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Topic Area 1: Framework for Integrated System Architecture

The tasks in this topic area will include the ADMS architecture with included integrated system
consisting of DMS, OMS, DERMS and microgrids. The issues of related to interoperability,
communication and cyber security will also be addressed.

Introduction:

New demands on the electricity delivery system for becoming interactive with their customer are
requiring that it function in ways for which it was never originally designed. Traditionally,
utilities managed a fairly predictable system in terms of the supply and demand of electricity
with one-way flow from large, centralized generation plants to customers. The modern grid has
to be much more complex as it will need to implement IT industry tools to become customer
interactive.

Modern grid will need to handle:

 Variable power from renewable energy resources that are located within transmission and
distribution systems,
 Two-way power flows from distributed energy resources and other assets, such as rooftop
solar panels, electric vehicles, and energy storage devices,
 Advanced communications and control technologies with “built-in” cybersecurity
protections.

A more intelligent grid includes the application of information technology systems to handle new
data and permit utilities to more effectively and dynamically manage grid operations. The
information provided by smart grid systems also enables customers to make informed choices
about the way they manage energy use.

The application of smart grid technologies—such as AMI, distribution automation, customer


systems(in home display, mobile apps) —poses increased data communication challenges for
legacy utility systems.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

AMI enables a wide range of capabilities that can provide significant operational and efficiency
improvements to reduce costs, including:
• Remote meter reading and remote connects/disconnects.
• Tamper detection to reduce electricity theft.
• Improved outage management from meters that alert utilities when customers lose power.
• Improved voltage management from meters that convey voltage levels along a distribution
circuit.
• Measurement of two-way power flows for customers who have installed on-site generation
such as rooftop photovoltaics (PV).
• Improved billing and customer support operations.
The advancement of AMI and customer-based devices improves the effectiveness of time-based
rate programs—including time-of-use (TOU) rates, critical peak pricing (CPP), critical peak
rebates (CPR), and variable peak pricing (VPP)—where feedback to customers about their
energy usage and better control technology encourages consumers to adjust their consumption
based on price. This results in reductions in peak or overall electricity use. Deploying AMI with
customer-based systems and time-based rates can reduce electricity demand during peak periods
to improve asset utilization and defer new capacity needs.

Why Cybersecurity?

In today’s world, reliability requires cybersecurity. A cyberattack on devices that protect and
control the grid could result in power disruption or damaged equipment. It must also be kept in
mind that installation of inappropriate cybersecurity controls could interfere with critical energy
delivery functions.

Cybersecurity for the smart grid supports both the reliability of the grid and the confidentiality
(and privacy) of the information that is transmitted.
Privacy concerns about the smart grid fall into one of two broad categories:
Category 1: Personal information not previously readily obtainable : Detailed information
on the appliances and equipment in use at a given location, including the use of specific medical
devices and other electronic devices that indicate personal patterns and timings of legal and
potentially illegal operations within the location, and finely grained time series data on power
consumption at metered locations and from individual appliances.
Category 2: Mechanisms that did not previously exist for obtaining (or manipulating)
personal information : Includes instances where personal information is available from other
sources, and the smart grid may present a new source for that same information. For example, an
individual’s physical location can be tracked through their credit card and cell phone records
today. Charging PEVs raises the possibility of tracking physical location through new energy
consumption data.

Role of cybersecurity in Smart Grid


Possible uses of data collected by AMI can be both for constructive and negative. Cybersecurity
will address this issue and help to stop all the negative uses of data generated by AMI and at
same time it has to be assured that constructive uses of data are least hindered by cybersecurity.

Constructive uses of Data from AMI:


Identify Household Appliances: Identifying information (such as a MAC address); directly
reported usage information provided by “smart” appliances. Data revealed from home area
network (HAN) or appliance.
Load monitoring and forecasting; efficiency analysis and monitoring; reliability; demand
response; distributed energy resource management; emergency response. Efficiency analysis and
monitoring; broadcasting appliance use to social media.

Appliance Manufacturers : Determine usage and/or condition of appliances, potentially in order


to offer repair, replacement, and/or warranty services.

Negative uses of Data from AMI:


Criminals & Other Unauthorized Users : Identify what assets may be present to target for theft;
introduce a virus or other attack to collect personal information.

Deliverables:
1) AMI capable of measuring domestic power consumption having following capabilites:
a) Remote meter reading and remote connects/disconnects
b) Tamper detection and reporting.
c) Non invasive energy disaggregation and reporting, this will provide input for household level
energy usage of different appliances.

2) Implementation of suitable communication protocols and encryption methods for AMI. Using
these protocols AMI will ensure to meet the goals of cybersecurity.
A smart energy meter enabled with suitable protocols to communicate with