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Version 11

The compilation of texts and pictures has ensued with the greatest amount of care. Never-
theless, mistakes cannot be ruled out completely. The authors cannot accept any liability or
incorrect instructions and their consequences.

All rights are reserved, especially the rights for reproduction, sale and translation. Copy and
reproduction of individual paragraphs and pictures may be made without permission of the
authors given that no commercial use (no sale) ensues and a reference to the source of the
texts and pictures is made. This also applies to photocopying or any other means of repro-
duction, transmission to film, tape, records, OHTs and other media.

7th revised edition

for Grafis version 11

June 2012

translated by Barbara Maria Wentzel-Dickson

7th edition 2012


© 1995-2012
Grafis- Software Dr. Kerstin Friedrich GbR
Klosterstraße 48
41747 Viersen
Germany
Phone: +49-(0)-2162-12114
www.grafis.de

Source of cliparts: “Carsten Scheibes Clip-Art-CD-Rom“, Systhema Verlag, Vol.1 and Vol.2
“80.000 Cliparts“, 4CDs, Ari Data, Willich
Cover illustration: Diplom Grafik-Designerin Jutta Höfs, Viersen
Contents
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Introduction 7 Chapter 6
Point, line and direction construction
Chapter 1
6.1 Line construction in conjunction with
Calling basic blocks the sub-menu point construction 70
1.1 Important rules for work with Grafis 9 6.2 Point construction 77
1.2 Starting Grafis 10 6.3 Line constructions 79
1.3 Calling basic blocks 12 6.4 Line with direction construction 82
1.4 Alter the screen display 12 6.5 Circle arcs 87
1.5 Quit Grafis 13 6.6 Rectangles 88
1.6 Exercises 13 6.7 Exercises 88
Chapter 2 Chapter 7
Grading Measurements and annotation
2.1 Work with measurement charts 16 7.1 Temporary measuring 93
2.2 Size Table 21 7.2 Finished measurements 96
2.3 Grading with measurement charts 22 7.3 Set and edit text 99
2.4 Adjust interactive construction 23 7.4 Set symbols 102
2.5 Exercises 25 7.5 Interactive tools for buttonholes and
bartack 103
Chapter 3
7.6 Attributes 105
Extracting pieces and pattern output
7.7 Interactive Seam Tools 106
3.1 Extracting pieces 28 7.8 Hatching 107
3.2 When help is needed 30 7.9 Markingline function for the creation of
3.3 Pattern output 31 templates 108
3.4 Stack 34 7.10 Exercises 109
3.5 Drag, rotate, flip parts 35
3.6 Rolling parts 37 Chapter 8
3.7 Exercises 38 Darts and pleats
8.1 Relocate dart 112
Chapter 4
8.2 Shorten dart 115
Create and alter perimeter
8.3 Hoods on darts and pleats 116
4.1 The Grafis data structure 40 8.4 Pinch with new dart 117
4.2 The construction record 40 8.5 Spread for pleats, pivot open and close 118
4.3 Geometrical basics 41 8.6 Exercises 119
4.4 Deleting objects 43
4.5 Parallels 44 Chapter 9
4.5.1 Interactive tools and non-interactive Curve construction and manipulation
functions 44 9.1 Construction of curves 124
4.5.2 The parallel menu 45 9.2 Manipulate curves 129
4.5.3 The parallel function 45 9.3 Exercises 130
4.5.4 The Parallel 10 tool 46 9.4 Curve correction for classic curves 132
4.6 Corners 47
4.7 Exercises 51 Chapter 10
Transformation
Chapter 5
10.1 Transformation 136
Easy line functions 10.2 Insert with transformation 141
5.1 Linking lines 54 10.3 Complex Exercises 144
5.2 Raster 58
5.3 Lengthening and shortening lines 61
5.4 Cut, “cut on“ and separate lines 62
5.5 The Front edge 30 tool 65
5.6 Exercises 66
4 Contents
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Chapter 11 Chapter 16
The construction parameter x value Grade Rule Grading
11.1 The x values 150 16.1 Digitizing the pattern perimeter 244
11.2 Size-dependent adjustment of interactive 16.2 Overview of assigning grade rules 249
constructions 157 16.3 Edit grade rules 250
11.3 The x value reference 159 16.4 Save Grade Rule Pattern 254
11.4 The alternative reference size 159 16.5 Edit grade rule patterns, drag and transfer
11.5 Exercises on x values 166 grade rules 255
16.6 Digitize grade rules 259
Chapter 12 16.7 Transfer grade rules 262
The construction parameter g and z values 16.8 Extract grade rule pattern 264
12.1 The g values 170 16.9 Create, use and edit a grade rule library 265
12.2 The z values 171 16.10 Group grade points 267
12.3 Complex Exercises 174 Chapter 17
Chapter 13 Layplanning
Interactive Constructions 17.1 The fastest way to a layplan 272
13.1 Interactive Bodice 50 178 17.2 Preparations in Grafis Construction 272
13.2 Interactive Sleeve 30 188 17.3 Structure of the Grafis Layplan 273
13.3 Additional functions for adjusting 17.4 Create production style 274
interactive constructions 194 17.5 Edit layplan information 277
13.4 Reconstruct a digitized template pattern 17.6 Layplanning 280
with an interactive construction 196 17.7 Functions of Layplanning menu 283
13.5 Designing the call list 198 17.8 Additional functions in the Layplan and
View pull-down menus 286
Chapter 14 17.9 Plot layplan 286
Part organisation
Chapter 18
14.1 Hereditary automatic 202
Layplanning II
14.2 Part organisation 205
14.3 Difference between the functions of the 18.1 Alterations to the production style 290
menus insert and duplicate/ connection part 18.2 Organise styles 291
in the part organisation 206 18.3 Repeat 292
14.4 Modifying mother parts 207 18.4 Shrinkage 296
14.5 Reset ‘Clicks’ 208 18.5 Spreading type 297
14.6 Complex Exercises 216 18.6 Fault areas 298
18.7 Categories 298
Chapter 15 18.8 Step lay (free mode) 300
Export and Import 18.9 Layplan sequence 301
15.1 Preparation for export in the Grafis 18.10 Hem position 301
construction program 232 18.11 Line types 301
15.2 Export formats and their particularities 233 18.12 Material catalogue/ material pre-selection 302
15.3 The export dialogues 233 18.13 Overlap areas 302
15.4 Step-by-step guide for export in 18.14 Exchangeable pieces 303
AAMA/ ASTM/ DXF format 235 18.15 Additional options 304
15.5 Step-by-step guide for export in 18.16 Cutter output 305
EPN format and transfer to Gerber 236 18.17 Autonester 306
15.6 Special settings and errors during export 237
15.7 Manual export 238
15.8 Import of grade rule patterns 239
Contents 5
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

The following Chapter and Appendices can be found


exclusively in the Grafis Help, which is opened from
within the Grafis program via the Help pull-down
menu.

Chapter 19
Programming Language I
19.1 A simple program: square 308
19.2 Data basis and user interface 309
19.3 Rules for programming 313
19.4 Program: Gradeable rectangle 314
19.5 Program: Collar band 316
19.6 Program: Skirt 320
19.7 General guidelines 325
Chapter 20
Programming Language II
20.1 Subjects for advanced users 328
20.2 Automatic length adjustment 334
20.3 Collar neck with minimum as external
function 337
20.4 Shirt collar construction 339
20.5 Construction component shoulder seam
relocation 341
Appendix A
New in Version 11
A.1 New in the Grafis Construction program 347
A.2 New in the Grafis Layplanning program 348
A.3 New in the Interactive constructions 348
Appendix B
Install and set up Grafis
B.1 Grafis Installation 351
B.2 System adjustment Grafis Setup 353
B.3 Grafis directory structure 358
B.4 Grafis.ini parameter 359
B.5 Printer/Plotter Setup 365
B.6 Plotter adjustment and printer/plotter in a
network 367
B.7 Settings for EPN export to Gerber 369
Appendix C
Install and set up Autonester 371

Appendix D
Install and set up Plotmanager 377
Introduction
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

The Grafis system The Textbook and the training courses


The Grafis system includes first pattern develop- This textbook is designed to allow for an autodidac-
ment, grading and an industry standard layplanning tic introduction to Grafis and/or can be used as
system. Patterns can be graded by application of the teaching support material during Grafis training
construction system or using grade rules. courses.
During the styling process Grafis internally creates a Training courses Grafis I and Grafis II are offered in
record of the modification steps. The record can Viersen/ Germany. Chapters 1 to 10 of the Grafis
then be re-called to create other sizes automatically Textbook form the content of training course Grafis
thus, eliminating incremental grading. I. Chapters 11 to 17 of the Textbook are covered in
Grafis also records how patterns are derived from Grafis II. Special emphasis is given to digitising of a
one another, capturing the interdependence of the style or nest and its further application when dealing
pieces. Alterations made to one piece are automati- with Chapter 16 “Grade Rule Grading“.
cally applied to all interdependent pieces.
The Grafis programming language, content of Chap-
Construction parameters can be applied during
ters 19 and 20, form Grafis III. It is advisable to learn
pattern development. This enables the user to com-
about the content of Grafis III if the user wishes to
fortably modify already finished patterns by simply
• generate individual constructions or construction
changing the construction parameters.
modules using the Grafis programming language,
• create an individual construction system or
Prerequisites
• obtain comprehensive knowledge of system
The following are requirements for learning to use installation and system maintenance. This knowl-
Grafis: edge is helpful in particular for those responsible
• basic knowledge in the use of computers, in for CAD in larger clothing companies.
particular the use of keyboard and mouse as well
All chapters of the textbook are available for
as working with files and folders and
download from the internet in English and German.
• good knowledge of garment pattern cutting.
The application of Grafis can also be learned without Outlook
knowledge of garment pattern cutting for example
Grafis can only be used at its optimum if the user is
for use in the upholstery industry. Grafis replaces
comprehensively trained. To further training, the
the user's pencil, ruler and set-square but not the
Grafis Team continue to make available a free train-
pattern cutters' knowledge.
ing version. A CD with videos to accompany the
textbook is in process. Current information and
downloads are published under www.grafis.de.

Viersen, June 2012


Chapter 1 Calling basic blocks
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Contents This chapter first explains important rules for work


1.1 Important rules for work with Grafis................. 9 with Grafis. Then, you learn how to start and quit
1.2 Starting Grafis................................................... 10 the Grafis system and the organisation of the Grafis
1.3 Calling basic blocks........................................... 12 screen.
1.4 Alter the screen display.................................... 12
1.5 Quit Grafis........................................................ 13
1.6 Exercises .......................................................... 13
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1.1 Important rules for work with Grafis

Grafis measurements The right mouse button is the “retreat key” and is
Grafis works with the following measurements: used for abort / end of a function or return to the
length next higher level menu. The position of the cursor is
distance mm (millimetres) of no consequence.
radius The mouse wheel is used for scrolling the screen
and zoom.
body measures mm (millimetres)
angle degrees (right angle =90°) Function key assignment
direction The function keys F1 to F12
area mm2 (square millimetres) are assigned special functions
per cent 0-100% in Grafis. Here, an overview
relative length of the functions with refer-
Please note that all length and distance values are ence to the chapter where
displayed and entered in millimetres. they are explained in more detail:
Function chapter
Mouse keys in Grafis
F1 call context related help 3.2
In all texts of this book the symbols and are zoom screen content in / out 1.4
F2
used for the left and right mouse button.
F3 move / rotate / flip parts and roll 3.5
The left mouse button is the “do-key” in Grafis two parts 3.6
and is used for selection, click and activating (picture F4 refresh screen 1.4
1-1). F5 part positioning 3.1
F6 centre screen content 1.4
Left mouse key
Selection, Click, Activate F7 Show / hide measurements 7.2
Right mouse key
Abort, Return, End F8 Toggle between pieces in their 3.5
original position and their posi-
tion after dragging with <F3>
F11 calculator function for calcula- 12.2
tion of z values
F12 Display of called interactive 2.4
Mouse wheel constructions in the style
Scrolling the screen, zoom

Picture 1-1
10 Chapter 1 Calling basic blocks
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Further important rules


The decimal symbol is the point (.).
e.g.: 10.4 45.2° 67.9% 12.7cm2
Text and value entries are to be
completed with <ENTER>.

To abort a text or value entry press


<ESC>.

The data base is explained in detail in chapter 4.1.


It is organised in Grafis as follows:
drives according to hard and software Picture 1-2
A:,...,Z:
collection folders and subfolders in The Select measurement system dialogue
folders \Grafis\Basis_d\Kollekt The examples and exercises relate to the system
styles saved as *.mdl files in the collec- Optimass (Basis_d). The information also applies to
tion folders or sub-folders. all other measurement systems.
parts max. 500 parts per style As soon as you have selected a measurement sys-
objects points, lines, texts, hatching, con- tem, more information about it is displayed in the
struction record, construction right part of the screen. The selected measurement
parameter etc. system is started by pressing <ENTER> or double
click with on the respective line or clicking Select
Measurement System.
1.2 Starting Grafis In the case of Open..., after having started a meas-
urement system, the Open style dialogue appears
Step-by-step guide to starting Grafis (Picture 1-3).
⇒ Click the relevant icon on the desktop or dou-
The Open style dialogue
ble-click onto grafis.exe in the folder \Grafis
⇒ Open the File pull-down menu (Picture 1-2) and In the Open style dialogue first select the drive and
click on New... or Open... then the required collection folder. Styles can be
⇒ Select the required measurement system generated only in collection folders and their sub-
⇒ For the option Open…: Select drive and collec- folders. The file name field remains blocked until a
tion folder collection folder has been selected by double-
⇒ For the option Open...: Double-click onto an clicking. Then, a new file / style name can be en-
existing style or enter a new style name in the tered (Picture 1-3).
File name field and press <Enter>.

Display options:
Open a new subfolder
- detail or List view
- preview part list or
style
Styles in folder Alpha

Subfolder in the collection


folder Alpha on drive C:

Entry of new style name

Picture 1-3
Chapter 1 Calling basic blocks 11
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Create a new collection folder Naming a new style


Select the drive where the collection folder should The name for a style or
be created. If applicable, go up one level to the par- a folder may consist of
the numbers 0...9, the
ent folder with and then open the new folder letters A...Z and the
special characters “-“
with . The collection folder can be structured [hyphen] and “_“ [un-
with up to 7 subfolders. derscore].
The style name
Delete styles and folders A03HGTRD would be
The Open Style dialogue also permits deleting folders correct. However, you
and styles. Select the folder or the style and click should apply content
relevant and systematic names as it is difficult to
to delete it. The style or the folder including all keep track of your styles, otherwise.
styles is deleted after a security check. Start Grafis and select File | Open…. Open the new
Note: If Grafis cannot delete the folder, there are style “Start” in the folder Alpha. Double-click on the
further files situated within this folder. folder Alpha and enter the style name “Start”. After
Make regular backups of your styles and measure- having clicked on Open or pressing <ENTER> the
ment charts from the beginning. This is the only way style is generated and can be edited.
your data can be restored after a hard disk failure,
for example. The Grafis basic menu
The Grafis basic menu appears on screen (picture
1-4). Compare it with your screen.

Collection folder: Alpha


Style name: jacket Control of
Measurement system: 50-Werte-OPTIMASS construction record

Work area
for the construction

Function strip of the basic menu


With the left mouse button you select the function.
With the right mouse button you return to this menu.

Current part: Current size:


number, name ___N38_0

Picture 1-4
12 Chapter 1 Calling basic blocks
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

1.3 Calling basic blocks 1.4 Alter the screen display


Step-by-step guide Overview
⇒ In the basic menu: click call The patterns can be displayed on screen in scales
⇒ Select the required basic from approx. 100:1 to 1:100. The setting is infinitely
block. Information will be variable or can be controlled with certain values.
displayed in text and im- The function keys F2, F3, F4, F6, the arrow keys and
ages the mouse wheel are used for adjusting the screen
⇒ Double-click the required display. They have the following significance:
construction to start it Function
The function call F2 Zoom in/zoom out screen contents
All basic blocks available in the selected F3 Drag/turn parts towards one another and
measurement system can be started wit the roll two parts (sections 3.5 and 3.6)
function call. F4 Refresh screen
Under General you can find constructions F6 Centre screen contents
that can be called in a number of measurement
The construction is not influenced
by the changes to the screen dis-
play.
Move / zoom with the mouse
wheel
The screen display can be altered at
any point with the mouse wheel.
The following applies:
move up/down
wheel only
move right/left
<Shift>+ wheel
zoom
<Ctrl>+ wheel
Drag / Zoom
Patterns can be enlarged/
List of available Information about the construction reduced in stages or moved
constructions on the screen with the
Drag/Zoom function in the Edit pull-
Picture 1-5 down menu or from the toolbox.
systems. The section Optimass (Basis_d) contains After having clicked Drag/Zoom a
constructions that can only be called in the current magnifying glass with the following functions ap-
measurement system. pears:
enlarge click left mouse button
Calling a basic block reduce click right mouse button
A selected basic block (picture move keep left mouse button pressed
1-5) is called by double-click. Enlarging and reducing ensues with the magnifying
Start Grafis Bodice 50. Your glass as the centre. Click the relevant points or lines
first basic block is displayed on with . Reduce with and move the mouse with
screen. Before calling a differ- pressed left mouse button.
ent basic block click on reset in
the basic menu and then click
on test run. The previously
called basic block is thus reset.
Chapter 1 Calling basic blocks 13
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Centre picture with <F6> 1.5 Quit Grafis


Pressing the <F6>-key automatically adjusts the To quit Grafis select between the following in the
scale and position of the whole construction to dis- pull-down menu File:
play all objects on the screen. The construction is Save
centred on screen. Save the current state of the style under
Zoom in with <F2> the current name.
Press <F2> to zoom into the screen contents. First Save as…
click in the lower left corner of the area to be Save the current state of the style under a new
enlarged. Move the mouse to open a rectangle. name and/or a new drive (disk/ net drive) and/or
Extend the rectangle to the top right (Picture 1-6) a new folder.
and click again . Close
If the style has not been saved a security
2nd click point question appears.

1.6 Exercises
1st Exercise
Start the measurement system Optimass (Basis_d),
call the basic block Bodice 10 and save the style as
1st click point “Bodice“ in the collection folder Alpha.
Quit working on the style “Bodice” via File | Close.
Open a new style with File | New… , call the basic
block Trouser 10 and save the style as “Trousers” in
the Alpha collection folder. Quit Grafis via File | Exit
Grafis.
Start Grafis and open the style “Bodice”. Close the
Picture 1-6
style via File | Close.
The rectangle content becomes the screen con- Delete the styles no longer required in the Open
tents. Press the <F6>-key and your complete con-
struction re-appears on screen. style dialogue. Select the styles and click on .
Practise zooming in on various areas of your con-
2nd Exercise
struction. Press <F6> after each zoom operation.
Start Grafis and open a new style via File | New…
Move with arrow keys Click on the call function in the basic menu, select
Use the arrow keys different constructions and study the explanation for
to move the picture. the constructions on the corresponding file cards.
The moving speed is 3rd Exercise
increased by keeping In the measurement system
the keys pressed Optimass (Basis_d) create the
down. new style “Start” and call dif-
Reduce the construc- ferent basic blocks (skirt, trou-
tion and move the screen contents with the arrow ser, bodice) from the General
keys. section. After each call reset the record by clicking
reset.
Refresh screen with <F4>
The <F4>-key rebuilds the whole screen content.
Identical objects lying on top of each other twice,
four or six times cannot be seen on screen as they
delete each other’s image. Objects lying once, three
or five times on top of each other can be seen. After
pressing <F4> objects deleting each other’s image
are always displayed.
Please use this key from time to time as a means of
control.
Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Contents The creation and editing of measurement charts is


2.1 Work with measurement charts ...................... 16 subject of the first part of this chapter. The second
2.2 Size Table ......................................................... 21 part deals with calling basic blocks. Automatic con-
2.3 Grading with measurement charts................... 22 struction of various sizes, also called grading in
2.4 Adjust interactive construction ........................ 23 Grafis, is subject of the third part of the chapter. In
2.5 Exercises .......................................................... 25 the following chapters you will learn about the
______________________ modification functions in Grafis.
Please use the detailed exercises at the end of this
In Grafis, first patterns are originally developed in chapter to consolidate the acquired knowledge. If
the base size. All construction and modification steps you follow the instructions in this chapter your
are registered by imperceptibly creating a record. screen will display the graded basic block shown in
This construction record can be recalled with other this picture.
sizes, thus creating the patterns in the respective
size automatically.
16 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

2.1 Work with measurement charts measurement system (e.g. measurement system for
men, women or children). It is also possible to im-
The construction principle and the generation plement own measurement systems into Grafis.
of measurements Selection of the measurement system ensues when
Grafis works according to the same principle de- starting Grafis, already (see section 1.2).
scribed in textbooks for pattern construction, using Grafis distinguishes between standard measure-
the computer. First patterns are created in three ment charts and individual measurement charts.
stages. Standard measurement charts contain the meas-
First stage: Generating measurement charts con- urements of prepared ’off-the-peg’ sizes. The values
taining body measurements from official or com- and names of these charts cannot be altered. Indi-
pany-specific measurement tables or measurements vidual measurement charts contain measured body
of specific individuals. measurements or body measurements of company-
Second stage: On the basis of measurement charts, specific grade runs. Individual measurement charts
prepared basic constructions such as e.g. bodice, can be altered at all times.
skirt, trousers, and sleeves are calculated. The basic The designation of standard measurement charts
constructions can be adjusted interactively according always begins with “_“. The measurement chart
to fit, design and technological aspects. ___N36_0 is the standard measurement chart for
Third stage: The basic constructions from stage size 36 in the active measurement system.
two are the starting point for styling of the devel- Please note the different indicators for figure types,
opment patterns from which the production pat- such as prefix “S“ for short or prefix “L“ for long
terns will be derived. figure types in some women’s measurement sys-
Thus, the construction principle does not require tems.
grading increments. The basis for generating the first
pattern in the different sizes are measurement Each measurement chart is a single file, stored in
charts. the indicated folder on your computer. Meas-
urement charts are not saved within the style. In
Measurement charts in Grafis particular, your individual measurement charts
Measurement charts are accessible at all times and must be part of your regular data backup.
can be generated for prepared standard sizes, own Measurement charts are edited in the edit measure-
size runs as well as for specific individuals. ment chart dialogue (Picture 2-1), which is accessed
Each measurement chart is valid for a particular via the pull-down menu Extras | Edit measurement
charts. In the centre of the
window, you can see the
existing measurement
charts. On the left hand side
of the list you can decide
which measurement charts
are to be displayed. A filter
for names of measurement
charts can be found below
Filter for type of
measurement chart the list. A number of meas-
urement charts can be se-
lected within the list. A
List of existing context menu with functions
measurement charts
for copying, cutting and
deleting amongst other
options can be opened with
Filter for names
the right mouse button .
You can display measure-
ment charts via the open
button. The type of display
is different for one single
measurement chart and a
number of measurement
Picture 2-1 charts.
Chapter 2 Grading 17
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Generate standard measurement charts Generating “half-sizes”, such as “_N41_0“ or


Step-by-step guide “_N38_0“ is also possible. Simply adjust the settings
⇒ Extras | Edit measurement charts for the size range and the size difference.
⇒ Button New
Generate an individual measurement chart
⇒ Set switch standard/ individual measurement chart
to standard measurement chart Step-by-step guide
⇒ Select the figure type required ⇒ Extras | Edit Measurement Charts
⇒ Enter the required size range and the size differ- ⇒ Button New
ence ⇒ Activate the single individual measurement chart
⇒ Button OK option
⇒ Enter the name for the measurement chart
⇒ Button OK
⇒ Edit the individual measurement chart by enter-
ing the measurements taken on the person into
the table.
Generate an individual measurement chart accord-
ing to the step-by-step
guide. Enter the desired
name for the measure-
ment chart into the name
field, e.g. the name of the
person or a customer
Picture 2-2 number. The name can be
a maximum of 8 charac-
Grafis automatically generates the standard ters long and must not
measurement charts as they are required during begin with “_“. Having
grading. clicked on OK, the pre-

Body measurement Edit/ create body


filter measurement filter

Filter name
Body measurements Constructions for which the
to be displayed body measurements are to be
displayed at all times

Picture 2-3
18 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

liminary individual measurement chart is created. Create a body measurement filter ‘all basic blocks‘
The window for editing the individual measurement and activate all Grafis blocks. Thus, only the meas-
chart opens (Picture 2-3 background). Now, the urements required for this textbook will appear.
individual values must be entered. In the column individual enter a few concrete meas-
urements of a person. The column standard remains
Editing individual measurement charts unassigned. Before the measurement chart can be
Having created a new individual measurement chart saved, the nearest fitting standard measurement
or opened a single individual measurement chart, chart must be selected. Initially, the standard meas-
the dialogue according to Picture 2-3 (background) urement chart is used for pre-assigning the meas-
appears. urements. Furthermore, it is of great significance
when working with x values later on and for the use
Initially, all body measurements available in the cur-
of interactive constructions. First, deactivate the
rent measurement system are displayed. Some mea-
switch Auto BestFit and select a suitable size from
surement systems, such as Optimass contain a large
the combo box on the left. The column difference
number of measurements. The particular body mea-
shows the difference between the measured and the
surement basic blocks apply only certain measure-
pre-set values. Select a different size and then,
ments. The measurements used by the respective
decide on a suitable size.
basic block are listed in the help to the basic block.
The basic block Skirt 10 for example uses the body For automatic search of a fitting standard measure-
measurements hip, waist and waist to hip. The block ment chart, use the BestFit functions (Picture 2-4).
Skirt 30 is a finished measurement construction. It Open the BestFit settings and on the left, select the
does not require body measurements but is adjusted figure types in which a standard measurement chart
interactively via break sizes. is to be searched. First, select only the figure type
for normal sizes. Only when you actually work with
Each user can set up his/her own body measure-
styles for different body types or for example with
ment filter (Picture 2-4) for ease of use. When
men’s sizes in Optimass, select one or more differ-
setting up the filter (picture 2-4 foreground) the
ent figure types, here. On the right hand side of the
measurements to be displayed are selected on the
window you can activate the main measurements
left. In addition, the Grafis basic blocks with which
for BestFit. On the basis of these measurements,
the user works can be selected on the right.
Grafis attempts to suggest a matching standard
measurement chart.

BestFit functions

Picture 2-4
Chapter 2 Grading 19
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

The switch Auto BestFit can be active during entry of There are three edit variations (Picture 2-6):
body measurements. After each value entry, a suit- 1 – Edit measurements and display differences
able size is searched automatically. If the switch is 2 – Edit measurements of the base size and edit
not active, start the search with the button Search differences
BestFit. 3 – Edit measurements
If you want to search for a suitable size yourself, Use the first variation edit measurements and
deactivate Auto BestFit and set up the standard mea- display differences (Picture 2-6), to enter body
surement chart manually, as described. measurements one after the other. The differences
You can enter or edit measurements in an individual to the neighbouring sizes are calculated automati-
measurement chart at any time. Double-click on the cally after each entry.
measurement chart in the list of available measure- Use the second variation edit measurements of the
ment charts (Picture 2-1) displays it according to base size and edit differences (Picture 2-7) if you
Picture 2-3. want to change a body measurement by a fixed
NB: all length measurements must be entered in amount across all sizes or if you want to enter the
mm! The values displayed in bold apply. base size and the differences. The changes are ap-
plied to the sizes linked together. The link is symbol-
Alteration to the basic block/ pattern will become
ised by the respective symbol or in the
effective after recalculating the construction. This
third row and can be altered by clicking.
ensues by clicking on test
run or grading.

Generating an individual
grade run
Step-by-step guide
⇒ Extras | Edit measure-
ment charts continue
with create
⇒ Activate grade run from
individual measurement
charts and select the re-
quired figure type
⇒ Set up size range and
size distance
⇒ Enter designation, e.g.
‚A‘. The designation can
be placed before or after
the number. Alterna-
tively, with free a free Picture 2-5
designation can be given, Edit variations Filter for body measurements
for example for the size
designations XS, S, M, L,
XL.
⇒ Continue with OK. The
individual measurement
charts of your grade run
are offered for editing
according to Picture 2-6.
Values

Differences to
the neighbouring size

Picture 2-6
20 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

The third variation edit measurements is the short- Exercises


est view in which all body measurements are en- 1st Exercise
tered one after the other.
Generate an individual measurement chart for Mrs
The TAB - key jumps to the entry for the next size.
BERGER in the OPTIMASS measurement system
The Enter - key jumps to the entry of the next
using BestFit. Edit the following measurements
body measurement. Altered values are marked in
taken of Mrs BERGER:
red. The red marking is reset after saving. Altera-
• bust: 925mm
tions can be undone and reinstated.
• hip: 960mm
Set up an individual grade run according to Picture • waist: 710mm.
2-7. Both grade runs contain 5 sizes each based on
the figure type _N women regular. The two grade Generate individual measurement charts for Mrs
runs differ in their distances between body meas- MEIER and Mrs SCHULZE and alter various values
urements and their values of the respective base size such as bust, hip, shoulder.
40. Delete the measurement
Unlink charts of Mrs MEIER and
Base size
size ranges ’A’ and ’B’
Dragging the first line allows
Mrs SCHULZE.
for value alteration
Edit variation for reorganisation of the
measurement charts.
Generate your own meas-
Ensure you have a suitable urement chart and save it on
organisation! a removable medium via
Extras | Export/Import Meas-
urement Charts.
2nd Exercise
Generate an individual grade
run in the OPTIMASS meas-
urement system for the
figure type _S Women
short, regular hip, size range
34 to 44, size distance 2 and
the prefix ‚Test’. Mark the
size Test38 as base size in
the overview. Use the sec-
ond variation edit meas-
urement of base size and
Picture 2-7 edit differences to edit the
To generate the table in Picture 2-7, both size runs measurements. Alter the
have to be set up separately according to Picture 2-5 differences for the bust to 35mm between sizes 34
with a size range between 36 to 44 respectively. In and 40 and the hip to 45mm. Then, save the individ-
the dialogue edit measurement charts (Picture 2-1) ual grade run.
select all ten measurement charts A36 to A44 and 3rd Exercise
B36 to B44 and click on open. The measurement
Generate an individual measurement chart for Mr.
charts are organised according to their standard
Muller in the OPTIMASS measurement system using
measurement charts. Select the second editing vari-
BestFit. Create a measurement filter which shows
ation and activate the body measurement filter all
only trouser measurements. In the BestFit settings
basic blocks. Now, organise the sizes in the order
define search for mens figure types only. Edit the
shown by dragging in the first line. Then, unlink the
following measurements taken of Mr. Muller:
two grade runs so that alterations apply to one gra-
• hip: 900mm
de run only.
• waist: 670mm
• thigh: 555mm
Chapter 2 Grading 21
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

2.2 Size Table into the size table, activate the option standard
measurement charts and select the desired figure
Calling the size table type. The option individual measurement charts
Calling this menu ensues via Extras | Size Table. lists all available individual measurement charts. In
Open the size table and read the explanations in case the required individual measurement chart
picture 2-8. does not appear in the list, it has to be created, see
The contents of the size table section 2.1.
With each style a size table is saved. The first posi- Then, click on the measurement chart to be entered
tion of the size table shows the measurement chart into the size table. The current line for entry auto-
used for pattern development, the base size. In the matically moves one position downwards so that
Optimass measurement system, size N38 is entered entry can continue without interruption. A number
automatically. The user can enter a different meas- of measurement charts can be selected and trans-
urement chart as base size at any point, even an ferred at the same time. Using the right mouse
individual measurement chart. All other measure- button terminates entry.
ment charts required for the style are entered into To remove measurement charts from the size
the other positions of the size table. table select the measurement chart or a number of
Pattern development ensues on the base size. Grad- measurement chart with <Shift> or <Ctrl>. Click-
ing means automatic application of the registered ing on the delete button or using the <Del> key
construction record to the activated measurement removes the measurement chart(s) from the size
charts contained in the size table. Automatic re- table but not from the list of available measurement
construction is possible because Grafis has regis- charts. The measurement chart can be re-entered in
tered all construction steps and repeats those with the size table to be available for grading.
other measurement charts. As not all measurement charts in the size table are
to be graded each time, a selection option is inte-
Entry and alteration in the size table grated in Grafis. The measurement charts to be
To insert a measurement chart, click on the de- graded are marked with “;“ in the size table (acti-
sired position in the column of measurement charts. vated). By clicking you can toggle between activated
A window appears to the right of the size table “;“ and deactivated “…“.
showing all available standard measurement charts A simple operation is offered by dragging the
and all available individual measurement charts. If mouse with pressed left mouse button. Thus, en-
you want to insert standard measurement charts

„;“ active Consecutive number


„…“ inactive Automatic construction ensues
for automatic construction in this order.

Selection options for


the list of available
measurement charts
For standard
measurement charts, the
figure type must also be
selected.

List of available
standard measurement
X value reference
charts or individual
(Chapter 11)
measurement charts
The list appears after
Description / name of
having clicked on a
measuerement chart
measurement chart
position in the size table.

Picture 2-8
22 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

tries in the size table can be copied quickly to the struction is to be considered, already. Construction
next position. This applies to the symbol “;“ and with Grafis thus does not become more difficult but
empty measurement chart positions. more elegant and more interesting.
Edit measurement charts displays all measurement
Start grading
charts of all sizes contained in the size table in the
form of a table. Grading is started with:
Basic menu --> grading
Exercise
Only sizes entered into the
In this exercise, a size table similar to Picture 2-8 is
size table and activated will be
to be generated.
graded.
After having opened a new style the size table con-
tains size N38 as base size. Enter size N36 onto the Create a size table according
second position. Click the second position in the to Picture 2-8 and call the Bodice 10. Start grading.
measurement chart column. The window with all The bodice construction appears on your screen in
available measurement charts opens to the right. the sizes N34 to N46.
Select the measurement chart type standard meas-
The base size always appears in blue on a white
urement charts and the figure type “_N women
screen or in yellow on the black screen!
regular“. Click on the sizes “__N36_0“ and
“__N38_0“. The measurement charts appear on the Enter the short sizes “__S36“ to “__S46“ into the
2nd and 3rd position of the size table. Click to size table and deactivate the sizes already graded.
terminate the process. Start grading and your screen displays all previously
Toggle between active and not active for these mea- graded sizes plus the short sizes. Alteration in the
surement charts by clicking on the position number size table lead to grading of further sizes but not to
“; 02“ a few times. deleting already graded sizes. To refresh the screen
Now select the 4th position and select the sizes test run or a different record function from the basic
“__N42_0“ to “__N46_0“ from the list of meas- menu must be started. Then you can grade anew.
urement charts on the right with the left mouse
Exercise
button pressed down. Select the figure type “_S
women short, normal hip“ for short sizes and trans- Activate all measurement charts in the size table and
fer the sizes “__S36“ to “__S46“ to the following grade.
positions. Select all short sizes and remove them Activate the base size and the short sizes, only in the
from the size table. size table and grade. Start test run from the basic
Now arrange the other measurement charts dis- menu and then grading again. On the screen you can
played in the size table as you have just learned. see the basic block in the base size and the short
Have all measurements of the sizes in the size table sizes.
displayed with Edit measurement chart. Start other basic blocks and grade them. Reject the
graded basic blocks by clicking reset in the basic
2.3 Grading with measu- menu. Change the size table also.
rement charts Note
It is to be recommended to use grading
Grading in Grafis
from time to time during construction as
In Grafis grading is an auto- a test. A number of extreme measure-
matic similar construction. ment charts should be activated in the
All construction steps of the size table, e.g. N36, N46 and N54.
base size are repeated with This allows you to check the construc-
the measurement charts to be tion steps as you go and avoids having to
graded. During construction reset at a later date.
the succeeding similar con-
Chapter 2 Grading 23
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

2.4 Adjust interactive construction Activate construction


All constructions loaded into the style can be acti-
Step-by-step guide vated with either
⇒ Call construction (see section 1.3) • double-click on the respective construction or
⇒ Activate construction with double-click or from • <F12> in the list of interactive constructions
the overview with <F12> (Picture 2-9).
⇒ Set options for the construction
⇒ Activate drag areas and adjust the construction;
use raster and also compare.

Menu for interactive constructions

load shape
save shape

break sizes

Picture 2-9
The list of interactive constructions (Picture 2-9)
raster
contains all constructions called into the style and
the number of the part into which they were called.
They are listed according to part numbers. The
window on the right contains a preview of the se-
lected construction. A construction is activated with
+/-magnet double-click or selection and Start.
+/-ruler
Set options
After having activated a construction the menu for
+/-comments
interactive constructions appears.
+/-options
+/-values
+/-measurements
set measurements
+/-compare
set comparison
+/-stack
set stack

alteration steps Picture 2-10


There are a greater or smaller number of options
original state
undo alteration step available for each construction. The list of options
redo alteration step (Picture 2-10) opens by switching to
+options in the right menu. The options
window can be resized as required. A
end scroll bar appears at the edge of the window if not
abort all options are visible. The active option is high-
lighted (Picture 2-10 top left). Using the arrow keys,
the mouse wheel or altering the slider to the left of
the image alters the active option. A different option
is selected by clicking.
help for construction The alteration of an option is immediately applied to
the construction behind. We recommend working
24 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

with a reduced option window so that you can fol- The curve is altered ...
low the alterations to the construction. free
symmetrical
Exercise asymmetrical
Open a new style and call the basic block Skirt 20 The angle is altered ...
into part 001. Activate the construction. Set the free
following options (Picture 2-10): symmetrical
• contour identical side seams asymmetrical
• adjust waist at side seam: yes The point slides along a line.
• link hem direction at side seam
A drag point is activated by clicking. The point addi-
Drag areas
tionally marked with a green rectangle is the
Each construction has one or more drag areas. The
active drag point.
drag areas are selected via the context menu which
opens with right mouse The value window
click. The drag areas (Picture 2-12) contains
were introduced to give the values for the ac-
greater control so that tive drag point. Only
not too many points can one or two size-
be altered at the same dependent values can
time. After having acti- exist per drag point.
vated an interactive con- Two values exist only if
struction the first drag the point with cursor Picture 2-12
area is active. It is indi- can be moved free
cated by a tick mark in in x and y direction.
the context menu (Pic- Picture 2-11
ture 2-11). Dragging a point
Each drag point can be altered
Drag points
• interactively by dragging the point or
In the drag area small red points appear at the con- • by entering a value directly into the value win-
struction. With these so-called drag points the con- dow.
struction can be altered interactively. Close to a
drag point a symbol at the cursor indicates how this When dragging a point interactively the raster can
drag point can alter the construction. The following be switched on. Click on one of the numbers 00
symbols may appear: 01 05 10 25 25 in the menu on the right. The
The drag point is moved ... value attached to the drag point behaves according
free to the selected raster. To deactivate the raster set it
in x direction only to 00.
in y direction only With +values the value is displayed at
free, symmetrical the cursor during dragging.
in x direction only, symmetrical
in y direction only, symmetrical Switch to +compare to show a compari-
free, asymmetrical son with the state of alteration at the last
click of set comparison or the original
in x direction only, asymmetrical
state.
in y direction only, asymmetrical
By clicking <= or => you can
undo alteration steps or redo
them. The state “00“ corresponds
with the original state.
Chapter 2 Grading 25
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Save/ load shape


Clicking save shape saves the
current adjustments of the con-
struction as a shape. Clicking
load shape opens the list of
available shapes for the construction. Shapes are
saved with date, time, computer name and user
name. Double-click opens a different shape from the
list.

Exercise
Adjust the following on the prepared Skirt 20:
• the skirt length to 650mm in the Line relocation
area
• close the 2nd dart in the Dart front area
• close the 2nd dart in the Dart back area
• the side seam adjustment to 0mm in the Hem 2nd Exercise
area Grade the basic block Skirt 10 in the sizes N38,
N40, N42, N44 and N46.
Save the adjusted shape and the style as
“Straight skirt“. It will be the basis for exercises
in the following chapters.
Grade the construction in the sizes N38 to N46.
The result is shown in Picture 2-13.

3rd Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and grade in the sizes
N38, N40, N42, N44 and N46.

Picture 2-13

2.5 Exercises
1st Exercise
Grade the basic block Skirt 20
in the sizes N38, N40, N42,
N44 and N46.
26 Chapter 2 Grading
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

4th Exercise Adjust the following in the Shoulder dart area:


Grade the basic block Trouser 10 in the sizes N38, • close shoulder dart
N40, N42, N44 and N46. Adjust the following in the Neckline area:
• increase neckline by 5mm at shoulder, centre
front and centre back
Adjust the follwing in the Shoulder area:
• relocate shoulder by 10mm to the front
Save the adjusted shape and the style as “Shirt
blouse“. It will be the basis for exercises in the
following chapters.
6th Exercise “Bodice with vertical panel seams“
Open a new style, call the basic block Bodice 10 into
part 001 and activate it. Set the following options:

5th Exercise “Shirt blouse“


Open a new style, call the basic block Bodice 10 into
part 001 and activate it. Set the following options:

• centre back fold


• position shoulder dart as bust dart
• position waist dart back relative to waist
• length waist dart to hem
• link hem direction at side seam
• panel seam in the back: yes
• 8 segments
Adjust the following in the Tolerance horizon-
tal+vertical area:
• tolerance at bust: 60mm
• centre back fold
• tolerance at waist: 55mm
• straight side seam
• tolerance at hip: 60mm
• bust dart in side seam
• tolerance at across bust: 10mm
• link hem direction at side seam
• tolerance at across back: 10mm
• 4 segments
• tolerance at shoulder width front/back: 10mm
Adjust the following in the Tolerance horizon- Adjust the following in the Line relocation area:
tal+vertical area: • length to 750mm
• tolerance at bust: 100mm
Adjust the following in the Bust dart area:
• tolerance at hip: 100mm
• position dart at 50% of shoulder seam
• tolerance at across bust: 15mm
• loosen armhole: 5mm
• tolerance at across back: 15mm
• tolerance at shoulder width: 10mm Save the adjusted shape and the style as “Bodice
with vertical panel seams“. It will be the basis for
Adjust the following in the Bust dart area:
exercises in the following chapters.
• loosen armhole by 20mm
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Contents Grafis. The next section of this chapter deals with


3.1 Extracting pieces .............................................. 28 the output of constructed patterns to a printer or
3.2 When help is needed........................................ 30 plotter. At the end of the chapter you learn about
3.3 Pattern output.................................................. 31 stacking different sizes of a part, positioning and
3.4 Stack................................................................. 34 rolling a part in relation to another part.
3.5 Drag, rotate, flip parts...................................... 35 Please use the exercises at the end of the chapter to
3.6 Rolling parts...................................................... 37 solidify your knowledge gained in this chapter. After
3.7 Exercises .......................................................... 38 having completed this chapter you will be able to
______________________ grade and output the basic blocks contained in
Grafis and to stack the patterns.
Extracting pieces is the subject of the first paragraph
of this chapter, followed by the help functions in
28 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

3.1 Extracting pieces ⇒ Show part(s) from which lines and objects are to
Style development with Grafis ensues in three be inserted into the active part and remove all
stages: other parts.
• Call and adjust the basic block ⇒ Quit the part organisation dialogue with the right
mouse button.
• Develop a draft with all required design ele-
⇒ Basic menu --> insert
ments
⇒ Select the type of object to be inserted
• Derive the production patterns such as front,
by activating points, lines or parts below
back, waistband, facings, lining etc.
select object:
The parts from these developmental stages are
⇒ Click objects in the inactive parts displayed in
connected so that alterations to the basic block are
black on white screen or in white on black
applied to the draft pattern und thus, to the produc-
screen. The inserted objects appear in a different
tion patterns.
colour (red) and, after having pressed <F5>
This section initially deals with the extraction of
removed from the donor part.
pieces. More detailed explanation on part organisa-
⇒ Click on without transformation (without tr.) in-
tion and hereditary automatic can be found in Chap-
serts the objects into the active part. Only then,
ter 14.
will the inserted objects appear in the blue col-
Objects of up to 10 parts can be inserted into our of the active part and can be modified.
each part. ⇒ Press to return to the basic menu.
Step-by-step guide
Open and label parts
⇒ Basic menu --> part organisation or Extras Create a new style “Jacket“, call Bodice 50 and click
| Part organisation... on part organisation in the menu on the right. The
⇒ Create new parts with open dialogue shown in Picture 3-1 opens. In the left
⇒ Enter/Edit the name of the selected part with window you can find the list of all parts of the style.
text or after double-click on the part name Initially, only part 001 with the temporary name
⇒ Click to activate the part into which objects “NN“ is available. By clicking on open in the menu
(points, lines) are to be inserted. The active part on the right you can create further parts in this list.
is highlighted in colour. The active part is highlighted and a preview of the
part appears in centre of the window. Open ten
further parts.

Picture 3-1
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output 29
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Part organisation menu (extract) tions to the mother part. Further information can be
found in Chapter 14.
An ”x“ in the ”visible“ column indicates that the
open new part
respective part is visible. You can click directly into
insert part
this column to make parts visible or not visible. The
move part up active part which is highlighted is always visible. You
move part down can set all parts to not visible by clicking on hide
all. You can make all parts visible by clicking call
duplicate part all. Removed parts are no longer visible on screen
duplicate part to… but have not been deleted.
Quit part organisation with a right mouse click.
delete part The selected part is then available for editing. If the
remove part respective part is a mother part, a warning message
appears.
call all During construction the active part is always
hide all displayed in blue on a white screen.

call production pieces In the basic menu all visible parts can be acti-
call ancestors vated by clicking. It is not necessary to open the
call successors part organisation menu to activate a part!
Now select part 002 ”front part 40“, mark part 001
”Bodice 50“ with ”x“ for visible and quit part organi-
text sation with . You are back in the basic menu. The
basic block is visible but displayed in black.
Call the construction Front part 40 from the call list
under Grafis-Bodices | Womens bodices | Front part
End tools. The front and back part tools can either be
bound onto Bodice 10 or Bodice 50. Bodice 50 has
already been called into part 001. To call Front part
Double-click on the first part and enter the name 40, a click onto any line of Bodice 50 is sufficient.
”Bodice 50“. Name the second part “Front 40“ and Now, call the tool Back part 40 into part 003 and
the third part “Back 40” in the same way. To label bind it also onto Bodice 50. Open part organisation,
the other parts use a function from the menu on the activate part 003, leave part 001 visible and quit part
right. First, select part 004 and then, click on text organisation with .
and enter the texts one after the other according to Call the construction Back part 40 from the call list
Picture 3-1. As opposed to editing with double-click, under Grafis-Bodices | Womens bodices | Back part
the line of text for the next part opens automatically tools and bind it onto Bodice 50 with a single line
after pressing <ENTER>. Abort text entry with click, also.
<ESC>. Parts can be deleted or removed from this In the following section, lines and points from part
list with the functions delete and remove. Delete 003 “back part 40” are inserted into part 004. Acti-
means that all record steps are reset; remove means vate part 004 in the list of parts, switch part 001 to
the part is removed from the list. invisible and parts 002 and 003 to visible. Quit part
The part list also contains other important informa- organisation.
tion. The character ”*“ in front of the part number
indicates that this part is a mother part. A mother
part has successor parts that are affected by altera-
30 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Insert objects/ extract objects from another The <F5> key arranges all visible parts of a style
part in a rectangle.
The following important rules apply when inserting Then, swap to the object type ”points“ by clicking
objects: on points and insert also any other points required.
1. To insert an object the part into which the ob- The selected objects are inserted after clicking with-
jects are to be inserted must be active. out transformation in the deposit objects section. Quit
2. The part from which objects are to be extracted the insert menu with .
must be visible on screen but inactive.
3. Objects can only be inserted from parts with a
lower part number into parts with a higher part
number.
Open the insert menu by clicking onto insert in the
menu on the right.
Insert menu
insert objects
points
lines
parts
reset single
reset all
006 005 004
deposit objects
without transformation
move Picture 3-3
turn and move Continue with parts 005 and 006 in the same way
(Picture 3-3). Activate the next part in the part list,
reset hide part 004 “back centre”, keep parts 002 and 003
visible and so on.

Tool Insert In the basic menu the following applies:


points • clicking an inactive part Î activates this part
lines • dragging an inactive part Î removes this
part part to the background memory.

Activate the object type lines by clicking. Now click 3.2 When help is needed
the lines required for finishing the back pattern (Pic-
ture 3-2). The clicked lines appear red or purple and Overview
are positioned to the side of the donor part after ⇒ Constant help in the instructions window or the
pressing <F5>. status line (picture 3-4)
⇒ Context related help via the <F1>-key or via
the pull-down menu Help | Context
Constant help
Constant help is given in the
instructions window or the
status line where the next steps
required are explained. The
instructions window is located in
the top right corner of the work-
ing area. The status line makes
up the lower border of the
Grafis screen (see picture 3-4).
Click transformation in the
basic menu. Read the instructions and close the
transformation menu with .
Picture 3-2
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output 31
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Context related help Grade a basic block in 5 sizes, centre with <F6>
Context related help can be found by pressing the and copy the graded nest to the clipboard via Edit |
<F1>-key or via the pull-down menu Help | Con- Copy (clipboard). Now start a different Windows
text. The relevant textbook chapter opens. application (e.g. Paint) and insert the contents of the
All contents of the help function can be obtained clipboard into this application. Process the graded
with Help | Help topics. nest by changing the line colour, fill in the shapes or
add annotation for example.
Exercise:
Open the delete menu in Grafis by clicking on delete 3.3.2 Output to plotter/printer
in the basic menu. Press <F1>. The textbook chap- Output of patterns to plotters (drawing
ter on the subject ‘delete‘ opens. devices) or printers ensues via the Plot/Print
menu. A special feature of the pattern out-
3.3 Pattern output put function in Grafis is the automatic wrap.
It allows for quick output of full size patterns to
3.3.1 Clipboard small scale printers by dividing the pattern into par-
Grafis supports the Windows clipboard for tial pictures which can be joined subsequently.
processing patterns in other Windows appli- The Plot/Print menu is opened via the File | Plot/
cations. The function Copy (clipboard) in the Print... pull-down menu or from the toolbox.
Edit pull-down menu copies the visible contents of
the Grafis screen to the clipboard. The contents of Preparation of plot picture
the clipboard can be inserted into other Windows ⇒ Set up or change the plotter/printer (plotter
applications such as Word, Paint or Excel to create type, paper format,...)
further material about the style or teaching material ⇒ Click format position centred and press <F6> to
for example. get an overview

Info Box with short help to the


next operation.

In the View pull-down menu you select which


additional windows are displayed.
Grafis beginners require the Status Bar and the
Info Box. As a rule, experienced Grafis operators
require the Status Bar and the Toolbox, only.

Status bar with the help texts


of the Info Box.

Picture 3-4
32 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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Plot/Print menu (Winspool) The control information is sent to a


device attached to the USB port. The
Windows driver is used to spool the vec-
tor data to the device. Please note that
not every driver can perform this func-
tion.
For the following exercises, a Windows-installed A4
printer is sufficient. Further information can be
change plot device
found in the Appendix of the Grafis help function.

The plot format


The measurements of the active format are dis-
played in millimetres under plotformat. The other
plot formats of your output device can be adjusted
enlargement via the Plotter/ Printer Setup.
The plot frame on your screen corresponds with the
printable area of your output device. The content of
adapt enlargement
the plot frame is printed. Press the <F6>-key to
display the plot frame as well as the plot picture.

portrait/landscape Selection of portrait or landscape


place frame
centre frame Clicking portrait/ landscape toggles between portrait
and landscape.
text position
+/- seam allowance Selection of plot scale
The plot scale is adjusted by entering the scale fac-
tor in the enlargement line. The pattern will be re-
horizontal wrap
duced/enlarged for output according to this scale.
automatic wrap
The scale factors mean the following:
vertical wrap
1.0 scale 1:1
0.5 scale 1:2
0.25 scale 1:4 etc.
Adjust to scale 1:2 by entering 0.5 into the field
below enlargement (click, type, <ENTER>) and
start output press the <F6>-key. You will notice that the plot
frame now covers a greater area of the pattern.
Repeat with other scales. Change also between
⇒ Adjust the following settings: portrait and landscape.

portrait or landscape The adapt option adjusts the scale so that the

plot scale with enlargement whole screen content fits the plot frame. Use this

activate the automatic wrap option only for scaled printouts and sketches as it

position the plot frame with align/centre alters the scale!
and/or dragging The scale can also be entered in the Plot file dia-
⇒ Position the frame text
logue, which is accessed via plot device change.
Output of plot picture Position the plot frame
⇒ Click plot (plot picture is generated internally) Positioning the plot frame ensues either by dragging
(cursor on plot frame, press left mouse button and
Change plotter/printer move mouse) or via clicking on the menu functions
The selected output device is displayed under plot align or centre. Practise these options! Align always
device. The extensions mean: positions the pattern at the lower right edge of the
to LPT1 direct output to the parallel port LPT1 frame, optimised for plot output. Centre positions
to File a file with control information for the the plot frame centred over the plot image. Use
output device is generated align for full-scale plots and centre for scaled output
(WIN) output to a device with Windows driver in A4. Practise positioning the plot frame in conjunc-
(DOS) output to a device without Windows tion with format and scale changes.
driver
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output 33
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Activating automatic wrap Positioning the frame text


The automatic wrap is use- A standard annotation at the plot frame can be out-
ful for output of full size put with the picture for easy identification of the
patterns to devices with plot, especially on partial pictures when using auto-
small format, i.e. A4 print- matic wrap. It contains collection and style name,
ers. A raster is superim- part number and field co-ordinates (picture 3-6). By
posed onto the pattern clicking on text position the text is positioned at the
(pictures 3-5 and 3-6) and left, right, upper or lower edge of the plot frame or
each field is output sepa- it is not visible. Position the text at the left plot
rately. The partial pictures frame.
can then be joined together
Select with /without plot frame
frame by frame. The raster
is generated or eliminated
by clicking horizontal wrap
or vertical wrap. Automatic
wrap adjusts the number of
raster so that the complete
pattern lies within the
raster.
Practise the automatic wrap
in conjunction with adjust-
ment of plot scale, portrait /
landscape and positioning of
the plot frame. Apply scale Picture 3-5
1:1 also and press the
<F6>-key from time to time.
Picture 3-7
Clicking on plot device change opens a dialogue with
further plot options. Activating plot with frame out-
puts the frame on the plot. This option should be
active for output with wrap.
Detailed information on the Settings and Print op-
tions dialogues including details on how to set up
plotters/ printers can be found in the appendix.
Output of plot picture

Clicking on output transmits


the control information di-
rectly to the attached output
device (printer/plotter) for
output as an image or in par-
tial images. Naturally, the
output device must be on-
line.
Picture 3-6
34 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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Output to file 3.4 Stack


Output to file is required if your plots
The stack menu
• are to be output onto a plotter not directly at-
tached to your computer and not accessible via a The stack menu is
network or opened via the Extras |
• are to be transferred into a text or drawing soft- Stack pull-down menu
ware as HPGL files. or from the toolbox. With the
Plot to file is only possible for printer/plotters with- functions of this menu, the
out windows driver. If the target for the plot device graded stack of a part can be
in the menu on the right is not yet displayed as “to stacked at a construction point
File:”, open the Grafis – Plot file dialogue via plot or the point of a line. The out-
device change. Select the plotter, click on Settings, lay function spreads all sizes
activate the Edit button, set the option connected to next to one another in the
to ”FILE” and accept the settings. To generate order in which they are listed in
HPGL data select the ‘HPGL-2’ plotter. the size table. The outlay is reset with repeated
stacking or test run.
If output to file is active, the control information is
saved in one or more files (for automatic wrap). Stack menu
After initiating output, you are requested to enter a
file name.
Grafis is not required for output of plot files to a stack point
plotter inland or abroad. It is important that the
control information was generated especially for this
plotter. For example, plot files generated with the direction point
“Algotex (to FILE)” setting can only be read by an
Algotex plotter.
To transfer the file to the plotter click on Start |
Run…and enter set
copy C:\test.plt com2: recorded stack point
in the Open dialogue.
C:\test.plt must be the complete path to the delete
plot file including the name of the plot file. com2: recorded stack point
must be the port to which the plotter is connected.
The copy command cannot be used for output to
USB ports.
Exercises outlay
1st Exercise
Output the basic block Skirt 20 in size 40 in full scale
to an A4-printer. Use +frame and frame text to be
able to join the partial pictures frame by frame af- Step-by-step guide
terwards.
Stack at a construction point or point of a line:
2nd Exercise ⇒ Select stack point and click the stack point in the
construction
Output the following basic blocks onto A4 paper:
⇒ If required: determine direction point in the
• Trouser 10 scale 1:2
same way
• Bodice 10 scale 1:3
• Bodice 20 scale 1:5
Set stack point
If you know how to use Word for Windows or
Having selected stack point opens the sub-menu
CorelDraw, import the plot pictures into these
point construction, which is explained in detail in
systems via the clipboard for processing.
Chapter 6. To learn about the stack function, only
the options shown in Picture 3-8 of this sub-menu
will be explored.
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output 35
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With the option


stack point direction point
• (click p) of the point construction, the
cursor can select only points of the construction
as stack points,
• (click l) of the point construction, only
lines can be clicked,
• click l and <Shift> you can select the starting
point or the end point of a line,
• (intersection) of the point construction,
the intersection of two lines is set as the stack
point by clicking the two lines one after the
other.
click p - points

click l - lines

intersection
of two lines
Picture 3-9
Exercise
Grade the basic block Bodice 10 in the sizes _N36 to
_N48 and stack the part:
• with click p at the bust point,
• with click l and <Shift> at the upper end of the
centre front ,
• with intersection at the centre front at bust line
level,
• in free mode at the sleeve pitch and then, again at
the bust point.
Picture 3-8 Align the piece at the right bust dart line. Then,
stack it at the shoulder/ armhole corner and align it
• The most used option is free mode. In the free
in relation to the front pitch.
mode, no button of the point construction menu
is pushed in. This mode is a combination of click
p, click l, click l and <Shift>.
3.5 Drag, rotate, flip parts
To stack a graded part first, activate set stack point, <F3> or the pull-down menu Edit |
select a suitable option from the sub-menu point Drag/rotate parts opens the drag/rotate
construction and then, click the required stack point menu. Here, parts can be dragged, rotated
of the construction, see Picture 3-9 left. or flipped to one another. Rolling parts, explained in
the following section 3.6, is also controlled via this
Set direction point menu
Having stacked a part at a particular point, a direc- The part to be moved is to be clicked. A drag
tion point can be determined. The patterns remain cursor in form of a crosshair with circle appears
stacked at the stack point. The sizes of the part are offering the following functions:
rotated about the stack point so that the direction
from stack point to direction point is identical in all Drag
sizes, see Picture 3-9 right. Click inside the circle and drag with the left mouse
button pressed down.
Recorded stack point
Rotate
With the function Set recorded stack point a point can
Click outside the circle and rotate with the left
be selected as the stack point for the active part.
mouse button pressed down.
Stacking always ensues at the end of the grade run.
Activating Delete recorded stack point displays the
current stack point. Clicking deletes it.
36 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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Drag/rotate menu <F3> 1:5 for 1/5 scale


1 : 10 for 1/10 scale
drag/rotate
The current scale is indicated immediately below
activate
this button.
set drag cursor
NB: The function keys <F2>, <F4> and <F6>
set drag cursor to point
are still active.
roll Direction
see section 3.6 Rotating the drag cursor in degrees by clicking the
relevant button in the rotate part section. The cur-
rent rotation is indicated immediately below this
button.
Nil rotation of the part
Reset the rotation of the part to nil.
Set drag cursor
select scale The drag cursor can be reset with the sub-menu
point construction, see explanation in the previous
section.
current scale Set drag cursor to point
The part is moved to a constructed point of another
part with the drag cursor.
Drag another part
rotate part After pressing the drag cursor can be moved
quickly to another part and dragged immediately.
End
Dragging is terminated with 2x .
The <F8> function key switches between “parts
in original (construction) position“ and “parts in
transformed working position“.

Exercise
Place parts 001 and 004
from the exercise in
section 3.1 together at
nil the direction the armhole/ side seam
of the part corner and rotate one of
the parts so that you can
current direction check the continuation of
of the part the armhole (Picture 3-
10). Move, rotate and flip
other parts also. Quit the
Flip (mirror) drag/ rotate menu with
Click the symmetry axis about which the part is to .
be flipped (mirrored). Press also the <F8>
Additional functions key. The parts have now
After having clicked on a part, the following func- been returned to their
tions are also available: original position. Pressing
<F8> again shows the
Scale parts as previously posi- Picture 3-10
Adjust the display scale by clicking tioned.
1 : 0.2 for 5 times enlargement With <F5> all parts are arranged in a rectangle.
1:1 for scale 1:1 (original size) Now press <F8> again.
1:3 for 1/3 scale
Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output 37
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3.6 Rolling parts ⇒ terminates line selection in the stationary


Roll parts along one another can also be part.
found in the drag/rotate menu, accessed via ⇒ Determine start point for rolling in the part to be
the <F3> key or via the pull-down menu moved.
Edit | Move parts, see section 3.5. ⇒ Determine start point for rolling in the stationary
part.
Roll parts in Drag/rotate menu <F3>
Exercise concerning roll
drag/ rotate Roll the panel seams of parts 004 and 005 from the
see section 3.5 exercise in section 3.1 along another. Carry out the

activate roll
set roll

roll: select size


roll: set new start point

The right principle 3.

With the right principle not only the objects are 4. 1.


determined when clicking the line/curve but a direc- 2.
tion in which the object is to be used for the in-
structed construction.
6. 5.
Picture 3-12
exercise according to the above step-by-step guide
and consider the click succession in Picture 3-12.
Having correctly determined the roll lines and the
start points, the drag cursor appears on part 004.
Rolling ensues via dragging the drag cursor. Flip is
Picture 3-11 possible even during rolling.
Grafis supports the operator with the so-called Adjust roll
“right principle cursor” which also contains a direc- With roll: set new start point new start points can
tion indicator, see Picture 3-11. be selected. Setting new start points is useful where
Set roll ease has been included and the line sections are to
be checked one after the other. In the example in
Step-by-step guide:
Picture 3-12, set the two intersections with the
⇒ Select set roll from the menu
waist lines as new start position for roll.
⇒ Click one or more roll lines in the part to be
Roll ensues in the base size only. Occasionally, other
moved. The roll direction must be considered
sizes are to be checked as well as the base size.
and communicated to the system with the help
Activate roll: select size. All sizes in which both
of the right principle.
parts are available will be offered. Select a size and
⇒ terminates line selection in the part to be
roll.
moved.
Switching to the drag mode from section 3.5 is pos-
⇒ Click one or more roll lines in the part to remain
sible via activate drag/rotate. Switching from the
stationary. Here, the roll direction must also be
drag mode back to the last set roll mode is possible
communicated.
via activate roll.
38 Chapter 3 Extracting pieces and pattern output
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3.7 Exercises 3rd Exercise


Grade the basic block Bodice 20 in the sizes 38 to 46
1st Exercise and stack at the side seam / armhole corner point.
Grade the basic block Trouser Print the pattern in 1:4 scale onto A4 paper.
10 in the sizes 38 to 46 and
stack the pattern at the dart
apex of the trouser front. Print
the shown trouser front full
size onto A4.

The basic block Bodice 20 is prepared for fin-


ished measurement construction. Only the verti-
cal measurements are taken from the measure-
ment charts. The horizontal measurements are
2nd Exercise adjusted interactively according to finished
Grade the basic block Skirt 20 in the sizes 38 to 46 measurement lists. Further information on size-
and stack at the hip point of the skirt front. Output dependent adjustment of interactive construc-
the pattern onto A4 in reduced scale. tions can be found in Chapter 13.
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Inhalt First you will learn valuable information about the


4.1 The Grafis-data structure................................. 40 construction record and geometrical basics. Subject
4.2 The construction record .................................. 40 of the fourth to sixth section are deleting objects,
4.3 Geometrical basics ........................................... 41 construction of parallels and treatment of corners.
4.4 Deleting objects ............................................... 43 Please use the exercises to learn all the new func-
4.5 Parallels ............................................................ 44 tions in this chapter. Follow the instructions in the
4.5.1 Interactive tools and non-interactive text. By the end of this chapter you will be able to
functions...................................................... 44 construct the depicted seam allowance and vent.
4.5.2 The parallel menu ....................................... 45
4.5.3 The parallel function.................................... 45
4.5.4 The Parallel 10 tool ..................................... 46
4.6 Corners ............................................................ 47
4.7 Exercises .......................................................... 51
40 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

4.1 The Grafis-data structure

The data structure

Collection folders SUMMER WINTER

Styles ILONA GABRIELE STEFANIE

Administrated in dialog with you


Administrated Grafis intern
Parts 001 002 003

Objects Points Construction record Text


Lines Technological information Hatching

Picture 4-1
In Grafis construction data is organised according to The construction record is similar to the notepad of
collection folders, styles and parts (picture 4-1). The an attentive student who notes down each of the
number of folders and styles is unlimited. However, teacher’s steps and can then recreate the construc-
it is advisable to transfer styles no longer required to tion with different measurements.
CD ROM or the network or to delete them.
Indication of record steps, test run
It is important to know
which styles are saved in The number of recorded construction steps is con-
which folder. Create an stantly indicated in the basic menu in Grafis with two
overview list for yourself. blocks of record counters containing three num-
bers respectively. The block on the right indicates
Each style can contain up to the number of construction steps recorded so far.
500 parts which will be The left group of numbers indicates the record step
named by Grafis with a 3-digit number. The parts at which test run was last activated.
consist of objects, e.g. points, lines and texts.
The dialogue to open or delete styles opens auto- Basic menu (extract)
matically after having selected a measurement sys- Construction record of
tem or via File | Open. the active part …
reset
4.2 The construction record restore

reset N steps
Purpose of the construction record
Grafis saves the construction and modification steps
during pattern development in the base size by im- record counter
perceptibly writing a record. The operator has the
option of calling the construction record with other test run
measurement charts and thus, creates a similar grading
construction for these sizes. Incremental grading is
omitted.
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 41
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Test run starts the run through the construction 4.3 Geometrical basics
record. It can also be run in a step-by-step mode.
Immediately after having selected test run press the The co-ordinate system
<S> key once. Pressing the space key shows the
following construction steps one after the other. The co-ordinate system is used for the description
Press <S> again to quit the step-by-step mode. of point positions on a plain. In clothing construction
the plain is comparable to the paper on which the
Reset the construction record pattern is designed.
All points on the plain relate
The reset function resets the construction record by to an agreed source (a start-
one step. If a larger number of reset steps is re- ing point). The x and y axis
quired, click on reset N steps and enter the number run through this point in a
of steps to be reset. The construction record is right angle towards one
automatically reset although nothing has changed on another. Unless otherwise
screen, yet. The current state is shown after clicking stated, the x axis runs hori-
test run. zontally, the y axis vertically
As soon as you detect a mistake in your con- (picture 4-2).
struction, reset the construction record back to An example for a different
the error and resume construction without the presentation in a co-
mistake. Please do not try to “patch up” your ordinate system is the Dow Jones Index diagram.
construction as follow- You know these diagrams from the stock market
ing construction steps reports. In this case the x axis is a time axis and
may be affected inad- along the y axis the Dow Jones value is registered. A
vertently. Correcting point in this co-ordinate system assigns a certain
mistakes in time avoids point in time with a certain Dow Jones value.
errors during auto- X and y co-ordinates of a point
matic construction
The position of a point is clearly defined by its dis-
(grading).
tance to the x and y axis. The distance to the y axis
Analogous to knitting:
is the x co-ordinate of the point, the distance to the
Reset, even if it hurts!
x axis is the y co-ordinate of the point (see picture
If you have reset too many steps, you can go back to 4-2).
the state before deleting the record steps with the
function restore. y axis

Exercise
Call the basic block Skirt 20, click on reset and then,
click on test run. The screen is empty as calling a
point with
basic block already counts as a construction step.
(x,y)
You can now call a different basic block. This is the
quickest way to view various basic blocks.
Call two more basic blocks, resetting the record by y co-ordinate
one step each time. Activating test run is not neces-
sary as a test run ensues automatically before start-
ing a record function. All functions of the basic menu co-ordinate x co-ordinate x axis
source
from call onwards are record functions. They are
recorded internally in the system.
Picture 4-2

A minus in front of the x co-ordinate places the


point to the left of the y axis. The y co-ordinate is
negative if the point lies below the x axis. A point is
clearly defined by stating (x,y) (picture 4-2).
42 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

With the function raster0 (section 5.2) they can be


y axis made visible as points if necessary.
4
The fulcrums of a circle arc have the same distance
between one another. The fulcrums of a curve are
3 denser in the bends (picture 4-6).
(0,2) (3,2)
2

(1,1) (2,1) (3,1)


1

(0,0) x axis
0
0 1 2 3 4
Picture 4-6
Picture 4-3
The right principle
Picture 4-3 shows a few points and their respective
For certain construction
co-ordinates.
steps the beginning and end
The position of a point can also be defined relative
of a line have to be deter-
to another point in the construction. In picture 4-4
mined. The line receives a
the new point of reference is point (5.5,2.5). The
direction.
absolute co-ordinates of the point result from its
For this purpose the right
relative co-ordinates and the co-ordinates of the
principle was introduced.
point of reference.
Grafis supports the operator
Point: with the so-called “right principle cursor” which also
Absolute co-ordinates: (6.5 ,5) contains the direction indicator (picture 4-7).
Relative co-ordinates: (1 ,2.5)

2 *
1

2 (5.5,2.5) Picture 4-7


1 2
To illustrate the right principle imagine the
1 line/curve to be clicked as the central reservation of
(0,0) a road. The required direction of travel is communi-
1 2 cated to the system by clicking the line. This relates
Co-ordinate system of the construction to driving on the right side of the road, only. The
right principle and its application is explained in
Picture 4-4
detail in the chapter 4.6.
Polygon
Angle definition
All lines, circle arcs and curves are displayed as poly-
gons in Grafis. A polygon consists of a number of Definition of angles is required for rotation trans-
formations, determination of direction in certain
curve points or construction of lines. The following
rules apply (picture 4-8):
1. The definition of angles ensues from the positive
x axis - if no other reference is present. This
agreement is important for definition of points
through their distance to the source and their di-
rection.
Picture 4-5
points connected by straight lines (picture 4-5). As a
rule, the fulcrums of the polygon are not visible.
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 43
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Step-by-step guide
Direction according
to rotation angle ⇒ Activate the object type to be deleted under the
y required option (delete single or delete inside rec-
positive tangle)
rotation angle ⇒ Click the objects or draw up rectangle

Delete single
x
To delete individual objects the type of objects un-
negative der delete single is to be activated and the object to
rotation angle be deleted is to be clicked. This is the object nearest
to the cursor, marked by a fine thread and colora-
tion.
Picture 4-8
2. A positive rotation angle creates anti-clockwise Delete inside rectangle
rotation, a negative angle results in clockwise ro- To delete several objects
tation. in one operation first,
the type of object is to
4.4 Deleting objects be selected under delete
inside rectangle. All ob-
The delete menu jects of this type com-
pletely lying within a
The delete menu is activated via Basic menu |
rectangle to be drawn up will be deleted. The rec-
delete. Single objects (points, lines/curves,
tangle is drawn up by clicking the corner of the
hatching, texts) can be deleted by clicking;
area to be deleted, moving the mouse and clicking
several objects within a rectangle to be drawn up
the opposite corner.
can be deleted in one operation.
When deleting several objects the objects lying
Delete menu completely within the rectangle are deleted only!
delete single … With reset you can reset the last deletion step.
points
Please note that deleting is a construction step and
lines
will be performed automatically during test run or
hatchings
grading. Start both functions from the basic menu.
texts One or more deletion steps can also be reset by
resetting the construction record.
delete inside rectangle…
points Exercise on deleting
lines Call the basic block Bodice 10 and delete all dashed
all lines and all points in the front individually.
Click the point or the line to be deleted. A fine
texts thread to the cursor indicates the nearest point.
If a different point is deleted, the thread cursor did
delete inside rectangle… not indicate the point to be deleted. If a different
notch symbols object is deleted, a different type of object was
inner symbols active. To correct click reset and repeat deleting.
seam lines

reset
44 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Delete all lines and points of the back and armhole


with delete inside rectangle: all, see Picture 4-9.

Picture 4-10

Picture 4-9
4.5 Parallels
Click a corner of the area and move the mouse. A
rectangle opens that you can draw up as shown. 4.5.1 Interactive tools and non-interactive
Click and the points within the rectangle are functions
deleted. If different points are deleted you opened Up to Grafis Version 9, only non-interactive menu
the rectangle over a different area. To correct click functions, in the following called “functions“, were
reset and repeat the steps. available within the software. From Grafis Version
10, new interactive tools for the construction of
Exercises parallels, raster, link and curves have been intro-
1st Exercise duced. The new tools cannot replace the existing
Call the basic block Skirt 20 and delete functions completely, yet. Therefore, both ways of
• all points in the skirt front working are available from Version 10 onward.
• reset The main differences are as follows:
• all lines in the skirt back • Point of entry of parameters
• reset When using the functions, the required parame-
• the complete skirt front ters, such as distance of a parallel or the number
• reset of raster points, must be entered first. Then, the
• the complete skirt back. relevant objects can be clicked. When working
Reset the construction record to 000 in the basic with interactive tools, the objects are clicked
menu. first and then, the parameters are adjusted inter-
2nd Exercise actively.
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and delete the com- • Speed of processing
plete back. Centre the front with <F6> on the The functions are processed faster than the in-
screen. teractive tools during grading. This difference is
3rd Exercise markedly noticeable when grading curves using
As opposed to the 2nd exercise, now delete the processors of less than 1GHz frequency. On
whole front and centre the back on screen. faster computers, these differences are hardly
obvious.
4th Exercise
• Subsequent alterations
Call the style “Shirt blouse“ from Chapter 2 Section
When working with functions, x values (see
2.5 and delete individual lines and points. Then,
Chapter 11) can be introduced as parameters.
reset the record and delete all lines of the front and
Only with the application of x values can func-
all points of the back, see Picture 4-10.
tions be altered subsequently. Tools, however,
can be altered interactively by double-clicking on
the relevant objects or via the <F12> list at any
time.
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 45
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

• Listing in the <F12> list of constructions • turn-ups on jackets, coats and trousers
All tools are listed in the <F12> list of construc- • seam allowances and hem and others.
tions in the order of use. The functions do not The construction of parallels ensues with the parallel
appear in this list. menu from the basic menu. This menu contains the
Recommendation: If you are certain that the use parallel function as well as the Parallel 10 tool.
of a function for the respective construction op- As a rule, the parallel function is used, possibly
eration will obtain the required result, you should with the application of x values. The Parallel 10
apply this function. This way, you avoid too many tool is useful if the distance of a parallel is to be
unnecessary entries in the <F12> list and thus, different at starting point and final point, e.g. for the
reduce the processing time for grading. seam allowance of the crotch seam.
All buttons with direct access to tools are indi-
cated by a small green dot. Further tools can be 4.5.3 The parallel function
accessed via the ‘tools‘ button in the menu on
the right at the very bottom if required. Step-by-step guide
⇒ Select distance or enter special distance value in
4.5.2 The parallel menu the menu
⇒ Select +/-chain
Application of parallels ⇒ Select +/-copy
Parallels are significant for the construction of ⇒ Click the line/curve to which a parallel is to be
• overlap and button catch generated
Determine distance value
Parallel menu
If the required distance (in millimetres) is listed in
the menu, click the respective button. Otherwise, a
specific value has to be entered in the distance value
field followed by <ENTER>. The point is the deci-
mal sign.
A distance value already entered can be reactivated
by clicking the distance value button.

fixed distance values Significance of +/-chain and +/-copy


for parallel function If +chain is set the parallel is generated not only for
the clicked line/curve but for all lines and curves
connected with the clicked line. Clicking chain acti-
vates or deactivates this option.
The switch +/-copy determines whether the original
line remains existent (+copy) or not existent (-copy).
Toggle by clicking on this button.
Direction for parallel generation
Clicking decides on which side of a line/curve the
distance value parallel is generated. The parallel is generated in the
direction from which the line/curve is clicked.
Therefore, click next to the line and not on the line!
+/- copy Attention! If identical objects are lying on top of each
+/- chain other 2, 4 or 6,... times they cannot be seen on
+/- move symbol screen as they delete their respective image. If they
lie on top of each other 3, 5,... times they are visible.
When practising the parallel function for the first
reset time this is a common mistake. After <F4> even
objects deleting each other’s image are displayed. If
you cannot see a new parallel straight away, press
<F4>. Make sure that points or lines are never
Parallele 10 tool placed on top of one another by using reset or de-
lete.
46 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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Exercise on creating parallels to single lines 4.5.4 The Parallel 10 tool


Call the basic block Bodice 20 and construct the
seam allowances displayed (Picture 4-11): Step-by-step guide
• neck and armhole: 10mm ⇒ Call Parallel 10
• shoulder and side seam: 15mm ⇒ Click on the line/curve to which the parallel is to
• hem 30mm be constructed
• overlap centre front 40mm ⇒ Double-click on the new parallel and adjust
starting distance and end distance interactively
15 Exercises for the creation of parallels with
10
Parallel 10
10 Call the basic block Trouser 10 and construct the
seam allowances indicated (Picture 4-13) with the
function parallel:

10 25
10
40 15 10
20 20
10

30

Picture 4-11

Exercise on creating parallels with chain


Call the basic block Skirt 20 and construct a parallel
of 10mm to the complete perimeter of the skirt 40
back (Picture 4-12). Set +chain. Construct a single
parallel of 10mm or 30mm at the hem of the front Picture 4-13
skirt. Set –chain beforehand.
• waist, side seam, internal leg seam: 10mm
• crotch seam: 10mm
Construct the crotch seam with the Parallel 10 tool
and adjust it interactively (see Picture 4-14).

Picture 4-12

Picture 4-14
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 47
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Exercises 4.6 Corners


1st Exercise
Call the style “Straight skirt“ from Chapter 2 Section The Corners menu
2.4 and create parallels at a distance of 40mm from The construction of corners ensues with the corners
the centre front and further parallels at a distance of menu from the basic menu. This menu contains the
40mm from the hem in the skirt back (Picture 4-15). functions corner, straight line, curve and circle as
well as various interactive corner tools.
Corners menu

corner

reset

tools…
Corner 40 with curve
Corner 40 with circle
Corner 40 with line

Picture 4-15
Mirror Corner 10
Mitred Corner 20
2nd Exercise Vent Corner 30
Call the style “Straight skirt“ from Chapter 2 Section Co-ordinated Corner 50
2.4 and create parallels at a distance of 40mm from Angle Corner 60
centre front and centre back and further parallels of Co-o. angle Corner 70
70mm respectively from the hem (Picture 4-16).
Hem Corner 80

Initial options for the corner function and the


interactive Corner 40 tool

Picture 4-17
A corner is built of two lines/curves which do not
Picture 4-16 need to intersect but may have more than one inter-
section (see picture 4-17). Before each corner con-
struction, the relevant objects are extended (inter-
nally) by 500mm at the beginning and end. Thus,
corners outside the objects can be constructed. If
Grafis detects more than one corner on curves they
are indicated and the one required has to be clicked.
1
48 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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The right principle The corner function


For the construction of corners the right principle Step-by-step guide
must be followed when clicking the objects (picture ⇒ Activate corner
4-18). ⇒ Click two lines, following the right principle
With this principle not only the objects are deter-
The corner function creates a corner directly from
mined when clicking the line/curve but a direction in
the intersection of the two objects.
which the object is to be used for the instructed
Call the style “straight skirt“ from Chapter 2 section
construction.
2.4 and create 5 parallels of 40mm to the centre
The first object is to be clicked so that you are driv-
front, centre back and to the hem respectively.
ing towards the requested corner, the second click
Then, create the depicted pattern (Picture 4-20)
must be driving away from the corner (see picture
with the use of the corner function.
4-19).

Picture 4-18
The right principle is very powerful. Grafis supports
the operator with the so called “right principle cur-
sor” which also has the direction indicator (pictures
4-18 and 4-19).

Picture 4-20

The interactive Corner 40 tool with the options


curve, circle, straight line and corner

For illustration of the right principle imagine the


line/curve to be clicked as the central reservation of
the motorway. The construction of corners resem-
bles driving onto a motorway junction. You are
driving along the first line towards the junction and
then turn onto the second motorway. The direction
of travel is determined by clicking the lines, follow-
ing the right principle. The stretches of motorway
you are driving remain existent, the others are de-
leted.

Picture 4-19 Picture 4-21


Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 49
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The interactive Mitred Corner 20


Step-by-step guide
⇒ Call Corner 40 with curve Step-by-step guide and order of clicking allowance
⇒ Click on two lines, following the right principle – seam – seam – allowance are identical to Mirror
⇒ Double-click on the new corner Corner10.
⇒ Adjust the options of the corner
⇒ Interactively design the corner
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and created a corner
at the side seam/ hem with the Corner 40 tool (Pic-
ture 4-21). One after the other, adjust the corner
interactively to a curved corner, a straight line cor-
ner and a circle and grade.
The interactive Mirror Corner 10
As opposed to the corner function and the Corner 40
Picture 4-23
tool, this corner requires four lines: the two stitch
lines and the two seam allowance lines. Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct a seam
allowance and hem allowance of 40mm. Create a
mitred corner at the side seam/ hem with the Corner
20 tool (Picture 4-23).
The interactive Vent Corner 30
Step-by-step guide and order of clicking allowance
– seam – seam – allowance are identical to Mirror
Corner 10.

Picture 4-22 Picture 4-24

Step-by-step guide Call basic block Bodice 10 and construct a hem al-
⇒ Call Mirror Corner 10 lowance of 40mm and a seam allowance of 10mm at
⇒ Click on the four lines, following the right princi- the centre back. Create a vent corner at the centre
ple in the clicking order shown in picture 4-22: back/ hem with the Vent Corner 30 tool (Picture 4-
allowance – seam – seam – allowance 24).
⇒ Double-click on the new corner The interactive Co-ordinated Corner 50
⇒ Adjust the options for the corner
With Corner 50 two corner constructions of the
⇒ Interactively design the corner
same part are adjusted towards one another. The
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct a hem step-by-step guide is identical to Corner 40. The
allowance of 40mm and a seam allowance of 10mm. order of clicking depends on the position of the
Create a mirrored corner at the side seam/ hem corners to one another. Detailed information can be
with the Corner 10 tool (Picture 4-22). found on the Attach file card in the call function
under Grafis-Corners. Of the total of 3 click varia-
tions available, we will introduce only the most
commonly used click variation here, see Pictures 4-
25 and 4-26.
50 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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Use this corner for corners not to be co-ordinated


on symmetrical pieces for example, e.g. neckline,
shoulder seam or centre back seam.
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct a seam
allowance of 10mm. Create an angled corner at the
shoulder/ armhole with the Corner 60 tool (Picture
4-27).

The Co-ordinated angle Corner 70


If two angled corners are to be sewn together, they
Picture 4-25
must be adjusted towards one another. The co-
The first clicked corner has a higher priority than ordination should ensue via a joined mother part so
the corner clicked second. Alterations to the first that no unnecessary dependencies are created.
corner apply to both corners. Alterations to the Therefore, in addition to the active part, make the
second corner apply to the second corner, only. mother part visible, also. The order of clicking is
Therefore, adjust the first corner and then, ad-
just any asymmetry at the second corner.

4.

6. 3.
2.

5. 1.

Picture 4-26

The interactive Angle Corner 60


The step-by-step guide is identical to Mirror Corner
10. The order of clicking allowance – seam – seam
– allowance is similar to Mirror Corner 10. First, it is
imperative to click on the allowance line to be ex-
tended. Both click variations are shown in Picture 4-
27.
6.
4
3 2.
1.
5.

Picture 4-27

Picture 4-28
Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter 51
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allowance of seam to be sown first – seam – 4.7 Exercises


seam – allowance and then in the mother part 1st Exercise
corresponding seam to be sown first – seam of the
relevant corner. Call the style “Straight skirt“
With Corner 70 the length of the angle corner can be from Chapter 2 Section 2.4,
shortened interactively. This value is not updated delete the skirt front and con-
automatically on both corners but must be adjusted struct the following parallels:
for each corner separately. • vent height centre back:
Call the style from Chapter 3 section 3.2 and con- 200mm
struct a seam allowance of 10mm and a hem allow- • vent height side seam: 300mm
ance of 40mm in the back side panel. Close the • seam allowance waist, side seam and centre
corners at the hem with Corner 10. The corner at back: 10mm
the armhole is to be co-ordinated with the centre • vent width: 30mm
back panel. Make the back part 40 visible in the part • hem: 30mm
organisation. Construct the corner with the Co- Close the corners and grade the skirt in various
ordinated angle Corner 70 (Picture 4-28). sizes.

The interactive Hem Corner 80


The order of clicking is allowance – hem – hem
allowance – allowance, see Picture 4-29. It is im-
portant that the seam lines are a continuous curve.
Alternatively, the side seam can be clicked directly
instead of the seam allowance. In this case, the not-
ches will not be visible.

2nd Exercise
Call the style “straight skirt“
from chapter 2 section 2.4,
delete the front skirt and
construct following parallels:
• tolerance waist, side
seam and centre back
with 10mm
• hem extension 30mm
Construct the vent with the
Corner 30 tool like exercise
1 and adjust the shape of
the vent interactive.

Picture 4-29
The inside turn up can be made visible with the
second option. It is created as a parallel to the
hem.
52 Chapter 4 Create and alter perimeter
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3rd Exercise 5th Exercise


Call the style “straight skirt“ from Chapter 2 section Call Bodice 50 and insert the
2.4, insert the lines of the front skirt into a new part objects of the back into a new
in the part organisation and construct the following: part in the part organisation.
• seam allowance of 10mm Construct a hem allowance of
• parallel to the hem with Parallel 10 40mm and a seam allowance
• parallel to the centre front CF with Parallel 10 of 10mm. Construct a vent in
• curve at the CF with Corner 40; The curve is to the centre back with the Vent
start 200mm from hem at the CF and end Corner 30. Adjust the vent
100mm from CF at the hem. interactively. Close the hem
• overlap of 30mm at CF with Parallel 10 tool corner at the side seam with
the Mirror Corner 10.

6th Exercise
Call the style “shirt blouse“
from Chapter 2 section 2.5, insert the lines of the
front and back into a new part in the part organisa-
tion.

4th Exercise
Call the construction Bodice 50
and construct an angle at the
CF / hem. Use Corner 40. The
angle is to start 120mm from
the hem at the CF and end
60mm from the CF at the
hem.
Construct a curved hem using the Co-ordinated
Corner 50. Adjust the corners interactively. Then,
switch the options to corner
with straight line and corner
with circle respectively.

7th Exercise
Call the style from Chapter 3
section 3.1 and construct a
seam allowance of 10mm and
a hem allowance of 40mm to
the back with the parallel
function. Close the corners at
the hem with Hem Corner 80.
All other corners are to be
closed with the Angle Corner
50.
Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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Contents Contents of this chapter are the functions for alter-


5.1 Linking lines ...................................................... 54 ing lines. Some of these are:
5.2 Raster ............................................................... 58 • linking lines,
5.3 Lengthening and shortening lines ..................... 61 • rastering, i.e. spreading points for button holes,
5.4 Cut, “cut on” and separate lines ...................... 62 notches and other markings along a line,
5.5 The tool Front edge 30 ..................................... 65 • length alterations and
5.6 Exercises .......................................................... 66 • separating lines.
______________________ To conclude, the interactive tool Front edge 30 is
discussed. These very important functions must be
mastered. Therefore, intensive practice is required.
54 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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5.1 Linking lines The end of the already


linked lines (= basic
The link menu line) is linked to the
beginning of the clicked
The link menu is opened from the basic line. For the determina-
menu. It allows for the linking of lines or the tion of direction the
joining of lines by a curve.
right principle applies.
Link menu Picture 5-1 shows the
link… linking of two lines with
single single or chain. Beginning and end of the lines are
chain determined by the right principle. For further infor-
reset link step mation read the explanations in sections 4.6.

deposit End

link with curve


2.

reset Beg.
End

Beg. 1.
Link 10 tool
Picture 5-1
Beg. End

2. 1.
Linking lines (connect with each other)
Step-by-step guide result:
⇒ Activate the option single or chain End one line
⇒ Click the lines to be linked following the right
principle Beg.
⇒ Correction (several possible) by clicking reset
link step Picture 5-2
⇒ Terminate linking with deposit Picture 5-2 shows linking of two lines which are not
The top four buttons are used for linking lines by touching with a straight line. Here, also, the right
bridging the gaps between the lines with a straight principle is to be followed.
line.
Linking lines is required when two or more lines are Link with curve
supposed to be treated as one during further con-
Step-by-step guide
struction steps.
⇒ Activate link with curve
First you have to choose between the options single
⇒ Click on the two lines to be linked or click on a
or chain. With chain all tangential lines (without kink)
line to be shaped at two points (right principle!)
will be linked automatically in one operation. At the
With the function link with curve two lines can be
beginning, the simpler option single is recom-
linked by a curve. This function can be used for
mended.
linking separate hem lines, side seams or taking out
Reset resets the individual linking operations step-by
darts for example.
step. The link operation is terminated only with
deposit and treated as one construction step in the
record.
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 55
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Further functions
1. With reset the last construction step can be undone.
The last construction step can be
• linking two lines with link with curve or
• construction of a line from several lines with the
functions single and chain.
2.
The interactive link tool Link 10
Step-by-step guide
⇒ Call Link 10 tool
⇒ Click on the two lines to be linked or click on
1. two positions of a line to be shaped, following
the right principle (Picture 5-4)
2. ⇒ Double-click on the new continuous line
⇒ Adjust the options
Picture 5-3 ⇒ Interactively design the curve
After having activated link with curve the two lines to The interactive link tool should be used as an alter-
be linked have to be clicked, following the right native to link with curve, if the starting and/or final
principle. The new joining curve begins and ends at point of the connecting piece is to be moved inter-
the respective click positions, thus, determining the actively along the original line. The shape of the
shape of the curve (see Picture 5-3). If the joining connecting piece can also be designed interactively
curve does not fulfil your ideas, reset and link again. with the link tool.
The shape of the curve is influenced by the choice of
starting point and final point. The curve form can be
compared to a flexible steel band fixed and adjusted
at the click points. Creation of a specific curve shape
with this function requires practice and experience.
Transitions created with the Link 10 tool can be
adjusted more flexibly.

Picture 5-5
The options define
• whether start/ end of the connecting piece is to
be moved along the original lines or whether
one/ both of the original lines are to be replaced
completely (Picture 5-5) and
• whether the basic direction of the connecting
piece at beginning/ end is identical to the original
lines or free.
The shape of the connecting piece and the additional
directions at its beginning/ end can be interactively
adjusted, see explanations in the following section.

Picture 5-4
56 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

A video about Link 10 can be found in the points alters the position of the shape points and
help of the tool. To call the help, select results in direction changes, if the direction depends
the tool Link 10 under call | Grafis- on the base point.
Support programs and activate the Help for Important: Always start adjusting the objects
basic block button. Clicking the question mark but- with the highest priority.
ton in the interactive interface of Link 10 also opens
this Help. 1.

Adjusting an interactive curve using the exam- 2.


ple of the tool Link 10
The same principles apply to the adjustment of 3.
curves in all interactive constructions. These princi-
ples are now explained using the example of tool
Link 10, see also Picture 5-6. 4.
2 1 1 2

4 3 4 5.
1 – base points 3 – shape point 1st priority
2 – direction handle 4 – shape point 2nd priority
Picture 5-6
Base points “1“ are positioned at the beginning and 6.
end of the curve, marked by a point and a red circle.
If the cursor takes the shape at these points,
they can be moved along the corresponding line. 7.
Dashed extensions with little points at the begin-
ning/ end of the curve are direction handles “2“. If
the cursor takes on the shape at these points, the Picture 5-7
direction can be dragged.
If these principles are applied to the tool Link 10, the
There are one or three shape points between two following step-by-step guide for adjusting the con-
neighbouring base points: necting piece is recommended (Picture 5-7):
• one shape point 1st priority “3“, displayed as 1. Initial state: it is possible to link two lines or to
a slightly larger red point and design a single line in a particular area.
• possibly two shape points 2nd priority “4“, 2. The Link 10 tool is called. The two small black
displayed as small red points. points indicate beginning and end of the new
The position of the shape points is controlled via linking piece. These are exactly the positions,
two values: a value in percent for the position of an which were clicked.
imaginary line between the two base points and a 3. The two base points at beginning and end of the
second value for the distance to the imaginary line. section can be moved along the original line.
The second value is usually measured in millimetres. 4. and 5. The required curve direction is adjusted
The zero position of the shape points is normally at both base points.
50% and 0mm. 6. The shape of the curve is roughly adjusted with
The above objects have the following priorities: the shape point 1st priority.
Base points 7. The shape of the curve can be finely adjusted
Ð with the shape points 2nd priority.
Direction handles If you want to adjust an interactive curve subse-
Ð quently, first set the shape points back to the zero
Shape point 1st priority position by selecting raster 10 for example and drag-
Ð ging the points to 50% /0.
Shape points 2nd priority Then, set the raster value back to 0 or 1 and adjust
Priority means that the objects of lower priority are the curve to your requirements. Always start with
changed with the alteration of objects of higher the objects of the highest priority.
priority, but not the other way around. Moving base
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 57
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Exercises
1st Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 10. Create parallels to
the armhole and the shoulder with 10mm distance.
Link the following lines (picture 5-8):

4. link
single

2. link
chain

1. link
single Picture 5-9

3rd Exercise
Call the basic block Skirt 20 and adjust a straight side
seam interactively. Construct the following parallels:
• 30mm to the centre back to the outside for vent
width
• 20mm to the centre back to the outside for
concealed zip
• 10mm to the side seam, centre back and waist
for seam allowance
5. Link 10 3. link
tool chain
Picture 5-8
• the side seam with link single
• the armhole with link chain
• the hem line with link chain
• the parallels to armhole and shoulder with link
single
• the centre front with the hem with the Link 10
tool
Always click on the right side of the line in the direc-
tion of travel. If you have made an error, click on
reset (several times if required) and then, continue.
Terminate linking by clicking deposit.
2nd Exercise
Call the basic block Skirt 20 and create the following
parallels
Picture 5-10
• 30mm from the hem outside
• 40mm from the centre front outside Construct the displayed corners and then, link the
• 100mm from the centre front inside with the centre back with Link 10 according to Picture 5-10.
tool Parallel 10 Adjust the corners and the linked connections inter-
• 200mm from the hem inside actively. Grade in different sizes.
Link the centre front and the hem with the tool Link
10 and construct further parallels of 10mm to the
hem and the centre front on the outside respec-
tively. Then, construct the displayed corner with the
function corner (Picture 5-9).
58 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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4th Exercise Raster menu


Call the basic block Skirt 20 and adjust a straight side
seam interactively. Construct the following parallels:
• 10mm to the centre front, waist and side seam raster 0
from hem to hip convert to line
• 30mm to the hem
• 20mm to the side seam from waist to hip
raster 1

number of points
for raster 1

raster 2

distance value
for raster 2

raster 4

number of points
for raster 4

Picture 5-11
+/-copy
Link the side seam with the Link 10 tool and close reset
the other displayed corners with the corner function
(Picture 5-11). Adjust the linked connection interac-
tively.
Rastern 10 tool
5.2 Raster

The raster menu


The raster menu offers four different func- raster 0
tions for the construction of point sequences
In Grafis each line is a polygon (see section 4.3).
plus the interactive tool Raster 10. The point
With raster 0 the fulcrums of a line are displayed. On
sequences are generated along a line. The function
a straight line this would be the starting and final
convert to line is the reverse function for the func-
point. Picture 5-12 shows an example for a curve.
tions raster 0 to raster 4. The function line returns a
connected point sequence back to a line.
raster 1
The functions raster 0 to raster 4 This function constructs a
number of points with the
Step-by-step guide
same distance along a line.
⇒ Adjust the parameters of the required raster
The number of points in-
type
cluding starting and final
⇒ Activate the required raster type
points is to be entered under
⇒ Set +/- copy
number of points in the
⇒ Click on the line, following the right principle menu (Picture 5-12). Having
activated raster 1 and set +/-
copy, the required line is to
be clicked.
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 59
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The interactive tool Raster 10


Step-by-step guide
⇒ Call Raster 10 tool
raster 0 ⇒ Click on a line, following the right principle
⇒ Double-click on the new point sequence
raster 1 ⇒ Adjust the options (Picture 5-13)
N=5 ⇒ Interactively design the point sequence

raster 2
d=5.

raster 4
N =5
first and second
constructed point

Picture 5-12

raster 2
With raster 2 points with a pre-set distance are
constructed along a line. The distance is corrected
by Grafis so that the points have the same distance
from beginning to end (picture 5-12). Thus, the pre-
set value is an approximation.
The required value is entered under distance value in Picture 5-13
the menu. After having activated raster 2 and set +/-
copy, the line is to be clicked. With the Raster 10 tool point sequences are con-
structed, which can be adjusted subsequently re-
raster 4 garding position and number of points.
raster 4 distributes a number of points evenly be-
tween two constructed points (Picture 5-12).
First, the number of points is to be entered in the
menu and then, the line to be rastered is to be
clicked. For construction of starting and final point of
the raster area the sub-menu point construction 1
appears, which has been explained briefly in section
3.4. A more detailed explanation on point construc-
tion can be found in Chapter 6.
3
Line 2
The line function is the reverse function to the raster
functions. Activating line and clicking a point se- 1 distance to the 4
quence creates a line from the point sequence. base line
Here, also the +/-copy switch applies. 2 number of
points
+/- copy, reset 3 start of point
With the +/-copy switch you decide whether or not sequence from
beginning of the
the original object remains existent. When changing
line
a line into a point sequence with 4 depending on
+copy both line and point sequence are existent, option: point
-copy only the point sequence is existent. distance or
With reset the last construction step is undone. distance of the
last point to the
end of the base
line
5 angle to the
base line
5
Picture 5-14
60 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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The only option of this tool (Picture 5-13) decides 2nd Exercise
whether the point distance is determined by the Call the basic block Skirt 20 or the exercise from
position of the last point or vice versa. section 5.1 and construct a button stand at the cen-
A video on Raster 10 can be found in the help to the tre front with the tool Raster 10. The first button is
tool. To call the help, select the tool Raster 10 in call to be situated 20mm from the waist. A total of 6
| Grafis-Support programs and activate the button buttons with a distance of 60mm are to be placed,
Help for basic blocks. In the interactive interface of see Picture 5-16.
Raster 10 clicking the question mark button also
opens this help.

Exercises
1st Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct the
following in the front (Picture 5-15):

raster 1
raster 0
N=5

Raster 10 tool:
distance to the
Picture 5-16
top =20mm
number of 3rd Exercise
points =8 Call the basic block Skirt 20 or the third exercise
distance to from section 5.1 and construct a button stand on the
bottom centre back from the hem. The first button is to be
=180mm raster 2
d=20.0 placed 20mm from the hem. A total of 4 buttons
with a distance of 40mm are to be positioned, see
Picture 5-17.

Picture 5-15
• The fulcrums (base points) of the neckline. Set
the switch to +copy to retain the original line!
• A total of five equally distributed points on the
outer shoulder.
• Equally distributed points with approx. 20mm
distance on the upper part of the side seam.
First, link the upper side seam.
• A total of 8 points for buttons. The 1st point is
situated 20mm from the neckline. The last but- Picture 5-17
ton is placed at a distance of 180mm from the
hem.
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 61
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4th Exercise Lengthen menu


Call the basic block Bodice 10 and place paired but-
tonholes on the centre front. A total of 8 button
pairs are to be created with a distance of 60mm
lengthen linear
between the pairs. The first button is positioned
20mm from the neck on the centre front. The dis-
tance between the two buttons in a pair is 15mm
(Picture 5-18).
lengthen to…
Construct the paired buttonstand with two point
sequences and the following settings with the Raster
10 tool: length
distance to the top 20mm 35mm
number of points 8 8
distance 60mm 60mm
lengthen by…

length

reset

Type of length alteration


With linear the line is lengthened straight at its end
or shortened along the line (Picture 5-19). The end
of the line is determined according to the right prin-
ciple when clicking.

Lengthen to and lengthen by


Picture 5-18 With lengthen to a line is lengthened linear to the
pre-set length. The required length is pre-set accu-
5.3 Lengthening and shortening lines rately.

The lengthen menu linear


lengthen by l=10
The lengthen menu contains functions for
lengthening and shortening lines at the ends
(linear) or through alteration of the shape
(forming). linear
These functions are especially significant for the lengthen by l=-10
adjustment of line lengths such as side seams, body
seams and crotch seams.

Step-by-step guide
Picture 5-19
⇒ Activate the required type
of length alteration (linear With lengthen by a line is lengthened (positive
or forming) value) or shortened (negative value) linear by a given
⇒ Enter the value for the amount, see Picture 5-19.
alteration under lengthen by
or lengthen to
⇒ Activate lengthen by or lengthen to
⇒ Click the line to be altered, following the right
principle
62 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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Exercises 3rd Exercise


1st Exercise Call the basic block Bodice 10 and shorten the cen-
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct a paral- tre front, centre back and the side seams by 50mm.
lel of 30mm to the centre front. Lengthen the neck- Use lengthen linear by –50 and follow the right prin-
line and the hem line linear by 30mm. Follow the ciple when clicking (Picture 5-22). Then, move the
right principle when clicking (Picture 5-20). hem line by 50mm with the parallel function using
-copy.
linear lengthen by 30mm

Picture 5-22
linear lengthen by 30mm

Picture 5-20 5.4 Cut, “cut on” and separate lines


2nd Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct a paral- The separate menu
lel of 100mm to the hem lines. Then, lengthen
• the shoulder by 30mm
• the armhole by 20mm
• the centre front, centre back and side seam by
100mm
Follow the right principle when clicking (Picutre 5-
21).

Cutting and separating lines can be called from the


basic menu via separate.
Separate divides a line into two lines which touch
at the separation position and can be processed
individually. If the cut mark switch is set to +cut
mark the separation position is marked by a large
point.
Cut shortens or lengthens a line up to the intersec-
tion. Lengthening is called “cut on”. Reset (last func-
tion in the menu) resets the last separation or cut-
ting operation respectively.
separate ⇒ 2 lines
cut / cut on ⇒ 1 line
The separate/cut position can be determined in
three different ways.

Picture 5-21
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 63
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Separate menu cutting line separate with cutting line

cut with cutting line


click cutting line and ‘cut on’
cutting line from point

separate
cut

Picture 5-23
separate freehand First, the cutting line is to be defined. Grafis offers
cut freehand two options:
separate in corner 1. With click cutting line an existing line is deter-
mined as cutting line.
2. With cutting line from point the first point of the
cutting line is constructed and the other point is
+/-cut mark defined freehand by moving the mouse.
The current cutting line is displayed in a different
colour. Whether to cut or separate with this cutting
line is determined by activating the appropriate
function cut or separate.
reset 1. With separate with
cutting line the clicked
line is divided at the
intersection with the
Step-by-step guide cutting line provided
the two lines inter-
Separate or cut at a cutting line sect. Practise this op-
⇒ Define/construct a cutting line with click cutting
tion with +cut mark.
line or cutting line from point The separation position is marked by a point and
⇒ Activate separate or cut
thus easier to recognise.
⇒ Adjust +/-cut mark
2. With cut with cutting line the part of the line
⇒ Click lines to be separated or cut
beyond the cutting line in respect to the click po-
sition disappears. The
Separate in a corner click point defines the
⇒ Activate separate in corner
part of the line to remain
⇒ Adjust +/-cut mark
existent. Result of this
⇒ Click the corner in which the lines are to be
operation is one line,
separated outside only.
It is not absolutely nec-
Separate or cut “freehand" by eye essary for the cutting
⇒ Activate separate freehand or cut freehand
line and the line to be
⇒ Adjust +/-cut mark
cut to intersect. A line
⇒ Click the line
ending before the cut-
ting line is lengthened up
Separate / cut at a cutting line to it when cutting with
Separating or cutting with a cutting line is the accu- cutting line. This is known as “cutting on”
rate option. First, a cutting line is to be determined. amongst Grafis operators. “Cutting on“ is possi-
One or several lines can be separated or cut with it. ble to a maximum of 500mm.
The top four buttons of the separate menu relate to The different options are depicted in Picture 5-
‘separate with cutting line’. 23.
64 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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Separate in a corner Exercise


Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct 5 paral-
lels each to the hem at a distance of 50mm. Cut the
click point
*
separation position Define the side seam as
cutting line, cut the
parallels to the hem on the
right!
Picture 5-24
This function separates a continuous line in a corner.
The respective curve is to be clicked on the outside
as Grafis separates at a point where an imaginary
lightning would strike (lightning principle). As a re- Continue with
sult a small arrow is shown at the separation posi- the side seam in
tion for a short while (Picture 5-24). the same way.

Separate freehand or cut freehand


Picture 5-26
parallels along the side seam (Picture 5-26). Please
cut freehand
note that clicking defines the side for cutting off.
Errors can be corrected with reset. Continue and
remove also the pieces of the parallels from the
separate freehand
dart. Define the first dart line as the cutting line and
separate initially. Then, define the other dart line as
the cutting line and cut (Picture 5-27).
Picture 5-25
Freehand means ‘by eye‘. Separate freehand divides a
line at the click position exactly. The same applies to The dart lines become
cut freehand. Here, in addition, the right principle cutting lines. First,
must be followed as the part of the line positioned separate the parallels
before the clicked position, according to the right and then, cut.
principle, disappears.

Further functions
The cut mark switch decides whether or not a
marker is to be set when separating lines. As a rule,
Continue with
use +cut mark, as it is easier to recognise the sepa- the back in the
ration position. A cut mark is a point with the attrib- same way.
ute big point (see section 7.6). The cut markers can
be deleted as points.
Reset can undo the last construction step.
Picture 5-27
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 65
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5.5 The tool Front edge 30 the indicated points define the contour. All other
All three front edge tool variations require three or points help designing the curve. In the third drag
four lines: area Buttons (Picture 5-29 right) the indicated points
• the neckline, define the position of the button stand.
• a continuous line for the
centre front
Switch between high Adjustments for Designing the front
• a hem line and collar and revers designing the neckline edge
• a reference line for the
revers point
The tool Front edge 10 is
suitable for high collars, front
edge 20 is suitable for revers
collar constructions. Front
edge 30 is a development for
version 10 and suitable for
both options. Therefore, in
the textbook, only Front edge
30 is described.
Call Bodice 50 and interac-
Options for
tively shorten the hem. Then, designing the
call the tool Front edge 30 buttonstand
from the Grafis-Support pro-
grams. Click exactly on the
requested lines, following the
right principle. If you require
this construction for the right
front panel of an asymmetri- Picture 5-28
cal style development, call
the front edge from Grafis-Support
programs (mirrored).
First, the options must be adjusted
(Picture 5-28). The first option,
high collar or revers construction,
is important. This option defines
the buttonstand construction,
starting at the neckline or at the
clicked reference line. Only in case
of a high collar construction, fur-
ther options for shaping the neck-
line are available. The options for
designing the buttonstand are simi-
lar to the interactive Raster 10 tool.
A further option for double-
breasted fronts is available.
After all options have been ad-
justed, the interactive adjustments
in the three drag areas ensue.
In the first drag area Overlap (Pic-
ture 5-29 left) the indicated drag
points define the corner points for
the contour. All other drag points
help adjusting the curves, see sec-
tion 5.1. In the second drag area Picture 5-29
Front point (Picture 5-29 centre)
66 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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Picture 5-30
The bottom point can adjust the button stand at an Then, construct a buttonstand on the centre front.
angle. All other points are as in Raster 10 tool. A total of 6 buttons are to be set. The first button is
Adjust the front edges displayed in Picture 5-30 positioned 20mm from the waist and the last button
interactively. 100mm from the hem. Set the gathering symbols
once you have worked through Chapter 7.
5.6 Exercises 2nd Exercise
1st Exercise From the basic block Skirt 20 construct a skirt with
From the basic block Skirt 20 vent in the side seam and an overlap with button
construct a skirt with gather-
ing. First, delete the skirt back.
Construct a parallel of 30mm for the overlap.
Lengthen the hip line and hem line by 250mm. Move
the side seam by 250mm with parallel using -copy.

stand. The vent height is 200mm, vent width is


30mm, overlap and hem are 30mm and all seam
allowances are 10mm. The first button is to be posi-
tioned at 20mm from the waist. A total of 8 buttons
with a distance of 65mm are to be placed.
Chapter 5 Easy line functions 67
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3rd Exercise 5th Exercise


Construct five pin-tucks in the front of basic block Open the style “Straight skirt“ from Chapter 2 Sec-
Bodice 10. First, delete the waist dart. Create the tion 2.4. Construct five parallels at a distance of
70mm to the hem and five further parallels at a
distance of 40mm to the centre front and centre
back. Create the displayed pattern with corners.

first parallel at a distance of 40mm to the centre Construct a seam allowance of 10mm and close the
front. The other four pin-tucks should be positioned perimeter with link (waist) and corners.
at a distance of 10mm from the first pin-tuck. Link
the neckline with the shoulder with link single. This
gives you a continuous cutting line. Construct the
cut away with the tool Link 10. Cut the parallels at
the hem, the neckline and at the shoulder with the
separate function.
4th Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 10, link the hem lines in
the front and in the back and create a parallel of

6th Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 20 and construct parallels
to the centre front and centre back at a distance of
40mm to the inside and further five parallels at a
distance of 10mm to the new parallel lines. Cut the
parallels at the hem, neckline and at the shoulder.
Construct an overlap of 40mm to the centre front
and the displayed seam allowance of 10mm with the
tool Front edge 10. Close the perimeter with the
corners function.
40mm to the centre front, centre back and the hem.
Cut the parallels at the side seam and at the waist
darts. Use the separate function.
68 Chapter 5 Easy line functions
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8th Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 50. Open a new part in
the part organisation and call the Front part 20 tool
from call | Grafis-Bodices | Womens bodices | Front
part tools into the new part. Switch the options to
princess seam. Construct an overlap with the tool
Front edge 30 and adjust an overlap breadth of
20mm and a one button line with 4 buttons. The
distance for the opening is 120mm from the base
neck line.

Adjust the position of the buttons of Front edge 10


to create 8 buttons with a distance of 60mm respec-
tively. The first button is positioned 20mm from the
neckline. The other points are generated with the
Raster 10 tool using the following parameters: 8
buttons, distance 60mm, 35mm from neckline. This
results in a point pair with a distance of 35mm –
20mm = 15mm, see also 4th exercise in section 5.2.
Adjust the shown (pictured) front point in the tool
Close the perimeter with corners.
Front edge 30, whereas you start with the option
7th Exercise adjustment. Insert the pattern pieces into new parts
Open the style “Shirt blouse“ from Chapter 2 Sec- of the part organisation and construct the seam and
tion 2.5 and delete the points on the centre back, hem allowance with the functions parallel and corner.
the waist dart and the auxiliary lines. Link the lines of
the shoulder, the armhole, the side seam, the hem
and the centre back with link single respectively.
Create a co-ordinated corner (120/80mm) with the
Corner 50 tool. Construct a sequence of 6 points on
the centre front, starting 40mm from the neckline at
a distance of 75mm between points. Create parallels
for pin-tucks. The first pin-tuck is to be positioned
50mm from the centre front. The other pin-tucks
are placed at a distance of 15mm. Cut the pin-tucks
at the neckline and the shoulder. Construct an over-
lap of 40mm and close the corners of the overlap.

Save the style as “Blouse with pin-tucks“.


Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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Contents In this chapter you will learn about the essential


6.1 Line construction in conjunction with the tools for point and line construction and construc-
sub-menu point construction............................ 70 tion of rectangles and circle arcs. These functions
6.2 Point construction ............................................ 77 can be found in the menus points and lines as well as
6.3 Line constructions ............................................ 79 circles and rectangles.
6.4 Line with direction construction ...................... 82 The point and direction construction is very impor-
6.5 Circle arcs ........................................................ 87 tant. Therefore, each section already contains de-
6.6 Rectangles ........................................................ 88 tailed exercises. At the end of the chapter all func-
6.7 Exercises .......................................................... 88 tions are practised in conjunction. Please read the
explanations and perform all exercises.
70 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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6.1 Line construction in conjunction with the 6.1.1 Point construction with click p, click l,
sub-menu point construction freehand and the free mode
Grafis works with the construction objects point Construct line on existing points with click p
and line. For the construction of these objects, the Step-by-step guide
sub-menus point and direction construction are of ⇒ points and lines | line from point to point
particular significance. The sub-menu point con-
struction is explained in the following using the ex- ⇒ Activate (in the following click p)
ample of line construction with line from point to ⇒ Click on the first point
point. ⇒ Click on the second point

Line from point to point


Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines
⇒ Activate line from point
to point
⇒ Construct the first
point
⇒ Construct the second
point
This function constructs a
line between two points.
Having called the function, Picture 6-1
the sub-menu point con- During grading, a point set with click p is always
struction opens for the attached to the clicked point. Activate click p and
construction of starting and final point. move the cursor over the pattern. A fine thread
It is not necessary to attach the line to existing originating from the cursor (thread cursor) and a
point objects! The position of starting and final green circle mark the position for the new starting
point of the line is determined with the point or final point of the line after . In this case, the
construction sub-menu. thread cursor points at existing points, only, see
Picture 6-1.
Significance of point construction
Point construction determines the position of the
point in the base size and all other sizes.
Therefore, it is important to reflect for each con-
struction step which option of the point construc-
p p
tion is the most appropriate for the specific step. On
a line of 100mm length, points constructed at 20%
and 20mm are
placed at exactly
the same posi-
tion. When the 38 34 - 46
length of the line
changes, the two
points are posi-
tioned at differ-
ent locations. Picture 6-2
Construct a line from the hip point to the centre
front with click p and grade in sizes 34, 38 and 46
(Picture 6-2).
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 71
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Construct a line on existing lines with click l Construct a line in the free mode and with
freehand point
Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point
⇒ Activate (in the following click l) ⇒ Deactivate a active button if applicable, see Pic-
⇒ Click on the first point ture 6-5
⇒ Click on the second point ⇒ Click the first point
⇒ Click the second point

Picture 6-3
With click l a point is constructed on a line, at the Picture 6-5
position on the line closest to the cursor. During The free mode is active if no button is pressed in the
grading, this point is moved relative to the length dialogue. In the free mode, the point constructions
of the line. With this type of construction, it is im- click p, click l and freehand point are active, simulta-
portant to check the base line: it should not be neously. The point constructions click p and click l
linked unnecessarily across corners. A point on the have already been explained. A freehand point can be
side seam is graded differently if the side seam is set as soon as the cursor has taken on the
linked with the hem. In this case, the point is graded
relative to the length of the linked side seam and
hem. shape . Freehand points are placed in the same
Activate click l and move the cursor over the pat- position for all sizes. Freehand points should be
tern. The thread cursor will point to the nearest avoided and used under special circumstances, only
line, respectively. The colour of the line also as they contain no grading information.
changes, see Picture 6-3. Pressing <Shift> selects
the starting point or final point of the line.

p
l

38 34-46

38 34 - 46
Picture 6-6
l Set the free mode (see Picture 6-5) and construct a
line according to Picture 6-6. The starting point is
Picture 6-4 set onto the hip point with click p in the free mode
Construct a line from the end of the dart to the and the final point is set as a freehand point. Grade in
hem. Set the starting point using the <Shift> key. sizes 34, 38 and 46 (see Picture 6-6).
Grade in sizes 34, 38 and 46 (Picture 6-4).
72 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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Exercises on point construction with click p, Use the free mode or click l, directly in conjunction
click l and the free mode with <Shift> for the point construction. Grade in
sizes 38 to 46, see Picture 6-9.
1st Exercise
Call the Bodice 50 and con- 6.1.2 Point construction with relative length
struct a line from the bust and partial length
dart to the front pitch. Use
Construct a line onto an existing line with rela-
the free mode for the point
tive length rlg
construction with <Shift>
The variation relative
or directly with click p.
length rlg generates a
Construct a second line
point at the relative length
from the centre front/ neck-
of a line. The relative
line to the bust dart. Use
length in % relates to the
<Shift> in the free mode.
total length of the line.
Grade in sizes 38 to 46.
The right principle must
be followed when clicking
Picture 6-7 the line, as the relative
2nd Exercise
length is measured from
the beginning of the line.
Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point
⇒ Activate (in the following click rlg)
p l ⇒ Click on the first point
⇒ Click on the second point
Setting a point at a relative position can ensue in
three different variations:
1. Free value, no raster

Picture 6-8
Call the Skirt 20 and construct an inverted pleat with
a depth of 60mm in the centre back using parallel
and line from point to point and a separate pleat back,
see Picture 6-8.
3rd Exercise
Call the Skirt 10 and construct two panel seams
starting at the waist, ending at the corner side seam/ Picture 6-10
hem. 2. Free value, with raster

Picture 6-11

Picture 6-9
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 73
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3. Fixed entered value Setting a point at a partial length ensues in three


different variations, as with click rlg:
1. Free value, no raster

Picture 6-12
X, g and z values can be entered as rlg (see
Chapters 11 and 12). A fixed entered value can Picture 6-14

be deleted with . 2. Free value, with raster


Construct a panel seam with line from point to point
(Picture 6-13). The panel seam starts at the waist at
50% of the first part of the waistline from the cen-
tre front and ends at the hem at 30%. Grade in sizes
34, 38 and 46.

rlg
50%

Picture 6-15
3. Fixed entered value
38 34-46

30%
rlg
Picture 6-13
Construct further panel seams using the three varia-
tions introduced above.

Construct a line onto an existing line with par-


tial length plg Picture 6-16
As opposed to click rlg, click plg generates a starting/ X, g and z values can be entered as plg (see
final point at the partial length of a line. Here also, Chapters 11 and 12). A fixed entered value can
the right principle must be followed as the partial
length is measured from the beginning of the line. be deleted with .
The length is displayed at the cursor. Construct a panel seam in the basic block Skirt 20
Step-by-step guide with line from point to point. The panel seam starts at
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point the waist at 100mm from the centre front and ends
at the hem at 130mm from the centre front. Grade
⇒ Activate (in the following click plg) in sizes 34, 38 and 46 (Picture 6-17).
⇒ Click on the first point
⇒ Click on the second point
74 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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plg
100mm

38 34-46

rlg
30%
130mm
plg plg
plg 240 mm 240mm
Picture 6-17
Construct further panel seams using the three varia-
tions introduced above.
Exercises on point construction with click rlg Picture 6-19
and click plg
1st Exercise 6.1.3 Point construction with intersection
Call the Bodice 50 and construct a yoke in the back. Construct a line with the intersection of two
The yoke starts at 25% of the armhole from the lines
Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line
from point to point
rlg plg ⇒ Activate (in the
25% 140mm following intersection)
⇒ Construct the first
point
⇒ Construct the second point
Using intersection generates a starting/final point at
the intersection of two lines or curves. The lines
and/or curves are to be clicked one after the other.
The cursor displays when the first line is to be
clicked and when the second line is to be
clicked. The first clicked line is highlighted in colour.
Picture 6-18
During stage , a green circle appears when
shoulder and ends at the centre back at 140mm touching the second line at the point of intersection
from the neck. Use click rlg and click plg for the created after . An intersection is also constructed
point construction. Grade in sizes 36 to 46. if both lines intersect only in their extension of
2nd Exercise 500mm maximum. Ensure that the lines will actually
Call the Trouser 60 and construct a panel seam in the intersect after grading. If the 500mm limit is ex-
front and back trouser leg. The panel seam starts at ceeded, a warning appears.
inside leg seam at 240mm from the hem and ends at
the side seam at 30% from the hem. Use click rlg
and click plg for the point construction. Grade in
sizes 36 to 46.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 75
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Construct a line from the end of the dart to the 6.1.4 Point construction with xy co-ordinates
corner point centre front/ hem with line from point
Construct a line with xy co-ordinates
to point. Construct starting and final point with inter-
section. Grade in sizes 34, 38 and 46 (Picture 6-20). The position of xy points
relates solely to the co-
ordinate origin, see sec-
tion 4.3. The points are
not linked to any objects
of the construction. They
remain in the same posi-
tion during grading. xy
points should be used for
"zero run constructions"
in conjunction with construction parameters, only
(see Chapters 11 and 12).
38 34-46 Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point
⇒ Activate (in the following xy point)
⇒ Construct the first point
Picture 6-20
⇒ Construct the second point
Construct further panel seams with intersection.
Setting a point at absolute co-ordinates can ensue in
Exercises on point construction with intersec- three different variations as for click rlg and click plg:
tion 1. Free value, no raster
Call the Bodice 50 and construct panel seams in the
back according to Picture 6-21. Set the starting and
final points with intersection. Grade in sizes 36 to 46.

Picture 6-22
2. Free value, with raster

Picture 6-21

Picture 6-23
76 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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3. Fixed entered value 6.1.5 Point construction from fulcrums of a line


This point construction variation will no longer be
available in future Grafis versions. For a complete
picture, the function is explained, here. Up to ver-
sion 9 included, click pl was used for clicking starting
or final points of a single line. From version 10, click l
in conjunction with <Shift> offers a quicker and
safer solution.
Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines | line from point to point
⇒ Activate (in the following click pl)
⇒ Click the first point
Picture 6-24
⇒ Click the second point
X, g and z values can be entered as x and y co-
ordinate (see Chapters 11 and 12). A fixed en-
tered value can be deleted with .
Construct a rectangle of 120mm width and 160mm
height with line from point to point. The lower left
corner point is to be the co-ordinate origin. Use the
raster. Grade in sizes 34, 38 and 46 (Picture 6-25).
The rectangle will have the same position and same
measurements in all sizes. Grading information can
be related with the use of construction parameters
(Chapters 11 and 12).
Picture 6-26
X=0 X=120 click pl constructs the starting/final point at the
Y=160 Y=160 nearest fulcrum of a line or curve. Lines contain a
minimum of two fulcrums. Curves are polygons in
Grafis, i.e. they consist of many individual line pieces
(Picture 6-26). The starting/final points of the line
pieces are the fulcrums of the curve. They can be
made visible with raster 0.
Activate click pl and zoom into the waist area (Pic-
ture 6-26). Then, move the cursor along the curve.
You can recognise the fulcrums of the curve onto
which a new starting/ final point would be con-
X=0 X=120 structed with click pl.
Y=0 Y=0
During grading, the line fulcrum closest to the
original relative position is selected for construc-
Picture 6-25 tion. This can lead to jumps during grading, see
Picture 6-28.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 77
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6.2 Point construction


pl
The points and lines menu
The points and lines menu can be called from the
basic menu, directly. The points and lines menu con-
tains five options for the construction of a single new
point. Indirectly, new points can also be created
pl from existing points via move, turn or mirror trans-
34-46
formations, see Chapter 10.

Points and lines menu (extract)

Picture 6-27
single point
Construct a line from the end of the dart to the
waist with click pl, respectively (Picture 6-27). Grade
in sizes 34, 38 and 46 and stack at the dart end
point at a distance to
point.
a base point
Call the Trouser 10 and construct a line from the hip
on a line
curve to the dashed hemline of the shorts with click
(short: p+d on l)
pl (Picture 6-28). Grade in sizes 34 to 48. distance value

point between
two points on a line
pl
(short: p+rel+p on l)
point between
two points
(short: p+rel+p)
relative value

pl 6.2.1 Single point


Step-by-step guide
⇒ points and lines
⇒ single point
⇒ Construction of the point with the point con-
struction sub-menu
Call the Bodice 50
and construct a
point on the front
neckline at a partial
length of 10mm
from the centre
front for the collar
Picture 6-28 position.
This example demonstrates the effect, which can
occur when constructing with click pl on curves/
lines with many fulcrums. Avoid click pl.
Picture 6-29
78 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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Call the Bodice 30. For the second point first enter the distance value
Construct a parallel 140. Clicking on p+d online opens the point con-
to the bust line and struction sub-menu for selection of the base point.
to the centre front Use the free mode or click p. Then, the base line is
with the Parallel 10 to be clicked, following the right principle. The right
tool. Set the paral- principle defines the direction in which the distance
lel interactively to is to be measured.
50mm. Construct a P
point at the inter-
section of the two
parallels. Then,
delete the two
parallels. The paral-
lels remain interac-
tively adjustable
100mm 100mm
even after deletion
via <F12>. Call 38 42
the Pocket 10 and
bind the pocket to
the constructed Picture 6-30 Picture 6-32
point.
If the base point is not positioned on the base line,
the construction starts at its perpendicular point to
6.2.2 Point at a distance to a base point on a
the base line. In Picture 6-32, the bust point is the
line
base point. The new point is constructed at a dis-
Step-by-step guide tance of 100mm from its perpendicular point onto
⇒ points and lines the centre front.
⇒ Enter the distance value
⇒ Activate the function Point at a distance to a base 6.2.3 Point between two points on a line
point on a line (short: p+d on line) Step-by-step guide
⇒ Construct the base point with the point con- ⇒ points and lines
struction sub-menu ⇒ Enter the relative value
This function constructs a new point on an existing ⇒ Activate the function point between two points on
line with a fixed distance to an existing point. The a line (short: p+rel+p on l)
entered distance is measured along the line and ⇒ Construct the first base point
considered also during grading. The right principle ⇒ Construct the second base point
must be followed when clicking the line. ⇒ Click the base line
In Picture 6-31, two The new point is constructed on the base line at a
75mm
new points were relative position between two base points. The
constructed for a distance between the base points is measured along
pocket in the side 140mm
the line.
seam of Skirt 20,
using single point and
p+d on line. The first
point on the side 70% 70%
seam is constructed
as a single point at a
partial length of
75mm. Activate the
menu option single
point in the points
and lines menu and Picture 6-33
construct the point
Picture 6-31
at 75mm with click
plg.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 79
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As opposed to the example in Picture 6-31 the new constructed. The centre point on the waist line of
points in Picture 6-33 were constructed at a relative the front was placed in the same way. The third
length position. For the point on the centre front point is constructed by first linking the hem line and
enter the relative value 70. in the points and lines then, defining the relative value as 33.3. Clicking on
menu. Clicking on p+rel+p on l opens the sub- p+rel+p and the end points of the hem line con-
menu point construction to define the two base structs the point. The succession in which the points
points between which the new point is to be con- are clicked determines the direction from which the
structed. Click the waist point and then the hip 33.3% are measured.
point on the centre front with click p. With this
succession you define that the distance is measured 6.3 Line constructions
from the waist. After having clicked the base line,
(here: centre front) the new point is constructed. The points and lines menu
Should the base points not be placed on the base The different construction principles for the creation
line, their perpendicular points onto the base line of line objects with the functions of the points and
are used. lines menu form the subject of this section. A further
line construction in conjunction with direction con-
6.2.4 Point between two points struction is the subject of the following section.
Step-by-step guide Points and lines menu (extract)
⇒ points and lines
⇒ Enter the relative line from point to point
value horizontal line
⇒ Activate the function vertical line
point between two
freehand line from point
points (short:
p+rel+p) perpendicular onto a line
⇒ Construct the first base point
⇒ Construct the second base point line with point, direction
The new point is constructed at a relative position and length
between two base points. No base line is required. (short: p+dir+lg)
The position is determined relative to the first base
point. length value

50%

reset

Line 10 tool
Line 20 tool

6.3.1 Line from point to point and Line 20 tool


50% This principle has already been used to explain the
sub-menus point construction in section 6.1.
Step-by-step guide
33.3% ⇒ points and lines
⇒ Activate line from point to point
⇒ Construct first point
Picture 6-34 ⇒ Construct second point
In Picture 6-34 three new points are constructed With line from point to point a line is constructed
with the function p+rel+p in the basic block Bodice between two points. After having called this line
10. For the bisector of the bust dart enter the rela- construction the sub-menu point construction is
tive value 50. After having clicked on p+rel+p and opened for construction of the starting and final
the two final points of the dart line, the new point is point of the line.
80 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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6.3.2 Line 20 tool


horizontal line
The Line 20 tool also constructs a line from point to
point. However, as opposed to the function line
from point to point this line can subsequently be
moved interactively and if required it can even be final point for
released from its base line. horizontal line
In the trouser back of Trouser 10 construct a line for
the pocket mouth using the tool Line 20. Construct
the line starting at the endpoints of bisector of the
two darts respectively. In the options of Line 20
vertical line
switch the option ‘release base points‘ to permitted.
Now move the base points interactively by 20mm
away from the dart points and lengthen the lines in final point for
both directions by 20mm. Then, grade in the sizes vertical line
N40, N42 and N44, see Picture 6-35.

Picture 6-36
In Picture 6-36 the following was constructed in
basic block Bodice 20
• a horizontal auxiliary line from the corner point
neck/ shoulder to the final point of the shoulder
and
• a vertical auxiliary line from the corner point
shoulder/neck to the front pitch.
Having clicked horizontal line, the corner point neck/
Picture 6-35 shoulder is clicked in the free mode with <Shift>
and then, the end point of the shoulder or the front
6.3.3 Horizontal and vertical lines pitch is clicked with click p or again with <Shift>.
Step-by-step guide 6.3.4 Freehand line from point
⇒ Activate the function
Step-by-step guide
horizontal line or verti-
⇒ Activate the function freehand line from point
cal line
⇒ Construct the starting point
⇒ Construct the starting
⇒ Determine the final point freehand
point of the line
⇒ Determine auxiliary This function creates a line with a fixed length in any
point for calculation of direction. Length and direction are constant
the final point throughout all sizes. Freehand line is particularly
suitable for horizontal, vertical or oblique auxiliary
The functions horizontal
lines.
line and vertical line con-
In Picture 6-37 a total of four lines were constructed
struct horizontal or verti-
with freehand line. After having activated freehand
cal auxiliary lines. After having activated the respec-
line the starting point of the line is to be defined
tive function the starting point of the line is to be
with the point construction sub-menu. Length and
defined and then a second point is to be determined
direction of the line can then be determined by
for calculation of the final point. For calculation of
moving the cursor freehand. The preferred direc-
the final point with horizontal line the x co-ordinate
tions horizontal and vertical act like a magnet, the
of the second point is applied, with vertical line the y
line “jumps” to these directions.
co-ordinate is used.
Construct all lines depicted in Picture 6-37 in the
style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4. The lines can
be extended to the side seam or cut off at the waist
with separate. Grade sizes 40 and 44.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 81
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• the perpendicular from 50% of the neckline


onto the hem.

Exercises
1st Exercise
Call the basic block Bodice 20 and construct the
following lines, see Picture 6-39:
• from the corner shoulder/armhole onto the
auxiliary lines centre front, measured 60mm from the neck
constructed • from the corner shoulder/armhole onto the
with centre back, measured 60mm from the neck
freehand line • the perpendicular from the respective pitches
onto the centre front and centre back
• from the intersection of the side seam and the
33% 33% waist to the centre of the lower sections of the
Picture 6-37 centre front and centre back. Note: the centre
front and centre back are separated at the waist.
6.3.5 Perpendicular onto a line
Step-by-step guide
⇒ Activate the function perpendicular onto a line
⇒ Construct the starting point
⇒ Click the line onto which the perpendicular is to
be dropped

Picture 6-39
2nd Exercise
In the style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4 con-
struct vertical panel seams starting at 33.3% of the
hem, measured from the centre front or centre
Picture 6-38
With perpendicular a perpendicular is dropped from
a point onto a line. After having activated the func-
tion perpendicular the starting point is to be deter-
mined, first. Then the line onto which the perpen-
dicular is to be dropped must be clicked. The per-
pendicular takes on a right angle to the clicked line.
Construct the perpendiculars in basic block Bodice
10 shown in Picture 6-38:
• the perpendicular from the bust point onto the
centre front
• the perpendicular from the bust point onto the
side seam
• the perpendicular from the darts onto the hem
in front and back Picture 6-40
• the perpendicular from the back pitch to the back. Use the function freehand line and cut the two
centre back and lines at the waist, see picture 6-40.
82 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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3rd Exercise 6.4 Line with direction construction


In the style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4 con-
struct a parallel to the hem at a distance of 200mm 6.4.1 The interactive tool Line 10 and the sub-
respectively in the front and back skirt. Construct 7 menu direction construction
equally distributed points on the hem and 13 equally
distributed points on the parallels to the hem. Con- Points and lines Menu (extract)
struct the lines according to Picture 6-41. Use the
function line from point to point.

Line 10 tool
Line 20 tool

Picture 6-41 With the interactive tool Line 10, the user can create
4th Exercise a line object with specific direction. The direction
In the style from section 2.4, construct the following construction ensues via its own sub-menu, which
lines: automatically appears for other construction pur-
• from the hip point on the centre front and cen- poses, also, similar to the point construction sub-
tre back to the middle of the hip curve, respec- menu. The direction construction sub-menu is re-
tively quired for the following operations for example:
• from 33% down the side seam, measured from • construction of a line, to be adjusted parallel to
the hip point, to the hip point on the centre front another line,
and centre back • construction of curves and
• from 33% down the side seam, measured from • adjustment of symbols
the hip point, to the corner point hem/ centre
front and hem/ centre back according to Picture Step-by-step guide for Line 10 tool
6-42. ⇒ Call Line 10 from the points and lines menu
⇒ Construct the base point
⇒ Adjust the line with the direction construction
50% sub-menu (set base direction, adjust difference
direction)
⇒ End the direction construction with the right
mouse button
⇒ Interactively adjust the line (line length, possibly
33% moving of base point, possibly altering the line
direction)
⇒ End the interactive adjustment with End in the
right menu

Explanantion of the direction construction sub-


menu
Picture 6-42 In Grafis, the direction construction is called auto-
matically if required by the operation. The guide
circle is an important element of the direction con-
struction. It works like a protractor. The arrow
inside the guide circle indicates the basic direction
and corresponds with the base line of the protrac-
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 83
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tor. The elements of the guide circle are shown in Setting the basic direction
Picture 6-43.
b Step-by-step guide
• Set a fixed direc-
derived direction tion in the entry
field next to
or

difference angle • activate


and click on a line
or
• activate
line direction at
the base point and
basic direction possibly selection
of a base line or
• activate and construct two points.
The basic direction is set with the upper group of
guide circle functions in the direction dialogue. There are four
construction principles available:
Picture 6-43
The direction construction ensues in two steps: 1. Fixed direction
1. Set the basic direction
2. Set the difference angle
Exactly these steps are repeated during automatic
grading. As a result the derived direction is con-
structed:

derived direction
=
basic direction + difference angle

Picture 6-45
A fixed direction value in degrees can be entered
into the field to the right of the button Fixed di-
rection. Entry of x, g and z values is not permit-
ted for the basic direction. Clicking on the but-
ton "0°" resets the basic direction to 0°.

basic 2. Direction at click point


direction
derived direction

Picture 6-44
In Picture 6-44 a line is constructed at a right angle
to the centre back.

Picture 6-46
84 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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The basic direction is set parallel to a line/ curve Setting the difference angle
to be clicked. The direction of the line/ curve at After having set the basic direction, the derived
its click position according to the right principle direction is to be set. The derived direction, in the
applies. Use the <Shift> key if the starting/ final shape of a long line, first points in the direction of
direction of the line is required. the basic direction (see Picture 6-43). It is changed
This function is active when opening the direc- by altering the difference angle to the basic direc-
tion construction. tion. This process corresponds with measuring an
angle on an adjusted protractor.
3. Line direction at the base point The difference angle is set with the functions in the
lower section of the direction dialogue with the
following options:
• Entry of difference angle or
• click on + and – next to the entry field or
• click on the guide circle with or without the use
of raster.

Increase/
decrease the
difference angle
by the current
current
raster value
difference
angle
Picture 6-47
set difference
The basic direction is taken exactly at the base angle to 0°
point of the guide circle from the nearest line. If
more than one line are positioned in the vicinity, raster on/off raster value
a prompt appears. In this case, the cursor is dis- Picture 6-49
played as a question mark and the base line is to
The difference angle is adjusted interactively by
be clicked:
dragging the derived direction or by clicking the
guide circle. If raster is active, the difference angle
changes according to the set raster value. Entry of x,
g and z values for the difference angle is permitted
This function should be used for setting symbols
(see Chapters 11 and 12).
and construction of curves to ensure that the ba-
sic direction is taken exactly where the curve or Clicking on sets the derived direction back
the symbol is attached. along the basic direction. To quit the direction con-
struction menu press .
4. Direction from point to point
Demonstration of the basic direction
Call the basic block Bodice 10 and construct lines
one after the other with the tool Line 10. Use a
different construction principle for the basic direc-
tion for each line. Grade in sizes 34 to 52, respec-
tively.
A) Using the interactive tool Line 10, construct a
line with basic direction 45° and difference angle
0° (Picture 6-50 A). Grade.
B) Using the interactive tool Line 10, construct a
line. Determine the basic direction with click l
onto the upper end of the armhole line, using
Picture 6-48 the <Shift> key. The difference angle remains
0°. Grade. (Picture 6-50 B).
The basic direction is determined by the con-
struction of two points. It is set parallel to the di-
rection from the first point to the second point.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 85
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45°

A B C D

Picture 6-50
C) Using the interactive tool Line 10, construct a
line. Activate the base point button. The differ-
ence angle remains 0°. Drag the base point in-
teractively along the armhole line. Grade
Use "line direction at base point" for setting
notches with a difference angle of 90°. The 120mm
notch always points at a right angle to the
line independent of its position.
D) Using the interactive tool Line 10 construct a
line. The basic direction should correspond to
the direction from start to end of the armhole
line in all sizes (Picture 6-50 D). Activate directi-
on from point to point. The first point is the point
Picture 6-51
at the side seam. It can be clicked in the free
mode. The second point is the upper end of the Call Skirt 10 and construct two panel seams starting
armhole line at the shoulder, selected using the at 50% of the waist line respectively, adjusted at a
<Shift> key. Drag the base point interactively right angle to the base point. Extend the lines to the
along the armhole line. The difference angle hem and cut them at the hem.
remains 0°. Grade.
50% 50%
Exercise with interactive tool Line 10 in con-
junction with the difference angle
Call the Bodice 50 and construct a yoke in the back.
The yoke starts at a right angle to the centre back,
120mm from the neck. Extend the yoke line interac-
tively to the armhole and then cut at the armhole.
Extending the line is important as the regular inter-
section search for function separate searches up to
500mm extension. If the intersection is positioned
outside this area, a warning appears.
Picture 6-52
86 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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6.4.2 Line with point, direction and length ence angle. The arrow of the guide circle remains in
This non-interactive line construction line with point, position but the derived direction changes. Click on
direction and length (short: p+dir+lg) is similar to the guide circle and then onto . After some
the interactive tool Line 10. As opposed to Line 10, practise, set the difference angle to -90° and finish
the line length is determined non-interactively with .
through value entry. The line direction is set with
the direction construction sub-menu. 2nd Exercise
Use this function particularly for zero run construc- In the Bodice 20, construct a yoke at a right angle to
tion in conjunction with x, g and z values (Chapters the centre back (in the following CB), starting on the
11 and 12). As opposed to the interactive tool Line CB at 80mm from the neckline. Extend the line to
10, the base point and line direction cannot be inter- the armhole and then, construct 4 evenly spaced
actively adjusted, subsequently. points.
Step-by-step guide
⇒ Enter line length under length value
⇒ Construct the line direction with the sub-menu
direction construction and end direction con-
struction with the right mouse button .
First, enter the length for the new line under length
value and click p+dir+lg. Grafis now expects the
construction of the starting point with the sub-menu
point construction. The guide circle appears with
the sub-menu direction construction. Adjust the
basic direction and then the difference angle. Quit
the sub-menu with and the new line appears in
your construction.

Exercise on line with point, direction and


length
1st Exercise
In Bodice 20 construct two lines of 200mm length at
Picture 6-53
a right angle to the centre back. The lines are to
begin at 100mm and 150mm from the neck on the Construct two spread lines parallel to the CB (Pic-
centre back (Picture 6-53 left). ture 6-53 right). Use p+dir+lg with a length value of
Having constructed the starting point of the line, the 600 and click the starting point of the spread line in
guide circle appears and the basic direction is to be the free mode. Set the basic direction parallel to the
determined. In this case the line is to run at a right CB with direction at click point. Follow the right
angle to the centre back (in the following CB). principle and determine the basic direction neckline
Activate direction at click point and click to the right -> hem.
and to the left of the CB. The arrow of the guide The derived direction equals the basic direction.
circle points upwards and downwards along the CB. Therefore, leave the difference angle at 0°, press
Follow the right principle and set the basic direction and the spread line appears on the screen. Grafis
to neckline to hem. will repeat these steps in all sizes, so that the spread
lines always run parallel to the CB. Cut the spread
The difference angle is to be adjusted so that the lines at the hem line.
derived direction forms a right angle to the CB.
Click on + or – next to the entry field for the differ-
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 87
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6.5 Circle arcs Circle arc out of centre point and radius

Step-by-step guide
The Circles and rectangles menu
⇒ Enter radius for the
The circles and rectangles menu is called circle
from the basic menu. It allows for ⇒ Construct centre
construction of circles and rectangles. point for circle
Circles and rectangles menu ⇒ Click direction in
which the circle arc is
circle arc out of centre
to be constructed
point and radius
circle arc out of centre p. For this function the required radius for the half
and periphery point circle is to be entered. Clicking circle arc out of cen-
tre point and radius opens the sub-menu point con-
radius
struction for determination of the centre point for
the circle arc. The direction for the circle arc is
determined freehand. In picture 6-54 the point for
rectangle out of width the direction of the circle arc is called “click”.
and height
circle arc out of centre point cp
width and periphery point p:

p
height

reset cp

Circle 10 tool
Circle 20 tool circle arc out of centre point cp
and radius r:

Rectangle 10 tool
Rectangle 20 tool click

Both functions for the construction of circle arcs r


generate half circles only. If a complete circle is
cp
required a second circle arc is to be constructed or
the circle arc is to be mirrored with the functions in
the transform menu.
Picture 6-54
Circle arc out of centre point and periphery
point
The Circle 10 and Circle 20 tools
Step-by-step guide In addition to the circle arc functions, there are two
⇒ Click on circle arc out of centre point and periph- tools, Circle 10 and Circle 20.
ery point When calling Circle 10, the centre point and a basic
⇒ Construct the centre point for the circle direction for the circle are to be constructed. Radius
⇒ Construct a periphery point and size of the circle segment can be adjusted inter-
Clicking circle arc out of centre point and periphery actively.
point opens the sub-menu point construction with The tool Circle 20 corresponds with the function
which the centre point for the circle arc and then circle arc out of centre point and periphery point. The
the periphery point can be determined. The clicked size of the circle segments and an addition to the
periphery point is exactly in the middle of the new circle radius can be adjusted interactively.
circle arc.
88 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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Exercise on constructing circle arcs The Rectangle 10 and Rectangle 20 tools


In the style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4 con- In addition to the rectangle function, there are two
struct a panel seam at 33.3% from the centre front tools, Rectangle 10 and Rectangle 20.
and the centre back, extend the lines to the waist. When calling Rectangle 10 the lower left corner and
Then, construct a point on the panel seam 200mm the direction of the base line are constructed.
from the hem. The two circle arcs are constructed Height and width of the rectangle can be adjusted
with circle arc out of centre point and periphery point. interactively. When calling Rectangle 20 the left and
The centre point is the new point and the periphery right corner of the rectangle are constructed. The
point is the intersection between the panel seam width of the rectangle results from these points. The
and the hem, respectively. height of the rectangle is interactively adjustable.
Both interactive rectangles can be reshaped to a
trapezium.

6.7 Exercises

1st Exercise
Construct a 160mm wide and
180mm high pocket. Create a
corner with straight line at the
two bottom corners with a
distance of 30mm before and
after the corner. Construct a
Picture 6-55
parallel of 40mm to the upper edge and drop a per-
pendicular from the centre of the parallel onto the
6.6 Rectangles bottom edge.

The Circles and rectangles menu


Construction of rectangles also ensues with the
circles and rectangles menu, see section 6.5.

Rectangle out of width and height

Step-by-step guide
⇒ Enter the width of the rectangle
⇒ Enter the height of the rectangle 2nd Exercise
⇒ Click on rectangle out of width and height Construct a pocket flap from a 160mm wide and
⇒ Construct the starting point 60mm high rectangle by lengthening the base line to

height=
+50.0

starting point width=+100.0 the right and left by 10mm respectively. Construct
Picture 6-56 an auxiliary line of 25mm length vertically down-
First, the width and height of the required rectangle wards from the centre of the base line and construct
are to be entered. After having activated rectangle the displayed auxiliary lines.
out of width and height the rectangle is constructed
from the starting point. The width is calculated as
width in x direction, the height as height in y direc-
tion. If width and height are positive the rectangle is
constructed upwards to the right (Picture 6-56). If
both values are negative, the rectangle is con-
structed downwards to the left from the starting
point. The signs in front of width and height can be
different.
Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction 89
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Complete the pocket flap as shown in the next pic- 5th Exercise
ture by deleting the auxiliary lines, curving the cor- From the style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4 con-
ners with a radius of 10mm and creating a parallel of struct a skirt with separate godets. The godet height
5mm all the way around. is 200mm from the hem. The angle of the godets is
3rd Exercise +/-35° from the panel seams.
In the Bodice 20 construct a yoke starting 100mm
from the neck on the centre back. The line is to run
at a right angle to the centre back. Cut the line at
the armhole.

Use the interactive tools Parallel 10, circle arc out of


centre point and periphery point and Line 10 and the
Construct a further line of 50mm length on the function circle arc cp+p. Thus, godet height and
yoke, starting at 40% from the centre back. Con- godet angle can be altered interactively at a later
struct the two other connecting lines. date.
6th Exercise
4th Exercise From the style "Straigth skirt" from Section 2.4 con-
In Bodice 10 construct the four lines shown at a right struct a skirt with spread lines. Construct an auxil-
angle to the respective dart lines of bust dart and iary line in the front skirt for a yoke, starting at
back shoulder dart.

150mm on the centre front and ending at 80mm on


the hip curve, measured from the waist. In the same
way, the line in the back skirt is to start at 150mm
on the centre back and to end at 80mm on the hip
curve. Create a total of 6 equally distributed points
on the yoke line and drop perpendiculars from the
four internal points onto the hem.
90 Chapter 6 Point, line and direction construction
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7th Exercise
In the style "Straight skirt" from Section 2.4 con-
struct a grown-on godet at the centre front with a
height of 200mm and an angle for the godet of 35°

to the centre front. Link the godet and the centre


front with Link 10 tool. Construct a seam allowance
of 10mm and at hem of 30mm. Close the corners.
8th Exercise
Shorten the bust dart of Bodice 10 by 30mm. First,
construct the bisector of the bust dart and then, the
point for the new dart apex and the two new dart
lines.
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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Content specification sheets, finished measurement charts


7.1 Temporary measuring...................................... 92 and other documents.
7.2 Finished measurements.................................... 96 After this, labelling, marking and annotation of the
7.3 Set and edit text ............................................... 99 construction is covered. For this, Grafis offers the
7.4 Set symbols .................................................... 102 following functions:
7.5 Interactive tools for buttonholes and bartack 103 • texts,
7.6 Attributes ....................................................... 105 • symbols, e.g. notch, drillhole, buttonhole,
7.7 Interactive Seam Tools................................... 106 • attributes, such as dotted lines and especially
7.8 Hatching ......................................................... 107 highlighted points and
7.9 Markingline function for the creation of • hatching of sections of the construction.
templates ........................................................ 108 The functions of this chapter are not functions for
7.10 Exercises ...................................................... 109 alteration of the construction but important aides
______________________ for control and annotation of patterns.
Practise the functions within the respective section,
In the first section you learn about temporary meas- already. The complex exercises at the end of the
uring of points, length, distances, areas and angles. chapter relate to work with symbols and texts,
Content of the second section is the recorded fin- mainly.
ished measurement function which is required for
92 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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7.1 Temporary measuring ordinates correspond to the grade rules in common


grade rule grading. A chain measurement is gener-
ated by adding a number of different measurements
of the same type.
Distance measurements
There are five distance measure-
ments:

direct distance

horizontal distance
Picture 7-1
Temporary measure is opened via the pull-down vertical distance
menu Extras, with the shortcut <Ctrl>+M or via
the toolbox (Picture 7-1). It is used for temporary perpendicular onto an
measuring during pattern development. Grafis also imaginary line between
offers a recorded measurement function, which is two points
discussed in the next section. distance from a point to
a line
Step-by-step guide The different measuring modes are well illustrated
⇒ start measure from the Extras pull-down menu or by the button symbols. The numbers indicate the
from the toolbox order of clicking. When clicking, the sub-menu point
⇒ select a type of measurement in the upper sec- construction opens automatically.
tion of functions Measure the distance measurements indicated in
⇒ select a measuring mode relating to the active Picture 7-3 on Bodice 10:
measurement type from the central block of
functions B=60

⇒ click on the objects of the construction


⇒ set the display options for the active measure- A=76

ment C=75

Types of measurement
To set a new measurement, first the type of meas-
urement must be selected from the six availabe
E=42
measurement types (Picture 7-2).

measurement types
• distance measurements
D=40
• length measurements
• area measurements
• angle measurements
• co-ordinate/ vector
measurements
• chain measurements

measuring modes
depending on the Picture 7-3
measurement type selected
A- dart content of the bust dart
B- neck width
C- neck depth
D- perpendicular distance from the sleeve pitch to
Picture 7-2 the connection between shoulder point and side
seam
The measurement types distance, length, area
E - distance from an arbitrary point on the armhole
and angle are self-explanatory. The co-ordinates/
to the right bust dart leg
vector measurements measure point co-ordinates
The position of each measurement can be altered by
relating to the co-ordinate origin or to another con-
clicking and dragging. Close measure.
structed point. The change of these point co-
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 93
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Length measurements Area measurements


There are four length measure- An area measurement can be set in
ments: two different ways:

select single lines for


length of a single line
perimeter of area
search lines for area
length of several lines
perimeter automatically

partial length of a line

perimeter length

Measure the area of Bodice 10 de-


Measure the length measurements indicated in Pic- picted in Picture 7-5 by clicking the single lines for
ture 7-4 on Bodice 10: the perimeter.

2.

3.

A=190
D=1976
A=5375mm²
1.
4.

B=380

C=61

5.

Picture 7-4
A - length of front width
B - total length of the four waist lines
C - partial length of the side seam between waist Picture 7-5
and hip lines
Click the five lines from the outside in order. After
D - length of the perimeter lines of the back
having clicked the last line, press to set the meas-
When setting measurement B, length of the four urement. A closed perimeter is created automati-
waist lines, start with the line at the centre front and cally from the clicked lines. Protruding lines are cut
click the four lines underneath, see Picture 7-4. off. The click point of the first line must be within
Alternatively, start with the centre back and click the future perimeter contour! Until the measure-
the individual lines above. As the number of lines is ment has been set with , individual lines can be
variable, the measurement is only shown after a reset with
right mouse button click . Position the measure-
ments suitably. Then, close measure. reset single lines
94 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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Measure the area of the front and back of Bodice 10 Angle measurements
using search lines for area perimeter automati- There are four angle measurements:
cally (no picture). sets the measurement.
angle between two lines
Internal partial areas can be deducted from an area
at click point
measurement. The partial areas must be marked
before the measurement is set. angle at intersection
point
angle about a turning
point from a basic di-
rection to a point
angle out of three
points
139968mm²
line direction in click
point

Measure the angles in Bodice 10 shown in Picture


7-7:

2. D=12.8°
3. C=10.8°

1 A=96.9°
4. B=94.0°

E=-107.3°

Picture 7-6
Measure the area of the back of Bodice 10 without
the area of the waist dart. First, define the outer Picture 7-7
contour of the back. A new partial area to be de- A - angle between back neck and centre back at
ducted from the original area begins with 20mm from corner respectively
start new partial area B - angle between shoulder and armhole
C - shoulder angle for back shoulder
Then, click the four lines of the waist dart. Please D - angle between dart legs of the shoulder dart
note the order. Set the measurement with or E - direction of the armhole in the sleeve pitch; As
define a new area to be deducted with start new there are two lines in the vicinity of this point,
partial area. the desired line must be clicked after having de-
fined the point.
The measuring mode line direction in click point is
useful if the construction direction / orientation of a
curve or a line is needed.
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 95
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Co-ordinate/ Vector measurements If a co-ordinate / vector measurement is set in a


A co-ordinate / vector measurement graded stack, the third display option shows the
can be set in two ways: grade rules between the sizes.

co-ordinate / vector Options for measurements


from zero (origin)
Clicking selects a single measurement. With
co-ordinate / vector <Ctrl>+A and <Ctrl> a number of measure-
from constructed zero ments can be selected. <Del> deletes all selected
point measurements. The following display options can be
chosen for selected measurements:

normal or more number of de-


cimals
display of normal, doubled 2x or
quadrupled 4x value
Grade Bodice 10 in different sizes and stack it at the
corner point neck/ centre front (Picture 7-8). Set a In the pull-down menu Settings units for length/
measurement co-ordinates from constructed zero distance and area can be seleted amongst others.
point. First, the zero point is constructed at the
corner point neck/ centre front. The second point is Set chain measurement
the corner point shoulder/ neck. The x component If a number of measurements are selected they can
of the measurement shows the width of neck and create a chain measurement:
the y component indicates the depth of neck.
create chain measurement from a num-
ber of selected measurements
Set four measurements for the length of the individ-
ual waist lines of Bodice 10. Select all four measure-
A=60/75 ments and use the button chain. The measurement
E is created as a sum of the four individual meas-
urements, see Picture 7-9.

Picture 7-8 E=380

Display measurements in a table


A=82 B=116 C=91 D=91
display measurements in a table

All set measurements can be displayed in a table.


Measurements of a graded stack are shown in all
sizes. The table can be printed or copied to the
clipboard.
There are three display options: Picture 7-9
Now, select the four measurements A to D and set
normal view the tick for 2x. The four individual measurements
have been doubled. Thus, E now indicates the cir-
difference to first size cumference. De-activate doubling 2x for the individ-
ual measurements and select doubling 2x for meas-
relative difference / difference to the urement E only.
previous size
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7.2 Finished measurements measurement text height be-


The record function dimension sets measurements tween 2 and 50mm
which are saved with the style as opposed to meas-
retake single selected measu-
ure (section 7.1). Finished measurements are auto-
rement
matically calculated for all sizes and the results are
stored in finished measurement tables. These are
significant for creating style descriptions, finished Measurement code and measurement text
measurement tables and other documentation. They Each measurement can be assigned a standard mea-
can be plotted together with the pattern. surement designation, consisting of code and meas-
First, the record function dimension is discussed. The urement text or an individual measurement designai-
display of Finished Measurement Tables follows. . Both code and measurement text
ton with
Set and alter measurements appear in the finished measurement table.
When assigning a standard measurement description
The record function dimension can be found in the the measure group is to be selected, first. Then,
menu on the right. Finished measurements can be select the measurement description. If Show graphic
set in the active part. Manipulation of setting and is checked a graphic - if available - with explanations
alteration of the measurements is identical with about the measurement is opened. With double-
manipulation of temporary measuring in section 7.1. click or <OK> the measurement description is
The following differences to temporary measuring accepted.
apply:
• The display of the measurement text in the Show and hide finished measurements
pattern has been optimised for plot output. As long as the dimension menu is not open, set
• Additional display options are available. measurements can be shown or hidden with <F7>.
• The measurement can be assigned a measure- Quit the dimension menu, grade and press <F7> a
ment designation or measurement code at few times.
point of setting already. This designation will
appear in the finished measurement table. Pattern development after set measurement
• All measurements are given consecutive meas- After having set measurements, the pattern can be
urement numbers at entry: M1, M2, M3,... . developed further without restrictions. Hide the
measurements with <F7>. They are updated after
Display options each test run or grading.
Alteration of the display options are
applied to all selected measure-
ments. The displayed state shows
the setting of the first selected mea-
surement.
Show/ hide…
measurement number,
e.g. M01 or M07
measurement value in
the respective size
measuring lines
measurement code or
individual description
measurement descrip-
tion Picture 7-10
Set some measurements in a construction according
Settings to Picture 7-10. Then, lengthen the skirt by moving
flip measurement text about the hem parallel with -copy and extend the centre
the measuring line front, centre back and the side seams with separate
or corners. After test run, the respective measure-
accuracy and multiples of the ments are updated, as long as the measurements
value had been attached to the line with click l and
<Shift> and not to the points. In the latter case set
enter individual designation or the measurements again with measurement: retake
select standard designation and click l with <Shift>.
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 97
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The set measurements are bound to points (click p) Display finished measurement table
or lines (click l, click plg, click rlg, intersection). If The finished measurements are recorded and can be
points or lines of a measurement are deleted during repeated for other sizes. Grade the construction
pattern development, Grafis gives an undefined measured according to Picture 7-11 in the sizes 40,
measurement after the next test run. You then have 42, 44 and 46, quit the finished measurement menu
the option to set the measurement again or delete and open the Finished Measurement Table from the
it. Finished Measurements pull-down menu. The Grafis
Finished Measurement Spec window is opened as
Exercise
shown in Picture 7-12.
Open the 2nd exercise from section 5.6. Skirt front Each part has its own finished measurement table.
and back are contained in separate parts, see Picture You can switch to the finished measurement table of
7-11. another part with the file card tabs. The style from
Picture 7-11 has finished measurements in parts 3
and 4. The part name appears as a tooltip on the file
card tabs.
The measurements are arranged in lines and the
graded sizes in columns. The first column contains
part and measurement number. T3M4 stands for
fourth measurement in part 3. The arrangement of
rows/columns can be swapped with
swap rows and columns
The second column contains the measurement unit.
The third and fourth columns show the measure-
ment designation (code and text). The following
columns contain the measurement values in the
available sizes. The position number in the size table
Picture 7-11 is stated in the first row and the size designation in
Set the following measurements in the skirt front: the second row.
• M01 length of front section of the waist line. Change the display of the finished measurement
Measure the length with the measurement table via the pull-down menu View | Display options.
mode partial length of a line Change the measurement units as well.
• M02 length of the lateral section of the waist
There are three display options:
line
• M03 ’wSav’ hem width front skirt, again with normal view
the measurement mode partial length of a line
• M04 ’wHüv’ hip width difference to first size
• M05 ’wTav’ chain
measurement from
M01 and M02
• M06 length of vent as
a vertical measure-
ment
In the skirt back set the
measurements M01 ‚wTah’
waist width, M02 ‚wHüh’
hip width, M03 ‚wSah’ hem
width as well as the skirt
length along the centre
back.

Picture 7-12
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relative difference/ difference to the measurement across different parts for example.
previous size The following additional functions are available for
creation and editing of calculated measurements:
For a single meaurement selected in the table you create a new calculated meas-
can adjust the following: urement at the end of the table
The measurement is
centred on the screen. delete selected measurement
Thus, it is easier to find enter calculation formulae for
in the pattern. the measurement
Alter the measurement … onto the measurement in
code or the individual the construction transfers it
measurement designa- double-click
into the active calculation for-
tion. mulae
Copy the displayed table to the clipboard via Edit| centers the construction to the
Copy. Now, start a different Windows application measurement selected in the
such as Word for Windows or Excel and insert the formulae, here T4M5:
table from the clipboard. If you have already created
templates or forms in these applications, seam The fomulae for a calculated finished measurement
length calculations or other calculations can be sol- can be created with the arithmetic signs for addition,
ved quickly. subtraction, multiplication and division + - * /. Ex-
pressions in brackets are also permitted.
With Edit | Copy measurement into the calcu-
lated finished measurement table or <Ctrl>-B a With Edit | Move measurement up or Move meas-
selected measurement is transferred into the calcu- urement down you can alter the order of the meas-
lated table. urements in the calculated finished measurement
table.
In the style from the exercise shown in Picture 7-11
transfer the measurements M03 to M06 from the <Ctrl>+ Ï
alter order of measurements
front skirt and M01 to M04 from the back skirt into <Ctrl>+ Ð
the calculated finished measurement table with New measurements are initially a ‘number‘ without
<Ctrl>+B. measurement unit. Please note that internally, eve-
Deleting finished measurements can only be done rything is calculated in mm, mm² and °. Any conver-
via the function finished measurements. sion to the required measurement unit ensues after
value output in the table.
Calculated finished measurement table Alter the finished measurements transferred from
Finished measurements from different parts of a parts 3 and 4 according to Picture 7-13 and create a
style are combined in one table in the calculated finished measurement table with the following mea-
finished measurement table, see Picture 7-13. Fin- surements of your style: skirt length, waist width as
ished measurements from different parts can be circumference, hip width as circumference, hem
calculated together to establish a circumference width as circumference and vent length.

Picture 7-13
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7.3 Set and edit text Step-by-step guide for entry of new text
⇒ basic menu --> texts
The text menu ⇒ Click on via keyboard
This menu can be called from the basic ⇒ Enter text and/or specific information
menu, directly by ⇒ Quit text entry with clicking on OK or Cancel
clicking on texts. It ⇒ Position the text
allows for entry, edit- ⇒ Manipulate the active text according to the
ing, positioning and adjustment “Step-by-step guide for alteration of text“
of texts. The functions offered ⇒ Quit with
are sufficient for pattern anno-
tation or entry of making-up Step-by-step guide for alteration of text
instructions. They cannot be ⇒ basic menu --> texts
compared to a word- ⇒ Click the text
processing package. ⇒ Alteration of text content:
• double-click on the text
• alter the text
• quit with OK or Cancel
Text menu ⇒ Alteration of text position:

via keyboard • drag as soon as the cursor appears


via file • possibly: bind the text position onto the
construction with the upper left corner of the
text frame
activate text ⇒ Alter text alignment:
copy text • drag the upper text frame as soon as the cur-

sor appears.
delete active text • possibly: bind the direction onto the con-
delete all text struction with the upper right corner of the
text frame
⇒ Alter text size
• drag the text frame as soon as the cursor
align left
appears.
align centred
⇒ Alter text format:
align right
• click aligned left, align centred or aligned right
+/- grading in the menu
+/- autom. direction ⇒ Set the switch +/-grading
⇒ Set the switch +/-frame
+/- frame
+/- autom. size Enter or activate text
The active text is surrounded by a solid frame with
active points. Existing text is activated by clicking.
This works within the text menu, only. Double-click
user-defined
on a text opens the window for text entry. All func-
text formats
tions in the middle of the function strip relate to the
active text, only. A new text is set with:
via file
After having clicked via file the position for the text
is to be set, first (Picture 7-14). Then, a window for
selection of prepared text masks opens. Prepared
texts should be saved on the current drive in the
set text formats directory \GRAFIS\TEXTE as ___.TXT files. ASCI
text files are permitted, only. The application of this
function is especially interesting for pattern annota-
tion with standard text.
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via keyboard Position and align text


After having pre-positioned the text (Picture 7-14) To position the text drag the text as soon as the
the window for entry of new text opens.
cursor appears (Picture 7-15). The text is
positioned and remains in this position in all sizes.

Picture 7-15
Only after binding the text onto a line of the con-
Picture 7-14 struction will its position change during grading. For
binding the text the active point at the upper left
Additionally, the following text blocks with specific
corner of the text frame can be used. As soon as the
information can be inserted by clicking the buttons:
Display in text editor: cursor in the shape of a pin appears the text can
date {F 1...} be bound onto a line (Picture 7-16).
time {F 2}
Grafis version {F 3.......}
size name {F 4...}
collection {F 5...}
style {F 6...}
part number {F 7}
part name {F 8..................}
measurement system {F 9.......................}

In Chapters 11 and 12 you will learn about x, g and z Picture 7-16


values. These numerical values as well as the previ-
ously discussed finished measurements can be in- To align the text freehand the text is to be
serterd into text: dragged at the upper right frame. As soon as the
Display and significance in cursor takes on the shape the text can be
text editor: rotated freehand with pressed left mouse button
X value {X00.2} Second x value of (Picture 7-17).
(active part) the active part.
Global x value {XG01} First global x value
Z value {Z05 } Fifth z value of the
active part
Measurement {M04 } Fourth measure-
(active part) ment of the active part
Calculated measu- {B1.3} Third calculated
rement measurement in the fin-
ished measurement table
After OK the text is accepted and can be positioned,
aligned and altered in size. Picture 7-17
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 101
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With bound direction point the text is also aligned Copy and delete text
along an existing line. The direction tag is located at After having selected copy text from the menu the
the upper right corner of the text frame. It appears text to be copied is to be clicked. The copy is to be
only after the text has been bound according to postioned according to Picture 7-14. NB: Text can
Picture 7-17. As soon as the cursor takes on the also be copied from an inactive piece into an
shape of the pin near the upper right corner the active piece. The menu functions delete active text
text direction can be bound (no picture). In the and delete all text are used to delete text.
different sizes the text is rotated about the angle the
connection between the binding points is rotated. Prepared text format and automatic direction
and size adjustment
Text size and format
Clicking on of the ten prepared text formats (004 to
Adjust the text size with the active points according 121 with delivery) assigns the active text with the
to Picture 7-18. Near these active points the cursor respective settings. The text formats can be edited
takes on the shape of a double arrow . via options.
With the switch +autom. direction you decide
whether the direction of the text is changed accord-
ing to the direction point during grading. When
binding the direction point, the switch is automati-
cally activated.
With +autom. size the direction point is also re-
sponsible for enlarging/reducing the text during
grading. This ensures that the text is not positioned
outside the perimeter in small sizes.

Picture 7-18 Prepare and switch texts in different languages


Text of more than one line can be aligned left, right A text module can be stored in different languages.
or centred. This format relates to the alignment of The text module must be saved as a *.txt file in
lines, only. The format for the active text is to be German in the directory GRAFIS\TEXTE\049\ and in
selected from the menu. English in the directory GRAFIS\TEXTE\044\. The
file name must be identical in both directories.
+grading or -grading
A prepared text module is called via the menu func-
With this switch you decide whether or not the tion from file. Switching languages ensues via the
active text is graded. pull-down menu Finished measurements | Language
-grading text appears in base size, only for measurements. If the desired language is not
+grading text appears in all graded sizes available, it can be entered in the file
Text with +grading is displayed slightly lighter than \GRAFIS\Masscode.dat. The designated number is
text with -grading. the international access code, e.g. 049 for German
+frame or -frame and 044 for English. When switching the language,
With this switch you decide whether the active text the text content is automatically newly formed
is displayed with or without frame . according to the contents of the text module file.
Possible individual alterations to already set texts
are reset.
102 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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7.4 Set symbols Grain line 10 tool


Step-by-step guide:
The symbols menu ⇒ Call Grain line 10 from the symbols menu
With the functions from this menu sym- ⇒ Construct the base point
bols can be set onto points or lines in any ⇒ Adjust the direction of the grain line with the sub
menu direction construction
Symbols menu ⇒ Quit direction construction with the right mouse
button
⇒ If necessary, click a cutting line. Clicking the
place on cutting line can be initiated in the interactive en-
vironment at a later stage.
⇒ Interactive adjustment of the grain line (length of
symbol length
grain line, direction, lateral relocation). If a cut-
ting line is required but has not been selected al-
ready, select click cutting line in the context me-
move on allowance nu.
+/-copy ⇒ Quit interactive adjustment with End in the
menu on the right
From version 11 onwards, the very flexible interac-
tive Grain line 10 is available. The length of the grain
change symbol

slit notch (N1)


drillhole
grain line
notch
pitch
v notch (N2)
buttonhole
arrow *=>
cross
Picture 7-19
circle line can be set. Alternatively, the grain line can be
arrow =>* lengthened to a cutting line to be selected, see Pic-
.CF ture 7-19. The length of the grain line results from
.CB the intersection with the cutting line. The direction
drillhole plotted of the grain line as well as the lateral relocation can
scissors be altered interactively.
repeat point weft
repeat point warp Setting a new symbol
Step-by-step guide
⇒ basic menu --> symbols
reset ⇒ Activate the symbol required
⇒ Enter length of the new symbol
⇒ Activate place on
⇒ Construct position for the new symbol
Grain line 10 tool
Note
The function “on allowance” is always active. For
direction. If the symbol is not to lie on the construc- each new symbol the function “place on” has to
tion line it can be moved to the seam allowance with be clicked!
on allowance, later. The available symbols are listed To set a new symbol select the symbol from the
in the lower part of the menu. The active symbol is lower part of the
highlighted. menu. If the symbol is length= 5.0
required in a length
different from the length=10.0
default length (picture
7-20) the symbol Picture 7-20
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 103
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length must be altered. With place on the symbol can Exercise


be attached to a point or a line. Then, the direction Open the style from
construction sub-menu is opened for orientation of Chapter 5, Exercise 8 and
the symbol. Symbols are treated as line sequences set notches onto the panel
during further work. A placed symbol can be seams. Construct the
changed into another symbol with change symbol. position of the notches
There are no functions available for the alteration of with intersection. To align
size or direction of symbol, later. In this case the the notches, click on the
current symbol is to be deleted and a new symbol is respective marking lines.
to be set. Set circle symbols of
15mm length onto the
Moving a symbol points of the front edge.
Step-by-step guide Set the grain line symbol
Prerequisite is a line onto which the symbol is to be into each piece. Grade the
moved. construction in various
⇒ basic menu --> symbols sizes and check the posi-
⇒ Adjust +copy or -copy tion and direction of the
⇒ Activate on allowance notches.
⇒ Click the symbol
Picture 7-21
7.5 Interactive tools
for buttonholes and bartack

Frequently, a symbol, e.g. a notch, is to lie on the


seam allowance rather than the construction line.
The function on allowance is always active and the
symbol to be moved can be clicked, directly.
Grafis then asks for the seam allowance onto which
the symbol is to be moved. With the switch
+/–copy you decide whether a copy of the symbol is
created or whether the symbol is simply moved. From Version 10, five further interactive symbols
+copy creates a copy of the symbol are available. As opposed to the symbols from sec-
-copy symbol is moved. tion 7.4, these symbols are only line objects.
The interactive symbols are not detected as sym-
bol objects during export and print/plot. Within
the pattern pieces, interactive symbols must not
be positioned outside the piece perimeter or
intersect the perimeter.
Otherwise these symbols are integrated into the
perimeter and/or an error message appears during
preparation for transfer to the layplan.
104 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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Overview of the interactive symbols ⇒ End with


⇒ Click reference line along which the symbols are
to be aligned or click on Exit
⇒ Activate symbols with double-click
⇒ Adjust the options
⇒ Interactives adjustment of symbol length and
interactive alignment of the symbols
⇒ Quit interactive adjustment with End

Significance of the reference line, options and


the drag cursor
After having positioned the symbols, a reference line
can be clicked. Thus, all symbols are aligned parallel
to the reference line. The difference angle is then
set interactively.
With the first or first two options the shape and
Buttonhole 10 Buttonhole 20 position of the symbol is selected. The middle op-
tion in Picture 7-22 determines whether the length
of the symbol is to be adjusted interactively or set as
a fixed inch value.
symbol shape symbol length inch value
interactively adjustable for symbol length
or as fixed inch length

Picture 7-22
Buttonhole 30 Buttonhole 40 There is one drag area for interactive adjustment of
symbols in which the symbol direction and depend-
ing on the option and symbol type also the symbol
length and offset can be interactively adjusted, see
Picture 7-23.

1 2

1 2 1 symbol length
2 symbol
Bartack 10
direction
3 offset from
Step-by-step guide for setting interactive sym- 3
reference
bols point / non
⇒ basic menu -> symbols -> tools or in the basic centred
menu onto symbols positioning
⇒ Select symbol
Picture 7-23
⇒ Construct position of up to 45 new symbols
with the sub-menu point construction
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 105
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Exercise on interactive symbols 7.6 Attributes


Construct the tool Front Edge 30 onto a Grafis Bod-
ice according to Picture 7-24 left and set five but- The attributes menu
tonholes with Buttonhole 10. Click the front edge as This menu attributes which can be called
from the basic menu allows for alteration of
click line type or changing of a point into a par-
reference ticular marker.
line
Attributes menu

continuous line
dotted line small distance
dotted line great distance
dashed
dot-dash rough
dot-dash fine

grain line
split line
annotation line
seam line
Picture 7-24 cut internal line
reference line. Then, adjust the front edge according
to Picture 7-24 right.
Reset calling the +/- chain
tool Buttonhole 10
in the record and
construct the cross
buttonholes again. big point
End without click- small point
ing a reference asterisk
line by clicking on arrow
the button Exit
after having cli-
cked the points
and (Picture 7- reset
25). The button-
holes are now
aligned parallel to
one another. Markingline menu
Picture 7-25 see section 7.9

Alteration of line type


Step-by-step guide
⇒ basic menu --> attributes
⇒ Activate the line type required
⇒ Click the line
Each line can be turned into one of the following line
types:
Line types with structure…
continuous, dotted line with small distance, dot-
ted line with greater distance, dashed, dot-dash
rough, dot-dash fine or
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Line types with significance… Overview over the interactive seam symbols
annotation line, grain line, split line, cut internal Seam 10
line or seam line. lockstitch
After activating the line type, the line to be altered in
the construction is to be clicked. Seam 20
If the option chain is active continuous lines, e.g. the double lockstitch
contour, are assigned the selected attribute.
The line types with structure have significance dur-
ing plot/ print, e.g. for plotter/cutters. The line types
with significance are required in the layplan and for
data export.

Setting a marker
Step-by-step guide Seam 30
⇒ basic menu --> attributes zigzag stitch
⇒ Activate the marker required
⇒ Click the point
Seam 40
cross asterisk decorative stitches

great point arrow

Seam 50
small point gather
Picture 7-26
Step-by-step guide for setting interactive seam
Each point can be changed into one of the markers symbols
shown in Picture 7-26. For further modification, it is
⇒ basic menu -> symbols
still treated as a point.
⇒ Select seam symbol
To change a point into a marker activate the se-
lected marker and click the point. The marker cross ⇒ Click on one or up to 45 lines
corresponds with the original point. ⇒ Click on Exit
⇒ Activate one of the new seam symbols with
7.7 Interactive Seam Tools double-click
⇒ Adjust the options
From Version 10, ⇒ Interactive adjustment of stitch distance and
five additional possibly stitch width
interactive seam
⇒ End interactive adjustment with End
symbols are avail-
able. As opposed
Significance of the options and drag cursor
to the symbols
from section 7.6, The first option determines the shape of the seam
the seam symbols symbol. The middle option in Picture 7-27 deter-
have no further mines whether the seam width is to be adjusted
significance in the interactively or set as a fixed inch value.
layplan or during data export. stitch shape stitch interactively inch value for
adjustable or stitch width
In the pattern pieces, the interactive seam sym- as fixed inch value
bols must not be positioned outside the piece
perimeter or interect the perimeter!
Otherwise, these seam symbols are integrated into
the perimeter and /or an error message appears
during preparation for transfer to the layplan.

Picture 7-27
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 107
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For the interactive adjustment of the seam symbols, ⇒ Generate the perimeter with automatic or step-
there is exactly one drag area in which the stitch step etc.
width, the distance to the base line and the length of ⇒ Click generate hatching
the seam symbol can be adjusted interactively, see
Picture 7-28. Hatching parameters
The first part of the
3 menu allows for
1 adjustment of
hatching parameters
such as distance be-
2 3 tween the hatching
lines in mm, direction
of the lines and pen
number for the colour for output onto a pen plotter.
1 distance to the base line These parameters must be adjusted before clicking
2 seam width generate hatching.
3 adjust length of seam symbol
Picture 7-28 Determine the perimeter
The second part of functions in the menu are used
7.8 Hatching for determination of the perimeter of the hatching.
Selecting perimeter automatic and clicking a line of
The hatching menu the construction will automatically generate a closed
The hatching menu can be opened via Edit | Hatch- perimeter. In case this line is incorrect click perime-
ing. Hatching is not recorded. Calling a record func- ter delete to return to the original state. Follow the
tion will delete the created hatching. right principle when creating a perimeter, automati-
cally. The perimeter starts at the clicked line and
Hatching menu continues along the direction of the line. It continues
from its final point on to the next adjacent line. If
several lines touch at this point the perimeter will
distance always follow the branch to the right.
If the required perimeter cannot be generated with
perimeter automatic the function perimeter step-step
is to be activated. Each line of the required perime-
direction ter is to be clicked at the right side in direction of
travel. Should white or black lines appear on the
screen which do not correspond to a construction
line, a line was clicked on the wrong side. Activate
pen number step-step reset to undo the last step of the perimeter
creation. Clicking perimeter delete will delete the
whole active perimeter. The function perimeter
perimeter…
automatic
complete connects the starting point and the final
step-step point of the perimeter and thus, creates a closed
step-step reset perimeter.
complete Generate or delete the hatching
delete
After having generated the perimeter click generate
hatching to create the hatching. This step can be
generate hatching undone by activating delete hatching and clicking the
hatching.
delete hatching
Exercise
In Bodice 20 construct the displayed hatchings in the
Step-by-step guide front with distance=20mm and direction=45° and in
the back with distance=10mm and direction=135°
⇒ Edit | Hatching…
(Picture 7-29).
⇒ Adjust the values for the hatching: distance, direc-
tion and pen number
108 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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• cutting width (width of the gap)


• notch heigth and width (tag)
Clicking a line transforms it into a marking line with
the set parameters. The side of the notches is de-
termined by clicking. reset reverses the last trans-
formation.

Step-by-step guide
⇒ Construct an auxiliary line along which the gaps
are to generated.
⇒ basic menu-->attributes -->markingline and set
the four parameters
⇒ Click the auxiliary line: the auxiliary line is to be
clicked on the side on which the notches are to
be generated
⇒ Complete the template, possibly as a new part
Picture 7-29
Significance of the parameters
7.9 Markingline function for the creation The auxiliary lines to the neck and shoulder (Picture
of templates 7-30 left) were transformed into marking lines (Pic-
ture 7-30 right).
Part of production preparation is the creation of
templates for sewing, for positioning of pattern Clicked, here.
pieces or embroidery. The templates must be gen-
erated for all sizes. The templates are constructed
with the markingline function. *

The markingline menu

Markingline menu

medium length
of the gap
from bridge to bridge
Picture 7-30
The significance of the parameters medium length
half bridge width ln, half bridge width bw, cutting width cw and notch
heigth no is illustrated in Picture 7-31.

cutting width (width of


the gap)
2*bw

notch height and width cw


(tag) ln
bw
cw
no

reset 2*no

The markingline menu opens by clicking on mark-


Picture 7-31
ingline in the attributes menu. For a markingline, the
following four parameters must be entered: Exercise
• medium length of the gap from bridge to
Construct a template for a shaped waistband for
bridge
Skirt 20. Into the new part “template“ insert the
• half bridge width
waistlines of the front skirt and the side seam one
Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation 109
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after another. Close the darts, create a parallel of Link the godet line with the centre back with the
60mm to the linked waistline. Link 10 tool. Then, construct the hem and the seam
Construct a seam allowance all around with distance allowance. Set the text and the symbols.
10mm. The marking line with cutting width 2mm is
2nd Exercise
to be centred on the seam line. Construct a parallel
Construct a godet as in Exercise 1 but in the front
of half of this width all around the seam line to the
skirt.
outside. This new parallel is now positioned be-
tween the seam and the seam allowance. Open the
markingline menu and assign the four parameters as
follows: medium length = 15., half bridge width =
2.5, cutting width = 2. and notch height/width = 0.
Now click the parallel constructed last on the inside.
The result is shown in Picture 7-32.

Picture 7-32
Construct a template for the skirt back waistband in
the same way.

7.10 Exercises
1st Exercise
In the style “Straight skirt“
from Section 2.4 construct a 3rd Exercise
grown-on godet at the centre Call the construction Bodice 10 and adjust the op-
back with a godet height of tions so that the waist dart is drawn to the hem.
200mm and an angle for the Annotate the front and back, setting the following
godet of 35° to the centre back. text blocks automatically: name of collection, style
name, part number, size, how often the piece is
required per style and the material type. Hatch the
area waist/ hem.
110 Chapter 7 Measurements and annotation
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4th Exercise
Call Bodice 30 and construct an overlap of 40mm in
the front with the tool Front edge 30. Set a point
sequence of 6 points on the centre front, starting at
30mm from the neck with a distance of 60mm re-
spectively. Set the text, the grain line symbol and
then, the buttonhole symbols with the tool Button-
hole 10. Construct a seam allowance of 10mm. Set a
notch at the front pitch and move it onto the seam
allowance. Add the notches for the seam allowance
and display the stitch lines as dashed lines.
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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Content • pinch with a new dart and


8.1 Relocate dart .................................................. 112 • spread in preparation for pleats.
8.2 Shorten dart ................................................... 115 In this chapter you will learn about all construction
8.3 Hoods on darts and pleats ............................. 116 options for pleats and darts. In the remaining chap-
8.4 Pinch with new dart ....................................... 117 ters 9 and 10, working with curves and various
8.5 Spread for pleats, pivot open and close ......... 118 transformation options follow.
8.6 Exercises ........................................................ 119 In the well-known manner, each section of this
______________________ chapter contains exercises for the consolidation of
the new function. In the complex exercises at the
Darts and pleats are an important styling element end of the chapter all previously learned functions
for garment construction. For construction of darts will find their applications, also.
and pleats Grafis offers the following functions:
• automatic and interactive relocation of darts
• shortening darts
• construction of hoods for darts
112 Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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8.1 Relocate dart Step-by-step guide


⇒ Check whether the conditions for dart reloca-
tion are met
The dart menu ⇒ basic menu --> dart
Dart menu ⇒ Click relocate dart
⇒ Determine relocation direction by clicking both
dart lines (succession!)
⇒ Adjust % of the dart to be relocated
relocate dart ⇒ Switch +dart line or -dart line
⇒ Click automatic
⇒ Determine insert position with the sub-menu
point construction
shorten dart ⇒ Relocate additional objects; before clicking the
objects the switch +/ -copy is to be adjusted and
the object type lines or points is to be activated.
shortening amount
⇒ Possibly, reset single objects with reset single or
reset all objects with reset all
⇒ Continue with 5. or terminate with
reset
Pivot direction for relocating darts
When clicking relocate darts in the dart menu you
Dart hood 10 tool
will be asked which dart line is to be relocated to-
wards the other. The succession of clicking the lines
determines the pivot direction (see Pictures 8-1 and
8-2).
Pinch 10 tool
Pinch 20 tool

This menu offers functions for relocation and short-


ening of darts, creation of dart hoods and pinching
with a new dart. 2nd click point * *1st click point

Prerequisites for relocation of darts


1. For the relocation of darts Grafis requires a
closed perimeter - also across corners. Starting
and final point of the lines are allowed a maxi-
mum of 0.5mm gap. The individual lines of the
perimeter do not have to be linked.
2. The dart must not be closed, i.e. with a dart
hood. If such a dart is to be relocated the hood is
to be removed with separate und cut or corners,
first.
3. The dart lines must be of the same length and
share an apex. Picture 8-1
After having determined the pivot direction, the dart
is hatched. The direction of the hatching indicates
the pivot direction. The relocate dart menu opens,
see next page.
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats 113
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relocate automatic
Activating the function
relocate automatic starts
the relocation. The dart
line switch determines
whether or not the dart
*2nd click point lines are drawn at the
1st click point *
new position:
+dart line draws the
dart lines at the new position
-dart line does not draw the dart lines at the
new position.
relocate additional
After having relocated parts of the dart important
construction points and lines are no longer posi-
tioned correctly in relation to the part. These points
or lines must be relocated directly after relocating
the dart. The type of object (points or lines) is to be
selected and the copy switch is to be set:
Picture 8-2 +copy object is copied
The dashed lines in Pictures 8-1 and 8-2 show the -copy object is relocated only.
shape of the bodice in case the full dart (100%) is reset
relocated. Clicking reset determines:
reset single additional relocated objects can be
The relocate dart menu reset individually by clicking
reset all the last relocation step is reset com-
Relocate dart menu
pletely.

Relocate 100% of the dart


amount of dart
to be relocated
remainder
of the dart

relocate automatic
+/-dart line

reset all

relocate additional…
lines
points
+/-copy
Picture 8-3
reset single
Relocating 100% of the dart is explained using an
example. Call the basic block Bodice 10 and relocate
100% of the dart into the front pitch (Picture 8-3):
Amount of dart call
In the first part of the menu you determine how dart
many % of the dart is to be relocated in the next relocate dart
step. The line rest=0% shows the remainder of the
dart which can still be relocated.
114 Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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The right dart line is to be pivoted to the left. Relocate parts of a dart
Click the right dart line first and then the left. Relocating a portion of a dart is explained with an
Enter 100% in the first line. The actual relo- example. Call the basic block Bodice 10. Now, 25%
cation has not been carried out and the dis- of the bust dart is to be relocated to the front pitch
play shows: (rest=100%). and 50% into the hem (Picture 8-4).
+dart line
relocate automatic 25% remain
click p click the front pitch as insert
position in free mode
As two lines are as-
signed to the front pitch 25%
Grafis asks for the base
line required. You can
click one of the lines
offered and the dart is
relocated automatically.
Check whether further
objects are to be relo-
cated to be positioned
correctly in your con-
struction. In this exam-
ple this is not necessary
and the dart relocation
can be terminated with
. 50%
reset all the dart is replaced in its origi- Picture 8-4
nal position call
Repeat relocation of the dart to a position on the dart
side seam 30mm from the armhole (not shown). relocate dart
Please note that the construction points of the arm- The right dart line is to be pivoted towards
hole have to be relocated as well with: the left. Click the right dart line first and then
points the left.
-copy click the points required 25% enter in the first line (rest=75%).
+dart line
reset reset construction record to 001 relocate automatic
test run click p front pitch
Repeat relocating the dart with the left dart line Please note that the construction points of the arm-
being pivoted towards the right. Click the left dart hole have to be relocated as well:
line first and then the right. As opposed to Picture -copy
8-3 the centre front is now angled, the position of points relocate construction points of
the armhole remains unchanged. the armhole
50% enter in the first line (rest=25%)
+dart line
relocate automatic
click l hem
Check whether any other objects must be relocated
so that they are in the correct position in your con-
struction. Terminate with .
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats 115
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Exercises Calling the function shorten dart


1st Exercise This function is contained in the dart menu. With
Relocate 50% of the dart in the back of basic block this function an existing dart can be shortened by a
Bodice 10 into the back pitch and the remaining 50% specified shortening amount.
of the dart into the hem (Picture 8-5). Entering a negative value lengthens the dart.
After having entered the amount and activated
shorten dart, Grafis asks for the two dart lines. The
shortened dart appears on screen. The distance
between the original and the new apex is exactly the
amount entered.

Exercises
1st Exercise
Construct five pleats into the centre front of Bodice
50. The bust dart is relocated by 20% respectively
into the rastered centre front. Shorten the first two
resulting darts by 20mm, the third and fourth dart
by 30mm and the fifth dart by 40mm (Picture 8-7).

Picture 8-5
2nd Exercise
Construct a grown-on yoke for Skirt 20. Use the
functions line from point to point and the Line 10 tool
for the construction of the yoke. Relocate the dart
into the yoke line (Picture 8-6).

Picture 8-7
2nd Exercise
Relocate the dart in the basic block Bodice 10 into
the armhole, the side seam and the hem. Shorten
the side seam dart by 20mm, the dart in the arm-
hole by 30mm and lengthen the dart in the hem by
20mm (shortening amount =-20.) (Picture 8-8).

Picture 8-6

8.2 Shorten dart


Step-by-step guide
⇒ Basic menu --> dart
⇒ Adjust the shortening amount, by which the dart
is to be shortened
⇒ Activate shorten dart
⇒ Click both dart lines
Picture 8-8
116 Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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8.3 Hoods on darts and pleats ⇒ Adjust the options (Picture 8-10)
The tool for the construction of hoods on darts and ⇒ Interactive adjustment of the drill hole
pleats Dart hood 10 is contained in the dart menu. With the Dart hood 10 tool, a dart hood with drill
hole is constructed.
Step-by-step guide
⇒ basic menu-> The first option (Picture 8-10) determines whether
darts and call a single pleat or a box/ inverted pleat is constructed.
the Dart hood The second option is
10 tool only active for single
⇒ Click on four pleats. It defines the
lines contour fold direction.
– dart – dart
– contour in a Exercises
continuous di-
rection (right 1st Exercise
principle! Pic- Construct the dart
ture 8-9) hoods for the darts in
⇒ Close the the style from the first
darts menu exercise of section 8.2
with (Picture 8-11).
⇒ Double-click
on the new
dart hood Picture 8-9 Picture 8-11

single dart hood or fold direction for single dart hood or


box pleat / inverted pleat single dart hood box pleat / inverted pleat

1 1
1 distance drill hole
from the dart apex

Picture 8-10
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats 117
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8.4 Pinch with new dart Exercises


The two tools for pinching through construction of 1st Exercise
new darts can also be found in the darts menu. With In the style „Straight
both tools, the pinch amount and the correcting skirt“ from Section
curve can be adjusted interactively. The tools differ 2.4 construct an
only in the way the dart point is defined. With the auxiliary line begin-
ning 100mm below
Pinch 10 tool the waist on the
centre front running
horizontally. Drop a Picture 8-13
perpendicular from
the centre (50%) of
the front waist onto
the auxiliary line.
1 – base line Construct a dart
2 – symmetry point with a dart width of
3 – direction
10mm. The symme-
try point and the
Pinch 20 tool apex are the begin-
ning and end point
of the perpendicular
respectively (Picture
8-13).
2nd Exercise
Construct a dart Picture 8-14
1 – base line into the armhole of
2 – symmetry point Bodice 50 with a pinch amount of 10mm (see Picutre
3 – apex 8-14).
3rd Exercise
Call Bodice 50 and load the prepared shape004. In
Picture 8-12 the drag area Side seam set the relocation to 0. O-
tool Pinch 10 the direction of the dart is constructed pen another part, call Front 30 and link it with Bodice
and the dart length is adjusted interactively. With 50. Open a further part and insert all lines for the
the tool Pinch 20 the apex is determined directly side front panel. Separate the side seam and the
with the sub-menu point construction. panel seam at the waist curve. Now, the pattern is
Clicking (1)(3)(3) instead of (1)(2)(3) when call- to be pinched at
ing the tool Pinch 20, creates the symmetry point the side seam. A
as a perpendicular from the apex onto the base balanced transition
line. can be ensured by
creating the sym-
Step-by-step guide metry point from
⇒ basic menu --> darts and call the tools Pinch 10 the perpendicular
or Pinch 20 of the apex onto
⇒ Click the base line into which the dart is to be the side seam. Call
inserted the tool Pinch 20
⇒ Construct the symmetry point using the side seam
⇒ Depending on the tool selected: construct the as the base line.
direction of the dart or the apex Now, click the side
⇒ Close the darts menu with seam twice at a
⇒ Double-click on the new dart relative distance of
⇒ Interactive adjustment of the dart content 50%. Thus, the
symmetry point is
created as a per-
pendicular onto
the side seam. Picture 8-15
118 Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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8.5 Spread for pleats, pivot open and close ⇒ Construct the spread line, then the actual spread
menu opens
The spread menu ⇒ Possibly, construct the spread line again after
The spread function for preparation of pleat con- having clicked re-define spread line
struction is the contents of this section. ⇒ Enter the spacing amount at the starting and final
point of the spread line and adjust +/-change di-
Spread menu
rection
⇒ Activate spread: single points, single lines or all
and click the respective objects
click spread line ⇒ Possibly, reset by activating reset: single points,
single lines or all and clicking the respective ob-
spread line jects
defined by two points ⇒ Adjust +/-spread lines
⇒ Terminate by clicking deposit
Spread line
After having constructed the spread line either with
click spread line or spread line defined by two points,
re-define spread line the actual spread menu opens. The spread line is
displayed in black (yellow - if a line of the construc-
tion is situated underneath) and the target line in
red. All required Grafis objects will be spread
spacing 1 at the starting according to spread line Î target line. Correc-
point of the spread line tion of the spread line is possible by clicking re-define
spread line.
spacing 2 at the final
point of the spread line Distances between spread line and target line
The position of the target line is to be adjusted. The
+/-change direction following options are available:
• alter the spacing between the starting points of
spread and target lines spacing 1
spread… • alter the spacing between the final points of
all spread and target lines spacing 2
single lines • alter the spread direction by clicking the switch
single points change direction
reset…
all Spreading objects
single lines As soon as the target line is in the required position
single points spreading of the individual objects ensues. The op-
tion spread: all spreads the complete part from the
deposit spread line onwards. Then, individual lines or indi-
vidual points can be spread, additionally by activating
+/-spread lines
spread: single points or single lines and clicking the
objects. If too many objects were spread with
spread: all, individual points or lines can be reset
with reset: single points or reset: single lines. With
Step-by-step guide for spreading
reset: all all spread objects are reset.
⇒ Construct the spread line or starting and final
point of the spread line with the functions of the Deposit
points and lines menu After having spread all required objects the switch
⇒ basic menu --> spread spread line is to be adjusted:
⇒ Determine spread line via: +spread line the spread line is drawn,
click spread line -spread line. the spread line is not drawn.
if a spread line is available or To terminate spreading click deposit.
spread line defined by two points
if the spread line is to be defined by its
starting and final point.
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats 119
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Exercises on spread 2nd Exercise


1st Exercise Design two pleats in the front of Bodice 20. First,
Construct three pleats in the back of Bodice 20 ac- link the shoulder and generate a point sequence of 5
cording to Picture 8-16. points on the shoulder. Drop perpendiculars from
the front two points onto the hem. Spread the per-
pendiculars with a spread amount of 40mm at the
hem. The pleats are not opened at the shoulder.
Link the hem lines (Picture 8-17).
s1=0

s2=40.0
Picture 8-16
Picture 8-17
First, raster the shoulder and then, construct three When clicking the spread line the right principle
lines from these points to the waist, parallel to the is to be followed. The starting point of the spread
centre back. Then, activate spread and click spread line is spread by the value spacing 1, the final
line and click the first spread line. point by spacing 2!
When clicking the spread line the right principle
is to be followed. The starting point of the spread 8.6 Exercises
line is spread by the value spacing 1, the final
1st Exercise
point by spacing 2!
Design four pleats from the hip line in the front skirt
Enter the spread amount, here 0.0 and 40.0 and of the style “Straight skirt” from Section 2.4. The
select the correct spread direction from centre back spread amount at the hip is 0 and the pleats are
to the side seam by clicking on change direction. spread by 40mm at the hem.
Click on spread: all to spread. Set the switch to
+spread lines and deposit with deposit.
Before depositing, test also the following:
reset: single lines click lines, with
spread: single lines back
reset: single points click points, with
spread: single points back
spread: all
reset: all
spread: single lines click lines
spread: single points click points and restore
the shape shown.
Click the next spread line. Grafis transfers the
spread direction and spacing so you can continue
with spread: all and deposit. Construct dart hoods Design four pleats from the hip line in the front skirt
for the pleats and hatch the pleats. of the style ”Straight skirt” from Section 2.4. The
pleats are spread by 60mm at the hip and hem re-
spectively. Create inverted pleats at hip and hem.
120 Chapter 8 Darts and pleats
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2nd Exercise 4th Exercise


Construct four pleats from the knee in Trouser 10. In the front of Skirt 20 construct a pleat at a distance
The spread amount at the knee is zero and 30mm at of 50mm from the centre front. The pleat content is
the hem. To the left of the crease line the pleats are to be 50mm. First, construct a parallel of 50mm to
to be spread towards the side seam, to the right of the centre front and then spread the front skirt at
the crease line spread towards the inside leg. Link the parallel.
the hem lines.

5th Exercise „Blouse with pin-tucks“


Open the style „Blouse with pin-tucks“ from Sec-
3rd Exercise tion 5.6 and continue designing.
Construct an asymmetrical pleat in the back of con-
struction Bodice 10, beginning at 50% of the neck-
line and running vertically down. Do not construct
the spread line with perpendicular line as otherwise
the spread line would change when interactively
altering the hem curve. Spread with a pleat content
of 40mm at the neck and 70mm at the hem. Con-
struct a single dart hood at the neck and link the
hem curve.

Construct a point on the back armhole, 100mm


from the end of the shoulder. From this point, drop
a perpendicular onto the centre back. Construct a
point sequence of four points on the perpendicular
and construct two spread lines from these points.
The spread lines are to be aligned parallel to the
centre back. Extend the spread lines to the hem
with separate.
Construct a single dart hood for the bust dart in the
side seam.
Chapter 8 Darts and pleats 121
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7th Exercise
Construct a pocket with darts. First, construct a
rectangle of 120mm width and 150mm height. Cre-
ate co-ordinated round lower corners with the tool
Corner 50. Construct two spread lines and spread
with a value of 15mm. Shorten the darts by 120mm.

Open another part 002 in the part organisation and


insert all lines and points of the front from part 001
into part 002. Hide part 001 and continue designing
with part 002.
In part 002 spread the pleats in the front with a pleat
content of 25mm at the shoulder and the hem re-
spectively. Construct single dart hoods at the shoul-
der and close the hem with link single. Construct a
seam allowance of 10mm with chain and set the
symbols and the text. Construct the dart hood with the tool Dart hood 10.
Save the style again as „Blouse with pin-tucks“! Link the upper edge with Link 10 and then, shape
the edge interactively. Construct the seam allow-
6th Exercise ance and the symbols.
Call Skirt 20 and construct a skirt with grown-on
waistband and pleats in the skirt front.

33% 60 33%
180
160
180
40 40
40
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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Content After this chapter you can construct all Grafis ob-
9.1 Construction of curves................................... 124 jects. In Chapter 10, functions for the transforma-
9.2 Manipulate curve ............................................ 129 tion of objects follow. The Grafis II teaching com-
9.3 Exercises ........................................................ 130 plex with modifying styles using construction pa-
9.4 Curve correction for classic curves................. 132 rameters, work with parts, heredity automatic and
______________________ generation of production patterns follows.

This chapter starts with construction and shaping of


curves. The chapter concludes with a section on
correction of classic curves and their size-dependent
shaping.
124 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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9.1 Construction of curves is displayed as a dashed line and generated exclu-


sively on the basis
The curves menu of the assign-
ments of the base
A new curve is created with the record points. Auxiliary
function curves from the basic menu. In the points are deter-
curves menu, three functions are available: mined by their
• curve new relative position
...is the new curve function from version 10 to the zero curve
• curve replace between two
...as curve new, but an existing line/ curve to be adjacent base
selected is replaced by a new curve. The curve points.
to be replaced must be clicked in the direction of
the green arrow. The following applies to auxiliary points:
• manipulate curves • They serve to fine-tune the shape of the curve
… opens a menu with functions for relocating between base points.
starting and final point of curves and for refining • Auxiliary points can be dragged freely.
curve runs. • Auxiliary points are displayed as small round
points.
Curves menu
The fewer the auxiliary points, the smoother the
curve. After construction of base points and as-
create new curve signment of directions, usually no or few auxiliary
points are necessary.
Step-by-step guide
replace curve
⇒ Basic menu -> curves -> curve new
⇒ Construction of starting and final point of the
new curve
manipulate curve ⇒ Set the base points along the curve. This way,
the curve is moved with the base points during
grading:
• Insert points
• Bind points: the point becomes a base point.
Base points and auxiliary points ⇒ If the curve is to have a particular direction in a
A curve is shaped with so-called base points and base point, it is advisable to construct the direc-
auxiliary points. tion at this stage with Set direction or Direction
start/ final. The direction can be fine-tuned sub-
Base points are points, which are bound to objects sequently at any stage.
(points or lines) of the construction. Each curve has ⇒ Insert further auxiliary points for fine-tuning of
a minimum of two base points: starting point and the curve with Insert points
final point. Base points constructed with click l, click
⇒ If necessary, base points, auxiliary points and
plg or click rlg can be moved along their base lines.
directions can be deleted.
For all other variations, an additional displacement
⇒ Support during curve construction via the func-
line can be determined by clicking. The following
tions of the right menu strip:
applies to base points:
• raster
• Base points are constructed, i.e. bound onto the
• various display options see Chapter 13 and
construction.
• redo and undo the steps within the curve
• Base points can be moved along an existing dis-
construction.
placement line.
⇒ End or Abort to quit the curve construction
• In a base point, a direction can be assigned to the
curve. Important: Points must have a minimum distance
• Base points are indicated by small crosses. of 5mm between each other!
Auxiliary points are points, which are not bound to
the construction. The position of auxiliary points is
calculated relative to the zero curve. The zero curve
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation 125
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1 - starting point
2 - final point
2
3 - set direction in the
starting point
4 - set direction in the final
3 1 point
5 - insert auxiliary point

6 - bind point
7 - set straight line
8 - insert auxiliary point
6
9 - drag direction
10 - drag auxiliary point

10

Picture 9-1
126 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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Construct new curve The direction must be determined along the direc-
Construction of a curve starts with basic menu -> tion of the curve, i.e. from the starting point to the
curves -> curve new and determination of starting final point. Direction assignments should be relative
point and final point of the curve. As the same con- to lines of the construction, such as the centre front
struction step must be repeated in other sizes, the and the side seam as shown in Picture 9-1.
starting and final point of the curve must be bound The assigned direction is reset with Delete direction.
to the construction.
In the case of replace Insert and drag auxiliary points
curve, in addition to
If the curve is to be bound onto the construction
determining the starting
along its length, further base points are required.
point and final point, the
Base points are generated by inserting an auxiliary
curve to be replaced
point and then, turning it into a base point.
must be clicked.
The individual steps are Insert an auxiliary point by activating Insert points
explained using the ex- and click on the curve, see Picture 9-1 No.5. The
ample of a yoke curve in point is set. Now, activate Adjustment and drag the
a skirt basic block (Pic- point with pressed down left mouse button.
ture 9-1). Call Skirt 20.
Determine the starting Construct base point
point and final point of An auxiliary point becomes a base point by binding it
the new yoke curve with Picture 9-2
onto the construction with Bind point.
click l respectively see
The yoke curve is to run through the end point of
Picture 9-1 (Picture 9-1 No.1 and 2).
the dart in all sizes, according to Picture 9-1. To
Having constructed starting point and final point of achieve this, bind the auxiliary point onto the dart,
the curve, the interactive interface with the Curve see Picture 9-1 No.6. It becomes a base point. Acti-
construction menu (Picture 9-2) opens and the curve vate Bind point, click on the auxiliary point and con-
can be shaped. The Curve construction menu can be struct its new position with the point construction
positioned anywhere on the screen. sub-menu, here with <Shift> in the free mode.
During direction construction, the direction of the Now, the curve runs through this point in all sizes.
curve itself must be considered. It is indicated by an The position of a base point can be re-assigned by
arrow at the end of the curve (Picture 9-3). repeating the Bind point operation. This also applies
to the starting point and final point of the curve.
With Unbind point the binding of an auxiliary point
onto the construction is reset. The base point re-
verts to an auxiliary point.

Delete points
Picture 9-3
With the exception of starting point and final point,
all base and auxiliary points of a curve can be deleted
Construct a direction in the base point with Delete point. To delete a point, activate Delete
In a base point, the curve can be assigned a direction point and click on the point to be deleted.
with Set direction or Direction start/ final.
The yoke curve is to start horizontally and end at a Fine-tuning in the drag area Adjustment
right angle with the side seam in all sizes, according In the curve construction menu, which can be posi-
to Picture 9-1. These pre-requisites are respected if tioned anywhere on the screen, dragging of handles
you activate Set direction and then, click the base is only possible with Adjustment. In all other menu
point. Start with the starting point of the curve on functions, targeted action is expected.
the centre front and set a fixed direction of 0°, see Under Adjustment the following handles are avail-
Picture 9-1 No.3. Then, construct the direction in able:
the final point at the side seam and set the direction • Move base points along a base line or a dis-
at a right angle to the base line, see Picture 9-1 placement line, No.1 in Picture 9-4.
No.4.
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation 127
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• Drag auxiliary points, No.4 in Picture 9-4. Difference between Set direction and Direction
• Adjust the straight line at the beginning and/or start/ final
end of the curve, No.3 in Picture 9-4. In a base point
• Fine-tuning of directions in base points, No.2 in • the direction can be free, i.e. no direction as-
Picture 9-4, as long as a direction has been as- signment, see No.5 in Picture 9-4 or
signed to the base point. • a constructed direction can be assigned, see
Activate Adjustment and set a straight line of 20mm No.6 in Picture 9-4 or
length at the beginning of the curve, see Picture 9-1 • the direction of starting point to final point can
No.7. be assigned, see No.7 in Picture 9-4.
The curve is shaped by inserting additional auxiliary These three variations are displayed for a curve with
points between the constructed base points. As a two auxiliary points in Picture 9-4. The differences
rule, one or two auxiliary points between adjacent become obvious when the final point of the curve is
points are sufficient to obtain the required curve moved significantly as in this example. Note particu-
shape. Activate Insert point and set a further auxiliary larly the directions of the curves in the starting point
point, see Picture 9-1 No.8. Activate Adjustment and final point. In case 6 in Picture 9-4, the direction
again and move the auxiliary point, see Picture 9-1 in the final point was assigned at a right angle to the
No.10. Having moved the auxiliary point, the zero side seam.
curve becomes visible. The zero curve is generated
exclusively on the basis of the settings of the base End curve construction
points and displayed as a dashed line. Auxiliary With end in the menu on the right, the curve is de-
points are determined by their relative position to posited in your construction. Abort in the menu on
the zero curve between two adjacent points. the right rejects the current changes to the curve.
Change the direction in the starting point of the The curve becomes a straight line from starting
curve at the centre front, also, see Picture 9-1 No.9. point to final point.

3 2
5
4
3
5
1 1
1
2

6 7

6 7

7
6

1 - move base point along the displacement line


2 - direction in the base point 3 - straight line at beginning/ end 4 - auxiliary point
5 - no direction assignment 6 - direction at right angle to base line 7 - direction from start/ final point
Picture 9-4
128 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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Subsequent curve correction seam. A corner treatment has been carried out in
The curve can be re-opened for processing via dou- the daughter part (2). Subsequently, the curve has
ble-click or the <F12> key at any point in the part been attached to the dart. In the daughter part, the
in which the curve had been created originally. The curve treatment between curve and side seam is
construction record runs through to the respective recorded and therefore, processed (4).
record step and opens the curve for processing. All The example in Picture 9-5 demonstrates that
functions for shaping the curve previously described daughter parts should also be test run after impor-
are available. However, the curve may only be al- tant changes to curves to ensure a correct construc-
tered in so far as the logic of the following construc- tion run. Should errors occur, re-activate the curve
tion steps in the active part and in the daughter parts and re-construct its original state. Resetting the
remains untouched. These limits are at the discreti- record is not possible in this case as changes to the
on of the user. original record step of curve construction would
occur.
In the example in Picture 9-5, a curve had originally
been constructed between centre front and side

1 2

1 – original final point of the curve in


the mother part
2 – corner treatment in a daughter part

3 – new moved final point of the curve


4 – corner treatment with side seam
according to the construction record

Picture 9-5
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation 129
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9.2 Manipulate curve The manipulated curve appears in black. It can still
be adjusted. Clicking on transition types alternates
The manipulate curve menu between six different transition types. The switch
The manipulate curve menu formed effects a change in the curve run for very
is opened from the curve specific curve shapes only.

menu. It offers two different The switch +/-copy decides whether or not the
functions: original curve remains existant. Deposit stores the
• the manipulate curve function to relocate starting manipulated curve.
and final point of curves and Clicking on reset aborts the current curve manipula-
• the refine curve function for a more refined curve tion or resets the last construction step.
run.
With both functions the character of the curve Refine curve
remains unchanged. Having activated refine curve, the start and end of a
curve section must be defined by clicking. This sec-
Manipulate curve menu tion is then refined through reducing the number of
curve points and subsequent interpolation. The
manipulate curve shape of the curve remains unchanged.
re-set P1
re-set P2 Exercise
transition types Call Skirt 20 and adjust it according to Picture 9-6.
Open a new part called ‘lining‘ and insert all lines
+/-formed
and points of the development part. The lining is to
be 20mm shorter and 10mm wider at the hip than
the outer fabric. Construct the corresponding paral-
deposit curve
lels to the hem and to the side seam, see Picture 9-6
+/-copy left.

refine cuve

reset

Manipulate curve
Step-by-step guide
⇒ basic menu --> curves --> manipulate curve
⇒ Activate manipulate curve
⇒ If required relocate the starting point of the
curve with re-set P1
⇒ If required relocate the final point of the curve Bild 9-6
with re-set P2 Now, the parallel to the side seam must be con-
⇒ Switch between the different transition types nected with the new hem and the waist line. Sepa-
⇒ Adjust +/-formed rate the parallel to the side seam at the hip. Activate
⇒ Adjust +/-copy manipulate curve and relocate P1 of the upper side
⇒ End with clicking on deposit curve seam to the waist line. It is important that a transi-
tion type which alters the curve run very little and in
After activating the manipulate curve menu, a curve
particular keeps the direction in the hip area, is
has to be clicked. This curve will then display the
selected before depositing the curve. Continue the
designation P1 for the starting point and P2 for the
exercise according to Picture 9-6 right.
end point of the curve. With re-set P1 or re-set P2
these points can now be relocated.
130 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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9.3 Exercises 3rd Exercise


1st Exercise In the style „Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 con-
Construct a yoke in the back struct a yoke and a separate hem curve. The yoke is
of Bodice 10. The yoke is to to start 150mm from the waist on the centre back
run through the apex of the and centre front and to end on the side seam 80mm
shoulder dart (see Picture from the waist. The curves are to arrive at a right
9-7). The curve is to begin at a angle at starting and final point respectively. The
right angle to the centre back hem curve is to start 100mm from the hem on the
60mm from the neck and end at the armhole 80mm centre front and centre back and end 150mm from
from the shoulder. the hem on the side seam. These curves are also to
end in a right angle.

Picture 9-7
First, insert an auxiliary point in the curve and attach
the auxiliary point to the dart apex. The curve is to
run at a right angle to the centre back and horizontal
at the armhole. Picture 9-9
Reset the curve construction and construct a yoke
curve in the same way, but not attached to the dart 4th Exercise
apex. Construct the displayed yokes in Bodice 20. The
yokes start at the armhole with a straight line of
2nd Exercise
80mm at 80mm from the shoulder. The lines are to
In the front and back of Bodice 10 construct a prin-
run parallel to the shoulder. A curve is to be at-
cess seam and curves in the hip area. The princess
tached to the new line, starting at a right angle at the
line is to begin on the armhole 80mm from the
centre front, measured 100mm from the neck and
shoulder and end at the bust point. In the back, the
ending at a right angle at the straight line. In the
curve is also to start 80mm from the shoulder and
back, the curve ends in a right angle at the centre
run into the waist dart. The curves in the hip area
back, measured 120mm from the neck.
start at the intersection of waist line and side seam
and end at a right angle 100mm from the hem on
the centre front and centre back respectively. The
curves are to be attached to the apex of the waist
darts.

Picture 9-10

Picture 9-8
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation 131
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5th Exercise Then, modify the pocket bag. Unbind the starting
From Trouser 10 with point on the waist and bind it to the centre front.
turn-up set to 0. con- Set directions in the starting point and final point of
struct the displayed the curve. The right angle at the centre front should
shortened, flared trouser remain for the first 20mm of the curve.
front with yoke and 7 th Exercise
curved hem. The yoke is
Construct the collar band shown with the following
to start on the side seam,
points:
60mm from the waist and
• point 1 - point 3: 150mm
end on the centre front,
• point 3 - point 6: 40mm
120mm from the waist.
The curve is to run • point 6 - point 7: 45mm
through the dart apex. • point 1 - point 2: 35mm
The side seam is flared by • point 2 - point 4: 20mm
90mm. The inside leg • point 4 - point 5: 40mm
seam is to be vertical. • point 1 - auxiliary point 9: 65mm
Construct a new side • point 1 - auxiliary point 8: 155mm.
seam and inside leg seam.
8
Shorten the hem by
220mm at the side seam
and 100mm at the inside
leg. Draw a new hem Picture 9-11
curve with a right angle at
5
the side seam and the inside leg seam.
6th Exercise 9
Construct the displayed pocket in Trouser 10 with 4
curve new. First, close the dart and link the waist 7
line. The pocket mouth begins on the waist at a 2
distance of 50mm from the side seam and ends on
the side seam at 130mm from the waist. Set all
1
directions and shape the pocket mouth. Construct 3 6
the pocket bag on the waist with a distance of Picture 9-13
120mm from the centre front and on the side seam
with a distance of 180mm from the waist. Shape the The connection between point 7 and point 8 is to
pocket bag by setting directions and if necessary define the direction of the outer edge of the collar in
adding auxiliary points. End curve construction. point 7. In the same manner, the connecting line
between point 3 and point 9 defines the direction of
the collar fold and neck line in point 3.
8 th Exercise
Construct the collar shown with the given meas-
urements.

Picture 9-12
Change the pocket interactively into a jeans pocket
by moving starting point and final point of the curve
according to the image.
Picture 9-14
132 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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9 th Exercise 9.4 Curve correction for classic curves


Open the style “Shirt blouse“ from Section 2.5 and Note! This section is only interesting if you work
construct a line at the front and back armhole, re- with styles from Grafis Version 9 and earlier. If
spectively at 100mm from the shoulder. The lines you are starting with Grafis Version 10, ignore
are to be right-angled to the centre front and centre this section and continue directly with
back respectively. Cut the lines at centre front and Chapter 10.
centre back. Construct an auxiliary line for the yoke
point with the Parallel 10 tool. The auxiliary line is to Curves of Version 9 and earlier can be called in
be 40mm long, start at 40% measured from the Version 10 as classic curves. They will no longer be
centre front or centre back and be aligned at a right contained in future Grafis versions. These curves can
angle to the base line. Construct the displayed be altered with test run with curve correction at any
curves from the yoke point to the armhole and to point. Size-dependent shaping of these curves is
the centre front or centre back. The curves are to possible with grade with curve correction. Both areas
run into the base line. are treated in the following.
Curve correction menu

display curve only

size table

insert auxiliary point


delete auxiliary point

Picture 9-15
The two new hem curves are to start at a right angle drag
at the end point of the centre front and centre back
and end at a right angle at the side seam, 80mm
from the hem. deposit direction
correction as x value

accept correction
do not accept correction
cancel correction

Curve correction in the base size


Step-by-step guide
⇒ Call Test Run with Curve Correction from the
Grading pull-down menu
⇒ Selection of curve: Grafis shows the correctable
curves in their succession of generation. When
the required curve is offered select “Yes”, oth-
erwise “No”.
⇒ Correct the curve with:
• insert auxiliary point
• delete auxiliary point
• drag auxiliary point
• drag the constructed direction in a base
point,
Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation 133
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• deposit a direction correction as x value (see Fine-tuning an assigned direction


Chapter 11). Assigned directions can be fine-tuned with drag.
⇒ Aides during curve construction: When the cursor is close to a base point with as-
• curve length in the Grafis Messages window, signed direction a solid line and a dashed line appear
• hide construction with display curve only, with (Picture 9-17). The solid line indicates the con-
<F4> the construction reappears. structed direction. The dashed line is the handle for
⇒ Quit correction with accept correction, do not
accept correction or cancel correction. before „fine-tuning“:
Some of the functions of curve construction are The drag cursor points in the
available for correction of the curve (Picture 9-16): constructed direction.
• insert auxiliary points, drag and delete as well as
• fine-tuning of directions in base points via drag-
ging or x values.

drag
direction after „fine-tuning“:
The pre-set direction was
dragged by approx. 10°.

insert
auxiliary point

Picture 9-17
fine-tuning which can be dragged with pressed left
Picture 9-16 mouse button. The fine-tuning angle can be saved as
a construction parameter with deposit direction cor-
rection as x value. Try this option after having dealt
Insert, drag and delete auxiliary points
with x values in Chapter 11.
Auxiliary points are inserted by activating insert
auxiliary point clicking the curve and positioning the Quit curve correction
auxiliary point with pressed left mouse. To move
the auxiliary point activate drag, click the point and The corrected curve can be deposited in your con-
drag it with pressed left mouse button. struction with accept correction. Do not accept cor-
Move the cursor along the curve. In proximity to an rection or cancel returns to the state before curve
auxiliary point a dashed line to the nearest base correction.
points appears. The auxiliary point is defined
through the relative lengths of these lines. Size-dependent curve correction
To delete activate delete auxiliary point and click the Step-by-step guide
auxiliary points to be deleted.
⇒ Call Grade with Curve Correction from the Grad-
Auxiliary points between base points help to create
ing pull-down menu
the finished shape of the curve. As a rule, one or
⇒ Select the curve
two auxiliary points between adjacent base points
⇒ As opposed to Test Run with Curve Correction
are sufficient to obtain the required curve shape.
the curve is now offered for correction in all ac-
tivated sizes in the size table. Which size is
being processed is stated in the status line at the
lower edge of the screen.
134 Chapter 9 Curve construction and manipulation
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⇒ Correct the curve as discussed


⇒ Additional support during curve construction
bold lines:
with: pre-set curve shapes
size table This overview shows in which
sizes curve shapes were already adjusted. Set-
tings for individual sizes can be deleted from this
list. As a rule, adjustment of the curve shape
in the base size plus one small and one large
size is sufficient.
⇒ Quit curve correction in the current size with
accept correction or do not accept correction.
Grafis continues with correction in the next size.
The curve correction operation can be quit with
cancel. The curve shape in all previously ac-
cepted sizes remains existent; curve correction is
terminated.

Size-dependent curve correction


The previously discussed functions for curve correc-
tion are now available for all sizes activated in the
size table.
It is recommended to adjust the curve in one
small size (e.g. 36) and one large size (e.g. 46),
only in addition to the base size. The curve shape
thin lines:
for all other sizes is calculated through shape interpolated
interpolation. curve shapes

36 32
Exercise 44 40
48
Start Grading | Test Run with Curve Correction and
Picture 9-18
correct a curve similar to Picture 9-17 as per text.
Now, carry out a - highly exaggerated – size- Now, check the shape of the sizes in between. En-
dependent correction according to Picture 9-18. ter sizes 36 and 44 into the size table and activate all
The curve shape is to be adjusted in base size 40 and sizes (40, 32, 48, 36 and 44). Start the grading func-
in sizes 32 and 48. Activate the sizes 40, 32 and 48 tion from the right menu and you obtain the result
in the size table and start Grade with Curve Correction according to Picture 9-18.
from the Grading pull-down menu. The shape of the curve was not adjusted in sizes 36
When the curve is offered for correction click on and 44 (thin lines in Picture 9-18). The shape of
“Yes”. The first size offered is base size 40. This size these curves is the result of shape interpolation of
is to remain unchanged. Therefore, click on accept the adjacent sizes. The adjusted shapes in sizes 32
without any corrections. and 48 are evened out for sizes 36 and 44 but can
The next size is 32, which you shape heavily to the still be detected.
outside by dragging the auxiliary point, according to Enter also sizes 34, 38, 42 and 46 into the size table
Picture 9-18. Quit correction with accept. and grade.
The next size is 48, which you shape heavily to the Now, correct the armhole in sizes 40, 32 and 48 and
inside, according to Picture 9-18. Quit with accept. create a smooth armhole curve at your discretion.
Curve correction is terminated as no other sizes are Activate sizes 40, 32 and 48, only in the size table
activated in the size table. The sizes with adjusted and repeat the previously described steps.
curve shapes are shown with bold lines in Picture 9-
18.
Chapter 10 Transformation
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Content The emphasis in this chapter lies on the complex


10.1 Transformation ............................................ 136 exercises. Invest plenty of time into these exercises
10.2 Insert with transformation ........................... 141 to gain confidence in the use of Grafis.
10.3 Complex Exercises....................................... 144 After having finished this chapter you should begin
______________________ to design your own styles with Grafis to gain practi-
cal experience.
Transformations of objects, such as move, turn or This chapter forms the end of the Grafis I teaching
mirror are essential construction tools you will find complex. In the following teaching complex Grafis II
in any CAD system. Only with the transformation you will learn about modifying styles with construc-
functions can yokes be relocated or other pieces be tion parameters, work with parts, heredity auto-
positioned in the construction or mirrored. Each matic and generation of production patterns.
explanation of the 8 transformation types is followed
by an exercise.
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10.1 Transformation Transformation menu


The transformation menu
move…
The functions of this menu allow for mov-
by dx and dy
ing, rotating, scaling and mirroring of Grafis
objects. The eight transformation types are:
• 2 move transformations move value dx
• 2 turn transformations
• 1 turn and move transformation move value dy
• 1 scale transformation
• 2 mirror transformations move…
from point to point
Object types set points
You can transform:
• single points turn with…
• single lines turn point and angle
• the complete part set turn point

Step-by-step guide turn angle


⇒ Adjust the transformation parameters turn with turn point
⇒ Select the type of object (points, lines...) from point to point
⇒ Activate the transformation set points
⇒ Adjust +/-copy: the original objects remains/
turn and move…
does not remain existent
with four points
⇒ Set the transformation direction with +/-reverse
set points
transformation in reverse/ normal direction, e.g.
change of sign for set angle. No significance with
mirror! scale
⇒ Click the objects to be transformed within the
construction.
Further functions scale value in x direction
reset resets the last transformation step
scale value in y direction
Move by dx and dy
This move function
(translation) with pre- mirror at…
set values requires the two points
entry of the move set points
value in x direction dx mirror at…
and y direction dy line
(Picture 10-1). A de- set line
tailed explanation on
the co-ordinate sys- objects to be transformed
tem can be found in chapter 4.3. The move values points
can be positive or negative: lines
dx= - ....mm to the left part
dx= + ....mm to the right +/-copy
dy= - ....mm downwards reverse transformation
dy= + ....mm upwards reset
Move the shoulder and armhole of Bodice 10 by
dx=+200 and dy=-50 (Picture 10-1). transformation list
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First, enter the values for dx and dy, select lines and Turn with turn point and angle
set the switches to +copy and -reverse transforma- With the transforma-
tion. The move transformation move is active. You tion function turn with
can now click the lines to be moved. Activate points turning point and angle
and also move the corresponding points. Set the the objects are rotated
switch to +reverse transformation. You can now about a constructed
transform the objects back again. The transform pivot point by a given
settings remain in place also after quitting the trans- angle (Picture 10-3).
formation menu.
Note: The set angle
dy= -50.0 dx= +200.0 remains constant throughout all sizes!

angle
15.8°

Picture 10-1

pivot
Move from point to point
Picture 10-3
The objects are moved about the connecting line
between two points of the construction (Picture 10- After having activated set turn point the pivot point is
2). to be constructed and the angle in ° is to be entered.
Then, the line turn with turn point and angle is active
starting point final point and turning of objects can begin.
for move Measure the bust dart of Bodice 10 in your base size
and relocate it into the side seam (Picture 10-3).
First, construct an auxiliary line at the side seam for
the position of the dart and separate the side seam
at the auxiliary line.
Enter the measured angle as turn angle, click on set
turn point and select the bust point. Now, activate
lines or points and transform the objects of the
shoulder, the armhole, the upper side seam and
with +copy the auxiliary line. Grade.
Use this type of transformation only if the angle
is to be constant across all sizes or in connection
Picture 10-2 with x values or z values.

After having clicked set points the starting and final


point of the move line have to be constructed.
Then, move from point to point is active and the
move of objects can begin. In Bodice 10, move the
armhole curve of the front towards the back. Grade
the construction.
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Turn about a turn point from point to point After having activated set points the points are to be
This transformation rotates the objects about a clicked in the order: starting point of the move
constructed pivot point. The angle is determined by vector → starting point of the rotation angle →
the angle between turning point → starting point of final point of the move vector → final point of
the rotation angle and turning point → final point of the angle. Then, turn and move is active and the
the rotation angle. transformation of objects can begin.
Having selected set points, the points are to be This function is especially useful for relocating yokes
clicked in the following order: turning point → or relocating the shoulder seam.
starting point of the rotation angle → final point
of the rotation angle. Then, turn about a turn point 4 move vector 2
from point to point is active and the rotation of ob- 3 1
jects can begin.

3. final point for angle

2. starting point for


angle

turn angle

1. turn point/ pivot


Picture 10-4
Relocate the bust dart into the side seam (see Pic-
ture 10-4). First, construct an auxiliary line for the
position of the dart in the side seam and separate
the side seam at the auxiliary line. Click on set points
in the transformation menu and then, click the bust Picture 10-5
point and the right and left dart legs one after the
Turn and move a yoke in the back according to
other. Now activate lines or points and transform
Picture 10-5. Relocate the front dart into the side
the objects of the shoulder, the armhole and the
seam and the back dart into the armhole. Drop a
upper side seam. Grade.
perpendicular onto the centre back and separate the
centre back. Transform the yoke by selecting set
Turn and move
points for turn and move from the transformation
The objects are moved and rotated in one opera- menu and clicking the points in the suggested order.
tion. For this function four points are to be clicked. Activate the object type lines and click the construc-
The move vector is defined by its starting and final tion lines of the back yoke. Transform the corre-
point (Picture 10-5 top). The rotation angle is de- sponding points with +copy.
fined by the moved starting point and the final point
of the angle (Picture 10-5 bottom).
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Scale Mirror at two points


The objects are re- The objects are mirrored at the connecting line of
duced and increased two points (Picture 10-7).
relative to absolute
zero (Picture 10-6).
The scale value in x (Fx)
applies to the x com-
ponent of the objects
in the construction
only, the scale value in y starting point of
(Fy) to the y component. the mirror line
Increase/ reduction/ stretching/ shrinking of the
pattern is required for stretch material for example,
lining or under collar or for the correction of
changes in length after washing. The following ap-
plies: Fx=Fy=1.00 - no change in scale; Fx=1.10,
mirror
Fy=1.00 - stretching of the pattern by 10% in hori- with p==>p
zontal direction; Fx=Fy=0.90 - shrinking by 10% in
all directions.
Different values in Fx and Fy distort the construc-
tion in width and height. The same values in-
crease or reduces the construction to scale; final point of the
Fx=Fy=0.5 halves the dimension of the construc- mirror line
tion and Fx=Fy=2 doubles it.

original

reduction, scaled Picture 10-7


with Fx=Fy=0.5 To activate this function the line set points for mirror
is to be clicked and the points of the mirror line are
to be defined with the sub-menu point construction.
Then, the objects to be mirrored can be clicked.
Draw new waist dart lines in Bodice 10. In the free
mode, construct the waist dart points exactly at
waist height using <Shift>. Then, delete the waist
dart lines and construct a new left waist dart with
absolute curves. Mirror the new left waist dart line to the
zero point right.
Mirror at a line
Picture 10-6 The objects are mir-
Scale the Bodice 10 by half. The zero point of this rored at an existing
construction is positioned at the centre back at line of the construc-
waist height. Enter the values Fx=Fy=0.5 in the tion (Picture 10-8).
transformation menu and activate scale. Set the To activate this func-
switch to +copy, click on part and click on a line of tion, first click set line
the construction. The construction is now reduced and then determine
by 50% in x and y direction in all sizes. the mirror line within
Reset the record and repeat with the values the construction.
Fx=1.00 and Fy=1.10. Now increase single lines in Then, the objects to
y direction. be mirrored can be
clicked.
Mirror the displayed
lines in Bodice 10 at the centre front for a facing.
Select set line in the transformation menu and click
on the centre front. Set the switch to +copy, acti-
vate lines and click the lines to be mirrored.
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If you mirror the whole part the centre front is Transformation list menu
doubled and cannot be seen. In this case delete one
of the centre front lines.
record step

record step

+/-reverse tansformation

To select a previous transformation first, activate


the respecitve transformation type then, click on
transformation list. The transformation list menu
appears showing up to ten previous transformations
mirror line of the active transformation type. The menu displays
the respective record step in which the transforma-
tion has been carried out. In this menu you can also
see a preview of the transformation by activating the
record step and then, clicking on individual objects
of the construction. The objects will be transformed
for a few seconds. Then, you can select a different
Picture 10-8 record step and let individual objects be trans-
formed for a few seconds. Once you have found and
Transformation list activated the required transformation switch back to
the transformation menu with . Transforming with
All transformations carried out in the active part
the previous transformation can begin.
can be re-activated.
Exercise on transformation list
To activate the last transformation of a transforma-
tion type, click on the corresponding button: In Bodice 80 two panel seams are to be constructed,
• move by dx and dy running from the front via the side seam to the cen-
• move from point to point tre back. Before the panel seams can be constructed
• turn with turn point and angle with curve new, relocate the upper back to the side
seam of the front with turn and move, see Picture
• turn with turn point from point to point
10-9. The reference points are the corner point at
• turn and move
the armhole and a point at a relative distance of
• scale
40mm from the armhole respectively. From Chap-
• mirror at two points
ter 11 onwards you can deposit this value as an x
• mirror at a line
value and have the curve run exactly through this
In case no transformation of this type has been car-
point. The lower back is to be transformed in the
ried out in this part, setting of a new transformation
same way with the reference points corner point
begins automatically.
hem and a point at 50mm partial distance from the
Step-by-step guide for selection of a previous trans- hem.
formation: Construct the two curves and separate the side
⇒ Activate the transformation type seam. In the transformation menu activate turn and
⇒ Click on transformation list move. The transformation instruction for the back is
⇒ Aelect one of the displayed record steps still active. Change the switch +/-reverse transforma-
⇒ Clicking on an object shows a preview of the tion and then, relocate the lines of the lower back as
selected transformation. If required, the trans- well as the panel seam. Via transformation list open a
formation direction can be switched with menu with the previous turn and move transforma-
+/-reverse transformation. tions. Activate the transformation of the upper back,
set the switch +/-reverse transformation and click a
few objects of the construction. If the required
transformation is active, switch back to the trans-
formation menu with and then, relocate the lines
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10.2 Insert with transformation


With the insert function from the basic menu, points,
lines or all objects of a part can be inserted into a
part with a higher part number. This process has
already been described in section 3.1 and practised a
number of times.
During insertion of objects one of the two insert
transformations can be carried out directly:
• move transformation move from point to point or
• move-rotate transformation turn and move.
Insert with transformation can be replaced by
insert without transformation and subsequent
transformation of individual objects. Insert with
transformation is sensible if a part with a large
number of points/ lines is to be inserted, see the
embroidery motif in Pictures 10-10 and 10-11.
Objects from a maximum number of 10 parts
Picture 10-9 can be inserted into the active part.
of the upper back and the new panel seam back to The two insert transformations in conjunction with
its original position. detailed explanations of the insert menu form the
content of this section.
Align part
Functions of the insert menu
As opposed to the previous transforma-
Insert menu
tions align part does not apply to individual
objects of the construction but to the who- select objects…
le active part. points
lines
Align part menu part
reset single
align part reset all
vertical
deposit objects…
align part without transformation
horizontal move
turn and move

The align part menu opens directly from the basic reset
menu. Parts can be aligned vertically or horizontally.
Having activated the corresponding function, a line
of the part is to be clicked following the right princi- Insert points tool
ple. Insert lines tool
Insert part tool

Select objects
All visible objects belonging to an inactive part with a
lower part number can be inserted into the active
part with these functions. One of the type of objects
points, lines or parts is to be selected and the objects
are to be clicked one after the other. The inserted
objects appear in a different colour and, after having
pressed <F5> removed from the original object.
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With reset single or reset all individual inserted ob-


jects can be reset step-by-step or completely.
The selected coloured objects are accepted into the
active part only after having called a function in the
deposit objects section of the menu.
Deposit objects
This block of functions determines HOW the ob-
jects or parts are deposited in the new part. In sec-
tion 3.1 parts were inserted exclusively without
transformation. However, Grafis allows for parts to
be moved or rotated during insertion. This trans-
formation is stored as a hereditary step and re-
peated automatically during grading.
1. move from point to point
Moving a point of the object to be inserted to a
point of the active part. All objects to be inserted
are moved accordingly.
2. turn and move
Move and rotation of the insert object according
to the identical instruction of the transformation
type with the same name in the transformation
menu. Picture 10-11
This function is especially useful for inserting Then, click on deposit objects: move. Now, click on
yokes, sleeves or facings which already have the the first move point in the red group of objects.
correct dimensions. Click the centre of the motif. Define one of the
3. without transformation positioning points in the active part as the final point
The selected objects are inserted without trans- for the move. The menu remains active. You can
formation, see section 3.1. insert the embroidery motif a second time, a third
Reset undoes the last transformation step. time and so on.
Quit insert with .
3 6
Exercises on insert with move transformation A 4.
2 5
In part 002, construct a 4 3.
small embroidery motif 2.
1 7 1.
from scratch with a radius
of approx 35mm (accord-
ing to Picture 10-10). Call
the Bodice 10 into part
B 4.
001, delete the auxiliary 3.
lines, adjust the construc- 2.
tion as required and con- Picture 10-10 1.
struct positioning points
for the embroidery motif (Picture 10-11 left). Con-
struct a point in the centre of the embroidery motif.
Insert all lines and points of the bodice construction C
from part 001 into part 003. Use insert without
transformation.
Then, insert the embroidery motif into part 003,
centred on the positioning points. Use the function
insert with move from point to point. Activate select
object: parts and click on the embroidery motif. It
appears with red lines after having pressed <F5>.

Picture 10-12
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Exercises on insert with turn and move aux. line


Construct a yoke in Skirt 20 using curve new, which
is attached to the dart end points.
Open the new part 002 “front yoke“ and activate it.
Insert lines 1 to 4 from part 001 without transfor-
mation. Then, insert lines 1,5,6,7 with turn and
move. Activate select object: lines and click on the
lines 1,5,6,7. They appear as red lines after having
pressed <F5>. Then, click on deposit objects: turn
and move. Click the end points of the lines with
click l or intersection in the order shown in Picture
10-12 A. The menu remains active. You can now
select the next lines by clicking and then, deposit
them in the part, taking into account the clicking 2 and 3
order shown in Picture 10-12 B. Then, develop a
production pattern from the inserted lines (Picture 1
10-12 bottom).
Raglan sleeve construction
Construct a raglan sleeve from Grafis Bodice 10,
using insert with turn and move. Note: Grafis version
10 contains an interactive raglan sleeve Grafis-Sleeve
50, which is not used at this stage during practising
of the insert transformation.
Call Bodice 10 into part 001. Loosen the armhole
interactively by 10 to 20mm. Rotate the rest of the
bust dart into the hem with relocate dart. Relocate
the back shoulder dart into the armhole (Picture 10-
13 top).
Open a further part and call Sleeve 40. Adjust the 1 horizontal line 3mm
following in the options for the sleeve: 2 lengthening shoulder 10mm
• 4 segments 3 raising the shoulder 5mm
• grade sleeve hem as sleeve top
Picture 10-13
• sleeve head height as deduction from medium
armhole height. Insert the lines and points of the front sleeve into
Adjust a tolerance of 20mm in the Tolerances drag the front. When inserting, use the insert transforma-
area and in the Ease distribution area adjust ease of tion turn and move, clicking in the following order:
approx 10mm in the 2nd and 3rd segment. • sleeve pitch of sleeve
Construct a line from the shoulder point to the hem • shoulder point of sleeve
in the direction of the grain. Separate the sleeve • end of 1st auxiliary line
head and the hem at this line. • end of 2nd auxiliary line.
Open a further part and insert the lines of the front.
Construct a curve from the neckline to the sleeve
Construct an auxiliary line with 3mm length from
hem and attach the curve to the end of the third
the front/back pitch horizontally to the outside using
auxiliary line and to the intersection upper arm line/
the Line 10 tool. Construct a second auxiliary line
panel seam. Adjust the directions. Construct a yoke
with 10mm length from the shoulder point to the
line from the front pitch as a perpendicular onto the
outside in direction of the shoulder. Construct a
centre front.
third auxiliary line of 5mm length for raising the
Proceed in the same way for the back.
shoulder see Picture 10-13 bottom.
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10.3 Complex Exercises 3rd Exercise


st
1 Exercise In the construction Bodice 20 construct two lines
Construct a yoke in the style parallel to the centre front from the neck/shoulder
“Straight skirt” from Section
2.4 starting at 150mm on the
centre front or centre back and
ending at 75mm on the hip curve, measured from
the waist respectively. Then, move the yoke away
from the skirt with move dx=0 and dy=60.

point and from the front pitch to the hem. Perpen-


diculars are unsuitable, here in case the hem line is
altered interactively at a later time. Separate the
hem line at both lines and raster the hem line piece
in between with 5 points. Move one of the two lines
2nd Exercise to the new raster points using the transformation
In the construction Bodice 10 move the waist dart in type move from point to point with the setting +copy.
the front by 25mm towards the side seam and in the Cut the spread lines at the shoulder.
back by 30mm towards the side seam. Use the
4th Exercise
transformation type move (dx,dy). Grade in a num-
In the style “Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 move
ber of sizes.
the dart into the panel seam. Construct a panel

Reset the move and now move the darts by the


respective dart width at waist height. Use the trans-
formation type move from point to point.

seam at 33.3% from the centre front and centre


back, measured along the hem. Cut the panel seams
at the waist. Move the darts with move from point to
point into the panel seams. Draw new waist curves.
Note that the waist curves are to end at the dart
lines in a right angle.
Chapter 10 Transformation 145
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5th Exercise perpendicular from the dart apex onto the hem.
In the style “Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 rotate Close the dart with the transformation type turn
the dart into the yoke. Construct a yoke starting at about a turn point from point to point. You need a
copy of the perpendiculars. Close the hem.
7th Exercise
In the Bodice 10 construct a princess line and rotate
the bust dart into the panel seam. Use the transfor-
mation type turn about a turn point from point to
point.

150mm on the centre front and centre back, meas-


ured from the waist and ending at 80mm on the side
seam, measured from the waist. Lengthen the dart
to the yoke and close the dart with the transforma-
tion type turn about a turn point from point to point.
Make a copy of the yoke curve in the process.
6th Exercise
In the style “Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 rotate
the dart into the hem. Delete the hip line and drop a

8th Exercise
Construct a yoke in Bodice 10 which runs through
the shoulder dart apex and rotate the shoulder dart
into the yoke line. Use the transformation type turn
about a turn point from point to point.
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9th Exercise
In the Trouser 10 with turn-up set to 0. construct a
yoke beginning 60mm from the waist on the side
seam and ending 120mm from the waist at the cen-
tre front. The yoke curve is to begin and end at right
angles. Attach the yoke curve to the dart apex.

11th Exercise
In the Bodice 10 relocate the bust dart into the side
seam and the shoulder dart into the armhole. Con-

Flare the side seam by 90mm at the hem and con-


struct a new side seam. The inside leg is to be verti-
cal (perpendicular line). The new hem curve is to
start 220mm from the hem at the side seam and end
100mm from the hem on the inside leg seam. The
curve is to begin and end at right angles. Move the
yoke upwards by 60mm. Insert the yoke into part
003 and the trouser front into part 004.
10th Exercise
In the style “Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 con-
struct a side panel with one pleat. Construct a line
from the dart apex parallel to the centre front. A
perpendicular is unsuitable in case the hem curve is
altered interactively at a later time. Then, construct
a yoke line starting 100mm from the waist on the struct a yoke in the front from the centre front to
side seam and ending 50mm from the dart apex on the armhole. Relocate the yoke to the back with the
the auxiliary line. Move the pleat piece to the right transformation type turn and move.
by 200mm and spread it at the auxiliary line from
the centre of the yoke. The spread amount at the
yoke is 30mm and 70mm at the hem.
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12th Exercise
Mirror the back of Bodice 20 at the centre back. Use
the transformation type mirror at line.

15th Exercise
Open the style “Blouse with pin-tucks“ from 5th
exercise in section 8.6:

13th Exercise
In the front of Bodice 10 construct an overlap of
50mm at the centre front and a hem of 30mm with
a mitred corner at the centre front/hem.

Open two new parts 003 “back yoke“ and 004


“back“. Insert all lines and points you need to con-
struct a yoke into part 003. Construct the seam

Mirror the allowances at the respective seam lines,


construct a diagonal line and mirror the diagonal line
at the seam lines. Close the corners.

14th Exercise
In the style “Straight skirt“ from Section 2.4 con-
struct an inverted pleat with 50mm pleat content at
the centre front and a flared side seam. The hem is
to be mirrored. Set the text and the displayed sym-
bols.
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allowances and the notches, adjust the part vertically


(align | part adjust vertical) and mirror the part at 60
the centre back. The centre back is now doubled
and one of the lines must be deleted. Set the grain 60 50% 60
line symbol and a text. 100
Create part 004 “back“ in the same way, adding 2 30
pleats spread with a pleat content of 25mm and
construct the dart hoods.
16 th Exercise
Call Skirt 20 and construct a panel seam with vent in
the front skirt. Relocate the dart in the back into the
side seam. Use the tool Parallel 10 and the functions
under transformation.
50% 50%

110

140 20

70 70
50

Detach the production pattern pieces, construct


the seam allowances and mark the seam lines as
dotted lines.
17th Exercise
Construct a skirt with panel seams and a pocket in tion pattern pieces, construct the seam allowances,
the front skirt from Skirt 20. Activate the grown-on set symbols and mark the seam lines as dotted lines.
waistband in Skirt 20 and adjust it interactively. To
shape the skirt use the functions parallel, line from
point to point, curve new and transformation. Con-
struct a vent in the centre back. Detach the produc-
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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Content values, only. A master in the application of Grafis can


11.1 The x values ................................................. 150 be recognised through his creativity and far-
11.2 Size-dependent adjustment of interactive sightedness in the application of x values.
constructions ............................................... 157 From the x values of the construction record you
11.3 The x value reference .................................. 159 will learn about the generation and application of
11.4 The alternative reference size ..................... 159 your own x values.
11.5 Exercises on X values .................................. 166 Construction parameters require abstract thinking
______________________ and ample time for learning their application. There-
fore, the emphasis of this chapter, again, lies on the
The application of the construction parameter x exercises. Take time and complete the exercises.
value and the resulting manifold styling options is The collar construction displayed is the result of an
one of the outstanding features of Grafis. The skilful exercise.
use of x values allows for creation of style variations
or trend adjustments through adjustment of the x
150 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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11.1 The x values Step-by-step guide


X values are size-related construction parameter. ⇒ Open the x value table from the pull-down menu
The numerical values are logged in x value tables and Extras via x value table or from the toolbox
can represent lengths, distances, radius or angles, ⇒ Select the List: (global or active piece)
for example. X values can be altered after comple- ⇒ Select the index card (values of the part or 1st
tion of a style at any time. Thus, later modification of basic block for the basic block of the part)
the style is possible in a very effective manner. For ⇒ Adjust one of the view options Edit view, Short
example, in the collar construction (title picture of view or Interpolation view
this chapter) the x values “collar stand” and “angle ⇒ Add, edit or delete size-related x value assign-
for collar step” were altered. ments
There are three different types of x values:
• x values of non-interactive basic blocks, The x values of the basic blocks
• x values of the construction record and Each basic block contains a prepared x value table.
• x values of all parts. The x values represent lengths, percent, or angles
which are variable according to the respective con-
The difference relates to the validity of the respec-
struction instruction, e.g. ease or position and length
tive type of x value. The application of x values is
of the darts. The implementation of the x value into
identical for all types and is elaborated on the x
the basic block and pre-assignment of an appropri-
values of the construction record.
ate value ensued by the developer of the basic
The x values of the interactive constructions can block. The user has the option to modify the basic
only be edited in the drag environment and are block to his own requirements by altering the x
greyed out in the x value list. values.

Display selections List of available measurement charts/sizes


List, part and display options It activates when adding a value entry.

Comment line
on the x value

X value table
value column

X value table
size column
(The standard value is
marked by _xxxxx_x .)

Picture 11-1
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 151
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The x values of the construction record Step-by-step guide for editing x values
The x values of the construction record are user ⇒ Insert new x value into the x value table:
defined and implemented during construction. Thus, • Extras | X Values...
the respective construction step can be altered • Select the List: (active part or global)
later. • For List: active part: select the index card
Before starting the construction consider for Values of the part
which construction steps the use of x values • Click on Add New X Value. A maximum of 80
would be beneficial for flexible pattern modifica- x values can be opened per part.
tion! • Double-click the comment line and enter the
In the following menus the use of x values offers description for the new x value. Be careful to
great modification options: use clear definitions!
• parallel menu: distance for parallels • Double-click on the standard value (to the
• raster menu: distance values and number of right of _xxxxx_x=), enter the value and
points <ENTER>
• lengthen menu: values for lengthen by and • possibly: insert size-related x value entries
lengthen to • possibly: delete the last x value with Delete
• sub-menu point construction: values for relative Last X Value
length or partial length • Quit with or with Close
• relocate dart menu: ...% of dart to be relocated ⇒ Continue the construction and enter an x value
• spread menu: distance of spread line (e.g.: X2 oder XG1) instead of a numerical value
• curves menu: bind starting point, final point and
The Grafis - X values window
base points of the curve new via the point con-
struction sub-menu The Grafis - X values window offers the following
• transformation menu: move amount, scale factor, option for display of the required x value table (Pic-
rotation angle ture 11-1).
• points and lines menu: distance values, relative List and index cards:
values for point construction, length of a line For each part one of the following x value tables can
• circles and rectangles menu: radius of the circle, be displayed:
height and width of the rectangle. • global (the x values of all parts) or
• the x values of the active part offered on a num-
The x values of all parts (global x values) ber of index cards. The index cards contain the x
Global x values apply to all parts of the style. They values of the non-interactive basic blocks and the
can be used for example for: x values of the construction record.
• seam allowance self / lining, Select the required list under List: and then, click on
• ease, the card tag. The x value list of the interactive con-
• distances for markings, structions remains greyed out.
• adaptation factors for stretch etc. Part:
The x values of all parts are additionally indi- Select the part for which the list of x values is to be
cated with a G (for “global”); small and capital displayed.
letters have the same significance. Example: XG5 Display options:
or xg5. The x value table can be displayed in the options
XG5 stands for the fifth x value of the x value table • Edit view,
of all parts whereas x5 stands for the fifth x value of • Short view or
the construction record of the active part. This rule • Interpolation view.
applies to calculation with z values as well as direct The Edit view with all size entries is the most de-
entry into numerical fields. tailed option.
You can switch between record x value tables of In the Short view only the x value numbers and
different parts in the „Grafis X Values“ window, description and the standard value _xxxxx_x are
directly. Merely select the required part number displayed.
in the “Part:“ field. Interpolated values for specific sizes can be viewed
in the Interpolation view after having clicked the
size in the Size name field.
152 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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Generate new x value and apply it to the con- In the x value list, alter the values of x1 and x2 to 70
struction respectively. After test run and grading you will see
the result according to Picture 11-2 right. Enter
Open the list of x values of the construction record
other values.
via Extras | X values.. and select List: active part. The
file card active part is active. Switch to Edit view. Alterations to x values are only visible after test
Open a number of new x values by clicking on Add run and grading.
new x value and delete a few by clicking on Delete An x value must be defined before it can be used
last x value. in a construction step. Should this not be the
Name the first x value x1 "overlap width" by double- case, Grafis will refuse processing.
clicking on the comment line and entering the text.
Now assign the standard value for x1 with 20 by Whether an x value is interpreted in mm, in per-
double-clicking to the right of _xxxxx_x= and en- cent or in degrees depends on the function with
tering 20. Name the second x value x2 "button posi- which the x value is used. When entering the x
tion from bust point height" and assign this standard value as a relative length, the x value is used as a
value also with 20 (Picture 11-1). percentage. When entering the x value as a rotation
angle, the x value is an angle in degrees.
Now call the construction Bodice 10 and construct a
parallel for the overlap (Picture 11-2). In the parallel Redirecting an x value
menu, enter the distance value x1 before clicking on
the centre front. This determins that the current From Version 9 recorded x values can be redirected
value of x1 will be used for construction of the next to global x values. The character set in the comment
parallel. Now click the centre front and the overlap line of the respective x value is supplemented with
appears at a distance of 20mm. =>{XG4}, here for the redirection to the fourth
global x value. If this character set is removed, the
Construct the first button position with a distance of
original values apply. The production patterns of the
x2 from the bust point on the centre front. Use the
pocket modules contain x values for seam allow-
point construction point with distance to a base point
ance. If you control the seam allowance for your
on a line with the distance value x2. First, the bust
styles via the global x value XG2 you can supple-
point is to be clicked and then, the centre front in
ment the comment line of the seam allowance x
direction hem.
value in the production pattern with the character
Grade the construction in the sizes N40, N36, N44. set =>{XG2}.
Stack at the bust point and measure. You will see a
result according to Picture 11-2 left. Size-related x values
x1=20 x1=70 Adding, editing and deleting size-related x values can
x2=20 x2=70 ensue in the Edit view, only.
To add x value entries the x value or one of the
corresponding size-related x value entries are to be
highlighted. The list of available measurement charts
from which measurement charts can be selected by
clicking opens to the right. Each selected measure-
ment chart is accepted into the x value table.
A size can be assigned a value, only if it is avail-
able as a measurement chart on the workstation!
Adding new x value entries is followed by editing
the values by double-click on the numerical value or
clicking on Edit Entry. With Edit Entry the next nu-
merical value is offered, automatically.
To delete or edit x value entries the entry is to be
highlighted and Remove Size is to be clicked.
Picture 11-2 Opening new x values or deleting existing x values
is not possible with x values of the basic block.
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 153
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Now close the X value window, grade and stack.


Construct a yoke in the back of Bodice 10. The start
You obtain a result according to Picture 11-3 right.
of the yoke at the centre back is to be controlled via
x3 and the end of the yoke at the armhole via x4.
Rules for size related value assignment
Enter the x values x3 (100mm) and x4 (70mm) and
construct a curve starting vertically on the centre X values can be altered in correspondence with the
back at a partial length with plg=x3 and ending hori- size. However, it is not necessary to assign each size
zontally at the armhole with plg=x4. The meas- with a value. The following cases apply:
urements are taken along the curves from the neck Case 1: The x value is identical for all sizes
to the hem respectively. Grade the sizes N36 to
In this case, only the standard value _xxxxx_x is to
N44 and stack at the neck. The result is shown in
be assigned. Further entries are not necessary.
Picture 11-3 left.
Case 2: The x value is to be identical for all sizes
of the same figure type
The standard measure-
ment charts are organised
according to measurement
system and figure type.
For example, the Opti-
mass measurement sys-
Picture 11-3 tem distinguishes between
narrow hips/ normal hips/
The start of the yoke on the centre back is to be
wide hips and additionally
size-dependent and altered by 10mm from size to
between short/ regular/
size. Select one of the lines of the respective x value
long.
x3 (Picture 11-4). The list of existing measurement
If only one size of a figure
charts/sizes opens. From this list you transfer the
type is assigned a value
sizes N40 and N42 with a simple click. Having dou-
this value applies to all
ble-clicked on the line of size N40, enter the value
other sizes of this figure
120 and in the line for size N42 enter the value 130.
type, see picture 11-5.

To set a size entry,


select one of the lines
of the respective x value.

The list of available measurement charts/ sizes


opens for adding a size entry.

Picture 11-4
154 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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You can find more information on figure types in but for the respective figure type, only, see picture
Chapter 2 in the section “Work with measurement 11-7.
charts”. These rules apply to standard sizes of a figure
type, only.
value
___N38_0 = 25.0 Individual measurement charts can be assigned x
values, also. Furthermore, an individual meas-
25.0
urement chart can be assigned the x value of a
standard size via x value references, see section
11.3.
Enter the x values absolutely necessary for the
required dependency into the x value table, only.
This makes care easier and reduces mistakes.
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 size N…
After having altered x value entries test run
Picture 11-5 should always ensue!
Case 3: An even alteration to the x values for the
sizes within a figure type is to ensue Exercise

value
Create a shirt with flared hem from Bodice 10 with
___N40_0 = 26.0 portions of the bust dart being relocated into side
seam and hem depending on the size. In the smaller
26.0 sizes up to size N40 the complete bust dart is to be
24.0 relocated into the hem. From size N42, 25% of the
___N38_0 = 24.0 bust dart are to be relocated into the side seam and
75% into the hem. From size N46, 50% are to
remain as bust dart and the remaining 50% are to
be relocated into the hem.
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 size N…
Call Bodice 10 and delete auxiliary points and lines
which are not required.
Picture 11-6
Generate two x values:
In this case it is sufficient to assign two sizes of the
x1 portion bust dart in side seam 25.
relative figure type with the required x values. The
x2 portion bust dart in hem 25.
even alteration of the x value is continued through-
out all sizes of the figure type, see picture 11-6. Note: With this pre-assignment of the x values, all
darts initially remain open so that correct dart hoods
Case 4: The x value is to be altered unevenly and allowances can be constructed.
within a figure type.
Relocate the bust dart into the side seam with the
value
function relocate dart, entering "x1" as value for the
___N42_0 = 28.0 dart portion. Relocate additional lines and points such
as the front pitch for example. Relocate a further
28.0 portion of "x2"% into the hem.
24.0 Construct a single dart hood for the bust dart and
___N38_0 = 24.0 the dart in the side seam. Link the hem as a curve.
Then, link the side seam and the shoulder as a con-
___N36_0 = 24.0
tinuous line sequence including the dart hood lines.
Then, construct the parallels to ensure that the
32 34 36 38 40 42 44 size N…
seam allowances are also created correctly when
the dart is closed.
Picture 11-7
Generate two global x values for the allowances:
In this case it is necessary to assign values to a num-
x1 general seam allowance 10.
ber of sizes. The following rule applies: an even
x2 hem allowance 20.
alteration of the x value ensues between two adja-
cent sizes. The even alteration continues for the Construct the seam allowances at side seam, arm-
sizes before the first and after the last entered size, hole etc using "xg1".
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 155
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

The hem allowance is created with "xg2". You will x2 portion bust dart in hem
obtain a result according to Picture 11-8. _xxxxx_x = 25.000
___N38_0 = 100.000
___N40_0 = 100.000
___N42_0 = 75.000
___N44_0 = 75.000
___N46_0 = 50.000
___N48_0 = 50.000
Sizes N38 and N48 were also assigned with a
value to ensure that the dart distribution does
25%
not change further in the following smaller or
larger sizes.
For example, if no value is assigned to size N48, the
value for size N48 would be calculated from the
values for N44 and N46 via extrapolation. In this
case x1 would equal -25 and x2 would equal 25.
Ensure realistic values also for very small and
very large sizes when using size-dependent x
values!
With the listed x values you obtain a result according
25% to Picture 11-9.

Checking the calculation of x values


Picture 11-8
Only now, adjust the x values according to the in- Checking x value calculations is made easy with the
structions: Interpolation view option (Picture 11-10). Highlight
x1 portion bust dart in side seam the respective sizes in the Size name list. In the x
_xxxxx_x = 25.000 value table only the x values of the respective size
___N38_0 = 0.000 are displayed, see also Picture 11-10. Additionally,
___N40_0 = 0.000 the sizes used for calculating the x value are stated.
___N42_0 = 25.000 The calculation variations are displayed as shown for
___N44_0 = 25.000 size N36:
___N46_0 = 0.000 1. The standard value applies to the respective size
___N48_0 = 0.000 (_xxxxx_x), e.g.:
x1 overlap width
N36 N38 N40 ___N36_0: [_xxxxx_x]
2. A specific value is assigned to the respective size,
e.g.:
x1 overlap width
___N36_0: [___N36_0]
3. For the figure type of the respective size only
one size entry is available (here: size ___N40_0);
it applies to the respective size, also, e.g.:
x1 overlap width
___N36_0: [___N40_0]
N42 N44 N46
4. The x value of the respective size is calculated
from two size entries (i.e.: size ___N42_0 and
size ___N46_0), e.g.:
x1 overlap width
___N36_0: [___N42_0/___N46_0]

Exercise
Alter the x value table of the first construction of
this chapter as follows:
Picture 11-9 x1 overlap width
_xxxxx_x = 20.0
156 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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X value for size highlighted on the right

Size entries on which the calculation is based.

Picture 11-10
x2 button position on CF from bust point Additional functions
_xxxxx_x = 20.0 The pin is an echo and cannot be clicked. While the
x3 start of yoke on CB from neck pin is visible, the x values of the selected part are
_xxxxx_x = 120.0 shown, even if another part has been activated by
___N38_0 = 120.0 clicking in the main window. If the pin is not visible,
___N40_0 = 120.0 the x values of the active part are indicated auto-
___N42_0 = 130.0 matically.
___N46_0 = 150.0 In Grafis Setup advanced users can activate the op-
___N52_0 = 155.0 tion Additional functions in the x value window, see
x4 end of yoke on armhole from shoulder Picture 11-11. These additional options help during
_xxxxx_x = 70.0 visual adjustment of the user's x values. With the
Reflect which value x3 has in the sizes N34, N36, buttons test run and grading, the active part can
N38, N44, N46, N48 and N52. Then switch to the quickly be calculated after having altered the values.
interpolation view and select the respective sizes Automatic grading with / without successors and Auto-
one after the other in the Size name list. For size matic test run starts automatic calculation of the
___N36_0 all information appears according to construction after alteration of values. Hold value
Picture 11-10. entry activates the hold function for the altered x
Analyse the displayed values with graphic represen- value.
tation like Picture 11-5 to 11-7.
Analyse the values
for other figure
types. Supplement
the x value table
with your own en-
tries and check the
implications on the x
values of other sizes.
Start test run, grading
and measure.
Picture 11-11
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 157
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11.2 Size-dependent adjustment of inter- The list of break sizes in Picture 11-12 contains all
active constructions sizes which can become break sizes of the active
drag area. These are all activated sizes of the size
Step-by-step guide table or their reference size. Further information on
reference sizes can be found in section 11.3. The
⇒ Assign size table with at least the sizes to be
first position of the list is occupied by the base size.
adjusted
⇒ Activate construction with double-click or from The base size of the interactive construction is the
the overview with <F12> size, which is adjusted interactively if no other break
⇒ Select the drag area in which drag points are to sizes are activated. The size in the first position in
be adjusted size-dependently the size table is automatically also the base size of
⇒ Open the Break sizes window by clicking on the interactive construction.
break sizes in the menu on the right Open a new style and call the basic block Skirt 20.
⇒ Transfer break sizes The skirt is to be graded in the sizes _N34 to _N46.
⇒ Make size-dependent adjustments to individual Enter these sizes into the size table. The first posi-
drag points either tion of the size table is still to be assigned with
• in each size or _N38. Grade the construction. The width of the
• in one size, maintaining the set increments. skirt changes across the sizes but not its length. The
The aids stack and ruler can be used during drag- skirt length is to be adjusted to a constant 600mm
ging. for the smaller sizes up to _N40 and 700mm from
size _N42 upwards. Activate the construction Skirt
How does drag work?
20 and change to the drag area Line relocation. Click
Each interactive construction is variably adjustable on the button break sizes in the menu on the right. A
via a multitude of x values. As opposed to the x window opens as shown in Picture 11-12. Activate
values of the construction record, the x values of the the sizes _N40, _N42 and _N46 and end selection
interactive construction are „visible“ through drag of break sizes with <OK>.
points. Moving a drag point alters one or two x Only sizes (or their reference size – see section
values. You can see the value of the current x value 11.3) listed and activated in the size table can be
and its number in the value window (Picture 11-13). adjusted interactively.
The construction is recalculated after each alteration
of the value. The effect on the complete construc- The value window
tion is immediately visible. As the logic of a construc- The break sizes activated in the drag area appear in
tion, for example of a bodice, can be extensive, the value window, see Pictures 11-12 and 11-13.
powerful computers should be used. Otherwise, the
Click on the left of the two buttons . Each size
construction changes in jumps. If this is the case for
can now be dragged individually or adjusted with
you check whether a raster is active. If not, you
values. Use this display option while no grade has
should continue working on a computer with higher
been determined for this drag point.
clock speed.
Size-dependent adjustment of an interactive con- Click on the right of the two buttons . In this
struction means adjusting the x values of the con- display option you can
struction depending on size. • edit the increments with numeric values
or
Select break sizes • adjust one of the offered sizes
First, assign the size table with at least interactively, maintaining the in-
the sizes you probably need as break crements. The other sizes are al-
sizes. Then, activate the construction tered respectively after release of
with double-click or with <F12> and the mouse button.
select the drag area in which the drag
points are to be adjusted size-
dependently. Click on break sizes in
the menu on the right. The Break sizes
window opens (Picture 11-12).
Picture 11-12
158 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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The list of break sizes in Picture 11-14 belongs to a


drag area in which initially the normal _N sizes
_N38, _N40, _N42, _N44 and _N46 had been ad-
justed. Additionally, the short sizes are to be ad-
justed. These have already been entered in the size
table and activated in the break size table. If the
Grafis - Break sizes dialogue is now closed with OK,
all short break sizes will be assigned the values of
base size _N38.

Picture 11-13
Set the skirt length in the drag area Line relocation of
Skirt 20 as shown in Picture 11-13. Then, quit the
interactive environment and grade in the sizes _N34
to _N46. The x value for the skirt length is calcu-
lated according to the rules of section 11.1. Thus,
the skirt is 600mm long in the smaller sizes up to
N40 and 700mm long in the larger sizes from N42
upwards.
Transfer values from break size to break size
A construction
prepared for nor-
mal _N sizes is Picture 11-15
now also to be For a suitable pre-assignment of the short sizes, click
produced in short on Transfer values>>. The Grafis - Break sizes dia-
_S sizes. If you logue changes according to Picture 11-15 right.
have not been able Now click in the column Values of..., select the cor-
to immerse your- responding size from the normal figure type in the
self in the alterna-
column Transfer values from... confirm with and
tive break size
continue assigning values with the next short size.
from section 11.4,
After having clicked OK all sizes of the first column
simply activate the
Break size will be assigned with the values from the
respective short
sizes of the column Values of....
sizes as break sizes
and assign the This transfer of values is a one time operation.
values of the nor- There is no permanent link such as is possible
mal sizes. This with the alternative break size from section 11.4.
process is only
required in drag
areas with more
than one break
size.
Picture 11-14
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 159
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11.3 The x value reference


In the size table you can find the column x reference
(Picture 11-16), which influences the calculation of x
values.
All sizes for which an entry exists in the 'x refer-
ence' column of the size table are calculated with
the x values of the assigned x value reference size
(short: x reference).
The measurement chart in this column...

... is graded with the x values of the Picture 11-17


measurement chart of this column.
Now, the jacket is to be graded with company-
Picture 11-16 specific body measurements. Set up an individual
With the x value reference, measurement charts/ grade run from ’HAKA48’ to ’HAKA58’ based on
sizes in the size list are assigned with x values of the standard figure type _HN. Alter the grade run of
other measurement charts/ sizes. the bust and lower hip circumferences. Enter the
individual sizes ’HAKA48’ to ’HAKA58’ into the size
The x value reference is usually used to assign the
table and grade. Through application of the x value
x values of a standard measurement chart to an
reference to the standard sizes _HN, the size de-
individual measurement chart.
pendent style length of the _HN sizes is applied to
When entering an individual measurement chart into the individual ’HAKA’ sizes, see Picture 11-17. Now,
the size table, the x value reference is assigned by remove the x value reference in the size table and
default with the standard size on which the individ- grade again. The style length is now applied based
ual measurement chart is based. If no x value refer- on the settings of the base size.
ence is entered the standard value applies to individ-
ual measurement charts. Entering, editing and delet- 11.4 The alternative reference size
ing the x value reference ensues analogous to editing
the measurement chart column. This section is for advanced users. Beginners are
advised to read through all application examples
Open a new style and call Tailored
and then, come back at a later date for a more
jacket 20 from the folder Grafis Bodices
detailed look if required.
| Mens bodices and load the standard
mens sizes _HN48 to _HN58 into the The alternative reference size has been developed
size table. In the interactive environ- for Grafis Version 11. It has system-wide effect and
ment of Tailored jacket 20 adjust the should therefore, only be applied by experienced
option Style length based on x value. Go Grafis users. The function has been developed to
to the Line relocation drag area and allow users to apply changes to x values quickly from
open the list of break sizes. In addition to base size one figure type to another figure type. The alternati-
_HN48 activate the size _HN58 as break size and ve reference size is particularly interesting for
close the list. Activate the drag point for the style • companies, which manufacture styles for differ-
length and adjust it to 790mm in size _HN48 and to ent figure types and
830mm in size _HN58. Then, grade all sizes. • made-to-measure studios where styles are
developed in a standard size range and then, ad-
justed to individual customers' wishes.
Please note the application examples on the follow-
ing pages.
160 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Assigning an alternative reference size Priority for search of a matching size entry for
Open a style and make size-dependent adjustments grade rules of single grade points:
for figure type ’_N’. Switch on the alternative refer-
ence size in the Grafis Setup. An additional column,
1.
alt. reference appears in the size table into which
standard measurement charts can be entered. The 1.
size in the alt. reference column acts as alternative
reference size to the size in the second column.
1. 2.
Rules and effects of the alternative reference
size 1. 2.
The alternative reference size takes effect if no set-
tings have been saved for the size to be graded in 1. 2.
the following areas
• individual x values (Chapter 11),
• individual drag areas of interactive constructions, 1.
• individual grade points in grade rule grading and
• curve adjustments.
Picture 11-19
The alternative reference size is a 'deviation' size
Summary
if for this size or its x value reference no settings
are entered in the above four cases. • The application of the alternative reference size
is only useful if a style is to be manufactured in
When calculating a value in one of the above four
different figure types or if a prepared style is to
cases, a matching size entry is searched according to
be adjusted specifically for a particular person.
a pre-set priority. This priority is slightly different
• The alternative reference size is a 'deviation' size
during grade rule grading as no grade rules can be
if for the size or its x value reference no settings
saved for an individual measurement chart. The
have been saved.
numbers in Pictures 11-18 and 11-19 state the pri-
ority for search of a matching size entry. • The alternative reference size effects the x val-
ues of a construction, adjustments to interactive
Priority for search of a matching size entry for constructions, curve adjustments and grading
x values, in drag areas and for curves: with grade rules.
• As a rule, a style should be completely adjusted
1.
and checked for one figure type. Only then,
should the style be adjusted for further figure ty-
1. pes or for particular persons via the use of the al-
ternative reference size.
• Take notes for each style detailing exactly which
1. 2. part/construction of the style has been globally
adjusted and in which parts/constructions spe-
1. 2. cific adjustments have been made for the differ-
ent figure types or a particular person. Only with
good documentation can the style development
1. 2.
be recreated at a later date.
• During grade rule grading the grade of one figure
1. type can be transferred once onto another figure
type.
1. 2.

Picture 11-18
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 161
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1st Application example


Corporate outfit with individual adjustments
For the corporate outfit of a company, a puffball
skirt has been developed in sizes _N34 to _N44,
tested and approved by the customer. Colleague
Karen requires a special fit: the skirt is to be 10cm
longer than the standard size range. Karen's body

Picture 11-21
Picture 11-20
line relocation and load the size KAREN as an addi-
measurements have been taken and saved as an tional break size, see Picture 11-21. Ensure that size
individual measurement chart. The nearest stardard KAREN has been pre-assigned the values of _N40.
size is _N40. Now, lengthen the skirt in size KAREN to the de-
Adjust your size table according to Picture 11-20. sired length and grade with a result according to
Currently, the size KAREN is graded based on body Picture 11-22.
measurements. The skirt length for this size is iden- Please note that the size KAREN has otherwise
tical with the skirt length in size _N40. Activate the been graded according to the settings for _N40 and
interactive skirt basic block, change to the drag area the set body measurements.

Picture 11-22
162 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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2nd Application example


Creation of a jacket style for different figure
types
A jacket has been developed from the interactive
constructions Bodice 50, Front part 30, Front edge 30
and Back part 40, see Picture 11-25. The jacket has

Picture 11-23
already been adjusted for sizes _N38 to _N42. In
addition to the normal sizes, short and long sizes are
to be produced. The basic adjustments such as seam
allowances must be the same in all figure types. Only
the position of the pocket is to be adjusted.
Prepare your size table according to Picture 11-23
and grade. Activate the Front part 30 tool and
change to the drag area Pocket opening. Insert two
break sizes in this drag area: _S38 for the short sizes
Picture 11-25
and _L38 for the long sizes. Adjust the pocket open-
ing in sizes _S38 and _L38 according to
your ideas, see Picture 11-24.
Then, grade sizes _N38, _S38 and _L38
with a result similar to Picture 11-25.

Picture 11-24
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 163
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3rd Application example


Creation of an imported trouser pattern in
short sizes
A trouser pattern has been imported in sizes _36 to
_44. The imported pattern looks similar to Picture
11-26 in sizes 38 and 42.

Picture 11-26
The trousers are now to be manufactured in short
sizes also. The pattern must not be altered in the hip
area. Only the grade rules at the hem are to be Picture 11-28
adjusted for the short sizes.
The hem is now 10cm shorter in the short sizes, see
Picture 11-29.

Picture 11-29
Picture 11-27 The alternative reference sizes _36 to _44 must
Set up the size table according to Picture 11-27. be referenced permanently to ensure the re-
Activate the grade rule pattern of the trouser back quired grading.
and adjust the three grade points at the hem for the
short size figure type manually by entering values
according to Picture 11-28.
164 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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4th Application example • quit grade rule pattern with


Transfer of an imported grade to another fig- • save changes in record?: Yes
ure type • activate next part
A trouser pattern has been imported in sizes _36 to In this way, the grade rules of the sizes of figure type
_44. The imported pattern looks similar to Picture _36 to _44 are transferred to the figure types _N,
11-26 in sizes 38 and 42. The grade is to be applied _S and _L. New break sizes have been inserted in all
to sizes _N36 to _N44, _S36 to _S44 and _L36 to grade rule tables for the sizes activated in the size
_L44 to be adjusted for other figure types at a later table, see Picture 11-31.
date. You can now remove the alternative reference
size and adjust the grade rule patterns in the
figure types _N, _S and _L separately. In the
figure types _N, _S and _L the alternative refer-
ence size is no longer effective as the grade rule
tables of all points now have values in all parts for
these figure types.
Alter the size table according to Picture 11-32 and
grade.

Picture 11-30
Set up your size table according to Picture 11-30
and grade all sizes. Activate all parts of the imported
pattern one after the other and select Picture 11-32
• Rule pattern | Extract Grade Rule Pattern In case some parts are identical in the figure types
• extract _N, _S and _L, you can continue to work with the
alternative reference size
in the style. These parts
are graded in the _N sizes
only and then, start Extract
Grade Rule Pattern. Thus,
in these parts only grade
rules for the _N sizes are
saved. The alternative
reference size for the _S
and _L sizes must point
permanently to the _N
sizes. The grading of parts
with grade rules in _N, _S
and _L ensues according
to the set grade rules,
independent of an alterna-
tive reference.
Picture 11-31
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 165
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5th Application example


Creation of a swimsuit in different cup sizes
A swimsuit has been developed from the basic block
Bodice 80, see Picture 11-33.

Picture 11-34
Create your size table according to Picture 11-35
and grade. Activate
the curve for the cup
shaping, load addi-
tional break sizes for
the B and C cup sizes
and interactively
adjust the cup shape,
see Picture 11-34.
Picture 11-33 Then, grade all A, B
The swimsuit has already been adjusted for cup size and C cup sizes with
A and the underbust sizes A65 to A95. In addition to a result similar to
the A cup sizes, the swimsuit is to be adjusted for B Picture 11-36.
and C cup sizes.
Picture 11-35

Picture 11-36
166 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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11.5 Exercises on X values X value assignment:


x1 first pleat from neck [mm]
1st Exercise _xxxxx_x = 10.000
Call the basic block Skirt 20, design a yoke and a x2 pleat content shoulder [mm]
separate panel in the lower part of the skirt which _xxxxx_x = 40.000
can be modified via x values with curves new. x3 pleat content hem [mm]
X value assignment: _xxxxx_x = 40.000
x1 Yoke centre front [mm]
_xxxxx_x = 150.000
x2 Yoke side seam [mm]
_xxxxx_x = 75.000
x3 Yoke centre back [mm]
_xxxxx_x = 150.000
x4 Lower skirt part centre front [%]
_xxxxx_x = 25.000
x5 Lower skirt part side seam [%]
_xxxxx_x = 15.000
x6 Lower skirt part centre back [%]
_xxxxx_x = 25.000
X1=150mm X3=150mm
X2=75mm

Alter the pleat content as displayed by altering the


values for x2 and x3. After test run the construction
X4=25% X5=15% X6=25%
is changed accordingly.
3rd Exercise
2nd Exercise Construct a simple collar with distances variable via
Create a shirt blouse with three variable pleats in x values where indicated.
the back from Bodice 10. Adjust the following op-
tions:
• centre back fold
• straight side seams
Close the shoulder dart and the waist dart. Then,
delete all auxiliary lines and shorten the piece to the
waist. Link the shoulder. Construct a point on the X8 X4
shoulder at a distance of x1=10mm from the neck.
The first spread line is to begin at this point. Starting X3
X7
at this new point construct a point sequence of 4
equally distributed points along the shoulder. Con- X2 X6
struct three spread lines to the hem. Spread the
three pleats, controlling the pleat content at the X1 X5
shoulder via x2=40mm and the pleat content at the
hem via x3=40mm. Close the pleats at the shoulder The pre-assignment for the x values is to be as fol-
with a single dart hood and link the hem. Link the lows:
shoulder and dart hood lines with link single. X1=150.0 X2=35.0 X3=20.0 X4=40.0
X5=40.0 X6=45.0 X7=80.0 X8=155.0
With this pre-assignment the displayed collar is cre-
ated.
Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value 167
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Mirror the collar and delete superfluous points and


lines. Alter the x values x3 and x4 to 5mm incre-
ments per size and x6 to 10mm increments per size.
Grade the collar in the sizes N38, N40 and N42.
With the x value x1 the length of the neck seam can
be adjusted. All other x values mainly alter the shape
of the collar.

X10: ___N38_0=10.
___N40_0=20.
Again, grade the sizes N38 and N40.
4th Exercise
Construct a shirt collar with indicated measure-
ments variable via x values.
The pre-assignment for x values is to be as follows:
X1=10.0 X2=5.0 X3=10.0 X4=25.0
X5=65.0 X6=20.0 X7=20.0 X8=15.0
X9=10.0 X10=10.0 X11=66.0 X12=150.0
Assign all x values as the standard value indicated.
Activate the sizes N38 and N40 in the size table.
Alter the x value x11 so that it is 66. for size N38
and 50. for size N40. Grade the shirt collar con-
struction. The collar has not been aligned with the length
Alter x11 so that it is 66. for all sizes. of the neckline. For a simple alignment, z values
Alter X4 and X10: are required, see Chapter 12.
X4: ___N38_0=25.
___N40_0=15.

X10 in °
X8

X9

X5

X3 in °
X4 X6 X7
X11/100*X12 (X11 in %)
X1

X2
X12
168 Chapter 11 The construction parameter x value
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5th Exercise 004


Create fashionable trousers with a zip in the left side 003

seam from Trouser 10.


Create and label the following parts in the part list: 006 005
001 basic trouser shape
002 developm. trouser
003 PP yoke ft
004 PP yoke bk left
005 PP ft left
006 PP bk left
007 PP yoke bk right
008 PP ft right
009 PP bk right
Call the basic block Trouser 10 into part 001, set the
hem turn-up to 0. and close the second dart in the
trouser back. Insert part 001 into part 002.
Create the style development in part 002, applying
the following x values:
x1 yoke ft ss from waist [mm]
_xxxxx_x = 60. 6th Exercise
x2 yoke ft CF from waist [mm]
Call the Skirt 20, interactively adjust straight side
_xxxxx_x = 100.
seams, close the second dart in the skirt front and
x3 yoke bk CB from waist [mm]
move the first dart to 50%. Generate an x value for
_xxxxx_x = 120.
the position of a panel seam in the hem, measured
x4 flare ss [mm]
from the centre front and construct the panel seam
_xxxxx_x = 100.
starting at the end point of the dart. To achieve an
x5 cut height ss from hip line [%]
optically more flattering run of the panel seam in
_xxxxx_x = 75.
larger sizes, the position of the panel seam at the
x6 cut height inside leg [%]
hem is altered size-dependently:
_xxxxx_x = 85.
x1 position panel seam hem from CF in %
X1 X3 X1 _xxxxx_x = 45.000
X2 ___N38_0 = 45.000
___N40_0 = 45.000
___N44_0 = 40.000
___N46_0 = 40.000

X5 X5
X6
X4 X4

Derive the production patterns (PP) 003 to 009 N40


from part 002 and develop them to production N46
standard. The pleat content in parts 005, 006, 008
and 009 is to be controlled via an x value of the part.
Parts 003 to 006 are displayed.
Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values
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Content the measurement chart of the measurement system.


12.1 The g values.................................................. 170 The z values allow for calculation of construction
12.2 The z values.................................................. 171 parameters with numerical values or values meas-
12.3 Complex Exercises....................................... 174 ured in the construction.
______________________ The emphasis of this chapter lies, again, with the
exercises for which you should take your time. The
The g and z values complete the palette of construc- gradeable basic blocks displayed are exercise results.
tion parameters so that basic blocks can be drafted
from scratch. The g values deliver the relationship to
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170 Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values
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12.1 The g values In the Optimass measurement system in the circles


G values are the size values of the current meas- and rectangles menu enter width=G4 and
urement system which are logged in the well-known height=G3. Then, construct the rectangle by clicking
measurement charts. g1 defines the first value of the on rectangle. The lower left corner of the rectangle
current measurement chart, g2 the second value is to be placed with point from x=y=0. Check the
and so on. In the measurement system Optimass for result by measuring.
example g1 is the bust and g3 the height (see Picture 2nd Exercise
12-1). The measurement charts can be edited, Construct a rectangle with the bust as width and
viewed and/or printed via Extras | Measurement waist to floor as height. Grade the sizes N38, NB38,
Charts.... N42 and NB42, see Picture 12-3.
Always consider the selected measurement sys- In the Optimass measurement system in the circles
tem when working with g values! and rectangles menu enter width=G1 and

G1
G2
G3
G4
G5

G10

Picture 12-1
G values are applied in the same way as x values. In height=G19. Then, construct the rectangle by click-
conjunction with the z values - which will follow - ing rectangle. The lower left corner is to be placed
they allow for drafting basic blocks on screen. with point from x=y=0.
Exercises
1st Exercise
Construct a rectangle with the waist as the width
and the body height as the height. Grade in sizes
N38, NS38, N42 and NS42, see Picture 12-2. G19

G1

G3 Picture 12-3
3rd Exercise
Construct the figure displayed in picture 12-4 or a
similar shape in the measurement system Optimass.
The circumference measurements are not halved or
quartered. The calculation of g values is possible
with the application of z values, see next section.

G4

Picture 12-2
Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values 171
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12.2 The z values


13% of
G3 G16
What are z values?
Z values are calculated con-
G17 struction parameters. For the
G1 calculation of z values
G18
• all defined construction
parameters (x, xg and g val-
G4 ues),
G3 • previously defined z values,
G10 • measurements from the
G2 construction, so-called pro-
cess data,
• numerical and mathematical functions can be
used.
Defined z values are applied in the same way as x
values.

Entering and altering z values


Entering and altering z values is started with the
function key <F11> or via Extras | Z Values. With
few exceptions this is possible in all menus after test
Picture 12-4
run or a record function.
In the points and lines menu construct a vertical line Pressing the <F11> key opens the z value entry
with a length=G3, starting at the zero point using window (Picture 12-5). The z values with corre-
line with point, direction and length. Then, carry out sponding comment are entered into the List of Z
the length division. The first point is to be con- Values dialogue field.
structed at a relative length=13. from the top. For In the lower part of the window you can find the list
all further points use the function point at a distance of available z values with their calculation formula,
to a base point on a line with the distances G17, G18 the calculated result in the base size and the com-
and G10 respectively. Construction of the horizontal ment. Having selected the z value, an existing z
lines ensues with line with point, direction and length value can be re-assigned. After correction of the
with the lengths G16, G1, G4 and G2. Close the selected z value, the construction record runs to the
shape with line from point to point. Grade the figu- saved record step and re-determines the z value.
rine.
In addition, the z value list can be printed
or copied to the clipboard. The z value
list displays the record step during which
the z value was entered. A z value can
only be deleted if it is no longer required
for a correct record run. When resetting
the Grafis record the z values which are
part of the record step are also reset.
Use z values also for displaying warn-
ings!
For example, if a distance may never be
smaller than 100mm, generate a z value
z..=Ab, enter the value 100 in the min
field and measure the distance after hav-
ing pressed <ENTER>. In case the value
is actually smaller, a warning appears
"Warning: value fallen below minimum
z..=Ab". Ensure a suitable comment for
Picture 12-5 the z value!
172 Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values
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Syntax (spelling) of the z value entry For the process data gL and Ri existing lines of the
• Each instruction is to begin with z1= or z20=. It construction are to be clicked. Process data xK, yK
is recommended to enter the z values in the given and dist Ab determined with the point construction
ascending order. sub-menu.
• Small and capital letters have the same signifi- Examples for correct z values
cance. Spaces are ignored.
z1= 12.3-124.3+100-33-.123
• The calculation of expressions in brackets is possi- z2=123.4-pi+gL+sin(Ri-Ri)
ble. z3=(gL+gL)*1.05+g1/100
• Angles are to be entered in degrees (e.g.: sin(45) Z4=z1+x12-g2/3.5+Ab
for the sine of 45 degrees). z5=sqr((xK-xK)#2+(yK-yK)#2)
• Grafis reports errors in mathematical expressions. theorem of Pythagoras
They are marked with a small arrow below the z6=atn(z1/z3)
position of the incorrect syntax.
• Defined x and g values, mathematical functions Exercise on entering z values
and process data can be used to calculate z values
Call the Bodice 10 and define two x values. Enter the
(see examples). Processing previously defined z
following z values. Scroll in the list of z values and
values is also possible.
check the calculated values on the right side of the
The calculation of z values is recorded. Resetting
list, see also Picture 12-5. The values apply to the
the record resets the z values also!
base size.
Permitted operators <F11> or Extras | Z Values...
z1=1+2+3+4+5 <ENTER>
+ for addition
z2=100-20
- for subtraction
z3=5*5
* for multiplication z4=100/4
/ for division z5=Pi the number Pi
# for exponent z6=G3 body height in system Optimass
Permitted operands z7=G1/2 half of the bust
z8=G16/2 half of the neck
g6 g values
z9=G4/(2*Pi) radius of a circle with circum-
g6=sixth value of the current meas-
ference = waist
urement chart
z10=GL+GL+GL <ENTER>
x3 x values Now, you are requested three times to click a line.
x3=third value of the x value table In Bodice 10, you can click on the three armhole
(active part) of the current part lines of front and back one after the other. In this
xg5 x values of all parts (see Chapter 11) case z10 equals the full length of the armhole
xg5=fifth value of the x value table of all curves.
parts of the style z11=(Ab+Ab)/2 <ENTER>
z4 z value z4 Measure the distance between the final points of the
number numbers, e.g. 12; -12.0; 23.6, with the side seams of front and back by clicking the points of
point as decimal point the side seam at the armhole and at the hem of the
pi the constant pi (=3.1415927) front and back respectively. z11 is the average value
of this distance.
Functions permitted as operands z12=x2+100
cos for cosine z13=z2/2
sin for sine z14=(Ab+Ab+Ab+Ab)*2
tan for tangent Measure four distances between 2 points, respec-
atn for arc-tangent tively, e.g. the waist in front and back without darts.
z15=z3+z4
sqr for square root
z16=sqr(16)
btr for absolute value
Define your own z values and combine different
functions, process data and construction parame-
Process data permitted as operands
ters.
gL full length of a clicked line
Ri direction of a line in the “click point”
xK x co-ordinate value of a point
yK y co-ordinate value of a point
Ab distance between two points
Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values 173
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Exercises on the application of g values in z Exercises on the application of measurements


value calculations of the construction (process data) in z value
1st Exercise calculations
Construct a ½ circular skirt with the waist being
1st Exercise
identical to the waist in the measurement chart and
Design a waistband with the length of the waist lines
a length of 615mm from waist. Draw the hip circle
in Skirt 20 (Picture 12-8).
at waist to hip (g10) + 30. The result is contained in
Picture 12-6. z2 z1 z1 z2
Use the following z values:
z1=G4/(2*Pi)
z2=z1+G10+30.
z3=z1+615. z1=gl+gl+gl z2=gl+gl+gl

z3

z2

z1
Picture 12-6
Grade the circular skirt in 5 sizes.
2nd Exercise
Construct a ½ circular skirt with g, x and z values. Picture 12-8
The x value x1 is to be processed as an addition to Call the construction and reset the hem reduction
the hip circle and x2 is to define the skirt length. interactively and close the second dart. Open a new
Draw the hip circle again at a distance of waist to hip part and insert the three waist lines of front and
+x1. back skirt respectively into the new part. Generate
From this skirt construct 1/4, 1/3 and other panel two z values:
skirts (Picture 12-7). z1=gL+gL+gL waist lines front skirt
z2=gL+gL+gL waist lines back skirt
Generate an x value for the waistband height preset
to 40mm. Construct the waistband with z1, z2 and
x1. Set notches on the side seam positions. Mark the
centre back and centre front. Grade the skirt and
then the waistband. Check the measurements.
2nd Exercise
Create a waistband for the construction Trouser 10
(Picture 12-9) as in the 1st exercise.
Picture 12-7
st
The steps are analogous to the 1 Exercise with
x1=30 and x2=615 and the z values
Z1=G4/(2*Pi) z1=gl+gl+gl z2=gl+gl
Z2=Z1+G10+X1
Z3=Z1+X2
Assign the x values with different values according to
the different figure types.

Picture 12-9
174 Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values
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12.3 Complex Exercises Z value list:


Z1=G2/2+X2 ½ hip + addition
1st Exercise Z2 =Z1-(G4/2+X10) difference between hip
Develop a bat wing construc- and waist width
tion from the basic block Bod- Z3=X7/2 ½ dart width bk
ice 30. Z4=(Z2-X4*2-x7)/2 ½ dart width ft

X1
Z1 transfer

X2

Call the Bodice 30, insert the perimeter lines into


part 002 and transform the front and back to be Then, alter the position of the two darts by changing
joined at the shoulder with turn and move. Align the x6 and x9.
part with the shoulder vertical. Set up an x value for
3rd Exercise
the sleeve length and the half-width of the sleeve
Construct a children’s hat with the values
hem. Lengthen the shoulder by the sleeve length x1
X1 head circumference in mm (460.)
and construct the sleeve hem with x2. Connect the
X2 hat height in mm (165.)
sleeve hem with the hems of front and back with
X3 head height in mm (80.)
two new curves. Transfer the length of the front
X4 seam allowance in mm (40.)
curve onto the back curve with the use of a z value.
Z1=X1/4 + 5
Relocate the end point of the hem curve in the back
to the end of the back curve with manipulate curve.
2nd Exercise
Construct a straight skirt with g, x and z values.
X2
X value table pre-assignment:
X1 skirt length in mm (600.) X3 Z1

X2 addition to ½ hip in mm (20.)


X3 lift waist at side seam in mm (10.) X4
X4 waist reduction side seam in mm (35)
X5 dart length bk in mm (130.)
X6 position dart bk from side seam in % (50.) Other hats can be obtained with different curve
X7 dart width bk in mm (35.) forms for example.
X8 dart length ft in mm (90.)
X9 position dart ft from side seam in % (30.)
X10 addition to ½ waist in mm (10.)
X11 hem reduction side seam in mm (15)
Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values 175
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4th Exercise x8 raise neck at shoulder in mm (20.)


Construct a stand-up collar with x, g and z values. x9 ease for shoulder width in mm (15.)
X1 collar inset in mm (20.) x10 shoulder angle in mm (15.)
X2 reduction in mm (2.) x11 armhole curve point in mm (7.)
X3 collar width in mm (30.) Z values with the value in size 38:
Z1 =g16 / 2 - x2 z01=g7+x2 215.0
or Z1=gL+gL (neck lines in front and back) nape to scye + addition
z02=g8+x3 436.0
nape to waist + addition
z03=g9+x4 622.0
X3 nape to hip + addition
X1
z04=g13+x7 185.0
Z1 / 2
Z1 across back + addition
z05=g14*2/3 62.0
5th Exercise 2/3 armhole diameter
Construct a back with g, x and z values in the meas- z06=g16+x9 137.0
urement system Mueller&Sohn Women. shoulder width + ease
X value table pre-assignments: 6th Exercise
x1 style length in mm (700.) With the Pinch 20 tool pinch the side seam of the
x2 addition nape to scye in mm (20.) front of Bodice 50 at 40mm, 30mm and 35mm. The
x3 addition nape to waist in mm (20.) apex of the new dart is to be positioned at start,
x4 addition nape to hip in mm (0.) centre and end of the waist dart respectively. De-
x5 reduction waist in mm (20.) pending on the set pinch amount, the side seam of
x6 reduction hip in mm (20.) the front is shortened. Therefore, measure the
x7 addition ½ across back in mm (20.) remaining side seam between waist and hem in the
front with
z01=gl+gl+gl+gl
z6
Lengthen the side seam of the back from the waist
to the length z01. The hem of the back must be
connected with the shortened side seam. Use the
x8 G6
x10 function manipulate curve and attach the end point of
the hem to the side seam. Select a suitable transition
type, here type 4 and deposit the manipulated curve.
Refine the curve run a little with the refine function
x11 from the same menu.
z1

z5 z4

z2
x5

z3
x6

x1
176 Chapter 12 The construction parameter g and z values
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7th Exercise
Bodice 50 is to be styled with panel seams. First,
construct a curve from the centre front to the waist
dart in the front. Interactively move the starting
point of the first curve along the centre front and
the final point along the line of the waist dart. A
Z01= Z02=
second curve is to run from the waist dart to the
side seam. Both curves are to merge smoothly when =Z02
sewing the waist dart. Separate the waist dart at the
final point of the first curve and measure the length
of the waist dart to the waist: =Z01
Z01 = gl
When constructing the second curve, start the curve
at a partial length z01 from the waist and merge
smoothly into the side seam.
In the back, a third curve is to run from the side
seam to the waist dart. The second and third curve
are to merge smoothly as well when sewing the side
seam. Separate the front side seam at the final point
of the second line and measure the length of the
side seam to the waist:
Z02 = gl
The third curve now starts at a partial length z02 on
the back side seam and ends at a partial length z01
on the waist dart in the back.
Trace the production patterns, add seam allowances
and set the grain line symbol. Interactively, alter the
final point of the first curve and start test run all
parts.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Content From Version 9 Grafis is delivered with interactive


13.1 Interactive Bodice 50 .................................... 178 constructions. These constructions are very flexible
13.2 Interactive Sleeve 30..................................... 188 and can be called in a number of measurement sys-
13.3 Additional functions for adjusting tems.
interactive constructions.............................. 194 Content of this chapter is the application of interac-
13.4 Reconstruct a digitized template pattern tive constructions.
with an interactive construction .................. 196
13.5 Designing the call list.................................... 198
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178 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

13.1 Interactive Bodice 50 repeated in a similar way in the other constructions.


Basic options and adjustment systems are explained Drag points on curves for direction and shaping
using Bodice 50 as an example. These principles are points are not explored at this point as they are
identical to adjustments in the Link 10 tool, see
Chapter 5.1.
Picture 13-5 shows Bodice 50 with all its drag areas.
An overview of all options for Bodice 50 is displayed
in Picture 13-2 with an indication of the respective
drag area (DA) for each option.

Auxiliary adjustments
In the Positioning drag area, the front and the
combined armhole can be moved. These adjust-
ments have no relevance for the construction.
Option Auxiliary measurements
This option displays important auxil-
iary measurements. We recom-
mend having this option active.

Picture 13-1

All drag areas: DA Line reloc.: DA Side seam: DA Side seam: DA Side seam:
Display measurements DA Centre back style length outline identical? straight or shaped? grading centred?

DA Tolerances: DA Waist dart: DA Waist dart


waist construction DA Side seam Position waist dart DA Hem DA Shoulder dart

DA Bust dart DA Armhole

DA Hem DA Bust dart DA Armhole

Picture 13-2
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 179
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Drag area Tolerance horizontal and vertical

10 11
7
8
13
9 12

1
2

5
6
Width in torso area Adjust basic neckline
1 Addition to bust girth, which is originally 9 Basic front neck
added to the armhole diameter. Important, 10 Basic neck front – shoulder
see explanation on Bust girth. 11 Basic neck back – shoulder
2 Part of the tolerance added to bust girth for NB: In this area the fit specific
front width. If this amount is increased, the characteristics of the neckline are
portion in the armhole diameter decreases. adjusted. All style specific adjustments are
3 Part of the bust girth tolerance for back made in the neckline drag area.
width. If this amount is increased, the Adjust shoulder width
portion in the armhole diameter decreases. 12 Addition to shoulder width front and back
4 Tolerance to waist girth; see topic Waist 13 Addition to shoulder width back only
construction on the next page. Adjustments to the shoulder slope are made
5 Tolerance to hip girth with the shoulder drag area.
Balance between front and back
6 Shorten/ lengthen the front in relation to the
back
7 Shorten/ lengthen the front
8 Shorten/ lengthen the back; see topic Style
length on the next page
Picture 13-3
Bust girth Only in the Optimass measurement system in
In the different measurement systems, one or more which all four body measurements are available,
of the four body measurements bust girth, front the bust girth remains unconsidered.
width, back width and arm width are available. As
NB: In Bodice 10, the arm width remains unconsid-
a rule, the bust girth is used for construction of the
ered. It is calculated from the bust girth. Further
bust line.
information can be found in the help for the basic
block.
180 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Waist construction
If this option is active, the drag
point 4 in Picture 13-3 works as
tolerance to the waist girth.

Ú If this alternative option is active,


the waist line is constructed in
relation to the bust line. The side
seam can be interactively adjusted
at waist height, see Picture 13-4. In
this case, the side seam does not
change if the dart content is al-
tered.
Option Style length from…
The style length is adjusted in the Line relocation 4
drag area.
If this option is active, the style length is
constructed from the basic neck.
NB: With drag point 8 in picture 13-3,
the hem line moves in relation to the
given style length.
Ú
If this alternative option is active, the
style length is constructed from the 4 Addition to waist girth; Important, see
waist. During alteration with drag point 8 explanations on Waist construction
in picture 13-3, the hem line is not
moved. Picture 13-4

Drag area Line relocation

1 Relocate armhole diameter line


2 Relocate waist
3 Relocate hip
4 Shorten/ lengthen side seam of
the back without balancing out
5 the side seam length. The front
4 or back side seam is pinched.
1 9 5 Relative height for drawing the
back width
6 Raise waist at front and back
side seam
7 Adjust style length (fit), see
explanations on Style length
6 2 8 Shorten a style in relation to the
Style length
10 9 Position auxiliary line for bust
measurement, see explanations
of Auxiliary line
10 Position auxiliary line for hip
measurement.
3
8 7
Picture 13-5
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 181
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Style length dart in the hem. Due to logic of construction, it


Via switching options, the style length can be con- must always be positioned below the hip.
structed from the neck or from the waist. It is ad-
Auxiliary line for bust measurement
justed at the centre back with drag point 7 in Picture
Depending on the setting of this op-
13-5. The following applies to drag points 7 and 8:
tion, the line is either horizontal or
For pieces longer than hip depth, drag point 7 is transformed in relation to the bust
used and drag point 8 remains at zero. For pieces point. The difference is particularly
shorter than hip depth, a company specific style
length is set and the piece is shortened with drag
Ú obvious with the bust dart located in
the side seam.
point 8.
The style length with drag point 7 is required for
example for the construction of hem widening in
millimetres and for spreading/ overlapping the waist

Drag area Bust dart


First, the position of the bust dart must be adjusted via options. The bust dart can be located in the shoulder,
the side seam and the armhole, see Picture 13-6.

5
3 3 3

4 5
2 4 4
2

6 2 7 6
5
1 1 1

1 Relocate bust point 6 Shorten the dart


2 Adjust dart in % 7 Pinch side seam, see text. The side seam
3 Relocate a portion of the bust dart into the balance depends on the option style length
centre front from… Before making alterations with
4 Relocate a portion of the bust dart into the cursor 7, set the comparison!
armhole
5 Adjust position of the bust dart in the
contour. In case the dart is positioned in
the side seam, the option bust dart centre
horizontal yes/no applies, see text.

Picture 13-6
Option Bust dart centre horizontal Pinch side seam
If the bust dart is located in the If the bust dart is located in the side seam, it can be
side seam, the option bust dart increased/ decreased with drag point 7 in Picture
centre horizontal yes/no applies. 13-6. As a result, the front side seam is indirectly
Depending on the setting of this pinched. The front and back side seam length are
Ú option, the position is adjusted as corrected depending on the style length from... op-
a distance to the armhole or in tion as follows:
relation to the horizontal. • Style length from neck … by spreading/ pinching
the front
182 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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• Style length from waist … by spreading/ pinching Drag area Shoulder


the back; NB: The style length from the neck is
altered!
1
Bust dart construction based on body meas- 3
urement Upper front width
Only the measurement system Optimass offers the
option of constructing the bust dart with the bust
angle or with the upper front width: 2
If this option is active, the bust dart is
constructed on the basis of the bust
angle from the measurement chart.

Ú
If this alternative option is active, the
bust dart is constructed from the body
measurement G42, upper front width.
This is only possible within the Optimass 1 Dart content in mm
system as only Optimass contains this 2 Length and direction of the dart
measurement in the measurement chart. 3 Position of the shoulder dart
In this case, the additional drag point 8 in Picture 13-8
Picture 13-7 appears which can be used
for moving the construction line for the NB: When altering the position of the shoulder
upper front width. The bust dart is now dart, the armhole in the back is also altered.
constructed with the dashed line starting If the shoulder dart is to be moved in a tested pat-
at drag point 8 becoming the upper tern, set the comparison and then, reinstate the
front width. This line indicates the nar- original armhole shape via shoulder angle correction
rowest area above the bust and is con- in the Shoulder drag area.
nected to the armhole pitch. Option Position shoulder dart
If this option is active, the
shoulder dart is positioned at a
relative length on the shoulder.

Ú
If this alternative option is
active, the zero position of the
8 shoulder dart is determined by
the position of the bust dart.
This option is only appropriate
if the bust dart is also located in
the shoulder.
Option Back panel
With this option, waist and
shoulder dart can be con-
8 Only in Optimass: Addition to
nected via an auxiliary line.
body measurement G43
When using the Back part
distance bust point Ù upper tools, this option is not sig-
front width, see text nificant.
Bust dart construction based
on body measurement Upper
front width
Picture 13-7
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 183
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Drag area Waist dart

6
5 4
3

1 2

7
8

9 10
1 Dart content in the front in mm 5 Rotate/ tilt the complete front dart
2 Dart content in the back in mm 6 Rotate/ tilt complete back dart
7 Rotate/ tilt lower front dart
8 Rotate/ tilt lower back dart
9 Spread/ overlap front hem at style length
NB: Ù height
When altering the dart content, the side seam 10 Spread/ overlap back hem at style length
is only altered if the waist is constructed from height
the waist girth; see explanation on Waist
construction, in drag area Tolerance horizontal
and vertical on previous pages.
3 Position for the top point of the front waist Ù
dart in relation to the bust point The cursors 9 and 10 are only active if the
4 Distance of the top point of the waist dart waist dart option open to hem has been
from the waist and horizontal position. selected.

Ù
Depending on the option, the horizontal
position is determined relative to the waist or
to the back width

Picture 13-9
Position of the waist line
The position of the waist line is influenced in two drag areas:
Drag area Line relocation
• Total waist height
• Raise waist at side seam
Drag area Side seam
• Raise waist at centre front
184 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Drag area Centre front and Centre back

3 3
3

4 4
2
1
1 Angle centre front at style length height 3 Adjust centre back at waist height
2 Rotate/ tilt front construction about the 4 Adjust centre back at hip height
intersection of bust line and centre front 5 Adjust centre back at neck

Picture 13-10
Drag area Neckline

1
1

5 3

4
2

1 Increase neck at shoulder 4 Length of straight line at centre front


2 Increase neck at centre front 5 Length of straight line at centre back
3 Increase neck at centre back
Picture 13-11
NB: The fit of the neck has already been adjusted in the drag area Tolerance horizontal and vertical. In
the Neckline drag area, the neckline is shaped.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 185
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Drag area Shoulder

1
5 5

2
4
3
4
3

1 Shoulder relocation at neck 4 Additional shoulder angle for shoulder pad


2 Shoulder relocation at armhole 5 Shoulder shaping in mm
3 Shoulder angle in ft and bk
Picture 13-12
NB: The fit specific shoulder angle is adjusted Should the style be produced with a relocated
with drag point 3 in Picture 13-12. In addition shoulder at a later date, the shoulder should be
and style-specific, you can add a further toler- relocated temporarily before calling the sleeve. For
ance for shoulder pads with drag point 4. The a correct distribution of notches, the natural shoul-
respective additional length in mm is shown in der must be clicked, which is only visible with relo-
brackets. cated shoulder.

Drag area Armhole

The option adjusts the


number of segments in the armhole.
4 segments means two segments re-
spectively in front and back, sepa-
rated by the sleeve pitches
6/8/10 segments means 2/3/4 seg-
ments respectively above the
sleeve pitch
The number of segments in the arm-
hole must be identical to the num-
2 ber of segments in the sleeve. It can
3
1 4 be altered subsequently.

The option appears


from 6 segments upwards. It offers the
1 and 2 Relocate front/back pitch choice of adjusting the length of the
3 and 4 Relocate notch along the armhole in relation to uppermost segment as a relative
the front/back pitch length in % or as a partial length.
Picture 13-13
186 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Drag area Side seam

1 3 4 2

1 Side seam relocation without armhole alteration 3 Relocation of side seam up/ down to pinch
2 Relocation of lower armhole point with armhole armhole, see text.
alteration 4 as cursor 3 but in the back
5 Asymmetrical correction of waist at centre front
only
Picture 13-14
Relocate side seam up/ down Option Side seam straigth/ shaped
With this option, the side
With drag point 3 in Picture 13-14, the side seam
seams are straight, see Picture
can be moved up/ down. This drag point is used for
13-14 centre.
shortening the armhole. The bust dart is indirectly
relocated into the hem area.
Options Contour identical side seam
Front and back side seams are
contour identical. The shape Option Side seam grading centred
of the side seam is adjusted in If this option is active, the side
the front. seam is graded proportionally
to the bust width and back
width.

Ú
Both side seams can be ad- If this option is active, the side
justed independent of each seam is graded by ¼ of the
other, see Picture 13-14 right. bust increment independent
Differences in length are ad- of the increments of the indi-
justed at the front side seam. vidual sections.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 187
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Option Side seam direction


If this option is active for waist or If a continuous curve shape is
hip, the direction of the curves desired, this option should be
can be adjusted independently selected.
from each other.

With the long direction handle, the curve direction of


the lower section is adjusted. Starting with this direc-
tion, the direction of the upper section can be influ-
enced with the short direction handle. For a continu-
ous curve shape, set the short direction handle to 0°.

Drag area Hem

1
4 6
3

5 8 2 9 7
1 Rotation point for side seam angle at hem at 5 Centre front angle at hem
style length height 6 Rotation point for centre back angle at hem
2 Side seam angle at hem 7 Centre back angle at hem
3 Shorten/ lengthen side seam 8 Straight line at front hem
4 Rotation point for centre front angle at hem 9 Straight line at back hem

Picture 13-15
Option Hem increase in mm/° Option Hem direction at side seam
The increase on drag point 2 ensues in The hem direction is calculated
millimetres or in degrees. as a right angle to the side seam
or free or linked.
188 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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13.2 Interactive Sleeve 30

DA Curve adjustment DA Curve adjustement


(automatic length adjustment)

DA Curve adjustement DA Ease distribution

All drag areas:


Display measurements DA Line relocation

DA Finished DA Underarm DA Elbow DA Hem DA Curve adjustments


measurements

Picture 13-16
Using Sleeve 30 as an example, the principal options In Grafis bodices, the natural shoulder is indicated as
and adjustment systems of all Grafis sleeves are a dashed line as soon as the shoulder has been relo-
explained. cated. We recommend relocating the shoulder be-
fore calling the sleeve and then, reinstating the origi-
Calling the sleeve nal shoulder position after the sleeve has been
All interactive Grafis sleeves are automatically ad- called. From Version 10 onwards the function Reset
justed to the armhole of the bodice. This automatic ‘Clicks’ can be used for correction of a completely
adjustment is possible because various information adjusted sleeve, see Chapter 14. In Grafis bodices,
on the bodice is transferred by clicking when calling the front armhole is separated so that the number of
the sleeve: objects is correct even in the case of bust dart in
• natural shoulder back armhole. Therefore, when calling the sleeve the
• armhole back connected armhole should be clicked, normally
• back pitch located between front and back.
• lower armhole point Picture 13-16 shows an overview of all options for
• front pitch Sleeve 30, indicating the corresponding drag areas.
• armhole front and
Auxiliary adjustments
• natural shoulder front.
The armhole in the front and the back must be a Auxiliary measurements option
continuous line sequence, respectively. The This option displays important auxil-
front/back pitches and the lower armhole points iary measurements. We recom-
should imperatively be selected with click p (not mend having this option activated.
click pl). If the shoulder of the bodice has been
relocated towards the front or the back, the
natural shoulder must be clicked, i.e. the shoul-
der in its original position. The sleeve must not be
altered by shoulder relocation. The same applies
to the lower armhole point in case of a side seam
relocation.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 189
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Drag area Curve adjustment

4
2
3

8 7

5 5
6
6

Sleeve proportions Directions and curve adjustment


1 Sleeve height. Important, see Automatic 5 Length of armhole curve section which is
length adjustment. transferred directly.
2 Upper arm width. Important, see Automatic 6 Direction of sleevehead at beginning/ end, if
length adjustment. cursor 5 is set to 0
3 Ease in mm or % depending on the option. 7 Adjustment of common direction of the
Important, see Ease. sleevehead front and back in the upper
4 Relative position of the upper sleeve point sleeve point
8 Difference direction of the back sleeve curve.
All not specifically explained points are shaping If the difference direction does not equal
points for the sleeve curve. zero, the sleevehead has a kink in the upper
sleeve point.
9 Length of curve adjustment at back sleeve
seam
Picture 13-17
190 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Automatic length adjustment The upperarm width is adjusted


When constructing a sleevehead, three construction starting with the upperarm girth
measurements are dependant measurement. Sleevehead height
on one another: is a result from the construction.
• sleevehead height The upperarm width is graded proportionally
• upper arm width and to the upperarm girth even without break
• sleevehead length. sizes.

The sleevehead length Ease


equals the length of the armhole lines plus ease. The adjustable ease, adjusted with
Generally, two of these construction measure- drag point 3 in Picture 13-17 is
ments are given and the third measurement re- calculated as a percentage value of
sults from these settings. Ú the armhole length.

If this option is active, automatic The ease is calculated as a length in


length adjustment is applied. The millimetres.
sleevehead height or the upperarm
width are adjusted so that the given
Option Mirror lower armhole point at angled or
sleevehead length is achieved.
straight sleeve fold line …
Ú Automatic length adjustment can
This option de-
ensue in four variations; see option
termines whether
Length adjustment as...
the lower armhole
If this alternative option is active,
point is mirrored
the automatic length adjustment is
at the straight
switched off. Sleevehead height and
break line or the
upperarm width are given and the
angled break line.
sleevehead length is a result from
the construction. Select this option Ù The lower arm-
hole point can be
only if the sleevehead from a digi-
moved up/ down
tised template is to be transferred.
in the Line reloca-
Switch automatic length adjustment
tion drag area.
back on after the transfer.
This option has an
Option Length adjustment as... impact on the
If automatic length adjustment is active, sleevehead adjustment of the
height and upperarm width are automatically ad- elbow.
justed to achieve the given sleevehead length. The
Option Mirrored curve …
ease can be adjusted size dependantly. The length
With this option, the mirrored
adjustment can ensue in four variations:
sleevehead curve can be made
Sleevehead height is set as a fin-
visible additionally and temporar-
ished measurement with break
sizes. Upperarm width is a result Ú ily in the Curve adjustment drag
area.
from the construction.
The upperarm width is set as a
finished measurement with break
sizes. Sleevehead height is a result Option Straight line front… or straight line
from the construction. back...
The sleevehead height is adjusted With this option, a straight line is
starting from the centre armhole switched on/ off between the
height. Upperarm width is a result second and the third shaping
from the construction.
The sleevehead height is graded proportion-
Ú point. This option is available for
the front and back sleeve.
ally to the average armhole height, even with-
out break sizes.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 191
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Drag area Ease distribution

1
1
1

1
2
1

1 Drag cursor for manual distribution of ease 2 Drag cursor for ease in the individual
segments, see Ease comb
Picture 13-18
Option Segment number… points 2. Each drag point of the ease comb corre-
With this option, the number of sponds with the ease in one segment. As a rule, the
segments along the sleevehead is ease comb is used as it allows simultaneous visual
determined; see detailed explana- control.
tion on the Armhole drag area in
Measurement lines for ease
Bodice 50.
The small horizontal dashed lines in the centre of
The number of segments in the each segment are also transferred into the construc-
armhole must be identical with tion. The length of these auxiliary lines equals the
the number of segments in the ease in the corresponding segment. The same ap-
sleeve. It can be altered subse- plies to the dashed auxiliary lines at the grain line,
quently. which equals the total ease. These lines can be
transferred into finished measurement tables via the
Ease comb finished measurement function or into text via z val-
The ease can be distributed either manually via ues.
dragging the notches at the drag points 1 in Picture
13-18 or via adjustment of the ease comb with drag

Drag area Finished measurement


The Finished measurement drag area can only be selected if the wrist width has been set as a finished measure-
ment.
Option Grade sleeve hem as upperarm
If this option is active, the wrist width If this alternative option is active, the
is calculated from the body meas- wrist width is set as a finished meas-
urement upperarm width minus the urement with break sizes. Only in
sleeve fold adjustment at lower/front this case can the Finished measure-
and minus the elbow dart content. ment drag area be activated.
The elbow dart is adjusted in the
Elbow drag area with drag point 14
(Picture 13-19).
192 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Drag areas Line relocation, Sleeve fold, Underarm, Elbow

DA Line relocation DA Sleeve fold DA Underarm DA Elbow

16
1 2 9

20

13

12 19
3 6
7 17
14 10
21 21

15

5 8 11
4 4
18

DA Line relocation 10 Underarm seam relocation at elbow


1 Rotate the sleeve in the armhole via 11 Underarm seam relocation at wrist
relocation of notches 12 Adjust seam length difference
2 Move lower armhole point upwards/ 13 Move notches along the underarm seam
downwards 14 Length of curve smoothing section at the
3 Relocate elbow line underarm
4 Adjust sleeve length, depending on the DA Elbow
selected option either as finished 15 Adjust elbow dart. This drag cursor is only
measurement with break sizes or as an active if the wrist width is calculated from
addition to the arm length, see Sleeve the body measurement upperarm width,
length see explanation on Drag area Finished
5 Manual correction of the sleeve length measurement.
DA Sleeve fold 16 Elbow seam relocation along the sleevehead
6 Adjust sleeve fold at elbow 17 Elbow seam relocation at elbow
7 Tolerance to elbow width 18 Elbow seam relocation at wrist
8 Adjust sleeve fold at wrist 19 Adjust seam length difference
DA Underarm 20 Move notches along the elbow seam
9 Underarm seam relocation along the 21 Length of curve smoothing section at the
sleevehead. The zero position is elbow seam
dependant on the Option Seam
relocation front...

Picture 13-19
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 193
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Option Set sleeve length... After shaping the hem curve, the
If this option is active, the sleeve actual sleeve length is automatically
length is a result of the arm length corrected. The hem is transformed
body measurement. It can be to the set sleeve length and the un-
adjusted with drag point 4 (Picture derarm seams are lengthened or
13-19) in the Line relocation drag shortened correspondingly. How-
area. The elbow line does not ever, in the Hem drag area, this
change during this adjustment. correction is de-activated. It is car-
ried out after changing the drag area
or after quitting the interactive
If this alternative option is active,
menu.
the sleeve length is adjusted inter-
actively with drag point 4 and Option Seam relocation front...
break sizes. In this case, the posi-
tion of the elbow line is also al- Depending on
tered. the setting of this
option, the zero
position for drag
point 8 (Picture
Option Automatic adjustment of hem position… 13-19) is calcu-
lated either from
The length of the grain line (green line) corresponds
the lower point
with the actual sleeve length. After having shaped
or from the side
the hem curve, the actual length may differ from the
seam of the bod-
sleeve length set with drag point 4.
ice or from the
After shaping the hem curve, there is underarm seam.
no automatic adjustment of the
actual sleeve length. The sleeve Option Elbow seam contour identical…
length must be adjusted with drag Depending on the
point 5 if required. setting of this op-
tion, an additional
drag point for shap-
ing of the elbow
seam appears.

Ù
Drag area Hem
After quitting this drag area, the hem curve is automatically transformed to the set sleeve length if applicable,
see explanation on the two options for sleeve length at the top of this page.

1 Shorten the underarm


Picture 13-20
Option Hem as curve sequence…
If this option is active, the hem is If this alternative option is active,
shaped as a curve sequence. the hem of the underarm is a
straight line and only the up-
perarm hem can be shaped.
194 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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13.3 Additional functions for adjusting The value window


interactive constructions The value window (Picture 13-21) contains the x
The adjustment of interactive constructions has value settings for the active drag point. All activated
already been explored in sections 2.4 "Adjust inter- break sizes in the active drag area are displayed and
active construction" and 11.2 "Size-dependent ad- can be adjusted.
justment of interactive constructions". This section With the left button
deals with additional functions in the menu for inter- , individual sizes
active constructions. can be dragged. Chan-
Menu for interactive constructions ges made to one size
are not applied to
other sizes. The grade
load shape
save shape
rules are altered.
With the right button
, sizes of a figure
set break sizes type can be adjusted
simultaneously. Altera-
tions are automatically
applied to all sizes of
raster the respective figure
Picture 13-21
type. The grade rules
remain unchanged.
With the button , all break sizes can be al-
tered simultaneously. Adjustments are automatically
+/-magnet applied to all break sizes. The grade rules remain
+/-ruler
unchanged.
The other elements of the value window have the
+/-comments following significance:
+/-options With this drag point, a single x
+/-values value is adjusted.
+/-measurements With this drag point exactly two
set measurements x values are adjusted, e.g. the x
and y co-ordinate of a free
+/-compare moving point. The settings for
set comparison only one x value are visible at a
+/-stack time.
set stack Minimise/ maximise the window
Show all sizes.
Hide all sizes except the active
size.
Base size of the construction
alteration steps
This size is hidden. Clicking on
the tick box in front of the size
original state
shows the size again.
undo alteration step
redo alteration step
The size is shown. Clicking the
tick hides the size.

end
abort

help for construction


Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 195
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Use of set stack part of the interactive construction. For example, if


The stack function can be used for interactive ad- you are interactively adjusting a pocket you can set
justment of a graded nest. After clicking on set stack measurements for the underlying bodice construc-
the stack point and then, optionally a direction point tion. These measurements for the bodice cannot be
are determined. If no direction point is required, entered as an ID measurement as they do not de-
simply use the right mouse button after having set scribe the pocket shape and may be changed when
the stack point. loading a different shape.
Clicking on +/-stack activates or deactivates the Measurements can also be set for a comparison
nest. All drag points can be adjusted on a stacked part. For example, if you want to make a modifica-
nest. Grafis takes into account the shift caused by tion during which a measurement is not to be al-
stacking. tered, proceed as follows: first, set a comparison
and switch to +compare. Position the comparison
Dimensioning an interactive construction part suitably with <F3> and <F5>. Set measure-
ments for the comparison part and the original part.
A number of dimensions are already shown on an
Carry out the modifications. Measurements for the
interactive construction. In practice however, other
comparison part are reset when quitting the drag
special company-specific dimensions are required.
menu.
Therefore, Grafis offers the
option of setting your own Measurements can be printed via Edit | Copy to the
measurements which are al- clipboard.
tered immediately during in- Use of ruler
teractive modification of the
construction.
ruler
With the dimensioning func-
tion you can set your own
measurements which are
altered immediately during
dragging.
Dimensioning ensues analo-
gous to measuring, described
in section 7.1. Additional op- Picture 13-22
tions exist for each measure-
ment, see Picture 13-22.
Picture 13-23
Display options:
text for measurement Toggle to +ruler displays the ruler. It consists of two
lines at a right angle, one line is very long and the
show/ hide text
other considerably shorter.
show/ hide value Clicking with pressed down mouse button...
show/ hide left auxiliary line • at the short line moves the ruler,
show/ hide right auxiliary line • at the long line rotates the ruler.
When moving and rotating
show/ hide measurement line the ruler it is automatically
clicking turns measurement into attracted by neighbouring
ID measurement. ID meas- lines and points. You can set
urements are saved with the the ruler onto a point and
shape. adjust it along a line.
In which drag areas are the
Free moving drag points can only be moved in
measurements to be shown?
the direction of the ruler with active ruler.
The ID measurement button ensures that a meas- In Picture 13-23 the ruler was set onto the collar
urement is automatically entered into the comments point and adjusted. The drag point collar point can
of the construction and saved as a measurement now only be moved along the ruler. Thus, the collar
table when saving the shape. This table appears in point has been lengthened by 10mm without alter-
the preview window when loading a shape. The ID ing the collar angle.
measurement button remains inactive if the meas-
urement has been attached to points which are not
196 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Load and save shapes 13.4 Reconstruct a digitized template pat-


tern with an interactive construction
The adjustments of an interactive construction are
saved in the corresponding x value list. This list is
invisible for the user, it is updated automatically by Step-by-step guide
Grafis. Clicking on save shape saves this x value list ⇒ Call the digitised template pattern and the inter-
together with a preview, the comments and the active construction into different parts
previously explained ID measurements. The name of ⇒ Position the parts to one another with <F3>,
the shape is created from the date, the time as well e.g. at the zero point of the interactive construc-
as the computer and user names. They are saved as tion
single XWF files under \Grafis\Forms\[name of con- ⇒ Activate the interactive construction
struction]. ⇒ Adjust the most important options
⇒ For front/ back constructions: activate the drag
Clicking on load shape opens the list of available
area Positioning and move the front and back to
shapes of the construction. All shapes stored as
one another. Use the magnet function.
XWF files under \Grafis\Forms\[name of construc-
⇒ Roughly adjust the most important drag areas,
tion] are offered. Clicking onto a shape with the
e.g. in the bodice constructions Tolerance hori-
right mouse button opens the context menu with
zontal+vertical and Line relocation. Start with the
the functions rename and delete. Use the rename
symmetrically movable drag points.
function in particular to organise your list of shapes.
⇒ Carry out the fine adjustment systematically and
step-by-step. Save significant stages as shapes
and rename the shape if required. Click on Í or
Î in the menu on the right to undo or redo
step-by-step.

Reconstruct a proven bodice construction


1.
2. Load the proven bodice construction and the inter-
active bodice construction you want to adjust into
Picture 13-24 different parts. Position the parts to one another
with <F3>, e.g. at the zero point of the interactive
Shapes can be loaded for other break sizes and also construction. Activate the interactive construction
into styles of other measurement systems. The and adjust the most important options having clicked
break sizes of the shape may have to be reas- on +options, e.g. the position of bust dart and shoul-
signed. If you want to load a shape, which has origi- der dart (Picture 13-25).
nally been adjusted for sizes _38 etc. the break sizes
can be reassigned, see cutting in Picture 13-24. The
construction is graded in size N42 as originally in
size _42.
ID measurements set with dimensioning as well as
comments are saved with the shape. The field for
entry of notes opens by switching to +comments in
the menu on the right hand side.
For new developments, first load the basic con-
struction and then, one of your prepared shapes.
This combination of interactive construction and
new shape can be entered into the call list, see
section 13.5.

template
Picture 13-25
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 197
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

For front/ back constructions activate the drag area 3 1


Positioning and move the front and back towards
one another (Picture 13-26).

Picture 13-27
The back dart is adjusted in the Shoulder dart drag
area (Picture 13-27). First, move the back dart with
point „1“, if required using +magnet then, point „2“
and then the suppression angle with point „3“. If
Picture 13-26 required, readjust the shoulder angle in the Shoulder
drag area with a result according to Picture 13-28.
Use the magnet function by switching to +magnet.
The magnet function applies to move points which
will attach to existing points and lines of the con-
struction in the background. The magnet function 2

does not make sense for angle or percentage alter.


First, adjust the most important drag areas. In the
bodice constructions this is first of all the area Toler-
ance horizontal+vertical. Reconstruct the tolerances 3
1
for bust, waist and hip area. Then, switch to the Line 5
relocation area and reconstruct the position of bust 4

line, waist line, high hip and hip line. Then, switch to
the Side seam drag area and relocate the lower arm-
hole point. This drag point is situated at the arm-
hole/ side seam corner in the back. The same point
in the front relocates the side seam.
Adjust step-by-step:
• in the Tolerance horizontal+vertical drag area the Picture 13-28
neck point in front and back To adjust the neckline switch to the Neckline drag
• in the Bust dart drag area the position of the bust area and zoom into the back neck. In this area you
point with +magnet, the position of the left dart can adjust dropped and widened necklines. Adjust
line and the suppression angle the neckline shape by first adjusting the directions
• in the Shoulder drag area the shoulder angle in with points „1“ and „2“ then, reconstruct the supe-
front and back rior central shape point „3“ with +magnet and then,
• in the Tolerance horizontal+vertical drag area the adjust the inferior auxiliary points „4“ and „5“.
tolerance for shoulder width in front and back. If you adjust interactive curves again first reset
... with a result according to Picture 13-27. all shape points (points 3 to 5 in Picture 13-28)
to 0 by e.g. selecting Raster 10 and clicking on
the points. Then, readjust the directions at the
beginning and end of the curve, set the raster to
0, activate magnet and readjust the shape points
3 to 5.
198 Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions
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Data types in the call list


The following can be entered in the call list:
• style (.MDL) = Grafis style with all parts
• program (.CPR) = Grafis programming lan-
guage program of the new programming lan-
guage, see Chapters 19 and 20. If this is an in-
teractive construction, a shape can be assigned
for calling.
• program (.PRG) = Grafis programming lan-
guage program of the old programming lan-
guage
• grade rule pattern (.SWS) = Grafis grade rule
pattern saved as a template, see Chapter 16.
Picture 13-29
From Version 10, the module combination is no
The result of these adjustments can be seen in Pic- longer required. Use the option Reset ‘Clicks’, see
ture 13-29, where the side seam, the waist dart and Chapter 14 and enter the modules as styles (.MDL).
finally the armhole are still to be adjusted.
Please note that after having adjusted the base Create entry from basic block and shape
size, the grading in the break sizes also has to be Save a shape “SkirtStandard” for Skirt 20, in which
reconstructed from the template. the side seam adjustment has been reset and the
two 2nd darts in front and back have been closed
Grafis users of Versions 8 and earlier can recon- respectively, see Picture 13-30. Now, an entry for
struct existing proven constructions in this way Skirt 20 in conjunction with this skirt shape is to be
and save them as shapes. saved in the call list. First, determine the name of
An interactive construction can be entered into the CPR file for Skirt 20. Activate Edit / Edit mode in
the call list together with a new shape, see the the call list. Click on Skirt 20 with the right mouse
following section 13.5. button and Open link file with editor. You will find the
name of the CPR file for Skirt 20 in the first line.
Now, create a new folder for your skirts by clicking
13.5 Designing the call list onto General with the right mouse button and then
Step-by-step guide click on Create new folder. Call the new folder “my
⇒ call; the dialogue Grafis Basic blocks / Modules skirts”.
opens Now, create the new entry for Skirt 20 in conjunc-
⇒ Activate Edit / Edit mode tion with the shape “SkirtStandard”. Click on “my
⇒ Create folders / subfolders skirts” with the right mouse button and select Cre-
⇒ Enter construction as programming language ate new entry. The dialogue Insert Modules opens
program, styles, grade rule pattern or as an in- (Picture 13-31). Set the button to Basic block and
teractive construction in conjunction with a select the CPR file for Skirt 20, here
shape GraPrg_GK_RO_c002_03.cpr and close with OK.
⇒ Design the corresponding file card pictures and Call the entry “SkirtStandard“.
the text. The edit functions are opened respec-
tively via the context menu.
Create new folder / subfolder
Click on General with the right mouse button and
select Create new folder and enter “my skirts”.
NB: Do not create a new folder with the name
“Grafis-...” and do not create entries or subfold-
ers in these folders. Your data may be overwrit-
ten during a subsequent update.
Chapter 13 Interactive Constructions 199
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Assign Skirt 20 with this particular shape


by clicking on the new entry with the
right mouse button and selecting Set
shape. The shapes are saved centrally
under \Grafis\Forms\[name of basic
block]. In this particular case, select
\GRAFIS\FORMS\GraPrg_GK_RO_x002
_01\skirtstandard.xwf. Unless you cre-
ate a duplicate in the following dialogue,
you must never rename or delete the
selected shape. A duplicate is saved in
the directory of the link file. Enter an
appropriate image and a short descrip-
tive text for the new entry.

Insert entry as style Picture 13-30


Entering styles into the call list is useful
for basic types, which are frequently
used as basis for style developments.
Grafis transfers all parts of the style
when called and inserts them into the
edited styles.
Create a Grafis style with a number of
parts and enter it into the call list. The
process is identical to Create entry from
basic block and shape explained before,
only in the Insert Module dialogue the
button is to be set to Style(.MDL), see
Picture 13-31. Linking with a shape is
not required.
Entering grade rule patterns in the
call list ensues in the same way. Picture 13-31

Graphics and text for the list entry


In active Edit mode, graphics
or text can be opened for
editing via the respective
context menu. The graphic
must be saved as a bitmap.
We recommend a size of
750x500 pixels.
A new or edited graphic or
text appears only after
new selection of the list
entry.
A quick preview can be
obtained via a print screen
by pressing <Print/PrtSc>
with slightly reduced pat-
tern. Insert the screen
print into Paint.

Picture 13-32
Chapter 14 Part organisation
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Content Content of this chapter is working with parts, in


14.1 Hereditary automatic ................................... 202 particular the hereditary automatic and the differ-
14.2 Part organisation .......................................... 205 ences between insert, duplicate and connection
14.3 Difference between the functions of the part.
menus insert and duplicate/ connection part The section ”Modifying mother parts” is especially
in the part organisation ................................ 206 important as only certain modifications are permit-
14.4 Modifying mother parts................................ 207 ted for mother parts to protect the hereditary
14.5 Reset ‘Clicks’ ................................................ 208 automatic.
14.6 Complex exercises....................................... 216 A further large area is the application of ”Reset
1st Exercise “Skirt with yoke“........................ 216 ‘Clicks’”. The complex exercises at the end of the
2nd Exercise “Skirt with box pleat“ ............... 217 chapter shall consolidate the teachings.
3rd Exercise “Shirt blouse with pin-tucks“..... 218
4th Exercise “Skirt with flared hem“.............. 220
5th Exercise “Culottes with pleats“ ............... 221
6th Exercise “Dress with panel seams“.......... 222
7th Exercise “Long dress with godets” .......... 224
8th Exercise “Casual trousers with
detachable legs and patch pockets” .......... 226
9th Exercise "Fitted jacket with panel seams" 227
202 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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14.1 Hereditary automatic


What does hereditary automatic
mean?
The different parts of a style must 0th generation:
fit together taking into account their part 001: basic block trouser
interdependence. Grafis ensures
this by building an automatic hered-
ity. If, for example, a waistband is to
be designed to fit the parts “skirt
front“ and “skirt back“, the waist-
lines of skirt front and skirt back can
be inserted into the new part
“waistband“ and the waistband can
be constructed. When grading the
waistband in different sizes the
insertion of the waist lines is re-
peated automatically. We call this
heredity of the waistlines to the part
“waistband“.
Heredity is realised with the func- 1st generation:
tions of the insert menu. part 002: style development
Inserting (heredity) always ensues
into the active part out of parts
with lower part number.
Grafis records the hereditary
steps and displays the hereditary
structure in the partorganisation
menu. The hereditary structure is 2nd generation:
arranged to generations. part 004: trouser front
part 005: fly facing right
The heredity part 006: fly guard left
Picture 14-1 elucidates the principle part 007: pocket trouser front
part 008: trouser back
of heredity using the style “Trouser
part 010: yoke
with flared hem“ as an example.
part 011: waistband
Part 001 contains the basic con-
struction Trouser 10, which has
been adjusted interactively.
All lines and points of the basic
block were inserted from part 001
into part 002 “style development“.
Thus, part 002 has become a part of
the 1st generation. Part 001 has
become a mother part. Alterations 3rd generation:
to part 001 are automatically trans- part 009: back pocket
part 013: pocket template 1
ferred to part 002. The style was
part 014: pocket template 2
developed in part 002 with the use
part 015: marking template
of x values.
In part 004 “trouser front“ all lines Picture 14-1
and points for the production pattern trouser front All other parts of the 2nd generation (Picture 14-1)
were transferred with insert and the trouser front were also derived by inserting lines and points from
was completed. Thus, part 002 has become mother the style development in part 002.
part for part 004. Part 004 is now the daughter A pocket module with a number of pieces was
part of part 002 and therefore, indirectly related to loaded into part 008 “trouser back“. The pocket
part 001. Alterations to part 001 are first transferred programme belongs to part 008 “trouser back“. In
to part 002 and then further to part 004. this part, the position, size and shape of the pocket
Chapter 14 Part organisation 203
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

active part

ancestors successors
Picture 14-2
are adjusted interactively. The parts of the 3rd gen- In the hereditary structure the active part is high-
eration 009, 013, 014 and 015 are dependent on the lighted. Ancestors and successors are highlighted in
pocket in part 008 and are thus, daughter parts of grey. Parts without relation to the active part are
part 008. Part 008, which in itself is a daughter part, not highlighted.
has now also become a mother part. For modifica- Clicking a part number in the hereditary structure
tion of mother parts separate rules apply, see ses- activates the part. With pressed left mouse button
sion 14.4. the display changes as well. Thus, the user gets a
Hereditary information can only be passed on to quick overview of the hereditary structure of the
parts with a higher part number. parts.

The hereditary structure Grading a number of parts


The functions test run and grading in the basic menu
For presentation of the hereditary structure the
apply to the active part, only. Grafis also offers the
parts are divided into generations. The following
option to calculate (test run) or grade all parts of the
applies:
style or the successors of the active part, only.
A daughter part automatically receives a genera- These functions can be found in the Grading pull-
tion number at least 1 up from the mother part. down menu. In this menu you can choose between:
This rule ensures that a part of the 3rd generation Test Run Active Part
can carry hereditary information of the 0th, 1st and Test Run Successor Parts
2nd generation, only. Test Run All Parts
Picture 14-2 shows the partorganisation menu for and
the example “Trouser with flared hem“ (Picture 14- Grade Active Part
1). In the centre of the picture the hereditary struc- Grade Successor Parts
ture is displayed. All parts of a generation are com- Grade All Parts
bined in a part block. Part 001 and the empty parts and the functions for curve correction of classic
003, 012, 016, 017 belong to generation 0 (first part curves treated in Chapter 9.
block). They are marked with generation number
“00” in the list of parts. Part 002 belong to the 1st
generation with generation number “01” and so on.
204 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Exercise x7 back pocket position from waist in mm


_xxxxx_x = 65.000
Construct the “Trouser with flared hem“ shown in
x8 zip length in mm
Picture 14-1. Organise your part list according to
_xxxxx_x = 140.000
Picture 14-2.
x9 fly facing width
Call Trouser 10 into part 001 and adjust the following _xxxxx_x = 30.000
interactively:
• contour identical side seams X3
X2
• adjust waist at side seam X7
X1
X4
• no shaped seat seam X6
X8
In the Tolerances drag area:
• tolerance at waist: 15mm X5
4
• tolerance at hip: 20mm X9
Apart from the base size N38, also enter sizes N40
and N42 into the size table and activate them.
In the Finished measurement drag area enter the
break sizes N38 and N42 and adjust:
size value
knee width N38 391
Picture 14-3
N40 400
N42 409 Now, start extracting the pattern pieces from the
style development in part 002. Open a new part for
hem width N38 515
the trouser front and insert the objects of the trou-
N40 520
ser front from the style development. Create global
N42 525
x values for general seam allowance and the hem
In the Line relocation drag area: respectively:
• waist relocation: -50mm GLOBAL x-values
In the Dart front area close the dart. In the Dart back x1 seam allowances in mm
area close the second dart and move the first dart to _xxxxx_x = 10.000
50% of the waist. In the Waist and waist edge area x2 hem in mm
reduce the centre front by 30mm (to _xxxxx_x = 30.000
-30mm). In the Hem area set the hem position to Construct the seam allowance and the hem with xg1
0mm. and xg2. Create the mirrored hem corners with the
Insert all lines and points from part 001 into part corner tool Corner 10.
002. Activate part 002, select parts in the insert Construct the fly facing and the fly guard in the same
menu and click on an object from part 001. Part 001 way. Insert the lines of the pocket into a new part
is selected and is inserted into part 002 after having and construct the seam allowances and the facing
clicked on without transformation. (Picture 14-4).
Create the following x values in part 002 and design Construct the trouser back in part 008. Call the
the trouser, using the x values (Picture 14-3): Grafis-Pockets| without lining| patched| Facing| 001.
x1 yoke ss from waist in mm The first positioning point for the pocket is the end
_xxxxx_x = 40.000 of the auxiliary line. Adjust the pocket and its grad-
x2 yoke CB from waist in mm ing interactively. The pattern pieces for the pocket
_xxxxx_x = 100.000 (parts 009, 013, 014 in Picture 14-5) were gener-
x3 pocket position waist from ss in % ated automatically by the pocket module. After
_xxxxx_x = 40.000 having adjusted the pocket, start test run all parts.
x4 pocket position ss from waist in mm
_xxxxx_x = 150.000 Insert the lines for the yoke from the style develop-
x5 pocket length in mm ment. Close the dart with insert with transformation
_xxxxx_x = 230.000 turn and move. Link the yoke line with the Link 10
x6 back pocket position from ss in mm tool.
_xxxxx_x = 40.000
Chapter 14 Part organisation 205
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

004 Part organisation menu

006 open new part


insert part

move part up
move part down

duplicate
duplicate to…
005 delete
remove
reduce

call all
hide all
call production pieces
007 call ancestors
call successors

text

+/-text box
Picture 14-4 +/-piece parameter
+/-exchangeable parts
Construct the waistband with the help of z values.
Create an x value for the waistband height. Then, print
construct the marking template for the back pocket.
009 014
insert connection
013 update connection
+/-part information

Clicking on open creates a new part with the name


Picture 14-5 “NN“ and the next highest number after the last
Start test run all parts and grade all parts. Modify an x part. The new part is not active straight away. It has
value in the style development. After test run succes- to be activated to be processed.
sors, the modification will be transferred onto all Clicking on insert generates a new part before the
related parts (successors). selected part.
Duplicate or duplicate to creates a copy of the
14.2 Part organisation active part, see section 14.3.
The basics of part organisation were introduced After delete and a security question the record
already in section 3.1. In this chapter all information steps of the selected part are reset to 0. The last
on part organisation is collated. part in the list is reset and removed.
Clicking on a part number, a part text or clicking the Removes an empty part (with 0 record steps) from
part number in the hereditary structure activates the part list. The following parts move up in the list.
the part. It is then highlighted by a bar. The part can With reduce the active part is graded in the sizes of
be processed after having quit part organisation. the size table and “frozen” in this state. Having re-
When activating mother parts (see section 14.4) a duced a part, it no longer has any dependency to
warning message appears. mother parts, has no x values and no record steps.
Daughter parts remain unchanged. Uses reduce only
after speaking with a Grafis expert.
206 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

With the function hide all all parts apart from the 14.3 Difference between the functions of
active selected part are removed to the background the menus insert and duplicate/ con-
memory. Hidden parts are no longer visible on nection part in the part organisation
screen, but are not deleted. With the function call
hidden parts can be recalled to the screen.
The most important differences
Individual parts can be hidden or called by clicking
the “visible“ column in the part list. In the “visible“ Basic menu | insert... performs a hereditary step
column “x“ indicates the part is on screen, “ “ the between two parts. Grafis automatically repeats
part is in the background memory. this hereditary step when grading other sizes.
The source part becomes a mother part and the
It is recommended that only parts required for work
target part becomes a daughter part.
are visible on screen.
Part organisation | duplicate ... creates a copy of
Individual parts can be called from the background
a part in the same generation. Existing relations
memory to the screen by clicking in the “visible“
to mother parts remain intact. The part is grade-
column. Clicking call all recalls all removed parts
able in the same way as x and z values are also
from the background onto the screen. Selecting call
duplicated. The daughter parts are not dupli-
ancestors calls all ancestors of the active part onto
cated! The part has no daughter parts after du-
the screen. Clicking call successors recalls all suc-
plication. The duplicate function can be found in
cessors (heirs) of the active part onto the screen.
the part organisation menu.
Activating text and clicking a part in the list allows
Part organisation | insert connection part(s) ...
for editing the part text. After <ENTER> entry can
transfers parts from another style. This function
continue with the next part text. A part text can be
can also be found in the part organisation menu.
edited, also with double-click on the text. In this
When inserting a connection part, the switch in-
case, <ENTER> does not switch to the next part
sert with complete record decides whether or
text. Take care of your part names. This makes your
not the part is inserted with its complete con-
work easier and avoids mistakes.
struction record.
+/-text box opens/closes the window in which
If this switch is set, at least the parts of the 0th
comments on the selected part can be stored.
generation can be graded unchanged, provided
+/- piece parameter opens/closes the window for the global x values of source and target style
piece parameters relevant for the layplan (see Chap- have been aligned.
ter 17).
If the switch is not set, objects are only trans-
+/- exchangeable parts opens/closes the window ferred in the existing sizes. Adding new record
for determination of permitted sizes in the part, see steps is not possible. These parts can be used for
separate explanation in Chapter 18.13. measuring, stacking and comparison.
Edit | Copy (clip board) copies the part list to the Further information on connection parts can be
clipboard. found in the Textbook Chapter 18 “Layplanning
Clicking print starts printing the part list, provided II”, section 18.1.
the printer is switched on.
With the functions insert connection and update Part identifiers
connection parts from a different style are inserted, The first column in the part list of the style contains
see section 14.3. an identification symbol with the following signifi-
cance:
The number of
parts per style is “*“ The part is a mother part,
limited to 500. other parts depend on it.
The active part is “ “ (empty) No other parts depend on this
displayed in blue part. It can be a daughter part.
on a white back- “>“ This is a connection part.
ground. Only this “?>“ This is a connection part. The
part can be ed- source style is no longer avail-
ited. All other able.
parts remain unchanged. “!>“ This is a connection part. The
part in the source style has
been changed.
Chapter 14 Part organisation 207
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

When to use which function? Modifications with any other functions of the
Insert without transformation is the most frequently basic menu are to be applied with care as they
used of the functions. It is always required when can lead to errors.
information from one part is to be passed onto an- After each modification in a mother part, daugh-
other part. Use the alternative tools Insert lines or ter parts have to be tested thoroughly with test
Insert points if the following construction is to be run and grading! If errors occur, the record must
released and saved in the call list at a later stage. be reset by the modification steps!
Part organisation | Duplicate is used to create a copy
of a part. The copied part serves either as a starting Typical alterations to the mother part
point for a new development variation or simply as a The style “trousers with flared hem” from section
comparison for further changes. Modifications to x 14.1 is altered as follows:
values are clearly visible when original and copy are
displayed and placed on top of one another. The Modify interactive construction
duplicated part can easily be deleted or reset step- Change the hem width
by-step in the record. of the interactive trou-
Part organisation | Insert connection is used if tempo- ser construction in part
rary templates are required or if company-specific 001 from 515mm to
standard pieces are to be loaded. 465mm in base size
N38. The grade is to
14.4 Modifying mother parts remain unchanged.
After test run succes-
Organisation of the heredity sors this modification
Each object (point, line, text) of a part has a Grafis has been transferred to
internal name. When inserting objects into other the related parts
parts Grafis relates to these internal names. When “trouser front” and Picture 14-6
inserting a line out of part 003 into part 010 the “trouser back”.
internal Grafis record of part 010 reads for example:
Curve correction
“The 4th line out of part 003 is inserted.” A modifi-
cation to the mother part 003 resulting in a changed In part 002 of the style development activate the
or deleted 4th line can possibly lead to insertion of a yoke curve of the trouser back and modify it inter-
completely different line when running through the actively according to Picture 14-7.
record of part 010. All record steps relating to this
inserted object could now be faulty. Part 010 ap-
pears damaged on screen. In this case the only cure
is resetting the construction record of part 003 to
the state before the modification. Therefore, the
following applies: Modifications in mother parts
must not disturb the recorded hereditary steps.
As a rule, each construction step which does not
delete objects can also be applied to mother
parts. After the modification the recorded con-
struction must still be executable in a meaningful
manner.
The following functions can be used for modifica-
tions without problems:
• x values
• modification of curve shapes, see Chapter 9
• call Picture 14-7
• attributes
After Grading | Test Run Successors the modified
• replace curve. After setting starting point and
curve shape has been transferred to the production
final point of the new curve, a green arrow
patterns “trouser back” and “yoke”.
appears. The curve to be replaced must be
clicked in the direction of this arrow.
208 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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after
before

Picture 14-8
Replace curve this alteration has been transferred to the related
Change the pocket mouth of the trouser front from parts “trouser front”, “trouser back” and “pocket
a straight line to a curve. In part 002 of the style trouser front”. The global x value xg2 “seam allow-
development construct a new curve with replace ance2” was used for the seam allowance at the
curve, which is bound to the original pocket mouth pocket mouth. For the new shaped pocket mouth,
with intersection. Having constructed the starting adjust the seam allowance2 from 20mm to 10mm
point and final point of the new curve, a green ar- and let part 007 “pocket trouser front” be calculated
row appears. The currently straight pocket mouth again. The result of the modification is shown in
must be clicked in the direction of the green Picture 14-8.
arrow. Shape the curve. After Test Run Successors

14.5 Reset ‘Clicks’


From Grafis Version 10, all
point, line and direction ‘clicks’
set within constructions from
the call function can be reset
and re-called. Binding the new
‘clicks’ ensues automatically
during the next test run for the
respective part.
The Reset ‘Clicks’ function can
be found in the List of interactive
constructions dialogue, accessi-
ble via the <F12> key or via
the Extras pull-down menu, see
Picture 14-9. The list in the
window on the left contains all
interactive constructions of the
style and all non-interactive
‘click’ constructions. The non-
interactive click constructions
are indicated with [ ]. The con-
structions are organised accord- Picture 14-9
ing to part number in the first column and record preview of the construction selected on the left
step in the second column. In the right window, a appears.
Chapter 14 Part organisation 209
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Select some constructions of the list, one after the Example 1:


other. The Reset ‘Clicks’ button is only active if the Bind ‘click’ construction onto mother part
construction contains clicks. When calling a bodice, after alteration
no objects had to be clicked. Therefore, the Reset
Sleeve 70 is bound to Bodice 30. The shoulder of
‘Clicks’ button remains inactive for these construc-
Bodice 30 had originally not been relocated, see
tions.
Picture 14-10. Therefore, when calling the sleeve,
Select a construction for which Reset ‘Clicks’ is active no difference had been made between natural
and click on the Reset ‘Clicks’ button a number of shoulder and shoulder line of the part. This is impor-
times. With each click, the mark “*” changes for this tant for correct distribution of notches in the sleeve.
construction. The mark “*” indicates that this con- To bind the sleeve to the natural shoulder, the fol-
struction is available for Reset ‘Clicks’. The clicks of lowing steps are required:
the selected construction are reset with the Accept • release ‘clicks’ of the sleeve,
button. The respective parts are bound again onto
the construction after having
pressed the Cancel button and 1
subsequent test run.
Call Bodice 10 into part 001 and
Sleeve 30 into part 002. Adjust the
bodice and the sleeve interactively.
Open the List of interactive con-
structions via <F12>, select Sleeve
30, click once on Reset ‘Clicks’ and
then, on Accept and Cancel. Open
part organisation. Part 001 is no
longer marked as mother part for
part 002 as resetting the ‘clicks’ has
broken the hereditary interde-
pendence. Activate part 002 and
2
start test run. After a prompt, you
can now bind the sleeve to the
bodice again.
Reset ‘Clicks’ offers the following
applications:
• ‘Click’ constructions can be
bound onto the mother part
again after having been altered
• ‘Click’ constructions can be
bound to an alternative part 3 4
within the style
• chains of parts can be released
and saved as modules contain-
ing a number of parts in the call
list.
In the following, you will find four
examples for new applications of 6
Reset ‘Clicks’. 5

Picture 14-10
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• relocate the shoulder of Bodice


30 towards the front,
• re-activate the part with the 8
7
sleeve and bind the sleeve to
the bodice again with test run.
During clicking, the dashed
natural shoulder is to be
clicked.
It is also possible to relocate the
shoulder first and then, reset the
‘clicks’ in the sleeve.
To release the ‘clicks’, open the
List of interactive constructions with
<F12>, select the sleeve (2),
press Reset ‘Clicks’ (3), Accept (4)
and Cancel (Picture 14-10). Then,
activate the bodice and relocate Picture 14-11
the shoulder towards the front in bound again. During clicking, ensure that for 7 and 8
the Shoulder drag area (5 and 6). The natural shoul- (Picture 14-11) you click the natural shoulder dis-
der is now visible as a dashed line. Then, activate the played as a dashed line.
sleeve and start test run. The sleeve is now being

Example 2:
Bind ‘click’ construction onto a different basic block within the style
Sleeve 70 with its de-
pendent parts is bound
to Bodice 10. The body
measurement construc-
tion Bodice 10 is now to
be replaced by the fin-
ished measurement
construction Bodice 30.
1
Step-by-step guide:
• Release the ‘clicks’ of
the sleeve
• Reset the part con-
taining Bodice 10
• Call Bodice 30 into
this part
• Adjust Bodice 30 to
be gradeable
• Activate the part 2
with the sleeve
• Bind the sleeve to
the new bodice with 3 4 5
test run of the sleeve
It is also possible to bind
the sleeve to the bodice,
first and then, adjust the
bodice.
To release the ‘clicks’,
open the List of interac-
tive constructions with 6
<F12>, select the
sleeve (2), press Reset
‘Clicks’ (3), Accept (4)
Picture 14-12
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and Cancel (5), see Picture 14-12.


Then, activate part 001 and reset
Bodice 10. Call the finished meas-
urement Bodice 30 into part 001 7
and adjust the construction interac-
tively. Then, activate part 002 with
Sleeve 70 and start test run. The
sleeve is now being bound again
(6), see Picture 14-12. Label part
001 in the part organisation (7), see
Picture 14-13.

Picture 14-13

Example 3:
Release sleeve with dependent parts from a style and save in the call list
In a style, Sleeve 30 has been developed as a sleeve • Create a new entry for the sleeve and link it with
with vent, lining, interfacing and templates. This the recently saved style
sleeve is now required in another style. It is to be
Open the style with the sleeve development (1), see
saved as a standard sleeve in the call list.
Picture 14-14. To release the ‘clicks’, open the List
Step-by-step guide: of interactive constructions with <F12>, select the
• Release the ‘clicks’ of the sleeve sleeve (2), press Reset ‘Clicks’ (3), Accept and Cancel,
• Remove and delete all parts, which are not re- see Picture 14-15. Delete and remove all parts from
quired for the sleeve development from the part the part list, which are not required for the sleeve
list development. Afterwards, part 001 contains Sleeve
• Save the style under a new name 30 for which all ‘click’s have been released (4). Save
• Open a new style the style, here as “SleeveChain01.mdl“.
• Open the call list and activate the edit mode

Picture 14-14
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2
3

Picture 14-15
Create a new style “test” and open the call list.
Activate the edit mode via Edit | Edit mode (5), see 5
Picture 14-16. In case your computer does not yet
contain a folder for sleeve construction, click onto
General with the right mouse button and then, onto
Create new folder in the context menu (6) and call 6
the new folder “My sleeves” (7). Avoid special char-
acters during naming. Click on the new folder “My
sleeves” with the right mouse button and select
Create new entry from the context menu (8). The
Insert module dialogue opens, see Picture 14-17.
Activate Style (.MDL) (9) and select the recently
saved style “sleevechain01.mdl” from (10). A copy
of the style is saved in the central folder
\Grafis\Prog. Assign a unique name according to the
naming convention. We recommend a 9-digit abbre-
viation of your name or company name (11). After
having assigned the name, close the dialogue with
8
OK.
7

Picture 14-16
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Also, assign a name for the style in the call list (12). Open a new style and call Skirt 20 into part 001.
Interactively, close the second dart in the front and
9 10 back skirt, respectively. Link the waistline across the
closed second dart with link single. Open a new part
002 and activate it. Quit part organisation. In the
insert function from the basic menu, click onto the
tools button and select Insert lines (1), see Picture
14-18. Now, all lines required for development of a
11 shaped waistband must be clicked one after the
other (2). Develop a systematisation in which order
the lines are to be clicked. For example, according
to Picture 14-18 all lines were clicked from the
outside. Click in the following order (3):
• centre back
12 • waist back 1
• dart back towards apex
• dart back away from apex
Picture 14-17 • waist back 2
• side seam back downwards
Example 4: • side seam front upwards
Application of the insert tool for development • waist 1 front
of a shaped waistband • dart front towards apex
• dart front away from apex
A shaped waistband for trousers and skirts with one • waist 2 front
dart in the front and back respectively is to be de-
• centre front
veloped and saved in the call list.
Step-by-step guide: Transform the waist lines with side seam, centre
• Generate a skirt basic block with one dart re- front and centre back towards one another in part
spectively in part 001 002. Construct a parallel to the waistline with Paral-
• Insert all required lines of the skirt front and lel 10 or new curve. Carry out the corner treatment
back into part 002 with the Insert lines tool. and complete the shaped waistband with seam al-
From version 11 onwards when calling the in- lowances, grain line, symbols and text (4). To re-
sert lines tool, the click situation is photo- lease the ‘clicks’ of the insert tool, open the List of
graphed automatically, marked by a photo interactive constructions with <F12>, select the
frame. Ensure that the required objects are insert tool (5), press Reset ‘Clicks’, Accept and Can-
visible within the frame. Shrink the view if re- cel. Open the part organisation and delete and re-
quired. move part 001. Save the style as “shaped-
waist_01_01.mdl”. Create a new entry in the call list
• Construct a shaped waistband with variable
as described in the step-by-step-guide in 14.5 exam-
width from the lines inserted into part 002. Use
ple No.3 and link it with the recently saved style
either the Parallel 10 tool or the new curve tool.
“shapedwaist_01_01.mdl”.
Complete the shaped waistband with seam al-
lowances, grain line, symbols and text. Set the To test the shaped waistband, open a new style, call
part parameter. Trouser 10 into part 001, close the second darts and
• Release the clicks of the insert tool link the waist lines across the closed second darts.
• Delete and remove part 001 Call the shaped waistband from the call list into part
• Save the style under a new name 002. Note the click situation in click window (6)
• Open a new style, open the call list and activate photographed by you. The trouser back is situated
the edit mode to the left of the trouser front. If you have clicked all
• Create a new entry for the shaped waistband lines correctly, the shaped waistband to fit the trou-
and link it with the recently saved style sers appears (7).
This shaped waistband can only be used for skirts
and trousers with exactly one dart in the front
and the back. In the same way, construct shaped
waistbands for two darts in front and back re-
spectively and for two darts in the back and one
dart in the front.
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2
1

6
6

Picture 14-18
Chapter 14 Part organisation 215
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Example 5: Use of the Insert part tool for development of construction sets

Bodice 10

Front part 30 Back part 40

Collar 40

Insert part Insert part Insert part


Front Back component
component

Picture 14-19
The Insert part tool (also called ‘part click‘) allows ponent sets enable a standardisation of processes.
for insertion of all objects of a part with one single At the same time, company-specific knowledge is
click. This click connection can be released and saved. Through the use of part click, the parts re-
reinstated with one single click. Please note that main connected to the basic block so that alterations
the part click requires an exact object structure are automatically transferred through the develop-
of lines and points. If Bodice 30 is clicked when ment parts onto the production parts.
calling Insert part, after releasing the part click, only When calling the Insert part tool, the click situation is
Bodice 30 can be clicked again. automatically photographed, marked by a photo
Picture 14-19 shows a front component and a back frame. Please ensure that all required objects are
component. The front component is based on Bod- visible inside the frame. If required, shrink the view.
ice 30 and Collar 40, both clicked with the Insert part Before building a construction set, we recommend
tool and thus, transferred into the development part that you seek advise as further styling possibilities
for the front component. From this development are available.
part, three production parts for main fabric and six
production parts for fusing were developed.
For a construction set, a number of components
based on the same or different constructions are
developed and stored in the call list. Additional in-
formation such as text, dimensions and part parame-
ter can also be stored at this point. This way, com-
216 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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14.6 Complex exercises x values of part 002 “style development“:


x1 yoke CF from waist in mm (150.)
Overview x2 yoke ss from waist in mm (75.)
x3 yoke CB from waist in mm (150.)
1st Exercise “Skirt with yoke“ 216
2nd Exercise “Skirt with box pleat“ 217 Open parts 003 to 006 and insert all required lines
3rd Exercise “Shirt blouse with pin-tucks “ 218 and points from part 002. Lengthen the darts to the
4th Exercise “Skirt with flared hem“ 220 yoke line in part “yoke ft“ and “yoke bk“ and close
5th Exercise “Culottes with pleats“ 221 the darts. Link the yoke curves, construct the seam
6th Exercise “Dress with panel seams“ 222 allowance, the notches and set the text. Use the
7th Exercise “Long dress with godets“ 224 following global x values:
8th Exercise “Casual trousers “ 226 Global x values:
9th Exercise “Fitted jacket with panel seams“ 227 x1 seam allowance in mm (10.)
x2 hem in mm (20.)
1st Exerise "Skirt with yoke"
Design specification:
From Skirt 20 a skirt with yoke in front and back, a
waistband and a zip in the centre back is to be con-
structed. 003

Part list:
001 basic block Skirt 20
002 x style development 004
003 PP yoke ft
004 PP yoke bk
005 PP skirt ft
006 PP skirt bk
007 waistband
Call the Skirt 20 into part 001 and interactively close
the second dart and set the hem reduction to 0.
Open part 002 “style development“ and insert all
objects from part 001. Construct the yokes in the
front and back skirt, using the following x values: 005 006

X2 X2
X3
X1

To conclude, open part 007 and transfer all waist


lines of the front and back skirt from part 002. Use z
values to construct the waistband.

X values of part 007 “waistband“:


x1 waistband height in mm (40.)

002

007
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2nd Exercise "Skirt with separate box pleat" X1


Working drawing:
skirt front skirt back

X2

Open the part 003 “skirt front“ and insert all re-
Design specification:
quired lines and points from part 002. Construct the
From Skirt 20 a straight skirt is to be constructed dart hood, the seam allowance and set the symbols
with separate box pleat in the centre front and and the text. The hem/ side seam corner is con-
flared side seam. A vent and a zip are to be con- structed by mirroring the seam allowance of the side
structed at the centre back. seam at the hem.
Use the following global x values: Create part 004 in the same way.
x1 seam allowance 1 (10.)
Now, open part 005 “skirt back“ and insert all re-
x2 seam allowance hem (20.)
quired lines and points from part 002. Construct the
List of parts: skirt back in the same way as part 003 using the
001 basic block Skirt 20 following x values:
002 style development
X values of part 005 “skirt back“:
003 skirt front
x1 vent height in mm (200.)
004 pleat
x2 vent width in mm (30.)
005 skirt back
x3 zip length in mm (180.)
006 waistband
Call the Grafis Skirt 20 into part 001 and interactively
close the second dart. Adjust the following interac-
tively:
006
Drag area Hem:
• flare side seam by 20mm
• rotation point side seam: 60mm
Drag area Dart front:
• close 2nd dart
• position for 1st dart: 66%
Drag area Dart back:
• close 2nd dart
• position for 1st dart: 33%
Open the part 002 “style development“ and insert
all objects from part 001. Construct the box pleat in
the front skirt and shorten the pleat and the inside
pleat by x2, using the following x values:
X values of part 002 “style development“:
x1 pleat content in mm (40.) 004 003 005

x2 shorten inside pleat in mm (5.) Open part 006 and construct the waistband with the
use of z values.
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3rd Exercise "Shirt blouse with pin-tucks in the front and various back variations"

Design specification: Use the following x values:


From the basic block Bodice 10 a blouse with front, X values of part 002 “style developement“:
yoke and four different back variations is to be de- x1 bk yoke from neck in mm (100.)
signed. The front is to have 5 pin-tucks, a button- x2 curve hem in mm (60.)
stand and an overlap. The back is to have four varia- x3 curve ss in mm (120.)
tions: Open part 003 and 004 and insert all required lines
• back with pleats from yoke, and points from part 002. Construct the position for
• back with flared hem, the first pin-tuck, the further pin-tucks, the overlap
• back with gathering at the yoke, to the centre front and finally the facing. Spread the
• back with different spread amount in yoke and pin-tucks after constructing the facing. Use the fol-
hem. lowing x values:
Part list: Global x values:
001 Bodice 10 shirt blouse x1 seam allowance in mm (10.)
002 style developement x values of part 003 “PP ft“:
003 PP ft x1 position 1st pin-tuck in mm (20.)
004 PP bk yoke x2 pin-tuck content in mm (12.)
005 SD bk x3 overlap width in mm (20.)
006 PP bk with flared hem x4 facing width in mm (60.)
007 PP bk with pleats
008 PP bk with gathering
009 PP bk with variable pleats X2

X1
Call the Bodice 10 into part 001 and load the shape
“shirt blouse“, see section 2.5.
Open part 002 and insert all objects from part 001.
Construct the yoke in the back and the curved hem.

X3

X1
X4

X3
X2
003
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Open part 004 “PP bk yoke“ and insert all required


lines and points from part 002. Construct the seam
allowance and mirror the piece. Set the symbols and
the text.

004 005

Open part 005 and insert all lines and points re-
quired for the back construction from part 002.
Raster the yoke line equally and construct the
spread lines. Spread the back using the following
x values for the pleat content:
X values of part 005 “SD bk“:
x1 pleat content yoke (40.)
x2 pleat content hem (40.)
006
Duplicate part 005 four times. The two x values for
the pleat content are also duplicated. Adjust the part
name and the value of the x values as follows:
X values of part 006 “PP bk with flared hem“:
x1 pleat content yoke (0.)
x2 pleat content hem (40.)
X values of part 007 “PP bk with pleats“:
x1 pleat content yoke (50.)
x2 pleat content hem (50.)
X values of part 008 “PP bk with gathering“:
x1 pleat content yoke (40.) 007
x2 pleat content hem (0.)
X values of part 009 “PP bk with variable pleats“
x1 pleat content yoke (30.)
x2 pleat content hem (70.)
Develop production patterns for the backs in parts
006 to 009. Construct dart hoods, link if necessary,
set symbols and text.

008

009
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4th Exercise "Flared skirt" construct the curves shown in the front and back
skirt, using the following x values:
Working drawing:
skirt front skirt back X values of part 002 “style development“:
x1 distance from hip line (140.)
x2 curve depth (70.)

004 003

Design specification:
From the basic block Skirt 20 a paneled skirt with
flared hem, concealed zip in the side seam and vari-
able seam allowance is to be constructed. 005

Use global x values for the seam allowance, the hem


and for the spread amount of the pleats.
Part list:
001 basic block Skirt 20
002 style development
003 PP skirt ft left
004 PP skirt ft right
005 PP skirt ft centre 007 006
006 PP skirt bk left
007 PP skirt bk right
008 PP skirt bk centre
009 waistband
Call the Skirt 20 into part 001, close the second dart,
reset the hem reduction and position the darts in 008
front and back at 40% respectively.
Open part 002 and insert all objects from part 001.
Construct a panel seam, not using perpendicular but Open part 003 and transfer all required lines and
using Line 10 parallel to the centre front and centre points from part 002. Then, duplicate part 003,
back in case the hem is modified interactively at a creating part 004. Continue with parts 005 to 008.
later date. Create the parallels to the hip line and Use the following x values for construction of the
pleats:
X values of part 005 “PP skirt ft centre“:
x1 spread amount hem (40.)
Finally, open part 009 and transfer all waist lines of
front and back skirt from part 002. Use z values to
construct the waistband.
X1
X values of part 007 “waistband“:
x1 waistband height in mm (40.)
x2 raise waistband at CF in mm (20.)
X2

009

002
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5th Exercise "Culottes with pleats"


x1 x3 x1
Working drawing: x2
Trousers front Trousers back

Design specification:
From the basic block Trouser 10 culottes with pleats
in the front, a yoke, raised hem and concealed zip in
the side seam are to be developed.
Use the following global x values: Drag area Line relocation:
x1 seam allowance 1 (10.) • position hem line for shorts: 600mm
x2 hem (20.) • inclination of hem line at side seam/front: 70mm
Part list: Drag area Dart back:
001 Basic block Trouser 10 • 2nd dart: 0mm
002 style development Drag area Hem:
003 ------------------------------ • hem line: 0mm
004 --- PATTERN PIECES • shape hem line as curve
005 ------------------------------ Open part 002 “style development“ and insert all
006 yoke front objects from part 001. Construct the yokes in the
007 trouser front left front and back trouser and the flared and raised
008 trouser front right hem, applying the following x values:
009 yoke back left
X values of part 002 “style development“:
010 yoke back right
x1 yoke ft ss from waist in mm (80.)
011 trouser back left
x2 yoke ft CF from waist in mm (100.)
012 trouser back right
x3 yoke bk CB from waist in mm (120.)
Call the Trouser 10 into part 001 and adjust the
Raster the yoke line in the front trouser to draw the
following interactively:
spread lines. Construct the spread lines and cut
Options: them at the hem line.
• display measurements: yes
• side seam countour identical: yes Open part 006 “yoke front“ and insert all required
lines and points from part 002. Note that a zip is to
• side seam as curve
be inserted into the left side.
• adjustment waist at side seam: yes
• adjustment curve at crotch seam: yes Create part 007 to 012 in the same way, applying
Drag area Finished measurements: the following x values:
• knee width 650mm X values of parts 007+008 “trouser front left/right“:
• hem width 700mm x1 pleat content in mm (40.)
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Design specification:
006 From Bodice 10 a dress with panel seams and con-
cealed zip in the centre back is to be developed.
008 007 Use the following global x values:
x1 seam allowance 1 (10.)
x2 seam allowance centre back (20.)
x3 hem (40.)
Part list:
001 Basic block Bodice 10
002 FP-Tool 20
003 BP-Tool 20
004 ------------------------------
005 style development
006 ------------------------------
007 --- PATTERN PIECES
008 ------------------------------
009 bk centre panel
010 bk side panel
010 009 011 ft side panel
012 ft centre panel
013 ft facing
012 011 014 bk facing
015 armhole facing
Call the Bodice 10 into part 001 and adjust the fol-
lowing options interactively:
• CB shaped
• CB length measured from waist
• side seam contour identical
• position waist dart relative to waist
• length waist dart to hem
• bust dart into armhole
• armhole direction linked at shoulder
• hem direction linked at side seam
• panel seam in the back: yes
• 4 segments
6th Exercice " Dress with panel seams "
Adjust the following in the drag areas:
Working drawing:
Drag area Tolerances:
• tolerance at bust: 50mm
• tolerance at waist: 50mm
• tolerance at hip: 50mm
• tolerance at across bust: 10mm
• tolerance at across back: 5mm
Drag area Line relocation:
• length: 500mm
Drag area Bust dart:
• position from front pitch: 50mm
Drag area Shoulder dart:
• position at 60 %
Drag area Waist dart:
• relocate towards side seam by 10mm
Drag area Neckline:
• drop neckline bk: 30mm
• increase neckline at shoulder: 50mm
• drop neckline CF: 150mm
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Adjust the neckline to your preference. Name part 009 “back centre panel” and insert all
required lines and points from part 005.
Drag area Hem:
X values of part 009 “bk centre panel“:
• side seam reduction at hem 15mm
x1 zip length (530.)
In the part organisation, open two further parts and
call tool Front part 20 and tool Back part 20. Set the
following options and drag areas interactively:
Front part 20
Options
• princess seam
• panel seam 2 visible: no
• base point hip curve in mm
Drag area Panel seam from shoulder
• move bust point by 5mm in positive
x-direction
• base point hip curve in mm: 120
Back part 20
Options
• panel seam from shoulder
• panel seam visible: no
• base point hip curve in mm 012 013
Drag area Panel seam from shoulder
• base point hip curve in mm: 140
Open part 005 “style development“ and insert all
objects from part 002 and part 003. Create the
following x values:
X values of part 005 “style development“:
x1 facing width neck (30.)
011

X1
015

X1

014

010 009

Continue with part 010, 012 and 013 in the same


Release the pattern pieces as displayed. Create way.
global x values and construct the seam allowances, In part 012 “front centre panel”, construct the seam
set symbols and texts. allowances and mirror the part. Use corner tools
Structure the part organisation. Corner 60 (angle) and Corner 70 (angle coordinated)
for the construction of the angled corner at the
224 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

princess seam/ armhole. For the hem, use Corner 10 Call the Bodice 10 into part 001 and adjust the fol-
(Mirror corner). lowing options interactively:
For part 015 “armhole facing“ insert the lines of the • CB seam shaped
armhole step-by-step from part 005, starting with • CB length measured from waist
the shoulder, upper armhole front, princess line. • side seam not contour identical
Transfer the further armhole lines with insert with • position waist dart relative to waist
transformation. Alternatively, transformation can • length waist dart to hem
ensue after all required lines and points have been • bust dart in shoulder
inserted. • armhole direction linked at shoulder
• hem direction linked at ss
7th Exercise "Long dress with godets " • 4 segments
Working drawing: Adjust the following in the drag areas:
Drag area Tolerance:
• tolerance at bust: 30mm
• tolerance at waist: 30mm
• tolerance at hip: 30mm
• tolerance at across bust: 10mm
• tolerance at across back: 5mm
• ss/waist ft 12.5mm (half dart suppression ft)
• ss/waist bk 15mm (half dart suppression bk)
Drag area Line relocation:
• length: 950mm
• armhole relocation: -15mm
Drag area Bust dart:
• position from neck: 40%
Drag area Waist dart:
• reduce waist darts in ft + bk by half (ft: 12.5, bk:
15mm)
Call Front part 20 and Back part 20 into parts 002
Design specification: and 003, respectively. Design and modify the panel
From Bodice 10 a long dress with straps, band and seams in the interactive area
godets is to be developed.
Front part 20
Use the following global x values: Options
x1 seam allowance 1 (10.) • panel seam from shoulder
x2 seam allowance centre back (20.) • panel seam 2 visible: yes
x3 hem (40.)
• panel seam at waist in: %
x4 rotation angle for godet in degrees (25.)
Drag area 2nd side panel seam
Part list: • position panel seam at 50%
001 Basic block Bodice 10 • contour identical adjustment in facing area
002 front part tool 20
Back part 20
003 back part tool 20
Options
004 style development
• panel seam from shoulder
005 ------------------------------
006 ---PATTERN PIECES • panel seam visible: yes
007 ------------------------------ • panel seam at waist in: %
008 bk centre panel Drag area Panel seam from shoulder
009 bk side panel 1 • shorten upper dart point interactively to fac-
010 bk side panel 2 ing
011 ft centre panel Drag area Side panel seam
012 ft side panel 1 • position panel seam at 50%
013 ft side panel 2 • contour identical adjustment in facing area
014 bk neck band
015 ft neck band
016 strap
Chapter 14 Part organisation 225
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Open part 004 “style development“ and insert all Construct parts 009 “bk side panel 1“, 010 “bk side
objects from part 002 and part 003. Create the panel 2”, 011 “ft centre panel“, 012 “ft side panel 1“
following x values: und 013 “ft side panel 2“ in the same way.
X values of part 004 “style development“:
x1 band position ft from bust point (100.)
x2 drop neckline CF (140.)
x3 drop neckline CB (250.)
x4 band width (50.)
x5 godet position from hem (400.)

011 012 013

X2 X3
X1
X4
010 009 008

016

015

014

For part 014 “bk neck band“ and 015 “ft neck
band“, insert the lines for the neckband step-by-step
from part 004. The two pieces of the ft are rotated
towards one another. Construct the seam allow-
X5
ances and symbols and mirror the “ft neck band“ at
the centre front.
To construct the strap transfer the lines in the bust
dart area, the shoulder, armhole ft and bk. Trans-
form the back shoulder onto the front shoulder and
construct a curve for the strap shape. The width of
Construct the lines for the facing with curve and the the strap is controlled via an X-value.
facing with parallel.
Open part 008 “bk centre panel“ and insert all re-
quired lines and points from part 004. Construct the
godets with circle arc the transformation turn
turnp+ang. Create an X-value:
X values of part 008 “bk centre panel“:
x1 zip length (500.)
Construct the seam allowances and the hem. Set the
symbols and the text.
Open the next part 009 “bk side panel 1“ and insert
all required lines and points from part 004. Con-
struct the seam allowances and the hem. In the area
of the zip at the centre back use the X-value XG2.
Set the symbols and text.
X values of part 016 “strap“:
x1 strap width (30.)
226 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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8th Exercise "Casual trouser with two zips in 011 yoke facing
the legs and patch pockets " 012 trouser bk part 1
013 trouser bk part 2
Working drawing:
014 trouser bk part 3
015 pocket 2
016 pocket 3
017 side strip pocket 3
018 flap pocket 3
019 -----------------------
020 waistband
021 template for elastic
Call the Trouser 10 into part 001 and adjust the
following options interactively:
• side seam contour identical: yes
• adjustment waist at side seam: yes
• adjustment curve at crotch seam: yes
• waistband pleats: no
Design specification: Adjust the following in the drag areas:
From Trouser 10 trousers with elasticated waist, two Drag area Tolerances:
zips in the legs and patch pockets at the side of the • tolerance at waist: 10mm
legs are to be developed. • tolerance at hip: 20mm
Use the following global x values: Drag area Finished measurements:
x1 seam allowance 1 (10.) • knee width: 540mm
x2 seam allowance 2 (5.) • instep width: 480mm
X1 X9 Assign the finished measurements with one or more
X5
break sizes and adjust a suitable grade, see Chapter
X2
X10 11.2.
X4 Drag area Line relocation:
X6 X7 X11 • waist: -40mm
X12 Drag area Dart back:
X1 • 2nd dart: 0mm
X3
X13 Drag area Hem:
X18 X16
• hem line: 0mm
X19
Open part 002 “style development“ and insert all
objects from part 001. Create the following
X17

X20 x values:
X values of part 002 “style development“:
x1 yoke CB from waist in mm( 50.)
x2 yoke ss from waist in mm (100.)
X14
x3 separation for zip at thigh at ss (400.)
x4 back pocket depth (220.)
X22
x5 pocket position from CB in mm (60.)
x6 pocket position ss from waist in mm (240.)
x7 pocket corner with circle (40.)
x8 ---------- TROUSER FRONT----------
Part list: x9 pocket mouth waist from ss in mm (55.)
001 basic block Trouser 10 x10 pocket mouth ss from waist in mm (180.)
002 style development x11 pocket depth from waist at ft centre in mm
003 -----PATTERN PIECES------ (220.)
004 trouser ft part 1 x12 flap depth in mm (70.)
005 trouser ft part 2 x13 overlap width for zip at thigh (40.)
006 trouser ft part 3 x14 separation for 7/8 length from hem in mm
007 pocket 1 (200.)
008 decorative flap x15 --------------- POCKET--------------
009 ----------------------- x16 pocket position from zip at thigh (50.)
010 yoke trouser bk x17 pocket depth (220.)
Chapter 14 Part organisation 227
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x18 1/2 pocket width (90.) 9th Exercise "Fitted jacket with panel seams"
x19 flap depth (80.)
Design specification:
x20 pocket side strip width (20.)
x21 ---------------------------------------- From the basic block Bodice 50 a fitted jacket with
x22 tunnel width at hem (30.) panel seams and pocket is to be developed.
Construct the style development, applying the Part list:
x values. Then, develop the production pattern 001 basic block Bodice 50
pieces. 002 front part tool 20
003 back part tool 10
002 style development
003 basic block Sleeve
020 004 basic block Flap
Call the Bodice 50 and adjust the following options:
021 • display measurements: yes
007 • CB seam: shaped
• ss contour identical: yes
011 • ss straight: no
008 • ss grading centred: no
• preset ss shaping at waist: yes
010 • ss direction at waist: linked
018 • ss direction at hip: linked
• position waist dart in bk: relative to waist
015 • dart length to hem: no
• position shoulder dart
as bust dart: yes
017 016 • dart with bust angle
• bust dart in shoulder
• armhole direction at shoulder: linked
004 012 • armhole direction at ss: right angle
• armhole direction at
front pitch: free
• hem direction at ss: linked
• hem extension in: mm
• panel in back: no
• bust line: transformed
• number of segments: 8 segments
Adjust the following in the drag areas:
005 013 Drag area Tolerance:
• tolerance at bust: 80mm
• tolerance at waist: 80mm
• tolerance at hip: 80mm
• tolerance at across bust: 15mm
• tolerance at across back: 10mm
• tolerance at shoulder width: 10mm
Drag area Line relocation:
006 014
• drop armhole: -20mm
• style length: 720mm
Drag area Bust dart:
• loosen armhole: 5mm
• position bust dart at 50% of shoulder
Drag area Waist dart:
• move back dart to 60 %
• shape waist curves
Drag area Shoulder dart:
• reduce dart suppression to 15mm
228 Chapter 14 Part organisation
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Drag area Shoulder: Call the interactive Collar 40 into the style develop-
• move shoulder by 10mm at neckline and arm- ment. Adjust the collar interactively according to
hole. your ideas.
Open part 002 “front 20” and call Front part 20.
Activate Front part 20 and adjust it according to your
ideas.
Then, open part 003 “back 20”, call Back part 20 and
adjust it interactively.
Open part 004 “style development“ and insert all
lines and points from part 002 and part 003.
Construct the overlap, position the 1st button and
the curved hem with the tool Front edge 30. Adjust
as follows:
004
Options
• lapel (revers) When releasing the pattern pieces, ensure that the
• front point as curve new neckline is inserted. This had been altered by
• direction linked shoulder relocation and created as a new object.
• resulting button distance: no
• place buttons from CF
• single-breasted (1 button line)
005
Drag area Overlap:
• overlap width: 25mm
• revers from waist: 130mm
Drag area Front point: 006

• curved hem at CF: 200mm


• curved hem at hem: 100mm
Drag area Buttons:
• number of buttons: 4
• distance 1st button to revers: 20mm
• distance between buttons: 70mm

Open part 005 “basic block Sleeve“, activate part


001 and keep part 004 “style development“ visible.
Call the Sleeve 30 into part 005, clicking the required
lines in the style development. Adjust the sleeve
interactively to your preference. Adjust the wrist
width using break sizes.
Call the Grafis-Pocket | with lining | cut | single jet |
X1 X2 001 into the style development and adjust it. Alter-
natively, you can open a separate part for the pocket
and attach it to the style development when clicking.
The corresponding pattern pieces are automatically
loaded into the part organisation when calling the
pocket.
004 Open a further part 006 “basic block flap“ and keep
part 004 with the basic pocket shape visible. Call the
Generate the following two x values for the pocket Grafis-Pocket 60 (Pocket flap) and adjust it interac-
position: tively.
X1 pocket position from waist at dart: 70mm Now open further positions for the other pattern
X2 pocket position from waist at ss: 90mm pieces. Create global x values for seam allowance
and hem and construct.
Chapter 14 Part organisation 229
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Global x values: 005 basic block sleeve 022 ==INTERFACING=


x1 seam allowance 1 (10.) 006 basic block flap 023 interfacing front
x2 seam allowance 2 (20.) 007 ==MAIN FABRIC= 024 interfacing facing
x3 seam allowance 3 (5.) 008 back 025 interf. u collar stand
x4 hem (40.) 009 back side panel 026 interfacing under collar
Use the following interactive 010 front side panel 027 interfacing top collar
corners when closing the cor- 011 front 028 interf. top collar stand
ners: 012 undersleeve 029 interfacing jet
Mirror corner 013 top sleeve 030 ==LINING==
Vent corner 014 facing 031 flap lining
Angle corner 015 under collar stand 032 pocket bag lin. bottom
Angle corner coordinated 016 under collar 033 pocket bag lining top
Part list: 017 top collar 034 bk lining
001 basic block bodice 50 018 top collar stand 035 ft lining
002 front part tool 20 019 pocket flap 036 top sleeve lining
003 back part tool 10 020 jet 037 undersleeve lining
004 style development 021 facing

Main fabric parts 008-021

Interfacing parts 022-029

Lining parts 030-037


Chapter 15 Export and Import
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Content exchange between CAD systems a loss of informa-


15.1 Preparation for export in the Grafis con- tion occurs as the patterns are reduced to an agreed
struction program........................................ 232 data format.
15.2 Export formats and their particularities ....... 233 During export, the interactively adjustable patterns
15.3 The export dialogues ................................... 233 in Grafis are converted to a contour with grade rules
15.4 Step-by-step guide for export in plus additional information on grain line, notches,
AAMA/ASTM/DXF format .......................... 235 text and symbols. The exported patterns contain no
15.5 Step-by-step guide for export in EPN information on x values, body measurements and
format and transfer to Gerber..................... 236 piece interdependency.
15.6 Special settings and errors during export..... 237 Patterns from foreign systems can be imported into
15.7 Manual export… .......................................... 238 Grafis only as grade rule patterns. Grade rule pat-
15.8 Import of grade rule patterns....................... 239 terns consist of a pattern perimeter with grade
______________________ points. Each grade point is assigned a grade rule
All Grafis users who deal with production abroad or table with size dependant point movement in x and
provide pattern services for companies will have to y direction.
deal with export and import. As a rule, during data
232 Chapter 15 Export and Import
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

15.1 Preparation for export in the Grafis Assign piece parameter


construction program In the part organisation menu the Piece parameter
window opens if +piece parameter is selected (Pic-
Step-by-step-guide ture 15-2). For export, all production pattern pieces
⇒ Generate production patterns with closed pe-
rimeter
⇒ Set grain line as symbol or as attribute line
⇒ Set piece parameter production piece for all pro-
duction pieces
⇒ Enter all sizes to be exported in the size table
and grade all pieces.
Construct production pieces with closed pe-
rimeter
During pattern development draft patterns are cre-
ated from which the actual production patterns are
derived, see Chapter 14 Part organisation. Only
pieces with closed perimeter can be exported.
Picture 15-2
Production pieces:
must be declared as Production piece. Only these
pieces are captured during automatic export.
With the button the piece parameters of the
selected piece are transferred to the next piece.
This relates to the attribute Production piece, the
material type and the amount per style in normal/
mirrored position. These parameters are required
for layplanning, see Chapter 17.
Grafis checks for closed perimeter of the pieces
when setting the piece parameter production piece
and again during export. If Grafis finds gaps
(>0.5mm) in the perimeter or protruding lines, an
Draft Patterns:
error message appears. Gaps can usually be found at
corners, joints of lines or at symbols.

notch in the perimeter

; correct

: false (gap )

Picture 15-3
Picture 15-1
Line symbols such as notches are ignored during
checking of the perimeter (Picture 15-3).
Set grain line To avoid problems, the slit notch should be used.
The Grafis symbol grain line or the interactive Grain
line 10 should be set in the pattern pieces. Alterna- To learn about the export function, prepare a simple
tively, an internal line can be declared as grain line in style with pattern pieces, for example a skirt as
the attributes menu. If no grain line has been set, the shown in Picture 15-1.
negative y direction (direction downwards) is as- Grade production pieces
sumed as the grain direction as standard. All sizes to be exported must be entered in the size
table. One entry per size is sufficient. Grade all pro-
duction patterns with Grade all Parts.
Chapter 15 Export and Import 233
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15.2 Export formats and their particulari- 3. Extended PN (EPN)


ties EPN is an interim format determined by Gerber
Garment Technologies (GGT). Exactly one pattern
Grafis can export in the
piece with all grade rules is captured per file.
following formats:
For transfer to a Gerber Accumark system database
1. AAMA/DXF
a conversion is required.
2. ASTM/DXF
3. DXF 4. DXF
4. ExtendedPN The DXF format is used for export of data to engi-
5. Grafis export format neering CAD e.g. AutoCAD or drawing programs
With the exception of the Grafis and DXF export e.g. Corel Draw. The DXF format exported by
formats, during export, all pattern stacks are re- Grafis uses a small amount of the standardized data
duced to a base size with grade rules. As all sizes are types only. Thus, the exported data will be readable
constructed individually in Grafis, this leads to a loss in many systems. The single sizes are exported to
of information. The target system calculates the consecutive layers.
contours of the different sizes from these reduced
5. Grafis format
data with its own mathematical algorithms. There-
The Grafis format is a format for transfer of pattern
fore, the shape can differ from the original shape in
pieces determined and published by Grafis. This data
Grafis, particularly in extreme sizes.
format is currently supported by only one foreign
1. AAMA system.
The AAMA format, also called AAMA/DXF format, NB: Data exchange with other Grafis users
is currently the most widely used format. It is based should ensue via: Grafis styles, Grafis styles with
on the DXF data format used by the AutoCAD reduced pieces, Grafis production styles, Grafis
software for transfer of vector graphics. The AAMA grade rule patterns or Grafis layplans!
standardisation determines which content is to be
deposited in which DXF data structure (contour, 6. Other data formats
internal lines, notches, drillholes etc.). The contour There is no alternative to the above formats for
of the base size is normally written into the .DXF transfer of pattern pieces in a number of graded
file and the graded sizes are written into a separate sizes.
.RUL file. Unfortunately, the AAMA format is not Individual pieces can be output in HP/GL vector
clearly defined in all points so that significant differ- graphic format, see explanation on “output to file” in
ences may occur during interpretation by different section 3.3.2.
CAD systems. With the Grafis layplan, data can be output in ISO
Grafis has accommodated this particularity. During format to drive cutters. This interface is released for
export in AAMA/DXF format you can chose be- particular cutters as part of a maintenance contract.
tween different Export configurations. The correct
Export configuration for a particular case has to be 15.3 The export dialogues
tested. The addition ’noRUL’ means that all sizes are
contained in the DXF file as perimeters. No sepa- The Grafis export parts dialogue
rate .RUL file is created. The Grafis Export parts dialogue (Picture 15-4) opens
via File | Export parts. This dialogue controls which
2. ASTM
parts, in which data format and with which specific
The ASTM format, also called ASTM/DXF format, is
settings are to be exported.
the further development of AAMA format. It is
more standardised but not available in all CAD sys- Settings opens the Export parameter dialogue with
tems. Furthermore, ASTM contains a number of the selection of Export configuration, among others.
new notch types and supports descriptive text. The Check in this dialogue whether the parameters for
Export configuration ‘GradedNest‘ generates a .DXF the envisaged export are set correctly.
file and no separate .RUL file, analogous to ‘noRUL‘. The switch Hide seam allowances can temporarily
All sizes are contained as perimeter in the DXF file. hide seam allowances of the patterns. The pre-
requisite is that the net perimeter of the pattern has
been assigned the attribute seam line. Having quit
the export function, the seam allowances are re-
instated.
234 Chapter 15 Export and Import
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

particular line attribute. Alterna-


tively, you can use the global
switches all internal lines with
attribute for all lines with special
attribute or all internal lines. If
one of the global switches is set,
specific line types can no longer
be selected.
Symbols for output
The section symbols for output
controls which symbols are to be
written into the export file. This
section captures all point and line
symbols which have been set
Picture 15-4 with the symbols function. The
grain line and line symbols are
Output selection initiates the export of all currently not captured, here. Symbols which are known in the
selected parts. Output all starts the export of all target data format, such as the drillhole, are written
parts in the list. If the switch overwrite without as symbols into the export file. All other symbols are
warning is set, existing files with the same name will transferred as continuous lines. If the switch all sym-
be overwritten without notification. bols is set, all point symbols are exported. Alterna-
With the buttons Copy and Print the list of export tively, the symbols to be exported can be selected
parts with details of export type and time of last individually in the list. The switch interactive symbol
export is copied to the clipboard or printed directly. lines and marking lines controls the export of the
The output file field indicates the name of the ex- interactive seam symbols.
port file during the export process. Division of curves with additional grade points
To ensure accurate curve representation in all sizes
The Export parameter dialogue
in the target system, additional grade points are set
The Grafis-Export parameter dialogue (Picture 15-5) automatically along the curve during Export parts.
opens via the button Settings in the Grafis-Export The options under edit parameter for lines influ-
part dialogue. ence this automatism. The switch create additional
grade points should only be deactivated in excep-
tional circumstances as it switches off the above
automatism. The additional grade points are set at
the following points of the perimeter:
1. at real corner points,
2. always at notches even if create additional grade
points is switched off and
3. at turning points of the curve.
4. All remaining curve sections are divided ac-
cording to the parameters min number of base
points and max number of curve segments.
The parameter min number of base points indicates
the minimum number of base points to be contained
in a curve section between two grade points. Nor-
mally, Grafis generates an appropriate number of
base points automatically. In tight curvatures the
points are denser and in long stretched curve sec-
tions, they are placed further apart. The smaller the
Picture 15-5 min number of base points, the closer the grade
Lines for output points on the curves. A value between 4 and 8 has
proven to be successful. A value below 3 is not
The section lines for output controls which lines
meaningful. The parameter max number of curve
are to be written into the export file. You can select
segments limits the division of curves through grade
the line attributes grain line, annotation line, cut in-
points. The last division step creates no more than
ternal line, split line and seam lines, which have been
the stated number of curve sections. If this parame-
assigned with the attribute function. The selection all
ter is to be void, a high value, e.g. 99 can be en-
continuous internal lines captures all lines without any
Chapter 15 Export and Import 235
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

tered. A value between 8 to 12 has proven to be 4. Choose export type AAMA/DXF, ASTM/DXF or in
successful. A value below 2 is not meaningful. exceptional cases DXF or Grafis. Please take note
Export configuration of the information on export data formats in sec-
tion 15.2.
Depending on the selected export format, different
options are displayed in the export configuration 5. Clicking on the Settings button opens the Export
section. For AAMA and ASTM, the export configura- parameter dialogue (Picture 15-5). Depending on
tion can be chosen. Thus, the export is adjusted to the selected format AAMA/ ASTM/ DXF/ Grafis,
the different requirements of the target system. For this dialogue differs only in the export configura-
export of Gerber EPN (ExtendedPN), further con- tions available. You must test which export con-
version and possibly the export target can be se- figuration is suitable for which CAD system.
lected, see section 15.5. Choose the required export configuration and
Additional settings close the Export parameter dialogue.
Experienced users can further control the export 6. In the cases AAMA/DXF and ASTM/DXF:
with the following switches of the Grafis.ini, section In dialogue Grafis Export Parts check if Collating
[INTERFACE]: AAMA files is active and enter an appropriate
DXFEXP_NAMEMODE controls the allocation of name. Only if Collating AAMA files is checked
the file name for Autocad-DXF files. then all selected parts will be combined into one
*.DXF file and one *.RUL file. It is important that
DXFEXP_STARTLAYER determines start layer for
the name has no more than 8 characters and
output in Autocad-DXF. The layers for the specific
does not contain any spaces or special charac-
sizes are then counted upward by 1.
ters. Otherwise the file name of the exported
Mit OPTNSALWY=1 automatically opens the ex- files might be changed during transfer by email.
port parameter dialogue for each export.
7. Now choose the parts to be exported in the list
AAMASAVEAS permits saving DXF files with the
of parts. Mark an area of parts by clicking the
’Save as…’ dialogue.
part at the end of the required area with pressed
<Shift> key. Pressing the <Ctrl> key marks or
15.4 Step-by-step guide for export in AA- unmarks single parts.
MA/ASTM/DXF format
8. Then all selected parts will be exported with
This step sequence applies to export in AA-
Output Selection. According to the settings under
MA/ASTM/DXF format and in Grafis export format.
Export Parameter the grain line, the symbols and
The analogous step-by-step guide for export in Ger-
the inner lines are included, also. Alternatively all
ber EPN format can be found in section 15.5.
parts can be exported with Output All.
1. Every part of the style to be exported need to
9. The export files are stored in the directory
be marked as Production piece in sub-window
\Grafis\Basis_d\Interfac\Alpha\. The following
Part parameter. It is possible that a number of
applies: "Basis_d" is the current measurement
parts are marked as production pieces as the
system and "Alpha" the current collection. Dur-
parts will be chosen for export, later.
ing output this path is displayed at Output file
2. The parts must be available and graded in all lower left of the window.
sizes to be exported. Select all sizes to be ex-
10. The *.DXF file as well as the *.RUL file of the
ported in the Size table and then start Grade All
same name have to be passed on together ideally
Parts or Grade Production Pieces.
packed into a *.ZIP file. Both files are comple-
3. Open the export dialogue via File | Export Pat- mentary. The *.DXF file contains the contour
tern Pieces. All productions pieces will be auto- data and the *.RUL file the grade rules of the si-
matically prepared and displayed in all available zes.
sizes, see Picture 15-4.
File names must not be changed after export
as they are synchronised!
236 Chapter 15 Export and Import
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

Ideally, rename this area ‘FLOPPY‘ immediately


15.5 Step-by-step guide for export in EPN to 'YOUR_NAME'.
format and transfer to Gerber In the EPN conversion dialogue, select conversion
in data area (USERROOT). Select the target drive
The step-by-step guide for generation of EPN files is
and the data area you have just created.
identical to the step-by-step guide in section 15.4
D) In the EPN conversion dialogue, select conversion
where the export data type ExtendedPN is selected.
to TMP files.
The transfer to Gerber can ensue with the following
variations: After export, the converted data is available as fol-
A) transfer of EPN files without conversion lows:
B) direct access to Gerber Accumark via a network A) The EPN data is saved under
C) transfer via USERROOT \Grafis\Basis_D\Interfac\Alpha\, where Basis_D is
D) single Gerber export files *.TMP the measurement system and ‘Alpha‘ is the name
Check with the recipient in which form the data is of the collection. The EPN files are constructed
to be supplied. from the style name and the part number. Thus,
the file trouser.002 contains the data from the
Please note! We can take no responsibility for
second part of the style ‘trouser‘.
error-free data acquisition in Gerber or any mis-
takes or conflicts arising from the import into B) With direct access to Gerber Accumark via a
Gerber. network, the parts are immediately visible.
C) The data is to be sent via email / internet. The
The configuration ensues in the EPN conversion dia- complete data area from \USERROOT must be
logue which is opened from the Export parts dia- placed into a zip file.
logue via Settings → EPN conversion, see Picture NB: There may be more than one data area
15-6. The above transfer variations are adjusted as stored under /USERROOT which may relate
follows: to more than one customer or stem from dif-
A) Select no conversion of EPN files in the EPN con- ferent days. Always ensure that you send only
version dialogue. the area(s) required by the recipient. Otherwise,
B) In the EPN conversion dialogue, select conversion data for other customers may be included. Each
in data area (USERROOT). Select the target area export writes to the selected data area of the
on your Accumark system. USERROOT. The old data is not overwritten,
C) Now, prepare the data base for Gerber with the data area grows. To ensure before export
Windows Explorer. Rename an already existing that the data area contains no other data,
area C:\USERROOT\STORAGE\FLOPPY\... to floppy0.exe must be called. This creates the
C:\USERROOT\STORAGE\YOUR_NAME\... if empty ‘FLOPPY‘ area. You can write more than
required. one style to an area..
Copy the file \Grafis\Hilfen\floppy0.exe to the D) As a rule, the Gerber export files are written to
root of your drive, here C:\ and start it there. the directory
Floppy0.exe creates a new area \Grafis\Basis_D\Interfac\Alpha\Skirt\ where ‘Ba-
C:\USERROOT\STORAGE\FLOPPY\... An al- sis_D‘ is the measurement system, ‘Alpha‘ is the
ready existing area 'FLOPPY' will be overwritten! name of the collection and Skirt is the style

Picture 15-6
Chapter 15 Export and Import 237
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©Friedrich: Grafis – Textbook, Edition 2012

name. This path appears in the output file field at Curves


the bottom left during output. A separate file is At Export pattern pieces Grafis automatically inserts
created for each part during export, e.g. additional grade points onto the curves so that the
‘a1A.tmp‘ etc. All files in this folder (folder name curve shapes in all sizes appear largely unchanged in
= style name) must be placed into a zip file and the other systems. It is not necessary to separate
then, transferred.