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y

y vs t:

Motion of a single point in the medium

y vs x:

Snap shot of the whole wave at one instant

Phase

General expression: y=Acos(kx-ωt+φ)

y use specific points to determine φ

x=0 y =Acos(- ωt)

= Acosωt

y =Acos(π−ωt)

x=λ/2

x=3λ/4 y =Acos(3π/2−ωt)

= Acos ωt

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 16

Particle Velocity and Acceleration

Recall wave velocity: v=λf=ω/k

y ( x, t ) = A cos( kx − ωt )

Transverse velocity of a particle

∂y ( x, t )

vy = = ωA sin( kx − ωt )

∂t

Generally true

Acceleration of a particle

∂ 2 y ( x, t )

a y ( x, t ) = = −ω 2

A cos( kx − ω t ) = −ω 2

y ( x, t )

∂t 2

Proportional to displacement

Opposite direction

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 17

Wave Equation

Since

∂ 2 y ( x, t )

= −ω 2

y ( x, t )

∂t 2

∂ 2 y ( x, t )

= − k 2

y ( x, t )

∂x 2

∂ 2 y ( x, t ) k 2 ∂ 2 y ( x, t )

= 2

∂x 2

ω ∂t 2

1 ∂ 2 y ( x, t )

= 2

v ∂t 2

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 18

Wave Snapshots

15-4. Speed of a Transverse Wave

Method 1: Impulse-momentum theorem

F

v= , speed of a transverse wave on a string

µ

F: tension in string, N

µ=m/L: linear mass density

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 20

Speed of a Transverse Wave

Method 2: Newton’s second law

⎡⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎤

Fy = F1 y + F2 y = F ⎢⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠ x + ∆x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x ⎦

∂2 y

Fy = ma y = µ∆x 2

∂t

⎡⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎤

⎜

⎢ ∂x ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣⎝ ⎠ x + ∆x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x ⎦ = ∂ y = µ ∂ y

2 2

lim

∆x →0 ∆x ∂x 2 F ∂t 2

F

∂2 y 1 ∂2 y

=

v=

Wave equation:

∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 µ

F: tension in string, N

µ=m/L: linear mass density

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 21

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