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Process integration

Targeting the minimum energy


requirement

Dr Ir François Maréchal
LENI (Laboratory of Industrial Energy Systems)

FM_07/ 2000

Heat requirements

Ṁ cp = 6kW/K Ṁ cp = 3kW/K

Heat React Cool


T=100 °C T=150 °C T=175 °C T=70 °C

FM_07/ 2000
Heat recovery heat exchanger
• Investment
O2
C – Exchangeur
O1'
– Connections
I1 I1' I2
E1 H REA – Control system
• Energy saving
O1
– Hot utility (H)
T(°C) Heat recovery – Cold utility C
Hot utility
• What is the best size of the
175°
O1 heat exchanger ?
150°
I2 • Size
120° O1'
I1' • Cost estimation
DTmin
100° • Benefit
O2 I1
70°

Cold utility

100+100 300-100 50+100 H(kW)

FM_07/ 2001

Heat exchanger sizing

O2
C !2
O1' δQ
I1 I1' I2 = UA
E1 H REA (Th − Tc )
1
O1
dQ
For= U · dA
constant mcp· (Th − Tc )
T(°C) Heat recovery
Hot utility 1 1 e 1
175° Q ==U · A
+ · DT
+ lm
O1
DT1
150° U Uc λ Uh
I2
120° O1'
I1'
Q=U · A · DT
DT − DTlm
DTmin DT2 1 2
100°
DTlm = DT1
O2 I1 ln( DT 2
)
70° ! "
1 kW 1 e 1
Cold utility
2o
= + + +R
U m C hc λ hf
100+100 300-100 50+100 H(kW)

FM_07/ 2001
Number of transfer units NTU

Q̇max = min(Ṁh cph , Ṁc cpc )(Th,in − Tc,in )

UA UA
NTU = =
min(Ṁh cph , Ṁc cpc ) (Ṁ cp)min

Counter current
(Ṁ cp)min
Q̇ 1 − exp(−N T U [1 − (Ṁ cp)max
])
!= =
(Ṁ cp)min (Ṁ cp)min
Q̇max 1− (Ṁ cp)max
exp(−N T U [1 − (Ṁ cp)max
])

FM_07/ 2001

Investment estimations
• Different level of detail

C S 0.6
=( )
Cref Sref

Offer call

Detailled design

FM_07/ 2000
Estimating investment cost
n
Ca " Sa % " Ix % C n "I %
= $ ' * $ ' ( Ca = bn * ( Sa ) * $ x '
Cb # Sb & # Iy & Sb # Iy &
Ca Coût de l'équipement de taille Sa acheté l'année x
Cb Coût de l'équipement connu de taille Sb acheté l'année y
n exposant pour le type d'équipement concerné
Ix index des équipements pour l'année x

• Statistiques disponibles
– Corrélations pour les équipements
• E.g. Turton et al.
– Index :
• Marshall & Swift Equipment Cost Index
• CEPCI : Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index

FM_07/ 2000

Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index

Year CEPCI value


Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index
1957 100
1992 358.2 500
1993 359.2 450
1994 368.1
400
1995 381.1
350
1996 381.7
1997 386.5 300
CEPCI

1998 389.5 250


1999 390.6
200
2000 394.1
150
2001 394.3
2002 395.6 100

2003 402 50
2004 444.2 0
2005 466.3
7

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05
5

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

20

20

20

20

20

20
19

19

FM_07/ 2000
Installed cost
• Application d’un facteur global
ne

Ci = F * " Cai
i =1

Cai Coût d'achat de l' équipement i


ne Nombre d'équipements
Ci Coût de l'installation
F Facteur de Lang
Fluides : 4.74
Solides : 3.1
Mixte : solide- fluide : 3.63

FM_07/ 2000

Economical value
• Future value of a given value P after n years
F = P * (1 + i) n
F Valeur de P après n années avec un taux d'intérêt i
• Future value of an annual income B after n years
n
r"1
$ (1+ i )n " 1 '
F = # B * (1 + i) = B * & )
r =1 &% i )(
F Valeur après n années d'une rentrée d' argent annuelle
constante B avec un taux d'intérêt i
• Present value of an annual income B after n years
F # (1+ i )n " 1 & # 1 & # (1 + i) n " 1&
P= = B*% (* % n ( = B*% n (
(1 + i) n %$ i (' %$ (1 + i) (' %$ i (1 + i) ('
P Valeur actualisée d'une rentrée d'argent annuelle
consante B avec un taux d'intérêt i après n années
FM_07/ 2000
Evaluation d’un projet
• Coût actualisé
(1 + i)n − 1
N P V = I + CO ∗ (CHF)
i(1 + i)n
facteur d'actualisation (ans) en fonction de la duree et du taux d'intérêt
12
f(5,x)
f(6,x)
11 f(7,x)
f(8,x)
10 f(9,x)
f(10,x)
f(11,x)
9 f(12,x)
f(13,x)
8 f(14,x)
f(15,x)
ans

3
0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
taux d'intérêt

FM_07/ 2000

Operating cost np
!
• Operating time p=1
time(p).(

n
! rm

crm (p).Ṁrm
+
(p)
• Raw materials rm=1
nprod
!

cprod (p).Ṁprod (p)
• Sellings −
prod=1

• Resources +
n
! res

cres (p).Ṁres
+
(p)
res=1

+c+grid (p).Ėgrid (p)


+

• Electricity −c− −
grid (p).Ėgrid (p)

• Emissions
n
! em

+ cem (p).Ṁem−
(p)

• Man power
em=1
˙ work
+cwork .M an hours
• Taxes )
+M aintenance
+T axes

FM_07/ 2000
Project Benefit

# (1+ i )n " 1 & *, # (1+ i )n " 1 &.,


Bénéfice = T0 " T = I0 + C0 % n ( " +(I0 + )I) + (C0 " B) * % n (/
%$ i(1+ i ) (' ,- %$ i(1 + i) (',0
I0 Investissement avant le projet (I 0 = 0)
C0 Coût opératoire du procédé avant le projet
B Gain sur le coût opératoire pour le projet concerné
)I Investissement du projet concerné
# (1 + i) n " 1&
Bénéfice actualisé = B % n ( " )I 1 0 (CHF)
%$ i (1+ i ) ('
# i(1 + i) n &
Bénéfice annuel actualisé = B " )I % n (1 0 (CHF / an)
%$ (1 + i) " 1('

FM_07/ 2000

Rentabilité de projets
"I
Temps de retour = (an)
B
$ (1 + i) n # 1'
Bénéfice actualisé = B & n ) # "I * 0 (CHF)
&% i (1+ i ) )(
$ i(1 + i) n '
Bénéfice annuel actualisé = B # "I & n )* 0 (CHF / an)
&% (1 + i) # 1)(
$ (1 + i* )n # 1'
Taux d'actualisation du projet : i* tel que : B & * n
) # "I = 0
& i (1+ i * ) )
% (

FM_07/ 2000
Heat recovery

O2
C
O1'
I1 I1' I2
E1 H REA

O1

T(°C) Récupération d’énergie


Hot utility
175°
O1
150°
I2

∆Tmin
120° O1'
DTmin I1'
100°
O2 I1
70°

Cold utility

100+100 300-100 50+100 H(kW)

FM_07/ 2000

Optimal DTmin value Energy capital trade-off


Couts en fonction du DTmin
35000
(T1 " T 2) " (T 3 " T 4) Investissement
Q = UA Energie
# T1 " T 2 %
ln Total
$ T 3 " T 4& 30000
Q = m˙ 1 * cp1 *(T1 " T 3) = m˙ 2 * cp2 *(T 2 " T 4)
T1 = T1,in = 175°C
Total
25000
T 4 = T2,in = 100°C
m
˙ 1 *cp1 = 3 kW °C
20000
(CHF/an)

m
˙ 2 * cp2 = 6 kW °C
T 3 = T 4 + DT min Energy
m˙ *cp1 * (T1 " T 3) 15000
T2 = 1 + T4
m˙ 2 *cp2
U = 0.2 kW
m °C
2 10000

Coût échangeur = 1800 * (A)


0.8
CHF Capital
Annualisation = 0.2 5000
˙ 2 *cp2 * (T2,out " T2,in ) " Q) * nbh
Coût opératoire (CHF / an) = C fuel * (m
C fuel = 0.02 (CHF kWh)
0
T2,out = 150°C 5 10 15 20 25 30
nbh = 7000h / an DTmin (°C)
0.8
˙ 2 * cp2 * (T2,out " T2,in ) " Q) * nbh + 0.2*1800* (A)
Coût total (CHF / an) = 0.02 * (m

FM_07/ 2000
Le concept du pincement thermodynamique
Excédent d'énergie
T(°C)
175°
150°
1er principe thermo :
Bilan de chaleur 100° Echange
70°
impossible
H(kW)

Supplément d'énergie
T(°C)
175°
150°
2ème principe thermo :
100° Potentiel
DT > 0 de transfert
70°
Excédent d'énergie H(kW) nul

T(°C) Supplément d'énergie

Heuristique ingénieur : 175°


150°
DT > DTmin 100° Potentiel de
transfert
-> Compromis : 70° suffisant
Excédent d'énergie
Energie - Capital H(kW)

FM_07/ 2000

DTmin influence
T
Low DTmin
DT1
Qh1 <<
Qh1
Qc1 <<
Qc1
A >>
Q

T
High DTmin
DT2 Qh2 >>
Qh2
Qc2 >>
Qc2
A <<
Q

FM_07/ 2000
DTmin Influence
(1 + i)n − 1
(cHU ∗ (Q̇c − Q̇hx (∆Tmin )) + ccu ∗ (Q̇h − Q̇hx (∆Tmin ))) ∗ time ∗
i(1 + i)n
Q̇hx (∆Tmin )
+a ∗ ( )b
U ∗ ∆Tlm (∆Tmin )

• U >> : DTmin <<


• time >> : DTmin <<
• n >> : DTmin <<
• i >> : DTmin >>
• Chu >> : DTmin <<

FM_07/ 2000

Analysing a process
Energy Water - solvents

Energy transformation Production


support

Raw Products
Processes
materials
by-products

Waste treatment

Emissions and wastes

FM_07/ 2000
Flow sheet

• Block flow diagram


• Process flow diagram
• P&ID
• Energy Flow diagram

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL

1rst level representation


• Functional description of the process
– Block Flow diagram : BFD
Thermodynamic description of the main operations of
the process
Conversion Absorption
4NH3 + 5O2 -> 4NO + 6 H2O 3NO2 + H2O(l) -> 2 HNO3(aq) + NO (g)

Oxydation
P=4 bar 2NO + O2 -> 2 NO2 Vers traitement
NH3
Conv. Oxy. Abs.
H2O
NO
Air O2

NO2

H2O
P=9 bar
O2
HNO3

Example Nitric Acid Plant

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL


Process Flow Diagram

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

• Topology
– Standard representations
• Flux
– Name
– Type process/utility
– Thermodynamic characterisation
• T-P-flows-compositions-enthalpy
– others : viscosity, volume, mol weight, state
– Cost
– Toxicity, Environmental regulation
• Equipments
– Type - principles
– Constructing materials
– Nominal operating conditions
• Spec sheets

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL


Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID)

• Mechanical flow diagram


– All the equipments
• including backup and safety control devices
– Poipipng description
• Main
• Purges
• Safety
– Instrumentation
• Measurement location
• Recording devices
• Control loops
– Utilities
– Link with other P&ID

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL

Example de P&ID

Source : R.!Turton, W.!Whiting, and J.!Shaeiwitz. Analysis, Synthesis and Design of chemical processes. Prentice Hall, NJ,, 1998.

Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL


Energy flow diagram

• Goal : represent the energy requirement of the process


– Identify and quantify the energy requirement of the process
– Define how these are satisfied
– Allow for heat exchange system modification
– System limits !
• in plant - out plant
• On-site pollution control
• Environmental integration

Besoin thermique : chauffage ou refroidissement


Heat requirement : Hot and cold streams
Besoin de compression ou de détente
Compression- expansion
détente
Valve expansion
Besoin électrique
Electricity
Laboratoire d!énergétique industrielle LENI -ISE-STI-EPFL

Energy Flow Diagram


50°C
NO H2O 18°C

170°C cond 235°C NOx


NH3 abs
Conv 225°COxy
840°C 43°C
7°C 170°C 50°C NO2
50°C H2O
67°C

41°C
104°C
185°C
536°C

45°C
20°C
243°C
Air HNO3

Vers traitement

FM_07/ 2000
Hot and cold streams

Hot Streams Cold Streams

---> To be cooled down ---> To be heated up

Examples
Examples
• Distillation boilers
• Distillation condenser • Reactants Preheating
• Exothermics reactor • Cooling water
• Fumes • Steam production
• Steam condenser • Cold stream of a refrigeration cycle
• Hot stream of a
refrigeration cycle

T T

H
H
FM_07/ 2000

Assumptions : constant Cp ?
Fluid phase changes
2
T

!=1
Potential pinch point if
!=0 4
cold stream
3
1
Add new temperatures in the list :
one stream= several segments
H

T
use linearized segments

Use rigourous thermodynamic


calculations to evaluate H=f(P,T)

FM_07/ 2000
Energy requirement definition
• Mixing

FM_07/ 2000

Technology / thermodynamic requirement


• The same requirement with two different
representations

FM_07/ 2000
Do not forget the system limits
• Streams leaving the system
– minimum target temperatures
– minimum pressure required (expansion ?)
• Waste streams
– energy valorisation possible
– recycle
– emission control
• Raw material preparation
– waste streams ?

FM_07/ 2000

Courbes composées
Intégrale de l’énergie disponible dans les
flux chauds en fonction de la température
Deux flux chauds Courbe composée
T T

CP = A CP = A

CP = A + B
CP = B

CP = B

Q Q

FM_07/ 2000
Composite curves
Analogy with 1 heat exchanger
Hot utility
Heat recovery
T T

CP = A CP = A

DTmin
CP = A + B
CP = B

CP = B

Cold utility
Q Q

FM_07/ 2000

Corrected temperature space


EMER :Minimum energy requirement

T
Tn+1

-DTmin/2 Pinch point = intersection


+DTmin/2
Tk

FM_07/ 2000
Courbes composées
Energie cédée par les flux
chauds entre Tk+1 et Tk+1
Rk+1 Energie reçue par les flux
T froids entre Tk+1 et Tk
Tn+1
Flux chaudsk Flux froidsk
# m˙ j k cp j k (Tk+1 " Tk ) # m˙ i k cpi k (Tk+1 " Tk )
j k =1 i k =1

Tk Rk
! !
Flux chaudsk Flux froidsk
R = Rk+1 +
0.2 Methodologyk for designing
# m˙ j k utility
integrated
cp j k (Tk+1 " Tk ) "
systems
# m˙ i k cpi k (Tk+1 " Tk ) 5
j k =1 i k =1

0.2 Methodology for designing integrated utility systems


Q
The!process integration techniques aim at identifying the maximum energy recovery that could
be obtained by counter-current heat exchange between the hot and the cold streams of the pro-
FM_07/ 2000
cess. This technique, based on the assumption of a minimum temperature difference between
the hot and the cold streams (∆T min), allows the calculation of the so-called minimum en-
ergy requirement (MER) target for the system. The identification of the pinch point, the point
where the hot and cold composite curves of the process are the closest, is further used to de-
sign the heat recovery heat exchanger network structure. Using the concept of the hot and
cold composite curves, it is possible to compute graphically the MER. Mathematically, the
minimum energy requirement is computed by solving the heat cascade model (1). This model
is a one degree of freedom linear programming problem that computes the the energy required
to balance the energy required by the cold streams with the hot streams for each temperatures
Linear programming formulation
of the problem. The Grand composite curve is the plot of this heat requirement as a function
of the temperature.

min Rnr +1 (1)


Rr

subject to heat balance of the temperature intervals


n
!
Qi,r + Rr+1 − Rr = 0 ∀r = 1, ..., nr (2)
i=1

Rr ≥ 0 ∀r = 1, ..., nr + 1 (3)

with n the number of specified process streams;


nr the number of temperature intervals;
Rr the energy cascaded from the temperature interval r to the lower tempera-
ture intervals in the time period p;
Qir the heat load of the reference level of process stream i in the temperature
interval r; Qir > 0 for hot streams and ≤ 0 for cold streams;

The heat cascade constraints (2) is the equation system that is solved by the problem table
method. An alternative set of equations (4) may be used to compute the heat cascade. FM_07/ 2000This
formulation has the advantage of involving only one Rr per equation, each of the equation
being related to one temperature in the temperature list. From the analysis of the pinch point
location it may be demonstrated that the list of temperatures (and therefore of equations) may
be reduced in this case to the list of inlet temperature conditions of all the streams. By saying
that, we assume that the fluid phase changing streams are divided into streams segments.
where theRhot r andthecold
energy cascadedcurves
composite from the temperature
of the process are interval r to theislower
the closest, tempera-
further used to de-
ture intervals in the time period p;
sign the heat recovery heat exchanger network structure. Using the concept of the hot and
Qir curves,
cold composite the heat itload of the reference
is possible level graphically
to compute of process stream
the MER.i in the temperature the
Mathematically,
minimum energyinterval
requirement 0 for hot streams
r; Qir is>computed by solving ≤ 0heat
and the for cascade
cold streams;
model (1). This model
is a one degree of freedom linear programming problem that computes the the energy required
The heat
to balance thecascade
energyconstraints
required by(2)theis the
coldequation
streamssystem that
with the is streams
hot solved byfor theeach
problem table
temperatures
method. An alternative set of equations (4) may be used to compute the heat cascade. This
Linear programming formulation
of the problem. The Grand composite curve is the plot of this heat requirement as a function
formulation has the advantage of involving only one Rr per equation, each of the equation
of the temperature.
being related to one temperature in the temperature list. From the analysis of the pinch point
locationmin
it may
Rnrbe demonstrated that the list of temperatures (and therefore of equations) may (1)
+1
be reduced
Rr in this case to the list of inlet temperature conditions of all the streams. By saying
that, we assume that the fluid phase changing streams are divided into streams segments.
subject to heat balance of the temperature intervals
nr !
n
!
! n
+i,k
(Qi,r Q R)r+1
+ R−nrR
+1r =
−R0 r =∀r
0 = ∀r
1, ...,
= 1,nr..., nr (4) (2)
k=r i=1
i=1

Rr ≥ 0 ∀r = 1, ..., nr + 1 (3)

with n the number of specified process streams;


nr The numberofoftemperature
the number inlet temperatures
intervals;
Rr the energy cascaded from the temperature interval r to the lower tempera-
ture intervals in the time period p;
Qir The heatload
the heat loadofofthe
thereference
process stream
level ofi above
processtemperature
stream i in rthe temperature
interval r; Qir > 0 for hot streams and ≤ 0 for cold streams;

The heat cascade constraints (2) is the equation system that is solved by the problem table
method. An alternative set of equations (4) may be used to compute the heat cascade. FM_07/ 2000This
formulation has the advantage of involving only one Rr per equation, each of the equation
being related to one temperature in the temperature list. From the analysis of the pinch point
location it may be demonstrated that the list of temperatures (and therefore of equations) may
be reduced in this case to the list of inlet temperature conditions of all the streams. By saying
that, we assume that the fluid phase changing streams are divided into streams segments.

nr !
! n
( Qi,k ) + Rnr +1 − Rr = 0 ∀r = 1, ..., nr (4)
k=r i=1

The algorithm

1° Ordered list of corrected temperature


- Initial and target temperatures of all the streams
2° Heat balance of temperature intervals (DHi)
- DHi = hot streams - cold streams : (surplus or deficit)
3° Take R ni+1 = 0
4° Solve the heat cascade
5° Identify the smaller Ri
6° If Ri ! 0, take Rni+1 = - Ri
7° solve once again the heat cascade
8° Rni+1 = MER (Minimum Energy Requirement)
Rni+1 : Hot utility
R1 : Cold utility
Ri = 0 : Pinch point

FM_07/ 2000
Composite curves analysis
Benefit :
600
Cold composite curve "E=Qh - Qhmin
Hot composite curve
550
Corrected temperatures

Hot utility
500

450
T(K)

Heat recovery
400

350

300 cooling utility

refrigeration
250
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
Q(kW)
FM_07/ 2000

Grand composite curves


600

550
Hot Utility : 6854 kW
Self sufficient
500 "Pocket"

450
T(K)

400

350

300 Ambient temperature


Cold utility : 6948 kW

250 Refrigeration : 1709 kW


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
Q(kW)

FM_07/ 2000
The more in - The more out
Overall heat balance
$ nshot ' $ nscold '
˙ ( ˙ )
&& E in + # ( m˙ i cpi (Tini " Touti )))) " # m˙ j cp j (Tin j " Tout j ) + E out ) = 0
&
& )
% i=1 ( % j=1 (
Therefore :
nshot nscold
! As : # ( m˙ i cpi (Tini " Touti )) " # (m˙ j cp j (Tin j " Tout j )) = Constant
i=1 j=1
$ E˙ in " E˙ out = Constant
and ( E˙ in ) " E˙
today ( out ) today
= Constant

( E˙ in )MER + %E˙ in " [( E˙ out )MER + %E˙ out ] = Constant


and ( E˙ in ) " E˙
MER ( out ) MER
= Constant
$ %E˙ in = %E˙ out

FM_07/ 2000

Important rules

No hot utility below the pinch point +Q1 +Qf Market


T(°K)
+Qc

Q1

Q1
+Qf
No cold utility above the pinch point

+Qc +Q1 Q(kW) Birds and


No heat exchange accross the pinch point fishes

FM_07/ 2000
Targeting
• Composite curves
– Minimum Energy Requirement : MER
• What about the energy capital trade-off ?
– Cost of Energy
– Cost of investment
– ? "Tmin ?
(Q˙ MER _ HU ("Tmin ) # Q˙ HU ) * CHU Hot utility
+(Q˙ MER _ CU ("Tmin ) # Q˙ CU ) * CCU + (Q˙ MER _ RU ("Tmin ) # Q˙ RU ) * CRU Cold utility
n exchangers
1
+ *
$
% I(Ai ("Tmin )) kCHF /an Investment
i=1

!
FM_07/ 2000

Estimating the total heat exchange area


Real temperature domain
(Th,i − Tc,i ) − (Th,i−1 − Tc,i−1 )
(∆Tlm )i = T −T
−Tc,i−1 )
c,i
T hi
ln( Th,i−1 Th,i-1
T

Th,i Tc,i-1

i Tc,i Qi

! Q"
(Qh,c )i 1 1 Qi
Ah,ci = = + ∗
(Uh,c )i ∗ ∆(Tlm )i hi,h hi,c ∆(Tlm )i

(nstreams )i
! " #
Vertical Qi 1
exchange ⇒ Ai = ∗( ∗ )
(∆Tlm )i j=1
hi,j
nverticale xchanges
!
A= Ai
i=1
FM_07/ 2000
Minimum number of units
Hot Stream Stream
utility 1 2 Sources
20 kW 330 kW 180 kW

2 4
210 kW 3 120 kW
1 120 kW 5
20 kW 60 kW

Stream Stream Cold


3 4 utility Sinks
230 kW 240 kW 60 kW

Number Number Number


of = of + of - 1
Exchangers streams Utilities

FM_07/ 2000

Minimum number of units : effect of pinch point


Above the pinch point : independent sub-system

1 Hot utility Stream 2 Stream 1


20 kW 90 kW 240 kW Sources

1 2 3
20 kW 90 kW 240 kW

Stream 3 Stream 4
110 kW 240 kW Sinks

Number Number Number Number of


of = of + of - independent
Exchangers streams Utilities problems

FM_07/ 2000
Minimum number of units : effect of pinch point

Below the pinch point : independent sub-system

Stream 2 Stream 1
90 kW 90 kW Sources

1 2 3
90 kW 30 kW 90 kW

Stream 3 Cold utility


120 kW 60 kW Sinks

Number Number Number Number of


of = of + of - independent
Exchangers streams Utilities problems

FM_07/ 2000

Minimum number of units

Pinch point = two independent sub-systems


Number of Independent sub- Number of Independent sub-
systems above the pinch point systems below the pinch point

U min,MER = (N above "1" Sabove ) + (Nbelow "1" Sbelow )

Number of streams above Number of streams below


the pinch point the pinch point
!
U min,MER = (N total + N utility "1) + (N pinch "1) " (Sabove + Sbelow )
Number of Independent sub-
systems below and above the
pinch point
Total number of streams, Number of streams crossing
! including the utilities the pinch point

FM_07/ 2000
Estimating the investments

Cost of 1 heat exchanger 0,6 - 0,8


c
C=a+b(A)

Heat exchange area


Cost of heat exchanger network ?
• Estimated total area
-> mean heat exchanger area (overestimation )
nbT int er nbstreamsi
Q˙ i
" Ai " "
i=1 j=1 h j,i * (#Tln )i
A= i =
U (N total + N utility $1) + (N pinch $1) $ (Sabove + Sbelow )
min,mer

nbexchangers % % (c (
' A
! # I(Ai ("Tmin )) $ U min,mer * ' a + b'' ** *
• Estimated investment : i=1 & & min,mer ) *)
U

FM_07/ 2000

Influence of DTmin
Q2
Q1
T(°K) DTmin 1

DTmin 2

Q(kW)
DTmin 1 < DTmin 2

- Q1 < Q2 -> Operating costs


# #
- pinch points-> number of units & # streams at the pinch point
- A1 > A2 -> Investments

FM_07/ 2000
DTmin sensitivity
Change of the number of exchangers
Cost Total T
Energy

Q
Investment

DTmin

FM_07/ 2000

DTmin value
The DTmin is related to the type of fluids
Heat exchange:
Q = U A DTlm

Heat transfer
coefficient Temperature
1/U = 1/Uc +1/Uf difference

If A and Q are constant


If U increases : DT decreases
If U decreases : DT increases

=> DTmin is related to the streams involved


-> to the film heat transfer coefficient

DT = DTmin/2,j + DTmin/2,k

FM_07/ 2000
How to handle this situation ?
Consider stream dependent DTmin/2 for calculating
the heat cascade

Hot streams in the interval i


Nc
DHi = $ %j(Ti+1 + DTmin/2,j ) - %j( Ti + DTmin/2,j)
j=1
-
Nf
$ %j(Ti+1 - DTmin/2,j ) - %j( Ti - DTmin/2,j )
j=1
Cold streams in the interval i

With DTmin/2,j = contribution of stream j

DTmin/2,j is related to the type of fluid involved

FM_07/ 2000

Choice of DTmin/2 :heuristic rule


10

Remaining parameter => 1 DDL


1/sqrt(x)

DTmin/2,j
9

# 1 &b
6

"Tmin /2 j = K * %% (( 3

$hj ' 1
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

hj

Film heat transfer coefficient


!
b is the cost exponent in the heat exchanger cost estimation formula

DTmin/2 : typical values :


Liquid state : 2
Fluid phase changes : 1
Vapor state : 4

FM_07/ 2000
Summary of the work method

TARGETING
process simulation and analysis

utility and thermodynamic cycle


selection and integration

DTmin optimization

SYNTHESIS

heat exchanger network structure

heat exchanger network optimization

heat exchanger network analysis and


selection

FM_07/ 2000

Heat exchangers network synthesis

Goals
Find a heat exchangers network that satisfies:
- MER
- Minimum number of units
- Minimum investment
- Other criteria
- Which hot stream with which cold stream ?
- What is the heat exchanged ?
- What is the structure : serial or //, ...

Above pinch point


Drive hot streams to the pinch point without cold utility
Below pinch point
Drive the cold streams to the pinch point without hot utility
FM_07/ 2000
Pinch point

Two independent sub-systems

Qhmin
T(°K)
HEAT
SOURCE
DTmin
DTmin
HEAT
SINK
Qcmin

Q(kW)
FM_07/ 2000

Above the Pinch point


The goal is to cool down hot streams to the pinch
temperature without utility
Corrected temperatures Qhmin
T(°K)

Pinch streams

HEAT
SINK
No cold utility above the pinch point

Q(kW)
FM_07/ 2000
Heat exchanger representation

Above pinch point Pinch Pinch heat exchanger


Corrected temperatures
T(°K)
Qhmin

Pinch

Q(kW) T
The goal is to cool down hot streams to the pinch
temperature without utility
FM_07/ 2000

Feasibility rules
Numbers of streams
80 80 For pinch exchangers
2 90 2 90
Hot Hot
80 streams 80 streams
3 140 3 140 Above the pinch point:
Number of hot ! Number of cold
?
80 Cold Below the pinch point:
1 135 Cold 1 135 stream Number of cold " Number of hot
stream 80

Pinch Pinch

Split du flux non clé si la règle du nombre de flux


n’est pas satisfaite
Direction de calcul
Pinch
FM_07/ 2000
Feasibility rules
Cp rule

ṁcp k ≤ ṁcpr
T
CPh CPhSCPc
1

DTmin ṁcpr
CPc

1 CPc

Pinch
Q
Direction de calcul
For the exchange between hot stream {k} and cold stream {r} above the pinch point

ṁcpk ≤ ṁcpr
for pinch exchangers:
n
! n!
and
hot cold
Above the pinch point:
ṁcpk ≤ ṁcpj
Cp hot " Cp cold
i=1,i!=k j=1,j!=r
Below the pinch point:
Cp cold " Cp hot
True globaly

FM_07/ 2000

Au dessus du pincement

˙ k cpk = 2
m Split du flux clé si la
règle des cp n’est pas
˙ rcp r = 1
m satisfaite
Direction de calcul
˙ 2,k cp 2,k = 2 " m˙ 1,kcp1,k
m

Q˙ T = Tpinch + "Tmin +
m˙ 1,k cp1,k
˙ 1,k cp1,k " 1
m

T = Tpinch " #Tmin +
Q˙ m˙ r cpr
!
˙ rcp!r = 1
m
Règle heuristique : Calcul
!
du taux de split pour mélange isotherme
! FM_07/ 2000
Heuristic rules
Goals :
Above the pinch point: cool down the hot streams without cold utilities.
Below the pinch point : heat up the cold streams without hot utilities.

Start with pinch exchangers


Rules

1 - "Order the streams by decreasing Cp

-> exchange first between the highest Cp

2 -"The heat load is calculated to satisfy the heat load of one of


the two stream involved : "tick-off"

FM_07/ 2000

Remaining problem analysis


Initial problem: => MER0
Hot stream : Tic -> Toc
Cold stream: Tif -> Tof Place a heat exchanger

Toc Tic
T1 T2
Remaining problem T4 T3
Tif Tof
Hot streams:
Tic -> T2
T1 -> Toc =>MER1
Cold streams:
Tif -> T4 if MER1=MER0 =>OK
T3 -> Tof
FM_07/ 2000
The synthesis algorithm

N k " N k #1
yes no
m
˙ k cpk " m˙ k #1cp k #1 Split {k-1} stream
nk n k#1
et %
i =1,i $k
m˙ icpi " %
j =1, j $ k #1
m˙ j cp j

no
yes All examined Split 1 {k} stream

Place the exchanger yes


Tick-off
{k} ordered list of Key streams with
Remaining problem decreasing Cp at the pinch point
{k-1} the other streams

no
accept suppress Key streams :
yes
New data set Above the pinch point : hot streams
Below the pinch point : cold streams
FM_07/ 2000

HEN synthesis

Draw backs of the simplified algorithm:


- multiple solutions
- combinatorial problem
- sequential

Use of mathematical programming:

Heat load distribution:


- which streams exchange heat
- How much
- minimize the number of
connections
- satisfies DTmin and MER

FM_07/ 2000
Heat load distribution
T*k+1 Qjk
Qikj
Qikj Qjk
Qik Qikj Qjk
T*k

Hot stream i Cold streams j


Hot stream i in temperature interval k
nc

"Q j =1
ikj = Qik #i = 1,...,nh;#k = k1,...,k2
Cold stream j in and above temperature interval k
nh k2 k2

"" Qirj # " Q jr $ 0 %j = 1,...,nc;%k = k1,...,k2


i=1 r= k r= k
connection between i et j (integer variable)
k2

"Q
r =k
irj # y ijQmax ij $ 0 %j = 1,...,nc;%i = 1,...,nh

FM_07/ 2000

Heat load distribution


MILP formulation

Minimize the number of connections

nh nc
Min " " y ij yij " {0,1}
yij ,Qikj
i =1 j =1
nc

"Q ikj = Qik #i = 1,...,nh;#k = k1,...,k2


j =1

nh k2 ! k2

""
i=1 r= k
Qirj $ " Q jr % 0
r= k
#j = 1,...,nc;#k = k1,...,k2
k2

"Q
r =k
irj $ y ijQmax ij % 0 #j = 1,...,nc;#i = 1,...,nh

FM_07/ 2000
Multiple solutions
• Add heuristic rules
– favour the connexion with utility streams
– favour close connexions
– favour connexion in closer sub-systems
• A heuristic rule is applied only if it does not
penalize the minimum number of solution
target

FM_07/ 2000

Introduce heuristic rules in MILP programs


• The weight of priority rule k is given by :
– the number of possible connexions satisfying
nc !
! nh
rule k
Pk = (pkij )
j=1 i=1

– an improved objective function :


ij −1
nh p"
nc !
!
min N T = ( (Pk + 1) yij )
yij Qikj
j=1 i=1 k=1
!r nh "
" nc
k=1 (Pk + 1)
!r−1 = Pr + 1 > Prij
k=1 (Pk + 1) i=1 j=1

FM_07/ 2000
Improving the speed of convergence
Iter= 0
r= 1

MILP problem
iter=iter+1

P*(iter) + C(r) r=r+1 P(iter+1)=P(iter)+ IC(iter)

solution ? no

yes

solution ?
yes

no

END

FM_07/ 2000

Generating multiple solutions


• Integer cut constraint
– assuming that we know k solutions
– problem k + 1 is defined by adding to the
previous MILP problem the integer cut
constraint

P roblem =
k+1

P roblemk +

FM_07/ 2000
The synthesis method

Calculate the heat load distribution for each section


Multiple solutions using integer cuts
Heuristic rules or user

-> screening and choice of the


appropriate solution

Define the HEN structure


Apply feasibility rules and heuristics
Splits and serial exchanges
Optimize the HEN
Total cost criteria
no DTmin nor MER fixed

FM_07/ 2000

Optimize the heat exchangers network

NLP problem
nu
1 nex
Min
X ,m j ,A i
" (C1 j + C2 j m˙ j ) + " ( ai + bi Aici )
# i =1 T1o L L-V V T1i
j =1
Constraints L L L
T2i T2o
Heat and mass balances V
T1i
L-V
Rating equations T1o
L
A2
A3
T2o
Specifications : A1
T2i L L L

F(X) = 0
Bounds and limits nz i nzi
n Qi Qiz
Ai =A="?nAAi = ?"
z,i =
z =1i=1 i=1 U iz#Tlmiz
z =1UDTlmi

G(X) " 0

X : State variables: pressure, temperature, area, heat


exchanged, ...

FM_07/ 2000
Heat exchanger network superstructure

• Superstructure embedding different solution


ṁ1 , y1 , T1 ṁ2 , y2 , T2 E ṁ5 , y5 , T5 ṁ8 , y8 , T8
1
ṁ4 , y4 , T4 ṁ6 , y6 , T6

ṁ7 , y7 , T7
y3 ṁmin ≤ ṁ3 ≤ y3 ṁmin E
ṁ3 , y3 , T3 2 ṁ9 , y9 , T9
ṁ10 , y10 , T10
E
2

E
1

Streams connections from heat load distribution

FM_07/ 2000

MINLP problem

nu
! nhx
1!
min (yu C1u + Ṁu cu ) + (ah yh + bh (Ah )ch )
Ah ,yh ,Ṁi ,yj
u=1
τ
h=1
st.
F (A, y, Ṁ , T ) = 0
G(A, y, Ṁ , T ) = 0
Amin
h yh ≤ Ah ≤ Amax h yh ∀h = 1 . . . nhx
Ṁimin yi ≤ Ṁi ≤ Ṁimax yi ∀i = 1 . . . ns

FM_07/ 2000
MINLP sub-problem
• HRAT : Heat recovery approach temperature
– target
• EMAT : exchanger Minimum Approach Temperature
nu
! nhx
1!
min (yu C1u + Ṁu cu ) + (ah yh + bh (Ah )ch )
Ah ,yh ,Ṁi ,yj
u=1
τ
h=1
st.
F (A, y, Ṁ , T ) = 0
G(A, y, Ṁ , T ) = 0
∆Ti,hx ≥ EM AT ∀i = 1, 2 hx = 1, . . . , nhx
Ṁu = Ṁu,target ∀u = 1 . . . nu
Amin
h yh ≤ Ah ≤ Amax
h yh ∀h = 1 . . . nhx
min max
Ṁi yi ≤ Ṁi ≤ Ṁi yi ∀i = 1 . . . ns

FM_07/ 2000

Heat exchanger network retrofit


• Knowing an existing heat exchanger network
• Identify which exchangers have to changed
• Invest new heat exchangers
• Reuse existing exchangers
– Repiping
• 1 side
– Replace
• 2 sides
– Retube
• Increase area
– Optimise
• Change flowrates (by-pass)
• Maximize profit

FM_07/ 2000
Heat exchanger network retrofit
C1 3

C2 4

2 1
1) Identifier les échangeurs mal placés

H1

C1 3 PINCH

C2 4

2) Déconnexion 2 1

3) Pinch design
4) Récupération des échangeurs 2

4 1 H1

PINCH

FM_07/ 2000

Heat exchanger reuse

If required A ! A available
=> use a by-pass
=> or accept lower DTmin

FM_07/ 2000
MINLP problem

FM_07/ 2000