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# Graphical Representation

y
y vs t:
Motion of a single point in the medium

y vs x:
Snap shot of the whole wave at one instant

## Liu UCD Phy9B 07 15

Phase
General expression: y=Acos(kx-ωt+φ)
y use specific points to determine φ
x=0 y =Acos(- ωt)
= Acosωt

y =Acos(π−ωt)
x=λ/2

x=3λ/4 y =Acos(3π/2−ωt)

## x=λ y =Acos (2π−ωt)

= Acos ωt
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 16
Particle Velocity and Acceleration
Recall wave velocity: v=λf=ω/k

y ( x, t ) = A cos( kx − ωt )
Transverse velocity of a particle
∂y ( x, t )
vy = = ωA sin( kx − ωt )
∂t
Generally true

Acceleration of a particle
∂ 2 y ( x, t )
a y ( x, t ) = = −ω 2
A cos( kx − ω t ) = −ω 2
y ( x, t )
∂t 2
Proportional to displacement
Opposite direction
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 17
Wave Equation
Since
∂ 2 y ( x, t )
= −ω 2
y ( x, t )
∂t 2

∂ 2 y ( x, t )
= − k 2
y ( x, t )
∂x 2

∂ 2 y ( x, t ) k 2 ∂ 2 y ( x, t )
= 2
∂x 2
ω ∂t 2
1 ∂ 2 y ( x, t )
= 2
v ∂t 2

## Valid for waves on a string that have any shape.

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Wave Snapshots

## Liu UCD Phy9B 07 19

15-4. Speed of a Transverse Wave
Method 1: Impulse-momentum theorem

F
v= , speed of a transverse wave on a string
µ
F: tension in string, N
µ=m/L: linear mass density
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 20
Speed of a Transverse Wave
Method 2: Newton’s second law

⎡⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎤
Fy = F1 y + F2 y = F ⎢⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎣⎝ ∂x ⎠ x + ∆x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x ⎦
∂2 y
Fy = ma y = µ∆x 2
∂t
⎡⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎛ ∂y ⎞ ⎤

⎢ ∂x ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎣⎝ ⎠ x + ∆x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x ⎦ = ∂ y = µ ∂ y
2 2

lim
∆x →0 ∆x ∂x 2 F ∂t 2

F
∂2 y 1 ∂2 y
=
v=
Wave equation:
∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 µ

F: tension in string, N
µ=m/L: linear mass density
Liu UCD Phy9B 07 21