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Elastic Response Spectra

By Newmark’s β Method

Carleton University

© Mostafa Tazarv

Graduate Student

Version 1.0 (May 2011)

Cite as: Tazarv, M., “Elastic Response Spectra for Response Spectrum

Analysis of Structures”, available online at: http://alum.sharif.edu/~tazarv/

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

Introduction

To design a structure against earthquake, one of the most recommended methods by design

specifications is “response spectrum analysis” in which rather than time history analysis,

maximum responses are estimated by this method. To do so, first, natural frequencies (or period)

should be obtained by means of modal analysis of desired structure. Then, we need a curve

which covers all the possible frequencies versus maximum responses called “response

spectrum”. Specifically, this curve represents the maximum responses of several structures (each

frequency represents a structure) under an earthquake. Response can be displacement, velocity or

acceleration. However, for response spectrum analysis, displacement spectrum is of interest.

Finally, for each mode maximum values can be estimated by this curve and by an appropriate

combination rule such as SRSS or CQC, maximum responses of the structure can be obtained.

The main goal of the posted function (SPEC) is to generate elastic response spectra including

displacement, pseudo velocity and pseudo acceleration spectra needed in the response spectrum

analysis of structures. Under an earthquake, for desired range of period (or frequency) Eq. 1 will

be numerically solved by Newmark linear method. Maximum displacement will be captured for

each period (T) and finally, plot of these maximum displacements versus period will be

“displacement spectrum ( )”. Based on this spectrum, pseudo velocity spectrum ( ) and

pseudo acceleration spectrum ( ) can be obtained by Eq. 2 and Eq. 3.

where

is natural frequency,

is ground motion acceleration of the earthquake.

(2)

(3)

2 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

Function Help: SPEC

This is a self-explanatory function indeed. However, there is an option to control end period of

spectra called “endp”. For example, you may need the spectra up to 4 second then please set this

factor to 4.

[T,Spa,Spv,Sd]=SPEC(dt,Ag,zet,g,endp)

% INPUTS:

% dt: Time Interval (Sampling Time) of earthquake acceleration

ground motion

% Ag: Ground Motion Acceleration in g (a vector)

% zet: Damping Ratio in percent (%); e.g. 5

% g: Gravitational Constant; e.g. 9.81 m/s/s

% endp: End Period of Spectra; e.g. 4 sec

% OUTPUTS:

% T: Period of Structures (sec) (a vector)

% Spa: Elastic Pseudo Acceleration Spectrum (a vector) in g

% Spv: Elastic Pseudo Velocity Spectrum (a vector)

% Sd: Elastic Displacement Spectrum (a vector)

NOTE:

• If you don’t like to have the plot of spectra, please delete lines 62-74.

• If g is in m/s2, then Spv will be in the unit of m/s and Sd will be in the unit of m.

3 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

Example 1: Response Spectra of Elcentro Earthquake

It is desired to obtain the elastic response spectra of N-S component of 1940 Elcentro earthquake

(Fig. 1) with 2% damping ratio up to 5sec. This record is also attached to the submitted files.

First column is time and second column is acceleration in g. is 0.02sec. Please call the

function as follows:

Hint: g is 9810 mm/s2

[T,Spa,Spv,Sd]=SPEC(0.02,elcentro(:,2),2,9810,5)

4 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

5 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

Example 2: Verification of SEPC

In this section, I will compare the spectra generated by SPEC with well-known software

“SeismoSignal”. Selected earthquake is again 1940 Elcentro N-S component. However, damping

ratio is 5% and end period was set to 4 sec. Fig. 4&5 compare the acceleration spectrum and

displacement spectrum by these to programs.

0.9

0.8 SeismoSignal

0.7 SPEC

0.6

Spa(g)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Period (s)

Figure 4-Comparison of Pseudo Acceleration Spectrum of N-S Component of Elcentro Earthquake with

%

350

300

250

Sd (mm)

200

150

SeismoSignal

100

spec

50

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Period (s)

Figure 5- Comparison of Displacement Spectrum of N-S Component of Elcentro Earthquake with %

6 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

Example 3: Verification of SEPC

Another comparison has been made. However, selected earthquake is one of the recorded ground

motions of March 11, 2011 destructive earthquake in Japan (M9.0). Fig. 6 shows the site location

and name (IWT006). You can download the uncorrected record form http://www.k-net.bosai.go.jp/.

Damping ratio is 5% and end period was set to 10sec. Fig. 7&8 compare the acceleration

spectrum and displacement spectrum of corrected record by these two programs.

2.5

2

SeismoSignal

SPEC

1.5

Spa(g)

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Period (s)

Figure 7-Comparison of Pseudo Acceleration Spectrum of N-S IWT006 of March 2011 Japan Earthquake

with % (limited to 4sec)

7 | P a g e

Response Spectra © Mostafa Tazarv

180

160

140

120

Sd (mm)

100

80

60

40

SeismoSignal

20 spec

0

0 2 6 4 8 10 12

Period (s)

Figure 8- Comparison of Displacement Spectrum of N-S IWT006 of March 2011 Japan Earthquake with

%

I hope this function helps you in your future study, research and design project. If you are

interested, I have posted another function which can carry out time history analysis of MDOF

structures by mode superposition method under either earthquake or time-variant loading on

DOFs. You can find it in MATLAB central called “Modal Time History Analysis of Structures”

(NM.m) available online at (MATLAB may change the address):

http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/30866-modal-time-history-analysis-of-structures

Reference

1. Humar J. L., “Dynamic of Structures”, Prentice Hall, 1990

2. Chopra A. K., “Dynamic of Structures, Theory and Application to Earthquake Engineering”, Prentice

Hall, 1995

3. MATLAB, The MathWorks Inc., 2009

4. SeismoSignal, SeismoSoft Ltd, 2011. (http://www.seismosoft.com/en/HomePage.aspx)

5. National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan, http://www.k-

net.bosai.go.jp/

8 | P a g e

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