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This study was done to discover the strategies that were used by a group of experienced translators at different universities and colleges when translating foreign news in international and national English newspapers. Some aspects about concepts in translation strategies introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet (1995 /2004), were used. They are 1.abstract for concrete 2.to change double negative phrases into positive ones and vice versa 3.to use words that refer to specific meanings instead of words that refer to general meaning 4. to use active voice instead of passive voice 5.to change the order of words 6.rethinking of intervals and limits between two cultures. However, there were some other strategies that were not in Vinay and Darbelnet's concepts. They were created by the translators to solve translation problems and to make translated version become more understandable and meaningful. For example, the translators deleted unnecessary or unimportant parts, added some words or chose the words that stimulated the readers' feeling or reactions and modified structure of words and sentences. The result of this study was that certain strategies were used most by the translators and some of them were used least. This study has pedagogical implications for teaching translating press texts as well as the translators who show volition to work on translating press texts.
Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch Islamic Azad University North Branch
Learning How to translate Foreign News Discovering Strategies in Translation of Press Texts
translators seem to be forgotten. it is undeniable that we are in era of news and information. How could we know what are happening in other countries if there were no translators ? Translators play important role in helping any readers go together with world situations. Purpose of this study The main purpose of this study is to learn about the strategies that the translators used when translating foreign news. foreign news that are translated in newspapers are less given attention than other kinds of news. Newspaper is one common but important source for everyone to get news."for most citizens . especially for the ones who concern journalism or other related fields. 2007 ). to attract the news readers . As foreign news is interesting and important .According to VanDijk (1986) as cited in Khodabandeh (2007). news is perhaps the type of written discourse with which they are confronted most frequently". This study focuses on a team of translators who are currently translating and teaching The foreign news at the Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch . other kinds of media can attract many more news consumers . In addition.V or listening to the radio seems more accepted when people want to get the news. the students who study translation and any other readers who are interested in translation can use the findings of this study to help them whenever they learn or practice translation. the translators must think twice before unveiling news. Moreover . Furthermore . Elmikarbordi college and Seda and Sima College of translation. People are so familiar with newspapers that they may look over that one important section that can open their eyes to other parts of the world is "foreign news". That is . As a result .Background of the study Presently . Information technology is one significant factor to overflowingly provide information and flood of news. Tehran North Branch . so there is an indirect competition between each source in order to appeal news consumers.-22nd of Nov. Scope of the study This study is pertaining to investigate how foreign news were translated at the university or college level for the university students majoring in translation during Mehr 1st.They were asked to participate in this study as the informants of this translation project. each source has its own advantages and disadvantages .Azar 1st .1386 ( 23rd of Sep. so watching T. this study was done in order to find out the strategies that were used when translators translating foreign news at Islamic Azad University Garmsar branch and Islamic Azad university North branch as well as Seda and Sima college and Elmikarbordi University where a group of experienced translators were responsible to lead translation projects and classroom practices.They are: . The findings and analysis of translation strategies used by a group of professional Iranian translators participated in this study are expected to be beneficial for other translators to apply the strategies used for their works. For instructors and students .However .In other words . foreign news seems not the most interesting written section in a newspaper.People can perceive what are going on in every part of the world from so many kinds of sources. Also . the world becomes smaller because of news . However . it is conventionally believed that newspapers have more readers than any other kind of written text.
New York Times . 4. adhering closely to ST mode of expression.Hossein Younesi .Mahyar Azizsoltani . Seyd Hassan Jamshidiyan . Definitions of Terms 1. 3. Reuters.V as film and news translator with more than 2500 hours of film translation .He is also an instructor of translation in Elmikarbordi colleges and Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch and Tehran North Branch.1.Free translation : a translation that modifies surface expression and keeps Intact only deeper levels of meaning.Translators means the experienced translators of foreign news invited for this research. a forty five year old English instructor and translator who has been working for more than 18 years as an interpreter in International Conferences such as AUD conference and for other colleges .Use words that refer to specific meaning instead of Words that refer to general meanings . There were two sources of news which were used for this study. The logic behind the selection of this team of translators were their experience and expertise in translation of press texts as well as their familiarity with teaching and theoretical background of principles of translation in Iranian Academic atmosphere.1. 2. 2. He is also an expert in translation of press text as well as the translation of legal texts.Mr.They were classified into two levels as follow: 4.( Hatim and Munday .2.Abstract for concrete 2. and BBC News during 2006 – 2007. . 2004 ) 4. ( Hatim and Munday.Level 1 : lexical level 1. 3.Mr.Translation Strategies : refers to the methods or procedures ( Hatim and Munday.He has also been teaching in Seda and Sima News College.Mr.a forty six year old lecturer at Islamic Azad University North Branch who has also been teaching English Translation in different universities and colleges. AFP.Part-part 3. 2004 ) 3.Mr.News article refers to randomly selected news articles from different sources.Shirzad Mansouri a thirty eight years old English translator and lecturer at Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch.Literal translation : a rendering which preserves surface aspects of the message both semantically and syntactically .He has worked as a translator for 28 years in Iranian T.Translation methods indicate how to translate texts which are divided into two main types: 3. a fifty four year old translator with a bachelor Degree in Translation. The foreign News in domestic sources and in International sources including Tehran Times . He has been teaching English translation especially the translation of press texts for 16 years at different universities and colleges.1.2004 ) that the translators modify translated texts into target language based on theories made by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958/1995).
Compering each translated news to its English copy.Open-ended interviews for more details with the team of translators 3.Level 2 : syntactic level 5.Making conclusion from the report Significance of the Study The findings of this study are expected to be beneficial as follow: .Negation of opposite 7. 4.Identifying how each strategy was used 4.Data Analysis The collected data were analyzed as follow: 1. 4. 6.Interviewing the news translators after translating the selected texts for more details about strategies that were used.2. 2.Collecting the ten news articles that were translated during classroom hours.To change the order of the words.Materials 1 .To fill the communicative gaps existing between two cultures or rethink of intervals and limits between two cultures Method of Study 1.4.Setting The data of the study were based on the strategies that were used by the team of translators.To change double negative phrase into positive ones and vice versa. 2.Data Collection 1.Categorizing translation strategies from the data 3. Ten Foreign news articles selected from two available sources: domestic Sources such as Tehran Times and foreign sources such as BBC NEWS and their Persian copies for comparing the two versions 2. 8.To use active ones instead of passive ones or vise Versa. 2.
Also . Moreover . working on newspapers will have certain impacts on foreign language learners. 4. perhaps . 3. and some analysis and comment on this news. by adapting or applying these strategies for their assignment as well as their work. sources of forms of language which will not . or to improve their works. 2.1998 ).Generally speaking . Newspapers are . instructors of translation can use the findings of this study to explain translation strategies or suggest which strategy should be used for each kind of text.It can be helpful for students who study Journalism or other related fields to make use of the analysis of the findings . 5.Deducing language features ( a lot of cultural information about the interests and values of reading the public).in fact .Rahimy (2003 ) has mentioned these effects as follow: 1. be found in any other conventional language learning materials and which cause language learners to be familiar with and use many different communicative skills of language ( Baddock . 2. .Being well-prepared to use the attained information in real situations of Language environment. however .1. entertainment ( Reah .It is expected that this study might worthwhile for anyone who is interested in translation to adapt or apply these strategies when they translate foreign news or any kind of text. they are a main source of information about current affairs in the foreign culture. contain a range of items.In fact .It can be helpful for instructors who teach journalism or other related fields to give Clarification and clarity of differences between English and Persian news structures. Review of Related Literature For the English language students who have chosen translation as their major of study. advertising . 1988). news .Sharing attitudes and behaviors as well as the understanding values of other Communities. this proves that newspapers are sources of varieties in the language of a specific community. the term newspaper suggests that the content of a newspaper will be primarily devoted to the news of the day . Moreover. comment and analysis . For many language students . 4. newspapers are regarded as a good base for language study with their wide variety of text-types and language styles. Many people spend part of everyday reading them and the commentaries on the news known as editorials. 3. This study can be of great help to the news readers for understanding better when reading foreign news. the strategies found in this study might be applicable for students who study translation when doing assignment and also their future career.Other news translators can make use of this study as a guideline to solve problems They found when translating .Attaining new information in different fields. Newspaper .
In a more technical framework Baran and Davis ( 2000 ) described an audience-centered theory in which placed the audience in a more central role in our understanding of mass communication. The reader of the news is its audience. new information of recent events"(Reah . to express logic .Content . This theory provides the theoretical basis for and has fueled interest in media literacy. which however . The selection of items to put on the news pages may also affect the way in which the reader is presented with the world. Language gathers its own emotional and cultural loading . and the created reader who is being identified in the text . 1995 ). to interpret the world and themselves .News is a late Middle English word that means "tidings. the effectiveness in that process should be of significance. Everything that is written in a newspaper has to be transmitted through the medium of language. Therefore.It could be argued that language is the key factor in the establishment and maintenance of social groups . they are created within a particular culture . This is not to say that the Persian version is necessarily worse or better than the press of other countries – but that whatever it is . can also be exploited by written text. the feedback and input from others. and all texts have a structural and grammatical or syntactic level.What this loading is will depend on the nature of the culture or subculture in which the language exists. the intended message . Newspapers are cultural artifacts. a more useful definition might be" information about recent events that are of interest to a sufficiently large group or that may affect the lives of a sufficiently large group"(Reah 1998. Language allows individuals to communicate . This is an important point to bear in mind when dealing with the language of newspapers. If audiences are central to mass communication process . to establish relationships within the group.p. for instance . and operate within the value system of that culture. It is also important to remember that texts operate within a cultural context .He believes that such a definitions is so broad to be taken into consideration in study of foreign news. Written text has visual or graphological level. All texts have a word or lexical level . It is important to distinguish between the reader as an individual who may or may not read that particular newspaper regularly . Language always occurs within a context and as social users of language individuals know how to respond to linguistic triggers relating to the context of the language situation . The print media of different countries and different cultures differ in a variety of ways.For the purpose of analysis .Such a definition will lead to the differences between local and national newspapers as well as the differences between newspapers of different countries or cultural groups. has tabloid newspapers that are very different in format and in many ways in content . The American press . Text and Textual Analysis Textual analysis involves the analysis of the way propositions are structured and the way propositions are combined and sequenced ( Fairclough . The transmission of a message through language almost of necessity encodes values into the message. it is a product of the culture it comes from. Language operates at a series of levels.1998). Recent studies into the development of language within individual suggest that development of the social skills of languages is as crucial as development of the structural aspects of language . the reader as individual will be referred to as the reader . Spoken text has an aural or phonological level.4). of society as an entity. that is .from Persian one. causes and outcomes . the created reader will be referred to as the implied reader.
Press text –types should be considered to include some text-specific characteristics as mentioned by Rahimy (2003 ) that must be taken into consideration by Iranian students while translating such text-types into Persian. unconventional punctuation .The core in informative texts is truth ( Newmark . textual analysis .In more detail . Since the 1950s . Richardson ( 2007 ) assumes that every aspect of textual content is the result of a choice –choice to use one way of describing a person an action or a process over another . there has been a variety of linguistic approaches to the analysis of translation that have proposed detailed lists or taxonomies in an effort to categorize the . sharing much of Fairclough's analytic perspective and methods states that when adopting a textual analysis . The text terminology should not be ignored by the translator. including the ways in which sentences are connected together ( cohesion ) and things like the organization of turn-taking in interviews or the overall structure of a newspaper article. etc .40 ).41 ) believes that there is a familiar . However.Peter Newmark ( 1988 . In addition to this . discourse should be analyzed at various levels or along several dimensions. For instance. the grammar of sentences and smaller units and the sound system (phonology) and writing system .70 )Such a definition seems true for the press texts. racy .1988. Van Dijk ( 1999 ). However . Therefore .(Fairclough1995.The characteristics which constitute the complexity of the texts . when applied as the sole research method . Newmark holds that an article in a newspaper or a periodical as press text can be subcategorised as having the format of an informative text which is often standard. text styles should also be taken into account. it should be noted that metaphors can be a yardstick For the formality of the text.Nevertheless . an interview with the team of translators could be a possible way to make sure if they considered some discourse values while they were translating the selected texts. adjectives before proper names and colloquialism. apart from the definition .covers traditional forms of linguistic analysis –analysis of vocabulary and semantics .analysis is one form of textual analysis that .But it also includes analysis of textual organization above the sentence . non-technical style for popular press . the analysis of these choices in texts …….characterized by surprising metaphors . from the Perspective of linguistic level focuses on lexical and syntactic levels. short sentences.Each text –type may contain its own corresponding terminology. 1992 .is an analytically inadequate way to examine the role that journalism plays in maintaining and /or transforming social inequalities. the choice to include a particular fact or opinion or argument over another. The difference with a more interpretative textual analysis is that the analyst examines the text in terms of what is present and what could have been but not present.57) Texts should therefore be analyzed at various levels.we must also examine the forms of linguistic analysis in relation to their direct or indirect involvement in reproducing or resisting the systems of ideology and social power. Text types and Translation Translation involves the process of replacing textual elements of SL (source Language ) with those of TL ( target language ) during which the translator should try to adopt measures for the writer of the text and readers of its translation to be able to interact (Saedi .
Calque: This is a special kind of borrowing where SL expression or structure is transferred in a literal translation. unidiomatic or awkward in the TL (2000). . 7. This includes the following: 4. Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategy of oblique translation must be used.Negation of opposite 3.Borrowing : The ST word is transferred directly to the TL.although a literal or even transposed . 5. 1. Vinay and Darbelnet place much store by modulation as the "touch stone of a good translator" where as transposition simply shows a very good command of the target language( 1995.change of word order 6.Equivalence :Vinay and Darbelnet ( 2000 ) use this term to refer to cases where languages describe the same situating by different stylistic or structural means.Modulation is a procedure or in a narrow sense a strategy that is justified . 2004 ): 1.translation process . 94 ) see transposition as probably the most common structural change undertaken by translators.Modulation : This changes the semantics and point of view of the SL . translation results in a grammatically correct utterance .filling the communicative gaps between two cultures 6.84-93 ) identified two general translation strategies direct translation and oblique translation. These general strategies comprise seven Procedures or strategies of which direct translation covers three( Munday .Literal translation : This is word-for-word translation which Vinay and Darbelnet describe as being most common between languages of the same family and culture.Active to passive ( and Vice versa ) 2.Adaptation : This involves changing the cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture.Vinay and Darbelnet ( 1995. it is considered unsuitable . Equivalence is particularly useful in translating idioms and proverbs.Part-whole 4. Modulation at the level of message is subdivided along the following strategies which are the main concern in this research: Abstract for concrete Cause _ effect Part –whole Part-another part Change of word order (reversal terms ) Negation of opposite Active to passive (and vice versa ) Filling the communicative gaps between two cultures change of symbols This category therefore covers a wide range of phenomena among which the Following were discovered by the researcher through a careful analysis of the translations done by the team of translators in this study.Transposition : This is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense. in the words of the English edition When .246). 3. In those cases where literal translation is not possible .Vinay and Darbelnet ( 2000 .Part-part 5. 2.
( Munday. first . Borrowing Calque Direct Literal Translation Transposition Oblique Translation Translation Strategies Modulation Equivalence Adaptation Figure1. discourse markers ( however .syntactic structures 3.) .Vinay and Darbelnet stress (p. these are : 1. -Option refers to non-obligatory changes that are due to the translator's own style and preferences.Two further terms are introduced which look above word level . that ) and punctuation. this is a crucial difference.word order and thematic structure 2.2001 ) This level of analysis presages to some extent the higher level text and discourse-based analysis .These three levels reflect the main structural elements of concern In this study.the lexicon 2.connectors which are cohesive links .16) that it is .etc.They are : 1.These seven main translation categories are described as operating on three levels ( Munday . message is used to mean approximately the utterance and its metalinguistic situation or context.deixis ( pronouns and demonstrative Pronouns such as this .2001. Clearly .58).the message In this case .Translation strategies according to Vinay and Darbelnet A further important parameter taken into account by Vinay and Darbelnet is that of servitude and option: -Servitude refers to obligatory transpositions and modulations due to a difference between the two language systems.
literal translation . Idiomatic translation and communicative translation. The divisions proposed include examples of individual words .affective and intellectual Content of the units. 4. The role of the translator is then to choose from among the available options to express the nuances of the message. To facilitate analysis where oblique translation is used .Reconstruct the meta linguistic context of the message. 5. They are Word-for-word translation that the translator translates literally by its most common meaning into TL while grammatical construction remain unchanged.C.g. the units are rather longer . level emphasizing on levels of language involved in translation and ranks highlighting units of language e.Option .so there are only few parts of the SL that are changed.C. faithful translation and semantic translation. Catford ( 1965 ) categorizes translation methods into three types : extent focusing on how much the text is translated. Vinay and Darbelnet Suggest numbering the translation units in both the ST and TT.Produce and revise the TT The first four steps are also followed by Vinay and Darbelnet in their analysis of published translations. As far as the key question the unit of translation is concerned . the realm of stylistics . Peter Newmark classifies translation methods into two main types SL emphasis which consists of word for word translation .Catford . Grammatically linked groups . and Free translation that the translator changes or adapts the original form to the TL . free translation . They consider the unit of translation to be a combination of a lexicological unit and a unit of thought and define it as the smallest segment of the utterance whose signs are linked in such a way that they should not be translated individually.Examine the SL text .The units which have the same number in each text can then be compared to see which translation strategy or procedure has been adopted. 3.Identify the units of translation 2. In their new version. sentence . they reject the individual word. Translation Methods The classifications of translation methods also vary . clause Group and word. that should be the translator's main concern. so almost every part of the SL is changed. For the purpose of this study translation methods can be classified into three main groups. evaluating the descriptive . and TL emphasis which comprises adaptation . Literal translation that the translator tries to keep the original form . And following are the translation methods made by two translation theorists:J. these are : 1. . fixed expressions and semantically linked groups.and Peter Newmark . The scholars continue by giving a list of five steps for the translator to follow in moving from ST to TT .Evaluate the stylistic effects. depending on each theorist's criteria. J.
SL influence . According to the researcher view . Data Analysis and Results After analyzing the data obtained from ten pieces of foreign news translated in Translation classes during 1st of Mehr -1st of Azar 1386 (23rd of Sep. there are three important factors to be considered as news translation methods. in order to make the translated text become understandable and to modify syntactic level . which is about structure of words . register . Strategies for News Translation As Mcloughlin ( 2000) and Reah (1998 ) state that the first aim of news is to report factual event.Translation Strategies When the translator faces translation problems or when he cannot follow the translation methods . he must have his own ways to achieve it.They are meaning . For headline translation . the results of each strategies that were used by the Translator team were as follow: . cause-effect .part –part .For more details refere to Khodabandeh (2007 ) who conducted a very comprehensive comparative study between English newspaper headlines and Persian newspaper headlines.style and Clarity and idioms.e. the translator should be careful about register and SL influence because they can affect when translating into TL.They are : 1. the important strategies which are generally used are to modify lexical level like to add explanation or to change or omit some words or idioms that are not close to target language. education or attitudes. For news translation methods . reversal of terms negation of opposite .2007) Comparing to their English copies .Lexical level and syntactic level i.style and clarity and idioms can be changed to make it understandable and acceptable in TL.Meaning .She concluded that through contrastive analysis it is possible to find out more about how different the news headlines are in English and Persian. part – whole . abstract for concrete . the translators must bear in mind vocabulary used its length and structure. As it was earlier described by Vinay and Darbelnet translation strategies can be divided into two levels.sentences and arrangement of structures. Alan Duff ( 1991 ) Guides six principles that can be used as strategies when the translator has got problems when translating.As a result .News is not very complicated because it was written for readers of different backgrounds e.active to passive ( and vice versa ) .News structures 2. change of symbol and rethinking of intervals and limits between both cutltures.-22nd Nov. Such strategies are used in free translation method.Moreover .form .g.vocabularies which are short generally known and stimulate reader's feelings.Its writing style is unique in both vocabulary and structure of words and sentence. free translation is used as translation method. form . life style.Sentences and verb 3.
part –another part 5.change of word order 6. Conclusion .Translation strategies used in all ten news stories Rank Translation Strategies Frequency 1 To change the order of words 68 2 Other strategies 51 3 Omit words or idioms 48 4 To use active voice instead of passive one and vice versa 40 5 To use words refer to specific meanings instead of words that 24 refer to general meaning 6 Rethinking of intervals and limits between two cultures 13 7 Use words that refer to general meaning instead of words that 10 refer to specific meaning 8 Negation of opposites 7 9 Cause-effect & abstract for concrete 4 10 Transliterate sound from English into Persian 1 This table shows the conclusion of strategies used in all ten news stories. .filling or rethinking the intervals and limits between two cultures . There were eight aspects about concepts in translation strategies made by Vinay and Darbelnet: 1. other strategies that did not belong to Vinay and Darbelnet concepts were used as the second rank. to change the order of words from English into Persian was used most by the translator team in translation classes.However .Discussion and Recommendations 1. They were created by the translators or instructors in the classroom to solve translation problems and make the translation version become more understandable and meaningful. These kinds of strategies consisted of adding explanation or some words to make news become smoother or understandable . However . there were some other strategies that were not in Vinay and Darbelnet 's concepts.part-whole 4.negation of opposite 7.Table2.the use of words that referred to the whole previous part and the use of words that stimulated reader's feelings.acitve voice instead of passive voice and vice versa 8. That is. For example . There were also some strategies that were used only twice or less.cause-effect 3.abstract for concrete 2. omitting word or words and adding some explanation or a word or words or choosing the words that stimulated the readers' feelings or reactions.Conclusion The main purpose of this study was to find out the strategies that were used by the translator team when translating foreign news in translation classes.
Translation strategies used in this study with those of Vinay & Darbelnet Strategies Used in This Study Strategies Used by Vinay and Darbelnet . in translating foreign news . there were strategies which did not belong to those two levels.-22nd Nov.the translators needed to add explanation . business and other interesting events were collected during 1st of Mehr to 1st of Azar 1386 ( 23rd sept. like to use the words that stimulate readers' feelings . 2007 ) and Ten news articles were selected from two sources –domestic English papers and international news sources.3. to show the frequency of each strategy. That is .Negation of opposite words 5.so other news translation strategies were found in this study.to use active voice instead passive voice and vice versa. thus there must be some specific translation strategies for news only . The data was analyzed and the results were presented in table 2.use words that refer to general meanings instead of words that refer to specific meanings.abstract –concrete 6.or to delete unnecessary words or parts. However. there were other strategies that did not belong to Vinay and Darbelnet concepts.For this study it could be categorized into two features which are linguistic and cultural. delete some unnecessary parts or words as well as using words that stimulate readers' feelings and reactions. Vinay and Darbelnet concepts might not cover all that needed to be used for news translation .Foreign news about politics . However . It could be seen clearly that there were similarities between translation strategies used in this study and the ones introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet.rethinking of interval and limits between two cultures 7. It was found that changing the order of words was used at high frequency ( 68 ) and the transliterate sounds from English to Persian was the least strategy in this rank. Table 3. change the order of words 2. It was found that the translator team followed and agreed to use these strategies.to use words referring to specific meaning instead of words Referring to general meaning 4.there were 1. However . 2.casue – effect 8.The reason of this was that news had its own writing style or language characteristics.Discussion This study was done to find out translation strategies based on concepts introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet. Strategies introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet and those found by this study could be classified into two main types which were lexical and syntactic levels. As a result . The comparative view of the findings of this study with those of Vinay and Darbelnet is shown in table 3.
Lexical level addition of explanation use of words that refer to general meaning instead of words that refer to specific meaning abstract .Other news translators can use this study as a guideline to solve problems that occurred when translating because the strategies mentioned in this study are applicable to other similar cases.Recommendations This study may come to recommend the followings for research consumers as well as those who prefer to have ideas for further studies.the instructors of translation can also use this study for their works. 2. However.The instructors who teach journalism or other related fields can use this study to clarify differences between English and Persian news structures.concrete Omission of words Lexical level -abstract-concrete -use of words that refer to general meaning instead of words that refer to Specific meaning -part-another part Syntactic level Change of word order Syntactic level change of word order use active voice instead of change of word order passive voice and vice versa use active voice instead of passive Negation of opposite voice and vice versa . Moreover . 1. .Negation of opposite Other strategies deletion of unnecessary parts addition of some more words rethinking of intervals and limits between two cultures Use words that stimulate readers' feeling -transliterate sound from English to Persian Other strategies rethinking of intervals and limits between two cultures - 3. or to suggest which translation strategy should be used for each kind of text. like to explain translation theories. it may also be helpful for translators of any kind of text .
It is also possible for other researchers to apply other strategies and methods of translation such as those introduced by Van Leuven-Zwart's in respect to translation of press texts as well as other types of texts presented in C. 5.Still there is more chance for those who prefer to do the same from a critical discourse analysis (CDA ) point of view. 4. .What has been presented here in this study is just a linguistic approach towards the analysis of press text.The students who study English translation as their major can apply the same analysis to use these strategies for what the translate and study. their assignment as well as their future careers because this will help them understand the differences between English and Persian News which were from the same source.3.Reiss's functional classification of text types.
Meet the press. Newmark. Rahimy R.K.2 Reah D. (2005)The Language of Magazines.(2001).Routledge.Translation:an advanced resource book.Discourse and Racism.Tehran.B(1988).The Linguistic Journal .(2007) Analysing Newspapers.No. Mollanazar. Baddock.New York and London :Prentice Hall.NJ Prentice Hall International.P (1988) ATextbook of translation .L.uva. 2 45-38 Macloughlin L.M (2007) Contrastive analysis of English and Persian Newspaper headlines. Tehran Samt publication Munday.Markaz-e-Nashr Publications.Cambridge.E. Hatim B.New York Routlege Richardson J. (1998) The language of Newspapers.CUP.H.hum.Retrieved from www.An approach from critical discourse analysis. Baran S. (2001) Introducing Translation Studies. Scoop!.J (1981). Translation Studies Quarterly.London and NewYork :Routledge.htm .References : Abbot.(1992) An Introduction to Principles Approach.1 . of Translation :A Discoursal Van Dijk(1999). J. Duff.A (1991) Translation. Oxford: U P.Routledge Khodabandeh . (2003) Translation of Journalistic Texts: A study on the problems of Iranian students of Translation.nl/teun/dis-rac.New York Palgrave.J.and Davis D. Saedi.Principles and Methodology of Translation.(2000) Mass communication theory. and Munday (2004).(2nd edition)New York Wadsworth a division of Thomson Learning.
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