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Attitude and Job Satisfaction 

• Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favorable or 
unfavorable – about objects, people, or events.

• They reflect how we feel about something.
Attitudes

Attitudes Cognitive Component


The opinion or belief segment of
an attitude

Affective Component
The emotional or feeling segment
of an attitude

Behavioral Component
An intention to behave in a certain way toward
someone or something
The Theory of Cognitive 
Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance
Attitude Follow Behavior
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or
between behavior and attitudes
Individuals seek to reduce this gap, or “dissonance”
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (cont.)

Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:


• Importance of elements creating dissonance
• Degree of individual influence over elements
• Rewards involved in dissonance
Summarize the Relationship 
Between Attitudes and Behavior 
Moderating Variables:
Attitude
Mitigating Variables

 Importance of the attitude
 Its correspondence to behavior
predicts  Its accessibility
 The presence of social pressures
 Whether a person has direct 
experience with the attitude
Behavior
Job Satisfaction
 A person's evaluation of 
his or her job and work 
context
 A collection of attitudes  Job
about specific facets of  Content
Supervisor
the job

Career Job Co-workers


Progress Satisfaction

Pay and Working


Benefits Conditions
Job Satisfaction

• Measuring Job Satisfaction
• Single global rating
• Summation score
• How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
• In general, people are satisfied with their 
jobs. 
• Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be 
less satisfied with pay and promotion 
opportunities 
Employee Responses to 
Dissatisfaction: EVLN Model
Active

Exit Voice
• Behavior  • Active and 
directed  constructive 
toward  attempts to 
leaving the  improve 
organization conditions
Destructive Constructive
Neglect Loyalty
• Allowing  • Passively 
conditions to  waiting for 
worsen conditions to 
improve

Passive
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee 
Performance

Satisfaction and Productivity
Satisfaction and Absenteeism
Satisfaction and OCBs
Satisfaction and Turnover
Employee‐Customer‐Profit 
Chain
Company
Practices

• Less • Satisfied
turnover Customer’s customers
Satisfied
Perceived
Employees • Consistent • Customer
service Value referrals

Higher
Revenue
Growth and
Profits
Organizational Commitment
• “Organizational Commitment 
• degree to which people are involved with their organizations 
and are interested in remaining within them

• It  can be characterized by
• The strong belief in and acceptance of organizational goals 
and values
• A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of 
organization
• A strong desire to maintain membership in the organization
Types of Organizational Commitment:  Normative commitment  
John Mayer & Natalie Allen
• “Should do”
• Key Contributors 
Affective Commitment  • Fostered by benefits that 
build a sense of obligation 
• “want to” to Organization – some 
• Key Contributors special learning opportunity
• interesting satisfying work 
• Role clarity and having one’s 
expectations met after  Continuance commitment  
being hired
• “have to”
• Key Contributors
• Pensions funds, being well 
integrated into community 
where firm is located
Employee Engagement
• A heightened emotional connection that an employee 
feels for his/her organization, that influences him/her 
to exert greater discretionary behavior to his/her work

• The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, 
and enthusiasm for the job

• “Engaged employees account for 12% higher 
customer satisfaction scores, 18% higher productivity, 
12% higher profitability, and 17% higher earning per 
share”
Schaufeli et al. (2002) define engagement

“as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is


characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption.

Vigor –Employees are both physically energetic and mentally


resilient

Dedication – employees are dedicated to their work as they


find it meaningful and fulfilling

Absorption – Engaged employees throw themselves into the


work without thought of time etc.
Common Drivers of employee engagement

• A culture of respect where  • Availability of effective 
outstanding work is valued  leadership 
• Availability of constructive 
feedback and mentoring  • Clear job expectations 

• Opportunity for  • Adequate tools to complete 
advancement and 
professional development  work responsibilities 

• Fair and appropriate reward,  • High levels of motivation 
recognition and incentive 
systems 
• Trust and Integrity