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 Basic convictions that Mode of conduct or end state 

is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right 
and good) to an opposite or converse mode of 
conduct or end‐state of existence

 Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an 
individual’s values in terms of their intensity
Importance of Values
 Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors
 Influence our perception of the world around us
 Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”
 Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over

Terminal Values
Values in the 
Desirable end-states of existence;
the goals that a person would like
to achieve during his or her lifetime

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human

Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
Values in the 
Instrumental Values Rokeach 
Preferable modes of behavior or Survey
means of achieving one’s terminal (cont’d)

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human

Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
Mean Value Rankings of 
Executives, Union 
Members, and Activists

Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of

Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and
Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.)
Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich,
CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.
• Acc. To Rokeach, values serve the following 
• Predispose us to favor one particular position

• Lead us to take a particular position on social 

• They lead us to persuade and influence others by 
suggesting to us which beliefs, attitudes, and 
values and actions of others need to be 
Generational Values
Mannheim (1953) defined generations as a group of
people born and brought up in the same
chronological, social and historical period

Similarities among members of a

Researchers suggest that growing up at about the generation are reflected in the
same time and experiencing the same events at in ways they live their lives and
their development leads to similar values, opinions, their participation in the
and life experiences of people within each cohort workforce (Patterson, 2008)
(Jurkiewicz and Brown, 1998; Kupperschmidt,
2000; Smola and Sutton, 2002 etc) A generation builds up a
personality that shapes the feeling
toward authority and
organizations, expectations from
work, and the approach to satisfy
those desires (Kupperschmidt,
Dominant Work Values in Indian Workforce
Cohort Entered the workforce Approximate  Dominant Work Vale
Current age
Socialists 1950s to the late 1980s 55+ Hardworking, conservative, conforming, loyalty
to the organization, emphasis on a comfortable 
and secure life

Liberals Early 1990s to 2000 Mid‐40s to mid‐50s Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of 

authority, loyalty to career

Xers 2000‐2005 Late 20s to early 40s Work‐life balance, dislike of rules,  confident, 

want financial success, self‐reliant but team 
oriented, loyalty to both self and relationships

Milennials,   2005 to present Early 20s Comfortable with technology, entrepreneurial, 

Netters, Nexters,  want to get rich quickly, high sense of 
Generation Yers entitlement 
Making Millennials Work

The company doesn’t like to tell its employees what to do. Rather,
it prefers to involve them in decisions.

An online idea site that lets anybody pitch business ideas and
collaborate with teams, and regular contests that appeal to the
employees’ creative side

There are no board rooms or meeting rooms. Instead, employees

can put down their ideas on speech bubbles and graphics across
building walls that HR teams keep an eye out for to implement.
Making Millennials Work
The company offers a child adoption policy of up to eight
weeks for women employees and two weeks for men.

The company also has higher education

policy for GET (graduate engineer trainees),
gym/fitness centre tie-ups and
reimbursements, flexi-benefit plans, flexi
working and work from home and short-term
international assignments.

There are even workshops around health

and well-being.
Making Millennials Work
The firm conducts interactive sessions called ‘GenY
Anubhava’ where a group of employees discuss their
aspirations with Intel India leaders. The session is
aimed at bridging the generational gap.

Topics include career development, managing the next

generation, working environment and work style
preference. Because of feedback from millennial,

Intel Introduced The Way We Work (T3W) initiative

which allows for, among other things, flexible seating
and working space arrangements.
Making Millennials Work
“Millennials are important because one‐third of 
the workforce is under 30 years. 

Also, they are more inclined to give back to the 
lesser fortunate and, therefore, take a few days 
off a year to pursue those interests. 

Membership of hiking and trekking clubs is 
highest amongst the same group
Hofstede’s dimensions 
• One of the first researchers to analyze 
the influence of NATIONAL culture on 
management practices
• Empirical study at large multinational 
company (IBM)
• 66 national subsidiaries
• 116000 questionnaires
• 60 out of 150 questions concerned values 
and opinions
Values Across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework

• Power Distance
• Individualism vs. Collectivism
• Masculinity vs. Femininity
• Uncertainty Avoidance
• Long‐term and Short‐term Orientation 
• Indulgence and Restraints
Power Distance
The extent to which a society accepts that 
power in institutions and organizations is 
distributed unequally.
Low distance: Relatively equal power 
between those with status/wealth and 
those without status/wealth
High distance: Extremely unequal power 
distribution between those with 
status/wealth and those without 
Low Power Distance High Power Distance

Hierarchy in organization means an inequality  Hierarchy in organization means there are 

of roles, established for convenience inequalities between superior and 

Decentralization is popular Centralization is popular

Subordinate expect to be consulted Subordinates expect to be told what to do

The ideal boss is resourceful democrat The ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat, or 
good father

Privileges and status symbols are frowned  Privileges and status symbols for managers 

upon are both expected and popular
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Individualism vs. Collectivism
The degree to which people  A tight social framework in 
prefer to act as individuals  which people expect others 
rather than a member of  in groups of which they are 
groups a part to look after them 
and protect them
Collectivism Individualism

Harmony should always be maintained  Speaking one’s mind is a characteristics 

and direct confrontation is avoided of an honest person

The employer‐employee relationship is  The employer‐employee relationship is 

perceived in moral terms, like a family  a contract based on mutual advantage

Hiring and promotion decisions take  Hiring and promotion decisions based 

into account the employer’s in‐group on skills and rules only

Relationship prevails over task Task prevails over relationships
Masculinity vs. Femininity
The extent to which the The extent to which
society values work roles there is little differ-
of achievement, power, entiation between roles
and control, and where for men and women
assertiveness and mater-
ialism are also valued
Feminine Masculine

Dominant values in society are caring for  Dominant values in society are material 

others and quality of life success and progress

Both men and women are allowed to be  Women are supposed to be tender and take

tender and concerned with relationships care of relationships

Work in order to live Live in order to work

Stress on equality, solidarity, and quality of  Stress on equity, competition, and 

work life performance

Conflicts are resolved through compromise  Conflicts are resolved by fighting them out 

and negotiations
Uncertainty Avoidance Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)

The extent to which a society feels threatened 
by uncertain and ambiguous situations and 
tries to avoid them

•High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like 
ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. 
•Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind 
ambiguous situations and embraces them.  
Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Strong Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty is a normal feature of life and  The uncertainty inherent in life is felt as a 

each day is accepted as it comes continuous threat that must be fought

Ambiguous situations and unfamiliar risks  Familiar risks are accepted, ambiguous 
causes no discomfort situations  and unfamiliar risks raises fears

What is different is curious What is different is dangerous 

Rules should be limited to those that are  There is emotional need for rules, even if 

strictly necessary they will not work

Motivation by achievement Motivation by security

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Long-term Orientation vs. Short-term Orientation
A national culture attribute A national culture attribute
that emphasizes the future, that emphasizes the present
thrift, and persistence and the here and now
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Indulgence vs. Restraints
A national culture A national culture attribute
attribute that describes that describes the extent to
the degree to which it is which there are social
alright for people to norms governing the
enjoy life, have fun, and gratification of basic human
fulfill natural human desires and people’s
desires behavior
Hofstede’s India Japan USA France Germany Switzerland World
framework Average

Power distance 77 54 40 68 35 34 56.5

Individualism 48 46 91 71 67 68 40

Masculinity 56 95 62 43 66 70 51

Uncertainty  40 92 46 86 65 58 65

Long‐term  61 88 20 63 83 74 48

Hofstede’s framework Highest Score Lowest Score

Power distance (56.5) Panama (95) Israel (13)

Individualism (40) United States (91) Indonesia (14)

Masculinity (51) Japan (95) Sweden (5)

Uncertainty Avoidance (65) Japan (92) Denmark (23)