You are on page 1of 42

E73BA1AEP.doc 24.07.

00

Operating Manual
Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge
Economy -
ECHOMETER 1073
Rev. 1.0 a

Subject to change without notice

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 1


KARL DEUTSCH Prüf- und Meßgerätebau
OTTO-HAUSMANN-RING 101 D 42115 WUPPERTAL

IMPORTANT NOTE

z Our devices, units and accessories are designed, constructed


and finished according to the state of the art. We presume that
our customers similarly have knowledge of the art in respect of
the restrictions in the completeness or reliability of the test
process resulting therefrom. We are pleased to give full expla-
nations where customers are in doubt.
z Our products are subjected to an acceptance test according to
specified technical data. The release of equipment is incumbent
on specialized personnel. We accept responsibility for malfunc-
tions or defects as specified under our general terms of delivery.
z Our products are also used for the non-destructive testing of
working materials in parts, the failure of which can represent a
high risk. This applies, for example, both to working materials
or component parts for the automobile industry and to the avia-
tion or nuclear power fields. The user needs to undertake all
reasonable measures to avoid workpieces from passing unno-
ticed. Observation units on the test units for this purpose are of-
fered. The risk of a malfunction of the unit can be reduced by
regular checks of the device, accessories, test media, operating
conditions and test personnel. In particularly important cases a
check needs to be carried out both before and after each test.
Such checks lead to the discovery of not only systematical mal-
functions but malfunctions of the system and the device occur-
ring sporadically. When the malfunctions in function have been
ascertained, then measures must be taken without delay to pre-
vent the construction parts, which were established in the last
check as perfect, from being further used without re-
examination.
z We are ready to discuss the type and scope of checking or or-
ganisation measures prior to acceptance of the test procedure.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 2


Contents
1 What you should know prior to starting..........................5
1.1 Passing-on, availability and storage of this handbook .................... 5
1.2 Notes on this handbook .................................................................. 5
1.3 Requirements concerning the test personnel.................................. 6
1.4 Safety note...................................................................................... 6
1.5 Intended use ................................................................................... 6
1.6 Measuring range of probes, display resolution and unit,
measuring tolerance ....................................................................... 7
1.7 CE Conformity ................................................................................ 8
1.8 Contacting KARL DEUTSCH .......................................................... 9

2 Putting into operation .....................................................10


2.1 Connectors and controls ............................................................... 10
2.2 Display.......................................................................................... 11
2.3 Operating menu ............................................................................ 12
2.4 Erroneous inputs........................................................................... 14
2.5 Connecting the probe, switch-on, calibrating and
measuring ..................................................................................... 15
2.6 Calibration..................................................................................... 17
2.7 Entering a new sound velocity ...................................................... 19
2.8 Measuring and adjusting the sound velocity on a
specimen of known thickness ....................................................... 20
2.9 Alarm mode (monitoring thickness limits) ..................................... 22
2.9.1 Input of measuring limits................................................. 22
2.9.1.1 Input of the lower limit value .......................... 22
2.9.1.2 Input of the upper limit value.......................... 23
2.9.2 Displaying the limit values............................................... 24
2.9.2.1 Displaying the lower limit ............................... 24
2.9.2.2 Displaying the upper limit............................... 24
2.10 Selecting the measuring unit......................................................... 24
2.11 Adaptation of the sensitivity .......................................................... 25
2.12 Illumination of the LCD display ..................................................... 25
2.13 Energy-saving mode ..................................................................... 26

3 Special features...............................................................27
3.1 Changing the basic presettings for unit and resolution ................. 27

4 Corrogram........................................................................28

5 General notes ..................................................................29


5.1 Measurement principle ................................................................. 29
5.2 Operating and storage temperature.............................................. 30

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 3


5.3 Wear and tear of the probe ........................................................... 30
5.4 Power supply ................................................................................ 31
5.4.1 Battery types................................................................... 31
5.4.2 Operating time ................................................................ 31
5.4.3 Exchanging batteries ...................................................... 32
5.5 Housing ........................................................................................ 33
5.6 Cleaning keypad and housing....................................................... 33
5.7 Type and serial number ................................................................ 33

6 What to do when .....? .....................................................34

7 Technical data .................................................................36

8 Use and assembly of wear protective membranes ......40

9 Instrument view ...............................................................42

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 4


1 What you should know prior to starting

1.1 Passing-on, availability and storage of this handbook


This handbook is a standard accessory and comes with the
ECHOMETER 1073 when delivered.
Please make sure that this handbook
• is passed to the quality assurance dept. of your company
from where it can be ...
• handed on to the specific user.
• Please store this handbook like a document.
Copies of this manual can be ordered from KARL DEUTSCH.

1.2 Notes on this handbook


This manual deals with the proper use of the Ultrasonic Thick-
ness Gauge Economy-ECHOMETER 1073.
Notes marked with the symbol must be read and considered
in order not to reduce the quality of the test process and, where
appropriate, not to neglect safety-relevant aspects. Supplemen-
tary notes worth knowing can be recognized by the information
symbol
At the end of this manual a folder sheet with reference numbers
is included. Subassemblies described in text or mentioned are
provided with the corresponding reference numbers in order to
allow an easy assignment.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 5


1.3 Requirements concerning the test personnel
To operate the ECHOMETER according to the demands of the
corresponding test task, the user of the ultrasonic thickness
gauge should be able to read and understand this manual.
Moreover, there should be a basic knowledge of methods used in
the application of measurement technique; thus the operator can
judge objectively the measured values and their tolerance. By
this, the possibility to recognize systematic or applicational mal-
functions can be increased as well as the recognition of error
caused by the gauge.
By means of periodically executed check measurements using
comparable test pieces with known thickness you can verify the
correct function of the test system.
In addition, the test personnel should be familiar with processes
to be executed in the case of instrumental malfunction or error.

1.4 Safety note

The ECHOMETER 1073 must not be used in an explosive envi-


ronment (e.g. in mining areas, in tanks with explosive gas mixtures
etc.). Observe the respective safety rules.

1.5 Intended use


The ECHOMETER 1073 is a gauge to measure thickness of
sound-conductive materials.
The correct handling of the gauge is described in this manual.
Section 1.6 of this manual deals with the gauge-specific proper-
ties and requirements for the intended use.
If accessory is required for the intended use, only gauge-specific
KARL DEUTSCH accessory or accessory expressively ap-
proved by KARL DEUTSCH may be employed.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 6


1.6 Measuring range of probes, display resolution and unit,
measuring tolerance
The ECHOMETER works with dual element (“TR” or “SE”)
probes. Dual element (TR) probes have separate transmitter (T)
and receiver (R) elements, which must be connected to the re-
spective transmitter output and receiver input of the thickness
gauge. ECHOMETER probes are equipped with fixed twin ca-
bles of approx. 1 m length and Lemo type connectors. Corre-
sponding probe connectors and instrument sockets have colored
marks to assure proper assignment and connection.

Measuring range of probes


The measuring ranges depend on the specific probe type:
Standard probe DSE 10.4/6 PB 4 1.2 to 250 mm
4 MHz probe with 10 x 4 mm piezoelectric ele-
ment size.,Order-no. 1465.761

Miniature probe DSE 4.2/4 PB 8 0.7 to 25 mm


8 MHz probe with 4 x 2 mm piezoelectric ele-
ment size, smallest possble shape for meas-
urements on thin materials and/or sharp con-
tours. Order- no. 1465.661

Low frequency probe DSE 18/25 PB 2 1 5 to 400 mm


2 MHz probe with 18 mm diam. half cut piezo-
electric elements. Especially for measurements
on rough surfaces and coarse-grained materials.
Order-no. 1465.361

The stated measuring ranges are valid for fine-grain steel with
plane-parallel and smooth surfaces. They are valid for probes
used without wear protective membranes. With different mate-
rial, geometry and surface or with wear protective membranes,
the measuring ranges can be reduced.

Display resolution and unit


The display resolution and unit (metric or inch) of the instru-
ment can be selected from 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm and 0.001 inch.

1
High sound conductivity can cause phantom echoes and wrong thickness readings of
thick materials. In this case we recommend to use a probe with higher frequency.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 7


Measuring tolerance
The measuring tolerance 2 of the ECHOMETER with probes
DSE 10.4/6 PB 4 and DSE 4.2/4 PB 8 is:
• ± 0.1 mm in the measuring range up to 80 mm
• ± 0.5 % of the actual thickness above 80 mm
With the low frequency probe DSE 18/25 PB 2, the measuring
tolerance is:
• ± 0.2 mm in the measuring range up to 80 mm
• ± 0.5 % of the actual thickness above 80 mm

The stated data for measurement and reading tolerance are


valid for the a.m. respective measuring ranges of the probes. Outside
these measuring ranges, either measurement is not possible or the
tolerance range can be greater, possibly to a great extent. Please also
note chapter 5.3.

1.7 CE Conformity
This appliance has been developed and manufactured
with regard to ist electromagnetic compatibility for use
not only in industrial but also in residential, commer-
cial and trade premises and in small businesses in ac-
cordance with harmonized standards.
This means that the appliance conforms to the most
important protection standards of the Electromagnetic
Compatibility Directive (89/336/EEC) and the German
Electromagnetic Compatibility Act of 9 November
1992 in accordance with the current issue on the date
of delivery of the unit.
The characteristics within the meaning of the CE Directives ap-
plying to this measuring appliance and the appliance's proven
quality characteristics apply to correct use of the appliance, as
described in chapter 1.5 of this manual.

2
Data regarding the measuring tolerance refer to an adjusted sound velocity of 5920 m/s
(steel) and constant temperature during the measurement.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 8


1.8 Contacting KARL DEUTSCH
We work flexitime. You surely can contact us:
Monday to Thursday :
8.00 - 12.15 h / 12.45 - 15.30 h
Friday:
8.00 - 12.15 h
Phones: +49 (0) 202 7192-0
Fax: +49 (0) 202 714932
E-mail: info@karldeutsch.de
Internet homepage: http://www.karldeutsch.de
Use the following address for mailing contacts:
KARL DEUTSCH
Prüf- und Meßgerätebau
GmbH & Co. KG
P.O. Box 132354
D-42050 Wuppertal
We are located at:
Otto-Hausmann-Ring 101
D-42115 Wuppertal

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 9


2 Putting into operation

2.1 Connectors and controls


The reference numbers in the following chapters correspond to
the reference numbers on the foldable view at the end of this
manual.
• Housing top
On the housing top of the ECHOMETER 1073 the coaxial
sockets (3), (4) for connection of the probe are located.
• Keypad
The keypad (6) consists of four keys:
• ON/OFF


• confirmation of value


• menu start and selection
• increment (i.e. increasing the value)


• menu selection
• decrement (i.e. decreasing the value)


• Above the keypad (6) the LC-display (5) is located.
• The 5 mm calibration block (7) is located below the keypad.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 10


2.2 Display
The ECHOMETER is equipped with a Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD). The display shows up to four symbols, letters or figures
with decimal dot.
Depending on the operation mode, additional special symbols
are visible. These special symbols appear at the left margin of
the LCD:
Special symbol Meaning
When this starts flashing, it tells you that the
batteries are nearly dead. Usually you can go
on measuring for at least 1 -3 hours but you
should fit new batteries or refreshed re-
chargeable batteries as soon as possible.
With permanent display of this message,
you should replace the batteries immediately
since automatic switch-off is imminent.
The non-coupling mark (two dots at the left
display margin) is visible when the probe is
not placed on the Workpiece or coupling is
not sufficient for proper measurement. With a
non-coupling mark shown on the display no
measurement is executed.
The non-coupling mark also appears, if the
back-wall echo becomes too low due to
physical reasons, e.g. high acoustic absorp-
tion or scattering within the workpiece or
very high thickness of the workpiece.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 11


2.3 Operating menu
Using the operating menu, you can select and adjust the working
parameters of the ECHOMETER 1073.
• In measuring mode, strike
• Use to select the desired menu item
• Strike to enter the set-up level of the selected menu item.
• Use one of the arrow keys (with numeric values: increase)
or (with numeric values: decrease) to alter the parameters.
• Strike to accept the new value of the parameter
• The instrument changes to the measuring mode again
The following table lists all set-up parameters in the same se-
quence as they are displayed when successively actuating the
key . (The key action “ Strike ” to enter the setup-level of
the menu item is denoted as “ ª ”.)

Display Measuring parameter

Thickness (thickness)
(sample value)
ª

Sound velocity of the material (velocity)


(sample value)
ª

Monitoring the upper limit (high threshold)

ª off

ª upper limit (sample value)

Monitoring the lower limit (low threshold)

ª off

ª lower limit (sample value)

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 12


Display and input unit (unit)

ª mm

ª
Inch

Instrument sensitivity (4 levels) (Sensitivity)


Standard measuring should be executed with the
ª
highest sensitivity setting .
ª
When thickness readings have to be taken from
ª a workpiece with a very low absorption (e.g.
ª aluminium) the sensitivity must be reduced to
. The lower sensitivity settings can also
be used to avoid thickness readings from small
targets within or in the vicinity of the sound
beam of the probe.

Display backlight (LAMP)


off
ª
on (backlight is only lit during menu set-up and
ª
while probe is coupled to a workpiece)

When selecting a menu item, the current setting of this item


will automatically appear in the display after a delay of about 1 sec-
ond.

All menu settings (measuring parameter) and instrument cali-


bration data remain stored in a non-volatile memory even after
switching the device off or removing the batteries. They can be acti-
vated again, when skipping the inquiry after switch-on by
striking the key and thus not executing a new calibration.
Each time a new calibration is executed after switch-on, the menu
settings will be reset to default values (see section 2.6 of this man-
ual).

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 13


2.4 Erroneous inputs
Each time the key is struck, the instruments checks the cur-
rent input value for plausibility and for lying within its allowed
range.
When the allowed range is exceeded, a brief error message is
shown .
The instrument switches to the input mode again and the pa-
rameter can be corrected instantaneously.
The following limits should be obeyed:
• Range of sound velocity: 100 m/s – 19999 m/s or
0.01 inch/µs – 1.999 inch/µs.
• When monitoring upper and lower thickness limits: Set val-
ues for the upper limit must be higher than set values for the
lower limit.
Error messages will also appear, if values calculated by the in-
strument exceed the allowed range.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 14


2.5 Connecting the probe, switch-on, calibrating and
measuring
• Switch off the instrument
• Connect the probe connection cables to the probe sockets (3),
(4). Ensure the plug (1) with the red cable sleeve is inserted
in the socket (4), which is marked by a red point.

red sleeve

Red point
marking

Fig. 1: Connecting the probe cables

The red colour marks the corresponding receivers of the probe


and the instrument.

• Strike the key to switch the ECHOMETER on.


• The display shows , which is the request to start cali-
bration.
• Calibrate the instrument as described in section 2.6.
On first switch-on, the ECHOMETER reads in metric units and
0.1 mm resolution (factory presetting, unless otherwise ordered).
You can change the presetting to 0.01 mm resolution or to read the
thickness in 0.001 inch by a special key combination. Please note sec-
tion 3.1.

To read the thickness of a material, the ECHOMETER 1073


must know its sound velocity. Each time a new calibration is
executed, the sound velocity is automatically set to 5920 m/s. If
the material, whose thickness shall be determined, has a differ-
ent sound velocity, either enter manually the exact sound veloc-
ity as decribed in section 2.7, or measure and adjust the sound
velocity as decribed in section 2.8.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 15


• Now apply a drop of couplant (e.g. ECHOTRACE 3 ,
ECHOFLUID3, oil etc.) to the workpiece where the thickness
shall be measured and couple the probe to the workpiece.
Probes may come with a plastic soft protective cap to avoid
scratches or otherwise damage of the contact face. Remember to
remove the protective cap prior to measurement.

• The thickness will be read in the display, immediately, (either


in mm or in inch).
• You can continue measuring thickness at other points of the
workpiece by successively applying drops of couplant to the
measuring points and coupling the probe to them. The in-
struments keeps the sound velocity, which was initially set,
as long as a new one is entered or the instrument is calibrated
again.

Altering the sound velocity will always alter the displayed


thickness (due to the physical relation s=v•t/2, see section 5.1).

The reliability and accuracy of all thickness readings depends


strongly on how the probe is coupled to the workpiece. For proper
coupling of the probe, proceed as carefully as possible: Before apply-
ing the couplant, remove any dust or dirt from the contact surfaces of
the probe and from the workpiece where the probe shall be coupled
to. The couplant is always necessary to transfer acoustic energy from
the probe to the workpiece at all. But alwasy keep in mind: The thin-
ner the coupling film is, the more energy will be tranferred and the
better results can be expected.

3
High quality couplants from KARL DEUTSCH: ECHOTRACE 500 ml (order no.
9000.003) or 5 l (order no. 9000.002). ECHOFLUID 100 ml (order no. 9004.001)

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 16


2.6 Calibration
Whenever the instrument is switched on, the display shows
, which is the request to start calibration (**). To cali-
brate the instrument, proceed as follows:
• Apply a drop of couplant (e.g. ECHOTRACE 4 ,
ECHOFLUID4, oil etc.) to the built-in calibration block (7).
• Place the probe on the centre of the built-in calibration block
(7). Keep it coupled until the display shows (with
display resolution 0.1 mm) resp. (with display reso-
lution 0.01 mm). This value represents the thickness of the
built-in precise calibration block in mm.
The equivalent inch value (0.197) will be displayed by instru-
ments with a presetting of 0.001 inch resolution.
• Lift the probe off the built-in calibration block.
• The instrument is calibrated now and ready to take thickness
readings with the sound velocity of the instrument automati-
cally set to 5920 m/s (typical value for steel).
The accuracy of all the following thickness readings depends
strongly on how the probe is coupled to the built-in calibration block
during the calibration process. For proper coupling, proceed as care-
fully as possible: Before applying the couplant, remove any dust or
dirt from the contact surfaces of probe and calibration block. The
couplant is necessary to transfer acoustic energy from the probe to
the workpiece at all. But always keep in mind: The thinner the film is,
the more energy will be tranferred and the better results can be ex-
pected.

(**): During calibration, the ECHOMETER recognizes automatically


the type of probe which is connected to the gauge, and compensates
for individual probe wear and temperature changes. It is recom-
mended to check and verify the accuracy of thickness readings from
time to time by means of specimen of known thickness or by means
of the built-in reference block of known thickness and, if necessary,
recalibrate the instrument. A new calibration is always necessary, ei-
ther when the temperature changes, the probe becomes more worn
out since last calibration or when another probe is connected to the
instrument.

4
High quality couplants from KARL DEUTSCH: ECHOTRACE 500 ml (order no.
9000.003) or 5 l (order no. 9000.002). ECHOFLUID 100 ml (order no. 9004.001)

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 17


The CAL-process resets the following parameters of the
ECHOMETER 1073:
y the parameter “thickness” to the thickness of the internal calibra-
tion block (5.0 mm resp. 5.00 mm or 0.197 inch)
y the parameter “sound velocity of the material” to 5920 m/s resp.
to 0.233 inch/µs.
y the parameter “display and input” (mm or inch) to that unit,
which corresponds with the selected presetting (0.1 mm, 0.01
mm or 0.001 inch, see section 3.1)

y the parameter “instrument sensitivity” to

If you feel a new calibration not necessary after switch-on, you can
override the new calibration by striking when the inquiry
appears in the display. In this case the instrument keeps the previous
settings of thickness, sound velocity, unit and sensitivity as well as
the previous calibration data.

If you want to measure on materials different to steel with a


sound velocity of 5920 m/s, you need to adjust the parameter “sound
velocity of the material” properly prior to taking thickness
readings (see section 2.7).
See section 2.8 for information on how to adjust the sound velocity
by using a specimen of known thickness.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 18


2.7 Entering a new sound velocity
Each time a new calibration is executed after switch-on, when
the display is showing , the sound velocity is automati-
cally set to 5920 m/s. If the material, whose thickness shall be
determined, has a different but already exactly known sound ve-
locity, you can enter the new sound velocity manually via the
keypad. Proceed as follows:
• Strike key and then key or until the display shows
the menu item .
• Strike . After a short time the current sound velocity
value will be indicated.
• Strike key or until the display reading meets the sound
velocity of the material to be measured in m/s resp. inch/µs
(e.g. steel 5920 m/s resp. 0.233 inch/µs). The possible ad-
justment range is 100 - 19999 m/s resp. 0.01 –1.999 inch/µs.
• Strike key , to confirm the new value and to return to the
measuring mode.
The instrument has accepted the entered sound velocity and is
now ready for new thickness measurements.

All subsequent measurings are based on the new sound velocity,


which will be kept by the instrument - even when removing the bat-
teries - , until a different value of the sound velocity is entered or
adusted, or a new calibration is executed.
Altering the sound velocity will always alter the displayed thickness
(due to the physical relation s=v•t/2, see section 5.1)

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 19


2.8 Measuring and adjusting the sound velocity on a
specimen of known thickness
Basically, the ECHOMETER 1073 is a thickness gauge. How-
ever, it is also possible, to measure the sound velocity of a
specimen, if its thickness is exactly known.
Each time a new calibration is executed after switch-on, when
the display is showing , the sound velocity is automati-
cally set to 5920 m/s. If you do not know the exact sound veloc-
ity of the material, whose thickness shall be determined, but a
specimen of the same type of material and of known thickness is
available, you can easily measure the sound velocity and adjust
the parameter sound velocity of the instrument properly:
• Switch the ECHOMETER on.
• Calibrate the instrument as described in section 2.6.
• Couple the probe to the specimen with known thickness.
• A thickness reading which is based on the current sound ve-
locity (5920 m/s) appears in the display .

Of course, when the actual sound velocity of the specimen is not


5920 m/s, this thickness reading is not true.

• Strike key and then key or until the menu item


is in the display.
• Strike
• The previously measured thickness is displayed.
• Use the keys and to adjust the displayed thickness to
the actual thickness of the specimen.
• Finally strike again.
The velocity is now adjusted to the sound velocity of the speci-
men. To see the value of the measured sound velocity, strike key
, use the key or and select the menu item . Af-
ter a short time the sound velocity of the specimen is displayed

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 20


All subsequent measurments are based on the new sound veloc-
ity. It will be kept by the instrument - even when removing the bat-
teries - , until a different value of the sound velocity is entered or
adusted, or a new calibration is executed.

Please refer to section 2.4, when the error message


should be displayed during adjustment.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 21


2.9 Alarm mode (monitoring thickness limits)
The instrument can monitor the thickness readings on being
within allowed limits.
Maximum and minimum thickness values can be entered as up-
per and lower measuring limits via the parameter set-up of the
ECHOMETER 1073. When these limits are exceeded, a special
alarm sound is generated and the display flashes.
The limits can be entered any time during measurement.

2.9.1 Input of measuring limits

2.9.1.1 Input of the lower limit value


• Strike and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display.
• Strike .
• Use the keys or until the required lower limit value is
shown.
• Strike to accept the adjusted limit value and to return to
measuring operating mode.

During measurement:
With measured values dropping below the lower limit, the dis-
play reading will start flashing.
In addition, a low tone alarm signal will be heard. (Exceeding
the upper limit - see following section - is announced by means
of a high tone alarm signal).

Please refer to section 2.4, if the error message is dis-


played during adjustment of the lower limit.

Switching the alarm mode off:


By adjusting the menu item and parameter to
the alarm mode for the lower limit is switched off.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 22


2.9.1.2 Input of the upper limit value
• Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display.
• Strike .
• Use the keys or until the required upper limit value is
shown.
• Strike to accept the adjusted limit value and to return to
measuring operating mode.

During measurement:
With measured values exceeding the upper limit, the display
reading will start flashing.
In addition, a high tone alarm signal will be heard. (thickness
readings dropping below the lower limit - see previous section -
are announced by means of a low tone alarm signal).

Please refer to section 2.4, if the error message is dis-


played during adjustment of the upper limit.

Switching the alarm mode off:


By adjusting the menu item and parameter to
the alarm mode for the lower limit is switched off.

The limits may be entered in arbritary sequence. Furthermore,


it is not required to enter both limit values: A single upper or lower
limit, depending on the testing task, is sufficient.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 23


2.9.2 Displaying the limit values
The stored limit values can be read in the display.

2.9.2.1 Displaying the lower limit


Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display. Wait for approximately one second. The
display will then show the current lower limit value.

2.9.2.2 Displaying the upper limit


Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display. Wait for approximately one second. The
display will then show the current lower limit value.

2.10 Selecting the measuring unit


When you want occasionally that the thickness is read or con-
verted in another unit (mm or inch) than corresponding to the
presetting of the instrument, proceed as follows:
• Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display.
• Strike .
• Use the arrow keys or to select the measuring unit
(mm) or (inch).
• Strike to accept the selection.

Each time a new calibration is executed after switch-on, the in-


strument is reset to read in “mm” or “inch” according to the selected
presetting.
When skipping a new calibration after switch-on by striking the
key, after the display shows , the unit keeps reading in
“mm” or “inch” according to the latest setting of the menu item
“UNIT” before switch-off.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 24


2.11 Adaptation of the sensitivity
When thickness readings have to be taken from a workpiece
with a very low absorption (e.g. aluminium), the sensitivity must
be reduced to . The lower sensitivity settings can also be
used to avoid thickness readings from small targets within or in
the vicinity of the sound beam of the probe.
Proceed as follows to select the sensitivity level:
• Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display.
• Strike .
• Use the arrow keys or to select the sensitivity to

maximum sensitivity
high sensitivity
low sensitivity
minimum sensitivity,
• Strike to accept the selection.
Without need to reduce the sensitivity, measuring should al-
ways be executed with the highest sensitivity .

2.12 Illumination of the LCD display


The LCD display is equipped with a backlight, enabling reading
it even in darkness.
To switch the internal backlight on or off, proceed as follows:
• Strike key and then key or until the menu item
appears in the display.
• Strike .
• Use the arrow keys or to select resp. , if
you want to switch the illumination on or off.
• Strike to accept the selection.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 25


For energy saving reasons, the backlight is lit only during menu
adjustment and while the probe is coupled to a workpiece. The latter
feature could also be used as an optical indication of a good coupling
to the workpiece. However be aware of the fact, that the power con-
sumption is much higher with a lit backlight and that the lifetime of
the battery will considerably be reduced.

2.13 Energy-saving mode


The instrument switches automatically to an energy-saving
stand-by mode after about 1 minute of not being used.
A triple alarm beep will sound and the display then shows two
horizontal lines .
Press to return the instrument to normal operation again. The
operating condition will be the same as before the stand-by
mode.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 26


3 Special features

3.1 Changing the basic presettings for unit and resolution


The ECHOMETER 1073 can be preset to read thickness in mm
or inch with 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm or 0.001 inch resolution.
If your selected basic presetting is “0.1 mm” or “0.01 mm” and
you want only occasionally your instrument to read in inch, or vice
versa, use the menu item “UNIT” as described in section
2.10 of this manual.

To select 0.1 mm, 0.01 mm or 0.001 inch as the new basic pre-
setting of the instrument, proceed as follows:
• Switch off the instrument
• Press simultaneously a key according to the desired display
unit and resolution (see following table) and the key.
basic presettings for unit and key combination to
resolution change the presettings
metric with display resolution +
0.1 mm
metric with display resolution +
0.01 mm
inch with display resolution +
0.001 inch
• After releasing both keys the display will show ,
which is the request to start a new calibration.
• Calibrate the instrument. After calibration the new basic pre-
settings for unit and calibration are valid. They remain stored
in the memory of the instrument – even after switch-off or
replacing the batteries -, until they are changed again by the
described procedure.

When the presetting has been changed by the described proce-


dure, the instrument must read at least one thickness value, before a
parameter of the menu can be changed.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 27


4 Corrogram
A "Corrogram" shows the usable thickness range of the instru-
ment together with a specific probe, when echoes are reflected
from small targets compared to the cross section of the sound
beam of the probe instead from a plane and extended back-wall.
A corroded back-wall even acts as if the echo is reflected from
small targets. The “Corrogram” shows, which probe is most sen-
sitive in an expected thickness range.
In the "Corrogram" the minimum diameter of a flat bottom hole
("FBH"), whose depth can be determined by the specific instru-
ment and probe combination, is plotted against the depth.
The useful range lies within the u-shaped field, which is limited
by the respective curve marked by the probe name.

useful range

Fig. 2: Corrogram ECHOMETER 1073

Example: If you expect targets as small as 1 mm in diameter lying in a depth


between 1 and 5 mm, take the probe DSE 4.2/4 PB 8. No other probe covers
that region better.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 28


5 General notes

5.1 Measurement principle


The ECHOMETER 1073 is a measuring instrument based on ul-
trasound technique. It can be used for measuring the thickness of
various materials. Basically, the instrument determines the tran-
sit time of ultrasonic pulses. All readings are deducted from a
measured transit time.
Periodically, an electrical pulse transmitter excites the piezoelec-
tric transmitter element of an ultrasonic probe to high-frequency
thickness vibrations. The frequency of these vibrations is in the
range between 1 and 10 MHz and cannot be heard by the human
ear.
When putting the probe on a sound-conductive specimen, the
vibrations can be transfered to the specimen by means of a liquid
couplant and propagate as an ultrasonic wave straight forward.
At interfaces, e.g. at the rear side of a workpiece, the wave is re-
flected and returns to the probe, where it is picked up and con-
verted into an electrical pulse again by the piezoelectric receiver
element of the probe.
The transit time (t) between transmitting and receiving of the
electrical pulse is determined by the instrument and converted
into thickness (s) or velocity (v). Conversion to thickness is car-
ried out according to s = v x t/2. The sound velocity (v) must be
known in this case. Conversion to sound velocity (v) is done ac-
cording to v = 2s/t. The thickness (s) must be known in this case.
The factor 2 is caused by the fact, that the actual sound path
equals two times (forth and back) the thickness s. For the con-
venience of the user, thickness gauges read thickness instead of
sound path, always.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 29


5.2 Operating and storage temperature
The ECHOMETER 1073 can be operated in environmental tem-
peratures from -10 °C to 50 °C.
The permissible storage temperatures of the ECHOMETER
1073 with inserted batteries lies in the same range -10 °C to
+50 C.
With batteries removed, you can store the instrument in a tem-
perature ranging between –20 °C and 60 °C.
Temperatures in the inside of a car or generally behind glass can
easily be higher than 60 °C, when the sun is shining!

5.3 Wear and tear of the probe


Depending on the surface roughness of the workpieces mechani-
cal wear can reduce the length of the probe. Wear of up to 1 mm
will not affect the measurement accuracy. Wear exceeding this
limit can decrease the accuracy compared to the usually ex-
pected measuring tolerances of section 1.6.
The following table gives information on the effects of wear
with regard to the various probe types:
Shortening lim- total usable shortening length of
its without in- (add ± 0.1 mm to the housing ex
fluence on accu- normal tolerance) works
probe type racy

DSE 10.4/6 PB 4 1 mm up to 5 mm 30 -0.2 mm

DSE 4.2/4 PB 8 1 mm up to 2 mm 15 -0.1 mm

DSE 18/25 PB 2 1 mm up to 5 mm 33 -0.2 mm

You can verify the actual shortening by comparison the actual


length with the original length of the housing ex works.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 30


5.4 Power supply
The ECHOMETER can be used with 1,5 V alkali-manganese or
1,5 V lithium batteries (dry cells) or with 1,2 – 1,5 V recharge-
able batteries.

5.4.1 Battery types


For operation, you need two batteries of Mignon/AA/LR6/AM3
size. Ex works, the instrument comes with two alkali-manganese
batteries. Alternatively you can use rechargeable NiCd- or
NiMH-batteries of same size.
Both rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries are available
in all shops selling electro devices or entertainment electronics.
This is where to find suitable chargers, too.
High-quality NiMH rechargeable batteries can be ordered from
KARL DEUTSCH by order no. 6016.001 (2 ea.). A suitable
charger is also available by order no. 6015.001.
If you are going to use rechargeable batteries, we recommend
NiMH-batteries since they feature a higher capacity against
NiCd and are less harmful to the environment.

Use leak-proof battery types only! Remove batteries from the


unit when it is stored for a longer period. Dead batteries should be
removed immediately and handed-on to a recycling system.

Prior to disposal of the gauge, you need to remove the batteries


from the instrument and dispose them non-polluting.

5.4.2 Operating time


With AlMn dry cells, the average operating time is more than
200 h (permanent operation).
With fully charged NiMH-batteries permanent operation of ap-
prox. 90 h is possible.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 31


The power consumption of the instrument increases when the
LCD backlight is switched on (see menu item ). The a.m. op-
erating time will then be reduced. When the backlight is permanently
used, only 30 % of the a.m. operation time may be left.
To spare battery lifetime, you should avoid unnecessary use of the
backlight.

5.4.3 Exchanging batteries


Batteries are inserted into the compartment in the bottom side of
the instrument.
To exchange the batteries proceed as fol-
lows:
• Switch-off the instrument.
• Remove Phillips screws of the battery
compartment cover (10).
• Carefully lift off cover. Ensure that the
rubber sealing will not be damaged or
removed from the guiding notch.
• Insert new batteries into the battery
compartment (8). Ensure correct orien-
tation according to the sketch.
Re-assembling is made in the reverse or-
Fig. 3: Rear view
with open bat-
der.
tery compart-
ment

All measuring parameter and calibration data are stored in a


non-volatile memory and will not get lost, when removing and chang-
ing the batteries. Skip the request for calibration by striking the key
after switch on, if you want to work with the same parameter
and calibration data again.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 32


5.5 Housing
The ECHOMETER housing is made from sturdy plastics (ABS /
polyester).
The housing is splash proof according to IP 54.
Please note section 5.4.3 regarding the correct handling of the
rubber sealing, in order not to risk the protection class.

5.6 Cleaning keypad and housing


To clean housing and keypad you can use a cloth soaked with a
soft cleansing agent. Make sure that there are no solvents or
scratching agents in the cleanser. If you are using a plastics-
cleanser make sure that it does not dissolve ABS and polyester.

5.7 Type and serial number


The ECHOMETER 1073 described in this man-
ual is assigned to the type number 1073.001. If
there are any questions concerning the instru-
ment, please quote the serial number, too. The
serial number of your instrument is shown on the
type label (9) on the rear of the unit.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 33


6 What to do when .....?

What to do when the display shows ?


Cause: The combination of current or just entered parameter
leads to a value that exceeds the permissible parame-
ter limits (see section 2.4).
Remedy: Alter the parameter values correspondingly.

What to do when the non-coupling mark won't dis-


appear?
Cause: Insufficient acoustic coupling
Remedy: Remove dust or dirt from the contact face of the
probe and the workpiece, where the thickness shall
be measured. Apply a sufficient drop of couplant
(ECHOTRACE, ECHOFLUID, oil etc.) to the probe
or to the workpiece. If necessary increase the cou-
pling pressure a little bit (do not apply too much
force !!).
Cause: High sound attenuation in the workpiece
Remedy: Try a probe with a lower frequency (see section 1.6).
Low frequencies are less attenuated and can penetrate
lossy materials better than higher frequencies. Re-
member that the measuring tolerance will become
higher with low frequencies. You are welcome to get
in touch with the application laboratory of KARL
DEUTSCH if you need help to solve a special appli-
cation problem.

What to do when the display shows ?

This is no error message. The instrument has switched automati-


cally to its stand-by mode. You can return to measuring mode by
striking once.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 34


What to do when measured thickness is changing from
specimen to specimen despite same physical thickness ?
Remember that the thickness readings depend on the sound ve-
locity of the material. The sound verlocity may not be homoge-
neous throughout the bulk material or may differ between differ-
ent production lots due to a modified production process. Al-
ways ensure that you have entered the correct sound velocity of
the respective material.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 35


7 Technical data

DISPLAY
Display technique Liquid crystal display (LCD)
Display size Standard 5 inch = 50.8 x 30.5 mm2
Display format 4½ characters. Seven segments
Display window 44 x 16 mm2
Character height 10.2 mm

ADJUSTMENT LIMITS
Wall thickness (thi)
Resolution 0.1 mm >= 1.0 mm to s(max)
Resolution 0.01 mm >= 0.1 mm to s(max)
Resolution 0.001 inch >= 0.01 inch to s(max)
Note: s(max) = s(o) * v(max) / v(o) ; s(o). v(o) = last adjusted values
(of thickness and sound velocity) prior to adjustment of thi,
v(max) = 19999 m/s resp. 1.9999 inch/us
Sound velocity (VEL)
Resolution 0.1 mm >= 100 m/s to 19999 m/s
Resolution 0.01 mm >= 100 m/s to 19999 m/s
Resolution 0.001 inch >= 0.0100 inch/us to 1.9999 inch/us
Limits (Loth, Hith) (Loth) < (Hith)

Calibration block
Built-in calibration block Equivalent to 5 mm steel (5920 m/s)

MEASUREMENT
UNCERTAINTY OF GAUGE
Resolution 0.1 mm 0.1 mm
Resolution 0.01 mm 0.05 mm
Resolution 0.001 inch 0.002 inch

MEASURING RANGES
Standard probe (DSE 10.4/6 PB 4) 1.5 to 250 mm
Measuring uncertainty with :
Resolution 0.1 mm 0.1 mm, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%
Resolution 0.01 mm 0.1 mm, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%
Resolution 0.001 inch 0.002 inch, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%

Miniature probe (DSE 4.2/4 PB 8) 0.7 to 25 mm


Measuring uncertainty with :
Resolution 0.1 mm 0.1 mm, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%
Resolution 0.01 mm 0.1 mm, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 36


Resolution 0.001 inch 0.002 inch, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%

Low frequency probe (DSE 18/25 PB 2) 5.0 to 400mm


Measuring uncertainty with :
Resolution 0.1 mm 0.2 mm, above 80 mm +/- 0.5%

TRANSMITTER
Shape of transmitter pulse Unipolar (negative) needle pulse
Transmitter properties : (adapted to a.m. probes)
Voltage of transmitter pulse Vpo = 70 V, +/ -10% at 180 Ω
(power adapted)
Rise time of pulse t = 20 ns +/- 10%
Pulse length t = 300 ns +/- 10%
Frequency spectrum see below: additional data acc. to prEN
12668-1
Mesurement repetition frequency 2 Hz

AMPLIFIER and DAMPING


Nominal frequency range 0.6 – 15 MHz (-3dB)
Maximum input sensitivity 1.5 mVpp for 100% coupling (adjust va-
lue)
Equivalent input impedance 180 Ω +/- 10%
Adjustable damping, four steps "Hi =" 0dB (maximum sensitivity)
"Hi -" - 6dB (high sensitivity)
"Lo -" - 9dB (low sensitivity)
"Lo =" - 12dB (minimum sensitivity)
Damping of crossover talking > 80 dB

MISCELLANEOUS
Measurement systems Selectable mm and inch
Probe recognition Automatical per calibration ("CAL“), by
means of measurement of delay line.
Beeper Confirms keystroke and limit excess by
a spezific tone signal
Parameter memory The parameters reading, sound veloci-
ty, upper and lower limit remain memo-
rized after switch-off and battery chan-
ge.

VOLTAGE SUPPLY
Battery operation By two alkali-manganese primary cells.
Type AA/IEC R6. 2 x 1.5 V
Operating time (with max. power More than 200 hrs
consumption)
Rechargeable battery operation By two NiMH batteries. Type AA/IEC

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 37


R6. 2 x 1.2 V
Operating time (with max. power approx. 90 hrs (new)
consumption)
Battery capacity indication approx. 1 to 3 hrs. Prior to reaching low
voltage state the alarm indication "Lo
Batt“ will show in the display
Automatic switch off With undervoltage of batteries (< 1.6 V)
Stability vs. voltage deviation Within the range of permissible battery
voltage of 2.0 to 5.0 V the deviation of
amplitude at the amplifier output is lo-
wer than 0.1 %

PERMISSIBLE AMBIENT
CONDITIONS
Operating temperature -10 to +50° C
Storage temperature - w/o batte- -20 to +60° C
ry!
Dust and humidity Protective class IP54 (splash-proof)

MECHANICS
Size (H x W x D) 120 x 65 x 25 mm3 with calibration
block
Front foil (H x W) 55 x 80 mm2
Weight 115 g w/o batteries. 150 g w/ batteries
Case material ABS (UL-94 HB)
Keypad material Polyester
Probe connectors Lemo 00

ADDITIONAL DATA acc. to


prEN 12668-1
Transmitter (definitions) td
tr
0%
10 %

V50

90%
100 %

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 38


Pulse shape and frequency spectrum of transmitter

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 39


8 Use and assembly of wear protective mem-
branes
Wear protective membranes made of Vulcollan (available
as assesories) can optionally be used for probes, when the
surface of the workpiece to be measured is very rough.
Vulcollan is a special wear resistant plastic material.

Wear Protective membranes not only protect the probe from be-
ing scratched, when it is scanned over a rough surface, but they can
also improve the coupling in this case. On a smooth surface, however,
the sensitivity of the probes and, therefore, the measuring range and
the accuracy will be reduced when using protective membranes.
We do not recommend to use protective membranes, where it is not
necessary ( e.g. on smooth surfaces).

1. Insert probe into handling sleeve.

2. Put membrane into retaining ring.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 40


3. Distribute oil (don´t use any other
couplant) on the inner side of the
membrane. (Don´t use too much
couplant. A few drops are suffi-
cient.)

4. Screw retaining ring with mem-


brane onto handling sleeve (do not
yet tighten the ring!)

5. Press probe with membrane onto a


smooth surface so that air bubbles
can leak out and the coupling agent
is distributed homogeneously.
Screw retaining ring tightly while
probe is still pressed.

6. Finally verify visually, that there


are no air bubbles between probe
and the membrane.
Ultrasound is reflected by air. There-
fore, any air bubbles between probe
and membrane can reduce the transfe-
red sound energy considerably, thus
reducing the accuracy of readings
and/or the measuring range. Too
much oil (cushion like thick oil layer)
can also affect the measurements.

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 41


9 Instrument view

(1) probe connector for receiver element (red sleeve)


(2) probe connector for transmitter element (black sleeve)
(3) probe socket for transmitter element
(4) probe socket for receiver element (red dot mark, see arrow)
(5) LC display
(6) keypad
(7) calibration block (5 mm steel with v = 5920 m/s)
(0.197 inch steel with v = 0.233 inch/µs)
(8) battery compartment (open)
(9) type label
(10) cover for battery compartment

Operating Manual ECHOMETER 1073 7413.7311 p. 41