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Page(s) 1
IAGPA-CSF Forrn 6-R
1 Sep 93

[ast-Bloc (Secret) Intel 1 tgence
Serv i c es by

P

ract i ces and lvlethod s of

Federal

0ffice of Crirninal Investigations

Counteri ntel I igence Di vi sion

i Accesslon For
cfit&r I nttsTAB

i ilTrc

I t;i:.-.t: t'r o t:l: c o d I J,r;itllLcnIlo : n:.sl.rtbutiu1il / ''
t'-

w n

| .

'0tst i -.yt
^tll ,

5-c"c1
I
I

sI

rt.- |

i_lr__l.-l

|

:r:::l',:::

Ii-3g-f ,j.q"-nce SerY:Se

f'leth.P

;

i{haiis espioirage?
LL

f

r;ery cl andesti ne i ntel I i gence serv i ces Hovr can it be combatted?
rT

ffii
ffi$$

The activities of foreign Republic of Germany - or: The seq-qpnge

intelligence services against (or in) the Federal

of

an i nte-l.l i qence operati on:

FT
[Fr1

lf$

1. ?. 3. 4. 5. 5. 1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7, 8. 8. 1 8.2 9: i0.

Assessment

Forgeries.

Secret lllriting

Infiltration

anC

Legalization
'

Cut-outs Di rect Contact (lvleeti ng) Dead Drop (DD)' Live Drop (LD) Safeguards
Code Key

Clandestine CommunicationTransmission Scheduie' A-], A-2, A-3 Radio Traffic. Two-way Radio Communication l-.istening Devices (Interception Operations)
.,

'

Mi

"Photographi ng". crof i 1m"ing Concealmenti and Means
.

lntelligence

PhotograPhY'

of Transmission (Containers) (0ther) Clandestine Intelf igence Transmissjons."

t

i5*
I

tii

n {
::.ra !-x 1F_r<-M|lr^ rlra*a\^EaLiir*tu{-1r-rtEliltdtM***Iatan&atlM

tspionage Against lhe Federal Repub;ic of Gerrnany
The Federal Republic ci Gerrany occupies a special place among all sta+-es parti cu'1 arl y as the targe: anci site of foreign clandestine'intelligence operafi ons.

-

As one part of the two Ger,ta:3,s, it'l ies as a buffer between East and West, between the communist an: free worlds - different from South Korea and I the former ] South V'i etn an,

A net
l'los

agent rings spans --re Feiel^al Republlc of Germany. fastertt intelligence services (insofar as --^.. -^''!^, J:g to the EaSt Bl oc ) Support one another. -ir=-v -,E

of

t of the agents who hav'e to date were n]embers cf in3 J.
GDR:
14i

D3en Lnccvered

in the Federal Republic of fc- lcw:ng I nte'll jgence services:
Mai

Germany

st,-y for^ S:ate SecLr^ i -r.j (MfS) and i ts trat,iori icr Ir,:elIi errcs ColIecbion.
ni

n

ACmi n'i

s-

?.

USSR:

Ko;ri--et 3:su:a-Strer,:oy Bezopasnosti = Ccmrn'i ttee for State Se.urii,),' (ilcB) and :ts First Main Adrninistration, Seciict ?. urc --he ir,dependent l"lain Administrat'i on for Iniel l-i ger-r C€ lcllec-uion, Glavnoye Razvedovateltnoye Upravle: ;ra i3a.U).

CSSR:

Federalr,i i,iir,isiel'stvo Vnitra (FMV) Federal l4inistry of I r",teri ci wi --n i --s l'1ai n ACnri ni strati on for Intel I i gence Col I ect:o:,, rrl a"'ni Sprd\,/d Rozvedky.
lt'ii n i

Pol and:

siers--wc Sr raw 1,,,je'y'recznych ( t"1SbJ) ' Mi ni stry of the intei-io!^, Sluzba Bezpieczersfwa (SB), Secur-i ty Service.

E

Yugoslavia: Savezni Sekretariiat za Un;trasnije, Federal Secretariate ' for Internal Matters and i,he Department "Federal Service for state Secur.ity" (0celjerje Savezne Sluzbe Drzavne
Bezbednosti (SDB)).

In addit,ion to these, a whole row of other states conducts espionage against the Federal Repubf ic of Germany and 'its f aci I 'iti es. Thei r mai n targets are: the economy, the German Army, and the polirical part'ies.

, q

Esp'ionage and Ccunter-Esp'i onage

Espionage
Each

other state.
operatives

is the activfty of ferneting ou+- secrets for the benefit of

an-

state conducts "esp'ionage" (ma'intairs inielIigence agents or clandestine of an operational intelligence service) and each state has pun'itive measures - in some cases of considerable severity - against espionagePersons who engage i n espi onage are cal led "fra'i tors". In 1ega1 terms, they cornmi t "treasont' even i f they tr'ere i nf i I ira:,.qC i i-,to the Federal R*publ i c of Ge rma ny by a foreign power' e,g. as an cf f i cef ' on speci al assi gnment and fhus are on an ttofficial nrission".

in the u:derE.o:rd' CounterintelIigence in the Federaj'Republic of Germany is the respcns'i:ii'ity of the 0ffice for the Protection of the Constitution (Federal ci:ice or state offices) and the Serv'ice (MAD) tcgether with the Office for Security Mi'l.itary Counterintelligence 'fhe service respol,sible for operational,intelliof the Federal Army (ASBtl). gence or information col'lection is the Federal In:elligence Service (BND). Ti,e intelligence and counterintelligerce services cf the Federal Republic of Gernany are not crirninal prosecut'icn ager'cies a:C are not compelled to pursue crininii p.or".ution per Article 163 of -ure lcCe of Criminal Proceedings. The prosecution of punishable acts anc --:=:r -'n';es:iEation is the responsibility of -,1,e pciice which for rts part r:y nct, ccnCuci countermeasures in
Espionage

is

"permanent co'ld war"

thi s area.

Thus '"he fi3nt aEainst i-is (:.3as3''-cus) cllense against, state securitY is ci :v'i ded intc 'r ccJnt,er,nt=,Iiger. ce" t.b-t ti''e Cftlce f or the Protect'i on of the Const,i tu:i on e rii tne llAD) aic "cr:t''-'al pr3sEc:-t,i 3:r" (b-u police and state prosecutcrt s U I;1 C3 ,' .
aF\

P

3

s-pg!!ri!_
Rernarks:
C

I ande

sti

ne

intelligence services obtain

D-orsonnel replacements from two

SOUTCES:

J. ?.
!.Jhi I

Recrujtment frorn state offjces (voluntary servjce ass i gnments and transfe rs ) .
Recru,
fl

but also temporary

ti ng i n one's own country or i n ihe "targe: arear' 'i n which the dgent" is to operate 1ater, but alsc ir ar,y "ron-parti ci pati nS" forei gn cou n try.

e i nte.I I i gence servi ces, parti cu i ar1 y ;hcs= c' the GDR, placed more emphasis on quant,itative saturaticn (many agenis 'i :, nany pl aces ) unti I about the beginning of the 1960's, far fewer bu-' ilc l^3 Q,3lii'i eC agents are used today.
As a

ruie, recruiting occurs according to ire
spotter-researcirer-rec
ru i

ter

s.vs--96.

Spottinq means f]agging those persons wno.cu'l: be cf poiential interest, to the intelligence headquarters. The spct:er tesis the person for poss'ibi'lities, abilities and experience which would apoear to rake:his person suitable for work in clandestine'intelligence - withou:, hc'*e'.'er, rielving into the personal sphere of the individual.
The spotter reports weaknesses of the.f,ers'ln cr ot:.er avenues pertaining to the person himse'lf (debts, relat',ves in rh: GDR, ccncealeC criminal record, etc. ). Further. the spotter aiso reports circ;mstances and the 'like having a bearing on the personai sphere of the person (security c'learance).

fi
-J{:. ;: i -.}-Ti L.'t.\ t }'.t' * } \'\
L

R_esearchi nq

The headquar'-ers receives the reports of the spotter and evaluates t'hem. tJhi'le the spotter essentially only performs "informantt' services, the researcher m;s-, accomplish real invest'igative work" He receives the evalualed (anc siftec) reports of the spotter to support his research-

ilG;I;l

c.;..rrrr:.n."s, with all the positive or negative characteristics of the ":arget person", in order to obta'in a comprehensive picture of him. In or"der:c be able lo confirm or also d'iscredit the spotter's reports turned over --o hin for "investigation". he must perform administrative tasks or take opera:icnal neasures (interviews of persons in the l'ife of the person concerned cr even intercept operations such as mail intercepts and wire-tapping).

Researcirn: (irvestigat'i ng)

means determ'ining

a1'l personal,

p'.,.

itical,

and

The r^esearc:er then reports the results evaluar.es (and s'.fts) these reports.

to

headquarters which again carefully

F-t

(
I

Recruitinq

ffi

ting for clandestine 'i ntell i gence servi ce rneans to commi I a person "i ntel I igence-neutral" to 'i nte I I 'i gence work. Headquarters h as g'i ven '"he eval uated rePorts of the researcher to the recruiter So that he can
Bgqnu-i

ionduct, the " recrui t'i ng pi tch".

The recruj-uer Eust always be able to adapt himself to the indiv"idual potent'ia1 agent, 'i.e. he must use a different basjs for recruiting different persons.

f.
?.

ideology should be at the forefront but actua'lly assumes the srnallest position; it is practically never successful with i'ecru'ited "citizens of the Federal Republic".
Fi nanci

ai

I nducement

a) Bribery (greed or neerl of the person to be recruited). b) Extortion (intimidation to compe'l the person to act followed by a
"generous payment").
3.

Materiai Inducement (promise of lucrative deals)residing

4. Int'imidation (threats aga'inst the person himself or relatives in the area of jnfluence of the headquarters),, 5.
6,

Extor--icn (compromising material which can be real or forged and whose purlicat:or or release can be threatened). "utdei^ the\a'rcr! :1ag" (a pel'son relieves ne 'i s bei ng recrui ted for a pri ,/ate firn cr a "cwn or friend'l y intelligence serv'i ce". )
Cpportr.in-,

J,

ly RecI^uiting (wit,hcut

pr-i or

"=p3r,:i-g" cr "researching"),

O

C

Th

e

Cornnri '"me

n

t,

The commitrnent for work

orally or in writing.
bel ow)

in a clandestine intelligence servjce

can be

made

The wording of the declaration is not prescribed and is usually'indiv'idua11y tailored Uy ttre recruiter to the person being recruited (see the example
.

A person who has commi tted hinrself for work in a c I andesti ne 'i ntel I i gence servicef can generallY not avoid perforr'ri ng such wcrk. He wcrks as 1 ong as the headquarters desi res but not a bit lonqel^ e'i ther !
The relationship can only be terminated

fcr

the

follorving reasons:

J. Z.

death

deacti vati

on

a) for a specified period (conservaiicn) rcstly for security
(by warning signa'l via rad'ic bu: arsc by other tel ephone, couri er).
permanentl y
b

reasons means such as telegram'

)

because because

source (9..s. douule asent); in this ;;;;;;; o; ffiliau,llTF-i:e case. ocstl!T-pp ri eC_'*,?-,.. "pl ay na:eri al " or orherwise played into t.he hands cf -,:,e o:pcsirg ccu:terinielligence.

of of

ac'.:r-e

unlrcduc--'i venesq

danger:c::'€

cf ihe

a3ent source

ri^Tt"'"
Comir

i tne

nt

Dec

'

ara:i

on

I commit myself io work for --he Scviet intel'l igence service rvitho',t reservation and to carry out ihe orCers'i ssuec:re tc the extent it'i s in ty power to do so to the satisfac--ion cf ilie Scviet in'"el tigence service. Should I ever commit treason or erdanEer other persons knowr. --o me who work with me Or become known to me in the cJurse oi espionage activj:y, I am to expect the 'i'he Sov'iet harshest punishmeni from the Scviei'inte'lligence service. intelligence serv'ice has the rea:s to ajso reach me in the t'Jest.
N

ame

g

Forqgri es

Par:i

al

Forgeri es (simp1 e or general forg eri

es )

ialsifications -ctal Forgeri es
fu11y back-stopped
ha

I

f-bac k-s top
a1

ped

carti

nct

back-stopped back-stopped

iy

il i

133resentations provid'ini personai or materia'l information) that are "interes:ing" for a clandestine intelligence service or are othervtise needed and ;t which the originals cannot be used by the opposing intelligence service, - .. io"ged.
S:

locunents (passports, identity documents, and other written or photographic

rce these ;orgeri es do not 'i nvolve "criminal s" but ratheri nvol ve a "tcrge.y workshop operated by the state so-to-speak. forgeri es by an i ntel 1 i :31ce servi ce are di ff i cul | (for the non-spec'i al i st impossible) to detect,
Fcrgeries -,n categories A and B are practically no longer used by intell'i;erie servlces today; they are mentioned here in the interest of completeness:

'1-

?ar''.i

al

Foroeri es:

Th:y primarily involve passports, identity documents, _or other official jc:'rre:,ts of whicir someone i11ega11y acquired "blank forms" (during a : o: ine r, i-^6lnef: at a Registry Office or the like)' fills them in w'i th a false name personally or prov'ides i anc possi bi y affi xes a photograph), and uses them then --o cihers for use, In this connection' it is of no consequence xhet.rier s:cl en cr f abri cated stamps were used.

lal

s:

fi

cat ions

{,r-rhen:i: (ctf i cl al'l y i ssued) docul,ients are a'! tered. 0n docurilents wi thlrt ^,hn-- 1craJ.ls, erasures or razor del eti ons are made to the original Lex:; on Das S pcrts ar,d :hot,c i denti ty dccurnents, photos are swi tched and acci ii cna i al'"erati cns nay al sc i:e rnadeVJUr'llVvVL

nce t,he f orgel i. categori es A ar:d B are detected rel ati vely easily, they are nrar-ticaliy unsuitable for intell-i gence purposes.
S'i
Fr, -.u v I vu I t

c.

Total

Fcr-geri es

are fal s i fi cati cns i n wh i ch nothi ng i s authenii c i ncl udi ng the materi al of rvh'i ch t,hey are r,lade (paper, bark cl oth, etc. ) . Thi s type of forgery 'i s preferred alrnost exclusive'ly by intelf igence serv'i ces. The samples are "acquired" itt that an orig'inal i denti ty document ( or passport, dri ver ' s licenser etc.) are photographed or reproduced duri ng the ownerrs border crossitlg without the owner tak'ing not'ice of what 'Lranspired,

10

f the total forgery and the ori gi nal correspond i n every deta'i I for the photograph), the forgery is referred to as being f_u l].v b,ac ls-stopped or as a d"oub l,e i denti ty doculnent, passpoFt, etc
I

(except

.

?.

y the "of f i ci al partt' are the same i n forgery and ori gi na1 (nunber, offi ci al seal , i ssu'i ng agency, i ssue date, etc, ), the forgery 'i s considered belf back-st,opPell. 3. ]f a Lcta'l forgery contains entries from severa'l orig'i nals, it is referreci to as partial'ly back-stopped.

If

onl

+. If the forgery only bears the same number as an authentic identity document anA ut 1 rlmai ni ng entri es are at vari ance w'i th the ori g'i na1 ' it is not back-stopped.

10

.L.L

T'F

-l-'^.,

:

' i nn 't v I tllf v

f*. n:e l l i gence l i fe hi story" of an agent. , - i UU s or authentic (authentic to the extent that r't contains a of the agent but another name or even the life h-i storv
f..hS_Co
.l-l | '-l UUU
I

pers on

.

2f

t :r3 ccver , the agent so-tc-speak receives another "self". j:E trcn ou iside the area of operations, he is "infiltrated"
agent. must be

If he is with tlrjs rife history.

jn better

comrnand

of his cover than h'i s

own

i1

L2

*.f,

H
ffi

fr
H
.c {L x.

The Infiltration
The secret border crossing of an agent vrith the knowledge of his headquarters or hii case ofiicer js referreJ to u,

of or at the d.irection infiltration.

ii

iJ

t

"J

A border crossing'is also secret, if, it occurs openly but is not recognized as a secret crossing bv thilSppropriate authcrii.iesi (ivitn-tui."'ili".. o. the rike).

'J
;1 .J

id H

T .J

'j
u
H F'
4,

crossing points was relatively simple; --lday they are inposs.i b'l e or nearly impossible in nany areas.

infiilration point for East Bloc ageits'is the Friedrichstrasse in the eastern sector of Berlin. Until construction of the Berlin rvall :n 1951, 'infiltrations at other border
The-main

rai'lway station located

It

l};::ll;"i,.|;ri::i::.who
-cou
'i

are

tc

becc;re co=r-a:icnar

'

the rorlowins are

ifr

It

ri ers

ll ts
lfi

nstruc+r,ors (theoreti

cal

knciv e:ce
J

)

li
It

instructor"s (teciinical

kricv/l edce'i

recru i iers and oiher case

cffi:e:s.

I

1r)

t/

L3

The Leqal i zat'j

on

living in the target sfate (country of operations) like a lEilcitizen despite false personalia (and papers). The cover forms the baiis for lega'l -ization: the agent receives strict instruct'i ons for h'i s conLega]ization
means

duct wh'ich he must fol

I or,r.

Remarks: Agenci es control 1i ng agent,s i r :he ccuniry of operati ons are cal I eo %sidencesf'; their agent. handlers are cai'l ec "Res'i dentst'. There are "legal" and "illegal" residences. Legal resiCe:ice : enbassyr trade mi ssion, consul ate, etc,(i.€. a 1egal representative of a c3'irl-t'-v' i n rhe tar get country). I I lega1 residence = "resident," cl andes*'i vel',' carri es out agent handl er functi on but officially pursues a cover occupat,ic:,
An example

of

legaf ization the resrden" :cup:e

BAUDE:

Heinz and lngeborg Baude, married to one anc-'her in the GDR' are'infiltrated into the FRG-as the unma.ried refugees !ie:rich Schroeder and Helga Eimert in order to be later activated as resicie:.-"s. The-v are both sent to the same refugee camp. There they "meet one arc--h3:", They provid"-g considerable umornt of false docurnents to legitimize --^.e'r personalia. A'l I are made out in the'ir cover names. Problen! Total fcrgeries? Officially'issued identity documents consist'ing cf aufhentic 3lF. iCe:.:::y document paper-with false namesl They narry tnd then apply 'or -e* iCer,t',ty documents (driver's licenses, .i.. ) in the Federal ielu: irc: Cer nany 'in the names of D. Schroeder and Helqa Schrceder nee ii:e-: - au;her:ic dcc;:ients! Thus they are legalized'

r3

L,*

Secret l,lri ti

nc and

Secret wri ti nq i s rvri tten commun'i cati on wli'i ch are not readi 1y readabl e mu;t-Tirst be translated cr made readable. There are two calegories:

A) visible secret writ'in9 (a1so called "crypi,cSraphy") B) invisible secret writing A. l. 2. 3.
ca1led latenr rvriting.
Vi s i b-lg._Secret

Writi

nq

"Hierogiyr:-c writing" (also referred to as "Robber ABC" in the vernacular). -r"--.-..= u.. ,ibttituted with symbols (circles, angles, stars, etc.)' vrritren'*-::.- "1,]ssian" letters, it can only be deciphered by persons a; leasi '".ncw i:e cyrillic a'lphabet. ). oflen
"Transccsi:;cr-, Aiphabet" = the
y,3!;e-.s

"ForeiE;r i*r'i--i:,g symbols" =

e.9. cyrillic alphabet (if a Gernan text is
who

letters of the alphabet are "mixed up";. an. ccr.,sonants are separated in such a way that pronouncable bu-- seise ess;v:rCs are formed. 4. "Br:i.le' = coes not have to be identical to "authentic" Braille.

5. 6, 7, -

"l,'orse Signs" = 3gries of Cots and dashes cal tc -,'e !..:'se alp:abe'"'

which:s a rule are not identi-

"Incr-yp--=c ivr::irig" (-rhe ncst used visible secret vrriting in inte]lig"n".)'= l€--,uers tr^e substi:rte,i wi.L digits or numbers. Used in c'l an-

des:ir',e radic corr.un'i :a-'icns (se= radio rey).
".Jse

of Code" = cer--aifl pf€Co';erninec phrases are used for commun'ication: (".S. "Uncle Fritz has:aken'iIl" cc-ld mean: "the'last film was unusable: or something sin:ilar). B. Invisible Secrei hr^'i-u-'nq This type of secret writing is also knorvn as "laten: writing" of "'latency -ft-inuoiues wriiing that is present tut'is "absolutely invisible" "riii;;ll. f-irst be made visibie (developed) in crCer to be read. and muit
1

.

"l.rlater Wri

ti ng"

a) "tlater immersion writing" - an innocuous text is first vlrjtten on the paper (with a water-resistant mediun such as a ballpoint pen, penc'i1, Lti:.); then the paper is placed in water and subsequently onto a glass p1ate. A message is then rvritten "between the lines" vrith a hardwood, agate, or glass penc"i1. After dry'ing, noih'ing can be seen of the secret text. After the paper is again piaced jn vrater, the writing can be seen as "yrater marks" when a light is placed behind the paper or is used to'i'l'luminate it from an angle. b) "hater writing" = paper with a smooth (coated surface) is vrritten on rvith rvater instead of ink. After drying, the vriting is invisible;
t4

15

b!

a ,, {

t.

:l

d,

a ,ta
I
t

_t

-t' I I
I
a

.'

\

\

in

however, the rvater has nade the coated surface dull vrhere it has come contact vrith the paper. It can be read with illumination from a "poi nt I .ight" sou rce appl i ed at an ang'l e.

the danger of detection.

Both these processes are no longer used by intelligence services because of
"Chemical writing" = any chemical (regardless of whether from organic or 'inorganic cher.ristry) is suitable for crealion of jatent writing. The on'ly requ'irement is that the rvriting be done on a surface (carrier) on which the writing-is cornpletely inv'isible and remains so after drying. Latent vrriting can be accomplished either by
a) b)

?.

use of a llquid (a liquid secret wri ti ng materi al ) or through transfer vrith dry chemi ca I s. Both method s are used by i nt.el I i gence servi ces,

a) "'liquid secre! writing substances" are those chemical so'lutions which are used like ink but, are not visible on the carrier. Pract'icai'ly all headache medicat'ions or other medications that are soluble in rrater or alcohol are suitable for thejr producl'ion. The only prerequis'ites are complete invisfbility after dry'ing and the capabiiity to later initiate a "color conversion" by chemical reaction. (Example: !'irit,ing w'ith dissolved starch - invis'ible on white surface. If the entire paper is treated with an iodine solution, the paper turns a brownisr color but the wrjting furns a violet color. (0r: citric acic and high heat; quinine so'lution and ferric chloride).
b

)

t'C-paperf The prcces s ;,rst f reqientl;v used tcday i s the use of sheet cf paper is p ref,ar ed or thi n I y coated wi th a "whi tet' chemi cal (simi lar^ tc carbc:, parer jei ng ccated wit,h a bl ack or bl ue substance). Th" ".-paper".s'..:seC exac!iy tlKe a connerc'ia'l caroon Paper ( s ,Jse3 exact'iy rike conrnerclal carbon paper (t'c-paper" car'con paper ) . i.Jr,ti I abc:'t I969, ihi s prccess was known as the t'
l

=

"contact pap'er

h)
rr

'r"Oa
vveJJ

a

.

is placed on the back siCe cf an innocuous-leller and another sheei of paper is p'laceC on i:p cf tie c-paper. The message is written on the top sheet wiih a soft, renctl. At the points of contacf with the paperr ihe cheriical :ari'.cles are transferred from the D-paper onto the underlying siee:. S-.nce they are rvhite on a white surface, they remain invisible. They :an De made visible by means of a chenrical react'ion (through a s:ec'ific deve'loper).
The c-paper

Practically any sheet of paper is su'itable as a c-paper. Depend'ing on writing pressure and the amount of writing, it can be used 30 to 50 times before 'it is "useci up".

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Dead Drops Li ve Drops

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In order to maintain the clandestiness and its associated separation of agents from one another to the greatest extent possib'le ("compartmenta'lization"), many intell'igence services use cut-outs whereby the agents do not meet directly or exchange information directiy,
A "dead drop" (DD) is a depository used by intelligence personnel (usually the agent and a cour"ier). The size of the DD'is dependent on the amount or size of the material.
A

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is "estab'lished" according to several firm rules: 1. A DD must be easily accessible by public means of transportation. 2. It is to be eslablished in areas not consp'icuous to third persons, i.e. it should not be discovered by playing children or alert passers-by.
DD

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The DD

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DD

0n1y those locales are to be selected for the estab'lishment of a can be accessed inconspicuously at any time of day or night.

that

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Each DD receives a name. This is particularly important if several of such Cepositories have been eslab1ished by one agent. This should preclude errors in referring to specific dead drops.

The agent reports the estarl'isrnent of a sketch.
Each DD has approach safeguards.

of a DD io his

headquarters by

means

The deposit

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of intelligence materia'l at such a cut-out location is called the dead drop". "servicing A "'live drop" (LD) is aiways a human being, a person who relays intelligence material without being conscious of that fact. An LD is arranged. Bot,h DD and LD can be either "mcbile" or "staiionary". lt'lobile DD are also referred to as "rolIing DD": depositories iir Iavatories of trains or in other transportation means between [ast Germany and f'lest Germany.
Mobile LD are often trave'lers between East Germany and tJest Germany who take along "gift packages". Stationary LD can be persons who are asked by.-"friends" to hold-packages or the l'ike so that these can be picked up by other ''friends".
tr
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of the operation of a DD or

(DD and LD) is that they are "cut-outs", i.e. they are serviced by one person and pick-up'is made by another. If one and the same person "services" anci p'icks up the materiaj from a DD or LD, the main characterist-ic of a "drop" is missing. In such a case, it is merei;' an "intelligence cache". The path taken by Lhe inteli'igence material (i.e. from headquarters to the agent or vice versa) is of no consequence in fer:rs

The one

criterion common to all drops

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The Aqenl Contact

A "contact" is a clandesline mee'u'ing cf intelligence persons. If two agents (e.g. an agent and a courier agerri) who do not lnow one another are to meet,

a) recogniiion signai s and b) recognition safeguards
with that of the "contact parlner".
are arranged which are

to

preciude cc:fus:ng the'identity

of

another person

a)

Recognit'ion signals must be rnristakable; this is a basic rule for clandestine meetings. 0ne co.tact partner must be at a predetermined location at the prescrjbed iine and must have a certain item with him that fs visjble (e.g. a white carnat'ion in a buttonhole) or he must perform a specific action (f igh*" a cigarette, drop 'it, step on it to extinguish it), The other pe)'son steps up to him in such a way that Lhe first person can recognize :is recognition signal. The recognit-ion safeguard then follcws. It can consist of 'tcontact signals", for examp'l e: eacn of -.he'uwo agents receives one ha'l f of an item that must be ioined to form a whole (a button broken apartr a postcard torn in two, etc.). -.0r, passwords are agreed upon ("coffee prices in Braz'i1 are dropping" - answer: "But, I prefer tea"). 0ften recognition with the aid of an i:en and verbal recognition are mixed; the same applies to safeguards, of course.

b)

17

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Intel'l i gence Cut-0uts
Safeou ards

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l.{arning S"ignals and 0ther Signals

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.j::r-:ach safeguards are required for each dead drop and ai'l'live drops. They ::-s'st of both a pre*sign and a post-sign. As a rrle, these are small .itemi :'s::e kird which are deposited at certain s'ites (thumb tacks, bott'le corks, ::--.r :cxes, or the like) or signa'ls that are marked some\rhere with nencil cr cial<. These sites are usually located relatively far from the depositories.

-:e:r purpose is to inform a partner agent rrrhether, for example. the dead .-cf, |:as h;en serviced or picked up, or whether there.is the suspicion that --r-e ceac drop has been discovered by counterintelligence and is under surt'danger safeguard" is effected). Example: an agent "eillance (in i.his case a se:'t:cec his dead drop then affixed a thumb tack to the frame of a shop ninc:r and ihen stuck a bottle cork behind a downspout of a house. If the agent rl: Cetecied a danger, he uas to have used a white thumb tack instead of a ;:':-colored one. The warning signal of the courier. 'in case he had detected :1--:er, ccnsisted of substituting the bottle cork of one firm for that of
'

drop. A kitchen clock in the se: 3t 5 c'clcck. In case of danger, fhe store : ::r --t '2 o'clock.

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sole responsibility of sur-

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:' i:fcmaticn signals are affixed by agents for agents, I ney serve -- i:s:I uc-- an agent (tc do something pre-arranged or not -,--i:-: '":e :irect ccniact between intelligence per"sonnel. to do somee
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andest'i ne Radio Comrnunication

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9?4, intelligence services have used radio communication --o a'l'l oiher means) for relaying messages. Since then, the beco:re considerably more detection-proof but the systems

same. For encryption or decreption (enessentially the Je:"iphering)."he agent commun'icator requires encryption

l:-.:---e.: A ccnver^ter is used as a "main keyttwith whose help 1et::r''s ca- )e converted to numbers, and vice versa. This type of key ant > ::l-:2-1C0 years old and is traced to Julius Caesar" The converted : - LJ s s:- ; :cCay called "Caesarrr in intelligence iargon.
JV

:':-.,.'--he agent ''::---: r,arion key":has one

(or more) encryption keys also referred

i.

:ive
g

nunbe,'s are combined

of thei r i nf ini te f ormaf . each agent and for each transmjssion, nurnbers worrnrr, or i n i ntel I i gence i argoil, lr,e agent recei ves numbers vi a radi o communi cati on ,:3-:'r,:'' w'i r,-h those in thetti-worrnrr and deciphers the -s :,: :*e "iaesar'r converter. 0r he takes nurnbers from :ic: i;:s ihenr by rneans of the tti-worfittt and 'i s now able : 3n- f^31:C ngSSagS,
as the
,gr,3uDS

rc,

ps

.

in an endless chain of sothey are on f i lm or paper stri ps, they t'nunrbers
[dhen

vary "'i :Ci v: dual

for

wormrt because

Bror: \i:': -r-3 3;g-t, 3-c :-e ^caJ';uarterS must use the same issue of ;he bcc.:, ;h: :31.'i ke, :,3s:i:'' set'^'Jes as a converter. The nevJ numbers cbtainei v'ia 3 lu-:,e:^s rr3rrn .:o:lired v,''i th tho se conta i ned i n the t,ranSm'i ssicn) r'^epr:se-: pa;e -; u ji:'S, line nuFlbers, and number of I etters.
d)

c: a t'Cagsarrt , the I etters of ( not :ie:c r i zed by the agent, are contoo long) a ser,tence verted to numbe:^s wh i ch are use'j tcr encrt'pi'i on.
f$gl,qp.ry. Sentence Ke v: ,.,-.--1, t,he al: '*h : cn n'u s i, )=

e)

l'lemory 1'Jo_f4: The I et"ters of a prece--3riri:.ec i.,'"crc are extracted from the al phabet and are assigr-,ei :irle's; lt: reriain'i ng I etters are sequenti al I y nurnbereC wi;h twc-ci:;it n'i1be,^s and are used for encrypLion.
[4emory Sentence

f)

Cqrnbination: lhe 1e:te:s cf a nenory.,sentence are numberillnE are sorted al phabe"'i cai i 5': i.:e f : rst "a" = I , the second "a" = 2, the third = 3, etc. lihen al l ''a's'' are numbered, the fir st rrbrr is assigned the next number and sc on:.:nt-'il lhe ent'ire text of the sentence is converted tc digirs and numbers. The advantage of this procedure is that, no number is used twice; the disadvantage is that the lowest number a'lways represents the letter "a". This method is used in place of a "Caesar". By constanily changing the starting number for "a", new converters can be crea;ed again and again.
19

?0

3/

code chilts: some intel'ligence services use code charts, r.cgether with a "Caesar". on which frequently used phrases are represent,eC by (mostly 3-digit) numbers, In this wayr a radio transmission can

be shortenecj considerabiy.

h)
ij.

Key: This usually invoives one of the codes described c) through f) which are on'ly used in case the agent had to destroy all his codes.
Emeroengv

under

Transni ssion Schedules
a)

Chart: In order to enable the agent to adhere to the exact transmjssion and receptfon times, he has a "time chart,'from which weekday, date, and time can be read or computed. various intelligence services do not provide any documentat'ion to their agents for this purpose; in such casesr the agent is g'iven fixed reception times which he must adhere to,
Time

b)

Call Gloup Chgrt: Each agent has a different ca1) group or identity group for each transmission. This group must be delermined from the ''call group chart". Such a chart 16oks'like a part, of an " -i -worlntf (one._or two columns) but is usually not on "soft,'film but o n t'norma I f i lrn" and not posit'ive but rather iregative (black numbers on clear background in soft filnr; 1ight numbeis on black background on t,he cal 1 group chart). Some intel iigence services combine the cal'l group chart ard'uime charts.
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between the headquarters anc -,ne ager--; --hi s means t,hat, I i ke the headquarters, the ageit tcc m;Si' iave:ra:tS:iSSjon:-d receivinc p:r..i todav usuarlv o,reraies in the "ro,.'1,::::'lllirll;,!lill;r.li:1";;'lln':n' high speed. Such transntssicns car, *,nerefcre, not be broadcast directly (1ive) but rather are prepared befo:^eranc anc are run on "tra":miision machin":l'. The pick-ups operate with perfcrated iape or n:agnetic audio !up*. They have a speed of up to 2400 nunibers per minute; iheir audio frequency is approximately 20,000 tc ?Z,c-ic Hsrtz. These comnuni.iiton devices are small and easy to handle but with tricxs and manipulation can have a worldwide ranee.

A-l racjic traffic is a :w3-way Forse-teleErapny communication

A-Z Traffic

traffjc'is a one-way morse transmiss.ion from headquarters to the agent. The agent has a receiver (radio); accordingiy, he can neither respond to or confirm the transmissions of the headquirters. In this case too, lransmiss'ions occur at high lpeed (400 to 600 numbers per minute) or are recorded by the agent, rec;ified and deciphered.
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Identi ty Group (or '-!t 'cal l number) Lhe seven groups of five that fol low are needed, then cut off and destroy Lhe "used" portion!

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u "Cagsar" .' 'F The l etters I .R I N S T E are "sr ngle-digi t": al 'l olher l etters, s i gns and code words are read by the i ntersecticn method and are Z-Cigit , Examp'l e; 9l E A 35 = ttccntactt'

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+', ''tO*tl ty Group" wi th the number of g roup s
Groups recei ved ' Groups determi ned tt f rom the I -Llorm"
wi fhout ttcarrytngt' the ten

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Result
then

(deduce

-

- -

Letters determi ned from the "Caesar"

Erwa rte drinoend Nadrrio\ t
IUrSently a'rrait
23

messageJ

24

Examp r e

for
Deciphering

the

of

an A-3 Transm'ission

of 66.6fi. 197X, ,|100 Hours
i on
0 5rt

1.

Cal I

:

" 08309

(Identity
(at
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t"o::at
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11

Transmi ss i on

Beg i

n after 1i00 hrs)

2, Call:

05 hours

)

"Attenti

( ! I identjty Group
(

08309"
each 5-di gi t group
down

Separati

on

11 (one, one)"
groups to fo I 1 ow )
number

of 5

nurnber

'l s

repeated once)
!

are written

as they are broadcast

(a total of 11 groups).

t'i-worm" are The e eve- 5-ci,:',t g:o,.rps that follow the identity group in an wri'uien :el i'*' :re nJ-Jer grcu,ts that are transmitted. The individual numbers are then su:ira::ei froi-, cr.e a:ciher, number by number (Chinese subtraction: 'if t:e bot--::r nJi-:3r is :ar^Eer thar the top number, 10-is added to the top nUmf,er a rC ::? S-:--arC:i cri -i s l:.f crn'ec wi r.,hcut cal ryi ng the one( Exarnpl e: c:i "6 minus I = E"),
The resulting n-:lerS a:C

the "Caesart'.

:igits

ar^e

?ranS,at:C in'"c ;etl.ers with the aid of

If the resul'"'is'l ower than "6", 'i -' i':e-ls a s-:;'e-iigit nunber (from 0 to 5); if it'is higher, it -"'ields a Z-cji3:: -rn::- i;'c:r 73 lo 99). The number 6 in the result means tha: the next :hree 'i;::a!^s r,3;€ --3 )e ca:rli nec 'i nto a 3-digit number (even if rt, again inc'l uces a "i')' "ir--: 'iie a:d :f t' s 3-digit number, a word or phrase 'i s then 'cur': 3' ::: :3:e a^:r-- an j : s 'nserted in the text. If the number t9 is -rhe res-:. -, rea:-'s --hai a number follows or ends. Th'i s number is compu+"eC as: clear i€t.-- --:'r:e';:res per dlgit (as a check); for this purpose symbcls sucr as '':e':c:" iir.:n:s caset
be incjuded. This neans '-:a: ''.r,e Cesigra-''.cn "n;mber" the number 90) mpvt'open parenthesis" or "s'i ose oar^eniresi s". can be equated to

Nqte: A 5-digit group is arbitrari'ly

separateC

f'on --h: preceCing anC

following Eroups. Spaces have no mean'ing.

If a number group'is incomplete (does not contain 5 cigits) at the end of a "statement"o the digits 9 and 0 = 90 = period appear untr t as oflen as required unti-l the numben group contains 5 digils.
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I

n
1..,

f{

I
et
I I

e]
a

0l

u
i1

cofufu li

f
9r

I
95

w

---+--

92

9l

q{

mlrfxj

Hlllr:

I

i"

25

26

:03 :23

s:1,-,-')'f ^-:f V
J\

U!

::. :-: '- l:
^-:

= >rt

t-s*-

---

|.r-(.

.t 3,t

1.

::: --:
. ?:

S:s:'
:
-AA .v:

i nf orn'rati on ]

-(E

j --, rr

-:'-:_ :/
.Jr
. Y-J

-=

-r:.

-:
el

_.

t->-1a-t
t ! ,

a V-r lr ^Il>

-..;

F:.

,^

2'

lr

lS
vt

-.r nhqprvation
.'yl vl/r)rvl - Fl -1 I | 'v

a1: L-4. ?23 lL4
t

25i
26?
?71

ar],,'aa 3::-ess ::C-,],i^-'rf ur 'a dttL !! vr' '-'
-1

280

299

30i
316

325
334 343 352
361

| -:eif -, eslirra-u3. es--t;3 agreeable ,::.,. receive, recei ri l;'l pick-up
ass'i ;:
p'i c ked -u p

370 389 395 406
41 5

result received, recs': P-i nvest,i gati cn, 'i nv'e s: i ga*-: expectr ati cn deterrni ne' deteFriii r-.3;'i 'lr,
communi

frequency

4?4 433 442
451

cati on secret wri t'i ng mater' a I border crossi ng i nfoFfil, -ati on i n stru cto r i nterest
map

460 479
4BB

co

n tact contrcl

497

couri er
Coce Chart?6

505 continucusly 514 cover sfor"y 523 readabl e 532 meas ure 541 materi al 550 mi crofi I 569 n1 litary, militarilY 578 b ri ng a'l ong 587 i mpart 596 rnessage 604 nearest 61 3 negatj ve 6?2 normal 631 neces sary 640 instal'l ation, site 659 operati onal y 665 small package 617 pol ti cS, pol i ti ca1 1y 685 mai l ma'i I not yet recei ved 69 5 703 reaction (to) 712 send, -'i ng 721 security 730 imnredi ately +9 statement, 758 tuning 767 dead drop 77 6 appo'i ntment 785 rneeti ng 794 rneeti ng as agreed 802 meeti ng pl ace rneet'i ng ti me 81 1 820 about 839 transfBF, i ng 848 check, -ing 85i wi thout fai I 866 supportr -i ng co;lnect, -i on 87 5 BB4 ag ree, -ment 893 destructi oFr , destroy 901 tcntatively 310 preparationr prepare 929 prel imi nary 938 s uggest, -i on 941 !^lest, Berl i n 955 West, Germany 955 repea'f, -ing eccnomyr econorni ca1 1y 37 4 i83 signal 992 h eada uarters
m 1
.i

7

.c---

3r-:

;rr
{d:

/l r-l

r{{

!X\ar.v,\r'.liu.1-\1,ri'jr,]-\1.xn\4[jL1,t+fVlJdsF'Lr;-LtrainnnN^'-tL-"t1]"k'1-lf'l'ti1,i1d1]i'

E
Decr^;'p:-cr-,

x a m p l_e

cf :: A-3 Tra:rsmjssion of the l'lain inteliigence Directorate of Cll !'1-,'s:r-y ::r S:ate Security: ',he
Ra:'c -.:3i:--ss-3-. o:. the 49 meter band (short
ie:.,r:
vtave

6.45 or 5.95

MHz).

:-:c:

l;.i .:ers Grcup - Code Key (t'i-worm") '*c. 35?79 (Block 01);
:

li-:':e. -eir,e: ]cr,v€t'r.er ("Caesartt) c:,3':s il: :: 19l anc 5C5 io 992.

AEINRS and

the two (associated)

code

L'i L'i

re l: *rarsr:ss:c:
ne 2: ne

as ncted

l:p:'' fr:,r, t'i-wct-i,n"

-!: ?es-' i, af :e:' "Chi nese Subtracti on: :: ne ,i: --3- s' ai',0- - rf : I etfers (the decrypted
L:

mes s ase )

:3:-: cf the "usedt' i-worm is cut off and destroyed!

Identi f i cat'i cn:
Transmission:
i
-L^Jo

r^l v\l

I

(f
A./ rl\\ L/eJ l. .?Un 1

:urt^, I i ne in Block 01 )

?z
+)
l-

rm :

17 1g 3EL= t )
9-z-2-g-f
j

z 8l+ 18 o855,
3-9-Q-€:1
oCs

1259
5069 529c --------Code
o

6
E

Result:
I'les s age :

g_? (

655

B'-

),c
5

'

1 B e 31 1 6I+ ?, ffi +gjgig-g*5 IT 3 o 11 g 2 ? ? 4 ?.-3
g-I-g
Code

g895o 25 ? 1,, 2,-L:, 9 ? .C 8

7 2I3
o

2

7-7-9.9-?
Code
(

? 3 8. ^g_t
9:2-9-2-2
o9
ERH

2-2-J:9-9

g4l+zG o 5 4 4'l 99089
T
.I5I]}..II

I 523l* I 5? 4 3
t-O
e

rt 5. BERICHT
50,9
"

ALT!]}{.
O

}1T

N

IIINVERSTANDEN

-?-2-"

"

ce

["6th
I,I

RTPORT RTCE I VED. AGREI

I TH

9/30

APP0INTI4ENT. " l

27

"-t-*r--*

h5',
l-rr.

:'lir r/. !'2.n'

i.r)

d$
rl,

ffi l:)
f-tJ

i'i
a*-x

ExpJ

anati on:

L?j $r{
;

ffi
fi1
,1.

>.!:1 li':# a€ r'14 -tll. .

1 = Code key strip (i-*orm) for encryption, r-Bcogni zabl e by the vertical space between

ii
!!
$E
JlE

the second and third
groups.

number

2 = Code key
g!

ec rypt i on no s pace.

strip (i-worn) for
g'i nal s

)r: Xb

ft
,_-^F,

are folded by blocks (al* ternately fol ded forward and
3 = Convert,er (ttCuesartt)
and I ami nated

Both code key stri p ori

H
TH l-r{

tc the rear ( uccordj onrl i ke) .
together i n pl asti c.
Concern i 4g_J_.juLd 2:

t
flt
t1
11

code

charts

Ltl

ts

r-? '.t

ti \. i >l I '-I
I Ft

T

| 1r I i:

l;i
IF

IH

Ii:
IT

line x 10 lines = 50 groups = 250 digits per nunrbers block : 5000 digits pen strip.

Each code key strip contains 20 numbers bl ocks (consecuti vel y numbered from 01 to 20) consi sting of five s-digit groups per

li:
IH IH

?B

?q
Ft 1) .-,_..{l-11d1,^-fr..Tr+-(L( ^-{ti.rlF:|FE lL { - fJ x!x'F-L r-rr

: a't itr.,-r'F

v

-.2: i

: ]:-:-ni

:a--t

c's

Devi ce

F

:a?,Ci,s i:',"i :e C3ilbineS a traiismitter and reCeiver I Kir, :e:ef ii ^g Cp, ira:,STi sSion lOcatiOn and antenna Ce:-:.=ter^ n.,,e "'e:uercy; its operating frequencies ,.a:prC:<ina:: 3' i.5 bjIIion cycles per SeCOnd).

:res "lin3 c: Sigh:" crientation the Same or a the :eceivrn: enl. The co'i I antenna affixed to the charac:eristic :n a sector of 15 to 30 degrees.

T-e:-a:S-li!:erl,:eceiverisslungovertheshoulder;theperipheralequipment are a belt. ilC cc:,,,=:--er a:.C bat--ery case) are worn on athe handFurther therethe head' and worn on *nich ire carpied in r:cr::rcn:.ra
r^espe:ti ve l1r.
3=ceJSe
e: q' I
ver

=urphon"

r-'

'.,i

shape. the radio adapfs well to t'he body contours and can ccvered (camouflaged) with outer garments'

cf its

be

i+- can pract.ically not be"intercepted since this would require positioning receiver. between the two communicators and the avaiiability of a gigahertz

29

30

I

'-r,t ra-l.ei

-i c^,t lcrn,un'i :a:i

clt ]e','i cgs

5'
e

e
a to

of I i fr or s o'fi a m'i crophone and earPhone' A ray aPerture a-it' er + at exiis the device through 3n th s openi ng so i o nf n n 'i n rarei g-i ass i s i nsertede,n1 thi compol gnts i ght o n(9' 'y'rel v) ly 1 ong t f or human "y.r i nvi s'i bl erfc ar .h e ca 'r'i er f requencyof-thedecimcterwaveradioliesin 119ht wave is used in + helu corllrsid er'ab1y shorteri nfrared o S 1 de t ray of iisht via the micro;hi ;ed a t'9 :d oInr thris rti on rl aL:i o r)
ghi
<1( IS c1 NS 1S' +,e SN it alNS:rni'
A
I
I

I

J

I

-iii"Jtiur"l

;

,a

'e :3-'S3: rece.i vi ng
t'aiaa dt

the cornmunication has the he can Iikewise transm'it'
una

same

(or a similar) device

--er=:e.ive!^isanopticaldevjcewhichcanspecifical.ly'.capture'.thelight this purpose' utu particuiarly''.r:ll"l:Td^for

-1.s. lareras -l-.'..*-,lr-....ru"" ;;;;;;; i,-'o'nt"a

"*,:1",:*llildli*.:f:ii"r::1il", t,;::n;'.1:'!o{;i'l?'"li iF'"t"i"". o.yi::-ti': of the rece'iver: ';i.;:=,:: 'i::he earphone. The range i: ulYl{: defendent on the-qualitv lino"'lurt.oiteiephoto lens)' i.r can be up to Z km with-good opt'ics tp"."iiiii j::qr;, i::"lii1}ft ll:"i::;::, ::.?: "?:': ,j f lLirultk]ru#:liffiiiwhi c
--ra-"€i w'i t:'. an apprcpri ate . recei ver pre:k'i :9 c:f '-:e transnr ss icn'

Uito"'iu"'

J*J

31

il

F
i
I t

\
I
t1

rr= intercept Cpel-a!'i
Cev'i

on

f

aci I 'i tat,e

ces f or speci f ic I i steni ng (the i ntercept the I i steni ng or i ntercept for the

cf l.sten'ing devices: wire-based and wireless. .'::s a.e referred to as telephone transmitters (regardless of :-3 rcrnected to a "telephone" or not-intelligence jargon: : *'i 'e-less devices are ca'l led t'microphone transmitterstt --:.::s
:.t^; c nl-"ni ni -spyt')
.
F 4!.i l--

\F '-v9tgv

3-=S Cf theSe rni n i atu re transrni tters cr I i sten i ng dev i ces are t3*'erf:l and in some cases no larger than a smalJ pea. They can be €'"'3rywhere and are al most never detected.
^

l::i :-,:es

have very considerab'le advantages and disadvantages.

Si:,ce it is w'ire-based, 'it has a nearly unlimited life. It can draw from an available source (telephone, electrical net)' 0n the other :s more easily detected.
A wire-less system can be more easily camouflaged and installed. Tr€ srrpply is a critical point because these syslems almost aiways have a iisproportionately high power requirement, i,e.. energy. Even_though the pic<-up (microphone) and transmitter parts can be kept very sma'l'l today,_ the po*e" supply takes up a relatively large amount of space on its performance
pc,t,et^

;:e iii::-Spv:

is

so snort-lived that stationary

instajlation is

unpr

ofitable.

ACcjitionally, there is ajso listenjng through tapping into the telephone system. No "Lransmitterst' are required for this but frequently record'ing devices are used to record the conversations beirg he1.-.i.
Non-techn i cal Search
Room s

l,lith the aid of a building blueprint, de'"erl:ine the locat'ion of hoilow spaces in wa11s, ceilings, and floorsr shafts, firepiaces, false cejl'ings and floors, etc. in the vicinity of the rocm.
2.
3.

Begin a systematic search of the room with tire aid of a flashlight' mirrors and the required keys.

ceiling, walls, and floor foi poss'i ble changes such as srnall drjll holes, needl e pri cks, and the I i ke " l4ove al I f urni ture away from the walls for this purpose.
Check Check

4.

i nstal led o', these parts.
5.

a'll furn'iture for

loose parfs and

for wires
heavy

connected

to or

Tilt

wardrobes, desks, and other large underside w'ith mirrors.

or

furniture

and check the

6.

Carefu 1 1 y

attent i on

to s I i ts a'i d of a thin rod.

pat the enti re surface of furniture cushions. Pay particular and g rooves . Narrow slits can be checked with the
31

B3

lareiul li, c^ec( larfs, :har^,eest
C,:en
a-F^3a

't dll

-'l

furn'i shings rnade of woodr ll hol€sr cavjties, etc,

metdl

, or

pl asfi

c for

I oos e

a

r

,1 ^.^rc tl <c \ni
\; r/v I J I | V VV

l.i
v

ds - ulil

s and hcl J ow spaces.

? and covers, take out al I drawers and look for

-:i.:-,:::- ',' check al I door frames, doors, window frames, paneling' -base:."rcri ci:ck for hollow spaces or loose parts by knocking' Careful'ly :he:.::racis. grooves. and other openings suitable for hiding wires or i':r-a:-:tes.
ri^'t-rrres: check p'i cLure frames for cavities and drilling
y' rvv9l LJt

s'i

:r.
r('^
. rV , |

Ces of curtains and drapes; check drawcords and opening co;'rcealed w'i res and hollow spaces. Check curtain rods

lr^
!:

I r:-cs and carpets and search fori
'a:." all shafts, fireplaces,
',

tems concealed 'i n the weave.

and

similar hollow spaces w'ith a

c:.--.

t il . el=,ttl^-.cal cc-:ec::cns, c.,itlets, iamps i rad i os and TV s, s peakerS, an3 c--'i3- 3 e:!-: : a , i' Eechal,: cal dev'i ces tl:at can not be removed f rom the :c3rii t:.' ::-t-.:Ei^.--i al i:;eeti n3s are t'o be checked for recogn i zabl e cha-ce<. cr ac:i--i:, -s. :f the ievices are opened, fhe power suPPl Y cord ir,usf firs-- :e r^e:3,' €C t*o: lhe receptacle.
\r, rt-. :V\

J5,
'l

Telephci^,e
expc
s

l:nes are :J

De ches(ed

lor

changes

insofar as the lines are
pur^pose, and
a-,d

ec

.

6.

Find all wiring insiCe the:^c:n, ieier^irine path 'in the area ;o be Prc:ectedCheck
F r

ils

trace itS
wires

17.
18.

the extericr surfaces o: wal ls, v;l nco\vs r leading from the room and deter;:,lne :rei

Cocrs

for

nllnF^!<A ;'Zlf l vV-)bl

all raciiatoFs, water PiPCS, microphonps, vJi res, or other suspi
Check Check decorat'i ve

pes

fcr the presence

of

19.

plants and f'l owers inc.ucIn-r interwoven wires and concealed itens.

thei' containers for
The sarne applies to

20.

0pen books and f t I es and check for i nsert,ed i t erns. all other items that can be oPened.

Ispp:,!an_!j.

If concealed objects, installations, or any incj'ications of the presence of listen'ing devices are found, immediateiy have a technical 'inspection
performed.
32

33

Pbotoqraph v

lreParqlt

oq

Photographi

de ces to c P'i ctures are favored by al I i ntel I i gence set'vireported provian the 'i n of items headquarters wi th the nro st ex act representations agentts report. "The photog raph does not liel". perforned Photograph-v has the advantage of_(mostlV) bging capable of being possibility of being in a fraction of.-t..onJ *f,i1u later pioviding the at the headquarters' examined at teisure-q|1!L of being evaluated by experts descript'ions Even ihe ncsi cc:i:p.el"'ensive rep6rt of an agent with detailed possible with gra6hic dep'iction made of an ins--alla+,ion iun n.u"r^ rnatch the
: yilv s nhairrrati

In order tc be abl e to explciiec b5' agerts I
Dista^,t
wPe ur

photograph cl andesti

ne'l

y,

there are varj ous Possj bi 1 i ti

es

has a X;i:lj:_i;f#ii.u',"..t,-il ir i-i6t"bnoto lens; the "MINoX" .lltl'l1arv '"i"J-=c-mount the camera, o"!l ^9 ;:;";;.i *li.i I ' -tl:-:t:l:: :l.IT: ;Ji;;l,t,l-.';."'.;'."= "-piiir". ti'"ougf .tn:.bi1o911iit.:h::^l:]::ll?. th" .roi. opti"l]]Y i:::
P:c--cgr
L-Li-l !L^ ^^,,1-^f h.ina-

acllv.

The agent photographs

with u c11et"u.,Y:ilg

-:?i;"1 i.r.tn;--."i;-;: at great distai'':es.

:;::.i'."'i.

-in o'.."r:"i'"g-""1v st'il1 itit-*unnut. details are ::-ll

tT:::iill{ recosn'izable

7.

on I: orCer^ to keep f rom attract'i ng attent'iphotocamcu fj age tlg camera and then wh.i je phctograPhi rg' an age:: can graph the i t,en wi t,'l'' i^e 3arera t r^or- i f s "cinouf l aged ni di ng..P1199::' in a ,'-i'ESSI.,lA" in a uruijet, the "R0B0T" r Di s ccvered so f ar ar': bee' ihe in the briefcase, the "i'ill.Ci: " in ar. ui:,3rella, i:r 3 cigareLte CaSe' or

;i:;;:"illit=or"a

;';=#;"[il^ii""r*li il"1;;;; .ung"-;t
3.

through a perforation Fhctograpr-,-u'cal'ua<e-clace .^-i--nl*cirla --^ S: nce '-ne cpeni ngs are outside iu.i'ot""t-"p='.,, . J ^!^^ the carera. i.3lv i inp iv a:i- as an f -stop'

su'tt.

"s.

oocument Photooraphy- The

of

;; "*ri-t*uff. (in th".ur" of fine-gi'a',n illn)'rery bright light or a re"ilit-r""Oi e*poiure timei hovreier, thrs usualiy requires additional 1at.ive1y tons are almost
or the ,se ot-u-trlpod for the camera. These conditions asents frequentlv ;il!; i""iliUi"'t.i ir..'" rvirkplace) and therefore,photograph 'it there,trv "in able to to take the material home in'ordcr io-u" purpose, a met:iod was developed which makes For this ;;";;^;.i"iri"ii. reduc" Ooiu*"i.rts'(p1ans, drawings, reports, etc') to a it possible to
lamOs

""ti lech:clc;y in size be as clandest.in. p1F6srupnr. Since the car.:e:a:s toformal small is likewise purposa=), '.he prcture ;.;;;bi. (ioi iao,ortiase 'fn o"J"i-to 6Utain'phc'"cgraphs for optimun evaluation. the

l'inits

cetern'ine the possibilities

fract'ion of convential film format s'ize:
Im

l4icrofi
Between

Produc!-ion

the

usi ng

a

two wcrl d warsi int,elligence S C TV'} CES a h'i gh-resol uti cn "normal s'i mple method:
33

tri

ed

came

rd

to create rf

"mi ni -photos" was J oaded wi th a

s4

i:-:. i cc:ur=n-- page was then photographed at a relatively far c:sia::e. !::a-:le: "L::cAl" format: 24 x 36 mm, size of object: approxinaie ;, 2l .1--: - ii s--:"ce: about 5 meters. Result: Size of object on f 'j lir; ::prc>.i-a*-e'-/ 2 x 3 mm - good readability when enlarged. The-aEen+oper :e:-'re: ---e --c- -.aui";: camera, tfipod, lights, document film. deve'lattracted (poisibly also I darkrgom), items-which =.., .=,e.:ler. =.ir.n1 bath a:--e---::: :;::.. = ,=l-.t u.d'had to create suspic'i on. Intel'l igence services with the .es:e:::'-t --.=: .;-:-.e GrR) then equippedinvoJves a simple boardso-ca'lled t;;:-.-i .--i' :=== :..*i:,9 belorv). This their agents which had of a magnify'i ng 91ass i,*t -3,:s :-. , .e.: :: cer---ain intervals for the mounting
Coc-:re:--

optical :.:,=r;.:; jens (called "sparrow-hawk" andsource, a message fastened 'light a specia'l Through a b.ight , !r =r;.'.:- r:..,1.r i:-",oriii). ---^.-r -.' -ftri -^-l +^ +h^ :,,' :-: 's: ?r^i,-i3.t<" 'Jas greatly ieduced onto the car'ier affixed to the

,s::

3s a

":.i---3.;:i' n-ic: *3s ccatec with an emulsion prepared by the agent himself' i. -1.....'.- riS 'treaJ-v," immed.i ate'l y; it required no developing.
;^tr e:s-' :- f-':,dle :-i:-.'r l,i'l
,7^

V'

ch the agent. can produce real mi croi{e r^€ c e\ e i oped by the GDR i ntel I i gence servi ces.
c

aneras

rvi

th

wh'i

!v

V

i,vpes have become known" 0nlY -.. 3 ccirventional "FlINOX film Spoolt'; however, only a nr i s uti j i zed per picture, (Format size of the :r3:eri al 11 DiN, *xposure tirne approximately 5 to

6

::;CiC

'l

amp.

--'1 Cne chara3-,-Eli s:j: -s :3*-: : :C ?',: nrcrof-i ln cameras: they have fixed,en-:fh) ani no depth of fccus of any kind. All focus (teFi:r3r',e-.i, ;,' se: f;:" the p'i ctures rust i:er^3fcr:, l! --.**i fri':t a i'istance of exactly 150 cm from -',' --'r3 C3:itrr,eters inore or lesS cause the photos -r itern -"o be Phofogra:f,sl. :' to be bl u rreC '
:-, cr^:f:lr',s i:' ihe size 1.4 x l.B rnm on a filni rvhich is inse::ei i:to a nagazi ne in the forrn ofp". narrolv 6-DlN special lm stri strip. Twelve microfi ln rrages can be sv.P3se3 cn s uch a "fi Inumber rnissing]. It iTyp* 3_ is a considerable iniprov€t'ir€r-; iver carera tYP e6-DI N speci al fi I is sri-ialler^ )'et. i i: +.oc u ses a is easier to handJe and r-he s i ze cf a 1-lferrig co'i n). Fifteen images whi ch however, i S rounC ( about of the size 1.? x 1.5 mrn are exposed cn ihi s f ,ll. opmeni cf Ty Fe 3. Thre s ane film materiai is used l,'Jv-fr-e 4'l i s a f urther devel 'i center hold n the f i ln i s quad:^ati c i n shape whereas it is except that the

"Typ*-{'

al

ready prov'l ies "rea-.''

m

'i can round rn Typ* 3. The films for the T),pe 4 canera-ypes be used n Type 3 --i u e cf 2 through 4 is 17 to carneras but no vi ce versa. The exposu re 15 seconds wi th a 500-watt piroto 1arnp.

l4i

cro-fi-b PhqtqcopJj nq Dev'i ce a
spec j al The carnera

Agents were equ'i pped by the KGB (Soviet intel I i gence servi ce) with 'i c ame ra for use i n photographi ng docurnents n the microfilm forrnat.
34

35

;,
T

J I
J

r

t
i{ t F t, J 0.)

I t
4J
dO'

k

-'gl t]- E

a)&. -rl )-'l
*r-,

.Bl
_ .rl

{rl ' {/ll X .ml. . ,-1" 3l .rl
l
'a

El r q''

cJ

F

16

a

t

'

-If,

OJ rr5

cll ,rnr ll
ll

=il ull

:llil

ad

o L L (J
r?-

L

o-a L= o-&

L JL a(ll tA -o

ol

N r-O
'Fl

+)

L

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o)l t) Q) 't'- t'l Vt c-o C{u (dE 'r CO g-c rF O.'t-= rF -c +J(fE 'r*J tUr- O E'l(tr 3 -f ooE E ttl (.D(J< .f

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Cl ::,g laagi SJi'f aCe; a --h'i fi i'Cl-i ef aC*"',','a'rgS :,a:i:i'ii^ei th= CaSe is placeC cn t:,e plper (an s r,:-* :ec.-i-e:). By 'tr,jiling o'y'er" the textu w"i t,- an --: r I g rrr-, the ccr, t,ent.s of the ciocument can be phct,o:n3 'rrage ,s a lr+---le more than a third of a paEe c: = all-, 3 a x ll in. j; t,rerefcre, the spec].al canera a h,ai, rhat ther^e i s a sl ight "oVerl appi ng" i n carrel'a :,':'S

case, ]: has ar. elec--l^ical illuninat-i c: device -.1 :3(e l,:;Jres, t.h= a;en: piaces the cj'3ar3t:e

t--.:-:::--

rvas Ceve I oped duri ng ni atu r 1 zeti on of a wri
:
vv!9 -AF

the second worl d war. It repretten message.
crof i I m -i rnages have noth i ng i n

ro.ess arid the producti on of
lf I suLr\,\-s
)

mi

-:
ir>

;\{
: fr -.j

*t r\*
f.-l
t'tv

graphical 1y; 3 *ess 3qe i s reduced photographical 1y; then thi s reducti on i s exposeo '"e: "3,3 ldnann iaYr evr'ryvr iIqJsr ayer" (*nose composi ' ti on i s secret ) and_thereby 1Q Ju iu liolllt e\wtrvJs .r,"t it b..o*.s invis'ib1e for the.human eye', ln9, tay91 ;l=u--ii :=l:--in ar.d.is stamped out in such a small format that it will i:: c: an r" of typewriter scriPt. t :-e 3,:vaniage ihat 'i t won t be det,ected "by chance" (or r€'.'i:es). But'it aJ so has cons iderabl e di sadvantages
E>);>= :

raF^-,,^ vv:Jv:
YJ I v a>7 \-\r' tg>v

-,- 3U J -.: 'v

:

ft, T
rI

vl'\-rho

?f ='UVU I Vv

^z^

;\

:rp3'ss'.:.e
--'?
I L,

::
e

and. t h erefore t^re agg nt, himsel f ; :': : -ce= Dit -:c3'.',e i: :',:t nust know exactl ^'i^:l9reUe \trlvf
.e^'^'-'

Y

where

it is located; i!

.'--1.
__dt=:

vi

vt

nca .i -=c
I

:

-.n3,

'
'J

ri
.

'vi

^rr\e/^n,no
vJV\rr'/\-

(ai least a magnif-i cation of 130 -,-inres)

in crder --3 :
--e

.^^_e Fe3:3D lg.
V-V

Because
Desp'i

i or

s3:"'a'-,a:iS, the nicrodot process is no l,.gnqe-J".-used. "l sa:'.,, 1f-,:a;: oi possibly being detected, microfilni S
l-i-r'agSDSCtS.

s'_.i:3r-

tc

Conta'i ner^s

The ch'ief characteris--:c ot'i:,telIiEe:jce services is clandestineness' II order to assure c aides::i-ie:ess' agents nlsi hide the "intelligence-materra-1 .intelligence hiding places (ca11ed Bas'ical1y, there are --hree i3,33s cl

"contaitrirs" in in:e'l :i::nc=

;ar^9on):

1. 2, 3.

Canrovflaoed Ccncealr:n-Ca.c,he--gr Stcraqe : ' a:e Sh-lpping Cont.?iner^s
camouf

cc:cealrer,t: a caiTlouf l aged concealment off ers th: oppo""unity o; wcr<..n3 I'ciancjestine'l y" with a..device; to acc::: ti-,i=, the ievi:e is.:Sncealed (e.g. "m-ini-spy" in a lamp, "bt:" tel ephone, ca:r13] a i n the ci garette case).
36

'lagec

f:

Type i

-

l-

Aciual

2=
l{=

Carnera housi ng Lens Sl i

de shutter

Fi'l m
f4'i

transport lever

I
I

nox

film

spool

I

{

__Ic

Typ.

2

(-i

.a l.-

Came
14ag

ra

g-

az 'i n e

I nsertabl e Fi I rn ;a= Exposed Fi lm )o= Unexposed Fi I m
5 tatr

4 = l,ling-nut retai ner

7c= Fi 1m package

Type

3

I

f
a

1 = Camera 2 = Magazitre 3 = Knurled screw knob 4 = Pressu re s pri ng 5 E Connector for tri

.6 E Shutter sl'i de
-;

sc rew

-l

ii

it

'n

I

tlil

ii ii

I

Special

Can'rera

in Cigarette

Case

("l''licrofilrn Photocopying Device")

r\

ii Br

T'

9'r;
1

,.li

/1O
7

!'
I
Rubber Roi I ers "Gl idd Rol jers) MetiaI (Touch and Switch)

1 = Fi lm cassette 2 =Refai ner arm for 7 =Battery ccnrPartmenl I+ =['l ect,rical suppiy cab]e , =Pri sm mi rrcrs 5 =Sreciai LomP

Roller

.9b
Di

9a
10
411

= Case Closure

:

ta

rection of

Fi lm counter = Lever for Device
Mov

l4ov ement

ement

I
I

I

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\\
I r."'
l' I It

\

-- ^,.'1-t\*

*,.

ll

.

i\
,1.

I L" --.itl- .)

1\

\

39

s*

tr &;
t:- ----

4S

H

F

bQut (
Type

'

Y

iE!

Carnera
Hag az

?E

i ne
Arm
I

Retaining
l, t'.
E!

Shutter slide
Remote cab'le
Reta i n i

(connected) '.
rernoLe

?-I
I

5=

cabl

e held

nq screw for
'

i

I t
I

I

? ri Lens B H Light shaft (top view) I s Fllu
1O s Tripod mounti ng threads

--

1o

I I I

t
I

I

40

4i

{.

Cache
AA I H :\'"v\'l A

or Storage Place: used to descrrbe locations at which intel I imaterial and devices are placed in order to store them for i a;et use or io protect them from detection but sti11 provide ready

ACCESS

to

CCC3S,

racjjos, microfilm cameras).

them

(false identity

documents, C-paper, communications

Shr 3pi ng Containers: ! c r;ec the cour^ier uses
-l \atP r^,^\ t^ -^_Cr_r^rC= r^F-t'l^ , il \ ( lij

vJ'J

i^*^-I
ll,

If intelligence material is to be transa secret hid'ing place which has been in, c in a conlainer (suitcase. bag, case). The delineations r: 2 and 3 are not absolute. Thus, for examp'l e, a compartment a ''coniainer" located in the apartmeni of an agent can serve \ cache cr can be used as a means of transportation or shipment.
-,gence

hiding places can be protected and unprotected,

^.3 ianref I n wh i ch a conceal ment i s safeguarded often depends on i ts ccis:r*ct;on or the purpose for whi ch i t i s to be used; I i kewi se, the l1;arl1j tI-C ir rvhich the corTipartrnent consist,s that is built^i nto a ,:'it nc :l ace r Diays an essential role.
^?

tr''3^

-

:al (te:iLnical )

Safeguards:

coniai nerr res'i stance must be overcome (e, g,

lever, rolt lock).

:-te.,'ge':e ;-:--er'al. Suilt in exp'lostves and the like have her-r =: t- --:e iiG af--er the second world war. it mostly --c rir3:(B 3xposed 3u'i undevelcped filnr unusable ci^ a flnsh',n'hi:l'nrcci\'t rc d,,2' . The "r,,rn-:engerous" safeguarC consists only ov erccn-e tna:i s carrlcuf l aged j n such a way t,hat of an ofsta:-e it =reo..eilt-r'"' i-- , s t,o Drevent the chance -ae ce:ecr:i. _.-^^;r.lEi!-. opening of t.:e
\ H, \'Y : L.r' g -'v rr I v .l t-X-\ _

nc : a:t c?:r -ie prc--ecteC i n a "dangerous" or ttnon-dangeroustt .ways only iar,ger^ :re;1. ',ih:rel'.' --le iancer j s a .wavs directed onl.y toward the content,
:

b)

Psychol og-,cal, Sa;ecLa-is:
Th

ves prc-ue ct,-i i,; --he i ,:, 3 pl ace i'y l'reans of a t'tri ck" designed to prevent c^scc"'cri, ; --rre c3rcel'l relt. cr the manner Of opening. Bul perhaps il shcul: ass-r:e'-hat ther^e is not even any suspicion crea'ueC rn tne fir s: p.a:: (e,9. use cf a ivater-tight container in a sewage pit; a fer:ale em:lc;'ee cf a government. office carried prophy'l act'i cs anc syn:ne'i-ic bra inserts with her in her purse in order to elicit feelings cf chance among the checkpo'int personnel; or the musical clock r+i'uh the secret compartment - it plays during the entire time of the search and "causes nervousnesst'; the bottom or the top of a can are provided with left-hand threads and the more an attempt'is made to open it by rirning to the'left, the more the ljd is t'ightened). 0f course, a concealment can a'lso be safeguarded per a) and b).
i s i nvcl
'i-'
I

41

-(i

A+

la

A concealrnent'is considered "unprotected" pressure of the safeguards described.

if it

can be opened without the

A container can be installed in any object! Each device into which a conta'iner has been insta]1ed, must in any case be able to be used in the same manner as an unprepared device. The item in which a secret h.id.ing place is located may never deviate from the original in terms of size, we-ight, and appearance, A prescript'ion for how to find "something" or where one has to look and "how" to 'look cannot be provided. Often the "knowledge" of the ttwhat" and "how" of opposition intell'igence services is already oF netp'in eliminating or-.lessening the avers-ion of investigat'ing officials to the investigation

of"crimes aqainst the state".

Isiened]
(1^lerth) Chief Detecti ve Superi ntendent

42

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ilq

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