under that
responsibility.

Safety Program Responsibility

Role of Management in Safety Programming


An effective safety program permits a company to have a working environment in which
operations are conducted economically, efficiently and safely. This can be achieved basically through
control of the working environment and control of people's actions. Only top management has the
authority to implement such controls.

THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT MODEL

As time passes by the aspects on safety programming has tremendously improved. One of these
improvements is the introduction of "The Continuous Improvement Model", a framework for safety
presented in the National Safety Council's Agenda 2000 Health Environment program. Continuous
improvement is a process-oriented business approach that emphasizes the contributions people
make to long-range, permanent solution to problems. It is the cornerstone of Total Quality
Management. Applying the process of the Continuous Improvement Model requires understanding
causes before designing solutions. Improvements may be dramatic or incremental. In any event, the
model helps ensure that they occur regularly. The basic elements presented in this manual provide a
review to help managers focus more closely on the activities that each element encompasses.

Phase 1: Management Commitment and Involvement


The first phase is to make management commitment and to gain management's involvement.
Companies with successful safety and health programs have active senior management
participation. Without this active involvement, mid-level managers and front-line supervisors tend to
ignore safety and health as an issue. Senior management signals its commitment by stating a
position that is communicated through clear, unambiguous policy and implementation procedures.
Management support indicates a broad commitment to the continuous improvement in safety and
health through ongoing involvement, allocation of resources and feedback

Phase 2: Establish a Baseline


The next phase in the Continuous Management Model is to assess the current situation by
seeing where the organization currently stands in its safety and health program. Teams made up of
managers, supervisors and employees select an issue appropriate to its company's needs. Once an
issue is selected, the team makes a snapshot of operations relating to that issue. To learn what the
"as is" conditions are, the team must first decide how to measure – review records (compliance logs,
maintenance records, records of spills, training logs, waste manifests. purchasing records, etc.),
observe conditions and interview employees for their experiences and opinions. Once these
parameters are set, the team collects information and analyzes the results.

Phase 3: Set Goals


After the team establishes a baseline, the next stop is to set improvement goals - what the
operation or organization "should be". By setting goals together, the team ensures that the "buy-in"
occurs. What gets measured gets done, and the goal needs to be measurable, to address the
problem directly and to be aggressive. Improvement comes only by demanding results that can be
measured. If they aren't aggressive or linked to a specific problem, people may not respond. For
example, setting a goal to reach 100% compliance in wearing hearing protection is measurable,
addresses the issue of hearing protection and is aggressive. Limit the number of goals to keep the
improvement process focused and manageable.

Phase 4: Implement Strategies


Strategies are action plans to close the gap between the baseline (as is) and the goals (should
be). They spell out what actions to take and who takes them, and provide a timetable for
implementation. The team members make valuable contributions to designing strategies; they
ensure that the strategy achieves the goal. During implementation, someone from the team follows
up and monitors progress. Improvement is measured in terms of degree of goal achievement within
the allotted time. Communication is critical; the results are shared with the other employees in the
organization

Phase 5: Review and Adjust


Results are reviewed and adjustments to the program are made to ensure continuous
improvement. The key is to keep programs that work and improve or eliminate those that don't. The
organization begins to develop a vision of what "could be' in terms of safety and health. The process
is repeated as the organization builds on successes and learns from less successful efforts.

BASIC ELEMENTS OF A SAFETY PROGRAM

There are seven (7) basic elements for a successful safety program.

1. Management Leadership (assumption of responsibility; declaration of policy). There is a need


for the management to make a written statement of its attitude towards safety in the workplace.
This can be set forth in a policy which must be brief and clearly define management attitude.
 Enforce safe practices and conditions
 Comply with company policy
 Follow safe instructions
 Obtain good preventive maintenance of equipment or selection of proper
equipment when purchased.

2. Establish a Safety Policy stating the following:

“The safety of employees, the public and the company operations are paramount. Safely will
take precedence over expediency or shortcuts. Every attempt will be made to reduce the
possibility of accident occurrence, and the company intends to comply with all safety laws and
ordinances.”
3. Assignment of Responsibility (to operating officials, safety directors, supervisors, health & safety
committees). When safety policy has been set, the management delegates the everyday task of
carrying out said policy to the supervisors, foremen, foreladies, and/or health and safety
committee. The head of an operating unit can set the example for placing health and safety in
equal emphasis and weight with matters of production, cost and quality by actively supporting
the company's health and safety policy. He/she can do this by seeing to it that:
 Each of his/her employees (workers) understand the chemical and physical properties of
the materials stored, handled or used by him/her and the necessary precautions are
observed when using equipment, including the use of proper safeguards and Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE).
 The establishment of a health and safety committee is another excellent means of
developing, implementing and maintaining safety and accident prevention measures in
the work area.

4. Maintenance of Safe Working Conditions (inspectors, engineering revisions, purchasing and


supervisors).

 Some protective measures to maintain safe working conditions within the plant are:
 Operational methods revision to eliminate risks
 Mechanical guarding
 Isolation of operation or storage
 Use of PPE
 Proper ventilation
 Proper use and maintenance of tools and equipment
 Sufficient and proper lighting
 Sanitation
 Fire control measures

 The plant's health and safety conditions can be appraised by keeping track of the
following:
 Regular routine inspection
 Special inspection and follow - ups to see if recommendations for health and
safety maintenance are met or are carried out.
 Establishment of Safety Training

 Conduct of training course should be both for supervisors and employees. There are
different kinds of training courses. They are:
 For new employees - to orient and/or familiarize newly hired personnel
 On-the-job training - for those already under the service of the company for
sometime
 Refresher service to reacquaint “old" personnel
 Supervisory training
 Participation in safely working
 Off-the-job
 Conferences
 Workshops
5. An Accident Record System (Accident analysis reports on injuries - measurement of records).
Advantages of accidents records:
 Provide the safety director with the means for an objective evaluation of his program;
 Identify high injury rate plants or departments; and
 Provide information on the causes of accidents, which contribute high injury rates.

Rule 1050 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards states that establishments are
required to submit reports of work accidents and occupational illness, which resulted in
disabling injuries. The form DOLE/BWC/OHSD/IP6 (Employer's Report of Accident/illnesses)
should be accomplished and submitted to the Regional Labor Office, copy furnished the Bureau
of Working Conditions. The form is a comprehensive tool covering pertinent data needed in
recording and reporting occupational accident/illnesses.

6. Medical and First Aid System - placement examinations, treatment of injuries, first aide services,
and periodic health examinations). The medical department of a company is tasked with the
following pertinent activities:
 Conducts pre-employment physical examination for proper physical check-up and proper
placement of workers.
 Conduct periodic physical examination of workers exposed to harmful toxic substances.
 Arrange surveys of new operations or processes to know what exposures are
determined to health that may be present.
 Establishes a system for assigning injured workers on the kind of job they can handle in
spite of their condition.

7. Acceptance of Personal Responsibility of Employees (training, and maintenance of interest)


Employees too must have obligations for a safely program to succeed. Here are some of them:

 Observe safe practices and procedures


 Have regard at all times for the safety of fellow employees.
 Use his knowledge and influence to prevent accidents.
 Report to proper authorities any unsafe conditions that may call his attention.
 Contribute his ideas, suggestions, and recommendations for the improvement of
working conditions to achieve maximum safety.
 Participate actively, whenever appointed as full pledge member of the heath and
safety committee
 Aside from training, the management has means at is disposal to maintain a high
interest in safety.

 Such promotional methods include:


 Safety Meetings – There are four types:
o Executive and supervisor's meeting to formulate policies, initiate safety
programs or plan special safety activities.
o Mass meeting for special purposes.
o Departmental meeting to discuss special problems, and plan campaigns
or analyze accidents.
o Small group meeting to plan the day's work so that it is done safely.
 Safety Contents - examples are:
o Injury rate contents
o Interdepartmental contents
o Inter-group contest
o Intra-plant or inter-departmental contest
o Non- Injury rate content - safety slogans, poster, housekeeping and
community contests
o Use of posters, bulletin boards, displays to publicize safety
o Others like safety campaigns, safety courses and demonstrations, public
address systems, publications and suggestion system.

HOW TO START A SAFETY PROGRAM?

Management initiative and Leadership


Top management assumes responsibility for health and safety and takes the lead in starting a
health and safety program.

Setting up the Program


Top management writes the company health and safety policy and declares it through a meeting
among the supervisory staff or through letters, bulletins, and announcements health and safety
policy should be brief but should clearly define management attitude and desires. Answer to the
following must be clearly explained:

 What does management want?


 Does the policy pertain to on-the job health and safety? Off-the-job health and safety?
Property damage? Fire? Product safety?
 Who is to be responsible for what?
 Where and how is it fixed?
 How does it fit into the organization?
 What will the committee do?
 Who has the right to correct and determine courses of action?
 What rules will the company live by?

Outlining policy and general methods of procedure


A health and safety program is a definite plan action designed to manage hazards and prevent
cases of occupational disease. Some form of program is required to enable management to measure
performance against objectives, and to provide the framework for employee need for change and to
manage the change process. By having a proper, identifiable program both the employer and
employee are better placed to meet their respective legal obligations. Because organizations differ, a
program developed for one cannot be expected to perfectly suit the needs of another.

Policy Statement
An organization's occupational health and safety policy should be a clear statement of principles,
which will serve as guide to action. Senior management must be totally committed to ensuring that
the policy is carried out with no exceptions. Health and safety policy must be, and be seen to be, on
par with all other organizational policies. As with health and safety programs, no one policy is
suitable for all organizations. The policy statement can be brief, but it should mention:
 The objectives of the program.
 The organization's basic health and safety philosophy.
 The general responsibilities of all employees
 The ways employees can participate in health and safety activities

The policy should be:


 Stated in clear and concise terms.
 Signed by the incumbent Chief Executive Officer.
 Kept up to date.
 Communicated to each employee
 Adhered to in all work activities

Studying of plant's accident history and operation


A study of the plant operation and accident history is conducted as the basis for the preparation
of a safety program.

Preparation of the Health and Safety Program


Prepare the safety program built around the basic elements and continuous improvement model
outlining the details such as targets, monitoring systems, awards, appraisal factors, etc and
implement it.

Detailed study of accident statistics


 Evaluate its effect on the internal and external set-up of the plant or factory.
 Was there an increase in production at lesser cost?
 How did the frequency Rate (FR) and Severity Rate (SR) compare with (Periodic comparisons
- last year, two years ago, etc.)
 Were the employees morale boosted?
 Did you have better public relation?

Involvement of the different departments (in the case of large establishments)


 Medical Department
 Conducts pre-employment physical examination for proper physical check-up and
proper placement of worker.
 Periodic physical examination of workers exposed to harmful or toxic substances
 Arrange surveys of new operations or processes to know what exposures are
detrimental to health that maybe present.
 Establishes a system assigning injured workers on the kind of job they can be handle
in spite of their condition.

 Personnel Department
 Keep records of lost time, accidents and sickness arising from work.
 Collaborate with medical, employment and safety departments relative to the
placement of employees on jobs.
 Arranges for cooperation and assistance in rehabilitation of injured employees.
 Establishes cross - file controls to prevent unfit employees to work on job not
approved for them.
 Engineering Department
 Expedites safety work request, particularly referring to correction of critical hazards.
 Consults with safety department before any new operation is started or new
installations or changes to existing buildings, processes, operations or equipment are
put-up.

 Purchasing Department
 Coordinates with safety department on all purchases of equipment, tools, materials
and personal protective equipment.
 Requisitions for hazardous substances and materials should be referred to safety
department for proper investigation and clearance.
RE-ENTRY PLAN
Objective:
 To introduce the BOSH participant into his role in the safety committee.
 Participants to the BOSH training are now tasked to apply what they learned. Our plan for
their re-entry to the Safety and Health Committee is outlined as follows:

Review
On their own, after completing the BOSH training, participants are enjoined to review their
notes, manuals, workshop exercises and experiences.

Application
On return to company, they make a verbal or written report to their supervisor signifying
intention to apply the content of the BOSH training. The simplest way to immediately use the
material is by specific task, so as not to get overwhelmed by the project

1. Inspection
2. Investigation

Inspection
If the new member intends to conduct his application by inspection, he may opt to be teamed
up with another member.

Workplace inspection is by far the best way to begin. It involves 3 steps:


1. Identification of hazards
2. Evaluation of hazards
3. Control of hazards

1. Identify the Hazard


 Unsafe Act
 Act of Omission
 Act of Commission
 Unsafe Condition
 Physical
 Ergonomic
 Chemical
 Mechanical
 Biological
 Electrical

2. Evaluate the Hazard


Indicate why you identified the act/condition to be unsafe by:
 Comparing against the standards
 International standards
 Conducting workplace monitoring procedures or simply determining what
procedures to conduct.

3. Control the Hazard through any or a combination of three methods


a. Engineering control
b. Administrative control
c. Personal Protective Equipment

Making an inspection report is carried out by an action plan, you may opt to be teamed up with
another member or conduct investigation alone. Results and processes may be compared later.
Steps to follow are:
 Gather Information
 Analyze the facts
 Make recommendation

Implementation
 Study/Review
 Once the reports (inspection) have been made, they are submitted to the Safety Manager or
counterpart for analysis. Feasibility is determined and the new member may be asked for a
simple explanation for your report.
 The action plan is then put into effect in an experimental area, or may be applied directly to
the act/condition in question.
 After the target date is met, results of the implementation are noted and discussed.

Evaluation
 Scoring/ranking of the expected results is done to quantity/quality the data.
 Discussion of the results may be made by direct comparison.
 Other forms may require more intricate analysis like that of determination of values in
standard deviation.
 Depending on the outcome and the nearness/farness (proximity/distance) from the
expected output, modifications can be made to tailor fit the action plan.
 A final report is made to document the results and the action plan is applied to the greater
part of the company’s workplace.

Repeat process
 Next step is to increase/broaden the scope of responsibility of the new member.
RE-ENTRY PLANNING

NAME: _____________________________________________ DATE: ________________________


COMPANY: __________________________________________ POSITION: ____________________

A. What have I learned that I intend to apply in my organization?

1.
2.
3.

B. What are the factors or conditions support their acceptance?

1.
2.
3.

C. What factors prevent their acceptance or application?

1.
2.
3.

D. What are the additional resources needed to introduce what I have learned?
( e.g. people, procedure, equipment )

1.
2.
3.

E. What actions do I intend to take to A)?

1a.
b.
2a.
b.
3a.
b.

F. How much time am I giving to implement E)?

1.
2.
3.