You are on page 1of 42

Dr. Ala?

Sirhan

General Chemistry
(1501130)

Dr. Ala’ Sirhan, PhD


Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Lecturer:
Dr. Ala Sirhan; Office location: Law Faculty building , 2nd floor, room no. 220.

MAIN TEXTBOOKS:
• Brady, J.; Senese, F., Chemistry: The Study of Matter and Its Changes, 6th
Ed.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL:
• Silberberg, M.; Amateis, P., Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and
Change, 7th Ed., 2015, McGraw-Hill.
• Ebbing, D. D.; Gammon, S. D., General Chemistry, 8th Ed., Houghton Mifflin
Co.

COURSE ASSESSMENT:
• 40% for 2 Exams (1st on 3rd week & 2nd on 5th week)
• 10% for Quizzes and activities
• 50% for Final exam
Course Contents: Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Scientific Measurements
Sl units, non Sl units Decimal Multipliers, Factor-Label method, Density & specific
gravity, Laboratory Measurements, Significant figures, Uncertainty and Accuracy &
Precision.

The Mole Stoichiometry


Molecular and formula masses, The mole concept, Percentage composition, Chemical
formulas, Balancing chemical equations, Stoichiometry, Limiting reactant, Percentage
Yield

Gases
Pressure, Pressure- volume- temperature relationships, Ideal gas laws, Stoichiometry
of reactions between gases, Dalton`s law, Graham’s law, Kinetic theory, Real gases.

First Exam (16/11/2017)


Thermochemistry
Energy, Calorimetry, Energy changes in chemical reactions, P-V work, First, second
and third laws of thermodynamics, Enthalpy, Hess’s law, Standard heat of formation.

Thermodynamics
Enthalpy and spontaneity, The second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy,
Free energy and equilibrium, Free energy and maximum work, The third law of
thermodynamics, Thermodynamic equilibrium constants.

Second Exam (21/12/2017)


Course Contents: Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Basic Concepts of Chemical Equilibria


Dynamic equilibrium in chemical systems, Equilibrium law for chemical reactions,
Significance of K, Relationship between Kc and Kp, Heterogeneous equilibria, Le
Chatelier’s principle, Equilibrium calculations.

Rates of Chemical Reactions


Rate of reaction, Factors that affect reaction rates, Measuring rate of
reaction, Concentration and rate, Concentration and time, Theories about
reaction rates, Activation energy, Collision theory and Catalysts.

Final Exam (21/1/2018)


General Chemistry
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

(1501130)

Scientific
Measurements
1st Chapter
Dr. Ala’ Sirhan, PhD Applied Science University
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Is the study of matter,


its properties,
the changes that matter undergoes,
and
the energy associated with these changes.
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Definitions

Matter anything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the
universe: books, planets, trees, professors, students

Composition the types and amounts of simpler substances that


make up a sample of matter

Properties the characteristics that give each substance a unique


identity

Physical Properties Chemical Properties


those which the substance those which the substance shows
shows by itself without as it interacts with, or transforms
interacting with another into, other substances such as
substance such as color, melting flammability, corrosiveness
point, boiling point, density
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Figure 1.1 The distinction between physical and chemical change.

A Physical change B Chemical change (reaction)


Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.1 Distinguishing Between Physical and
Chemical Change

PROBLEM: Decide whether each of the following process is primarily a


physical or a chemical change, and explain briefly:
(a) Frost forms as the temperature drops on a humid winter night.
(b) A corn stalk grows from a seed that is watered and fertilized.
(c) Dynamite explodes to form a mixture of gases.
(d) Perspiration evaporates when you relax after jogging.
(e) A silver fork tarnishes slowly in air.

PLAN: “Does the substance change composition or just change form?”


SOLUTION:
(a) physical change (b) chemical change (c) chemical change

(d) physical change (e) chemical change


Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Energy is the capacity to do work.

Potential Energy energy due to the position of the object or


energy from a chemical reaction

Kinetic Energy energy due to the motion of the object

Potential and kinetic energy can be interconverted.


Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Energy is the capacity to do work. Figure 1.3A

less stable

change in potential energy


EQUALS
kinetic energy

more stable

A gravitational system. The potential energy gained when a


lifted weight is converted to kinetic energy as the weight falls.
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Energy is the capacity to do work. Figure 1.3B

less stable
change in potential energy
EQUALS
kinetic energy

more stable

A system of two balls attached by a spring. The potential energy


gained by a stretched spring is converted to kinetic energy when the
moving balls are released.
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Energy is the capacity to do work. Figure 1.3C

less stable
change in potential energy
EQUALS
kinetic energy

more stable

A system of oppositely charged particles. The potential energy gained


when the charges are separated is converted to kinetic energy as the
attraction pulls these charges together.
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Energy is the capacity to do work. Figure 1.3D

less stable
change in potential energy
EQUALS
kinetic energy

more stable

A system of fuel and exhaust. A fuel is higher in chemical potential


energy than the exhaust. As the fuel burns, some of its potential energy is
converted to the kinetic energy of the moving car.
SI Base Units
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

SI units: Scientists throughout the world have adopted a standardized


system of units known as the International System of Units or SI units.

Table 1. 2

Physical Quantity Unit Name Unit


(Dimension) Abbreviation

mass kilogram kg

length meter m

time second s

temperature kelvin K

electric current ampere A


amount of substance mole mol
luminous intensity candela cd
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit
SI Equivalent
Length English Equivalent
1 kilometer(km) English to
1000(103)m SI Equivalent
0.62miles(mi)
1 mi = 1.61km
1 meter(m)
100(102)cm
1000(103)mm 1.094yards(yd)
39.37inches(in)
1 yd = 0.9144m
1 foot (ft) = 0.3048m

1 centimeter(cm)
0.01(10-2)m
0.3937in
1 in = 2.54cm
(exactly!)

1 kilometer(km)
1000(103)m
0.62mi
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit
SI Equivalent
English Equivalent
Volume English to
1 cubic meter(m3) SI Equivalent
1,000,000(106)
cubic centimeters
35.2cubic feet (ft3)
1 ft3 = 0.0283m3

1 cubic decimeter(dm3)
1000cm3
0.2642 gallon (gal)
1.057 quarts (qt) 1 gal = 3.785 dm3
1 qt = 0.9464 dm3

1 cubic centimeter (cm3)


0.001 dm3
0.0338 fluid ounce 1 qt = 946.4 cm3
1 fluid ounce = 29.6 cm3
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit
SI Equivalent
Mass English Equivalent
English to
1 kilogram (kg) SI Equivalent
1000 grams
2,205 pounds (lb)
1 (lb) = 0.4536 kg

1 gram (g)
1000 milligrams
0.03527 ounce(oz)
1 lb = 453.6 g

1 ounce = 28.35 g
Prefixes
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Prefixes are used with the base units and other derived units to express
small or large measured quantities in terms of a few simple digits

Table 1.3 Common Decimal Prefixes Used with SI Units

Prefix Prefix Word Conventional Exponential


Symbol Notation
Notation
tera T trillion 1,000,000,000,000 1x1012
giga G billion 1,000,000,000 1x109
mega M million 1,000,000 1x106
kilo k thousand 1,000 1x103
hecto h hundred 100 1x102
deka da ten 10 1x101
----- ---- one 1 1x100
deci d tenth 0.1 1x10-1
centi c hundredth 0.01 1x10-2
milli m thousandth 0.001 1x10-3
micro  millionth 0.000001 1x10-6
nano n billionth 0.000000001 1x10-9
pico p trillionth 0.000000000001 1x10-12
femto f quadrillionth 0.000000000000001 1x10-15
The Factor Label Method Dr. Ala? Sirhan

• A way to solve math problems in chemistry


• Used to convert
km to miles, m to km, mol to g, g to mol, etc.
• To use this we need: 1) desired quantity, 2) given quantity, 3) conversion factors
• Conversion factors are valid relationships or equities expressed as a fraction
E.g. for 1 km=0.6 miles the conversion factor is

1 km 0.6 miles
or
0.6 miles 1 km
• All dimensional analysis problems are set up the same way. They follow
this same pattern:

Given quantity x desired quantity = desired quantity


given quantity

The number & units you The conversion factor The units you want to
start with (The equality that looks like a end with
fraction)
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.2 Converting Units of Length

• How many feet are in 60 inches? Solve using dimensional analysis.

• You need a conversion factor. Something that will change inches


into feet.
• Remember
12 inches = 1 foot
Written as an “equality” or “ratio” it looks like

60 inches x = 5 feet

(Mathematically all you do is: 60 x 1  12 = 5)

Given quantity x desired quantity = desired quantity


given quantity
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.3 Converting Units of Length

PROBLEM: To wire your stereo equipment, you need 325 centimeters (cm) of
speaker wire that sells for $0.15/ft. What is the price of the wire?

PLAN: Known - length (in cm) of wire and cost per length ($/ft)
We have to convert cm to inches and inches to ft followed by
finding the cost for the length in ft.
SOLUTION:
length (cm) of wire
Length (in) = length (cm) x conversion factor
2.54 cm = 1 in
= 325 cm x in = 128 in
length (in) of wire
2.54 cm
12 in = 1 ft Length (ft) = length (in) x conversion factor
length (ft) of wire = 128 in x ft = 10.7 ft
1 ft = $0.15 12 in
Price ($) = length (ft) x conversion factor
Price ($) of wire
= 10.7 ft x $0.15 = $1.60
ft
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.5 Converting Units of Volume

PROBLEM: The volume of an irregularly shaped solid can be determined


from the volume of water it displaces. A graduated cylinder
contains 19.9mL of water. When a small piece of galena, an
ore of lead, is submerged in the water, the volume increases to
24.5mL. What is the volume of the piece of galena in cm3
and in L?
PLAN: The volume of galena is equal to the change in the water
volume before and after submerging the solid.

volume (mL) before and after addition SOLUTION:

subtract (24.5 - 19.9)mL = volume of galena

volume (mL) of galena 3


4.6 mL x 1 cm = 4.6 cm3
1 mL = 1 cm3 1 mL = 10-3 L mL
-3
volume (cm3) of volume (L) of 4.6 mL x 10 L = 4.6x10-3 L
galena galena mL
Density and Specific Gravity Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Density amount of mass per unit volume (kg/L or g/mL).

Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is the ratio of its mass to the mass of an equal
volume of water at 4oC. Or is the density of the object divided by the density of
the water. Specific gravity is dimensionless (not associated with units of
measure).
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Table 1.5 Densities of Some Common Substances*

Substance Physical State Density (g/cm3)

Hydrogen Gas 0.0000899


Oxygen Gas 0.00133
Grain alcohol Liquid 0. 789
Water Liquid 0.998
Table salt Solid 2.16
Aluminum Solid 2.70
Lead Solid 11.3
Gold Solid 19.3
*At room temperature(200C) and normal atmospheric pressure(1atm).
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.4 Calculating Volume from Mass and Density

• You have 1.5 pounds of gold. Find its volume in cm3 if the density of gold is
19.3 g/cm3.

Volume (cm3) = 1.5 lb x 1 kg 1000 g 1 cm3


x x = 35 cm3
2.2 lb 1 kg 19.3 g
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.5 Calculating Density from Mass and Length

PROBLEM: Lithium (Li) is a soft, gray solid that has the lowest density
of any metal. If a slab of Li weighs 1.49 x 103 mg and has
sides that measure 20.9 mm by 11.1 mm by 11.9 mm, what
is the density of Li in g/cm3 ?
PLAN: Density is expressed in g/cm3 so we need the mass in grams
and the volume in cm3.
SOLUTION:
lengths (mm) of sides -3
1.49x103mg x10 g = 1.49g
10 mm = 1 cm 1mg
1cm
mass (mg) of Li lengths (cm) of sides 20.9mm x = 2.09cm
10mm
103 mg = 1 g multiply lengths
Similarly the other sides will be 1.11
mass (g) of Li volume (cm ) 3
cm and 1.19 cm, respectively.
2.09 x 1.11 x 1.20 = 2.76cm3
density (g/cm3) of Li 1.49g
density of Li = = 0.540 g/cm3
2.76 cm3
Temperature Scales and Interconversions
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Kelvin ( K ) - The “Absolute temperature scale” begins at


absolute zero and only has positive values.

Celsius ( oC ) - The temperature scale used by science,


formally called centigrade, most commonly used scale around the
world; water freezes at 0oC, and boils at 100oC.

Fahrenheit ( oF ) - Commonly used scale in the U.S. for our


weather reports; water freezes at 32oF and boils at 212oF.

K = C + 273.15
C = K - 273.15
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Figure 1.12 The freezing and boiling points of water.


Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.6 Converting Units of Temperature

PROBLEM: A child has a body temperature of 38.70C.

(a) If normal body temperature is 98.60F, does the child have a fever?
(b) What is the child’s temperature in kelvins?

PLAN: We have to convert 0C to 0F to find out if the child has a fever


and we use the 0C to kelvin relationship to find the temperature
in kelvins.

SOLUTION:
9
(a) Converting from 0C to 0F (38.70C) + 32 = 101.70F
5

(b) Converting from 0C to K 38.70C + 273.15 = 311.8K


Significant Figures
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Significant digits indicate the precision of a measurement.


 Consider the following measurements? More digits indicate
more precise
8 8.0 8.00 measurement.

 Significant digites in a measurement include the known digits plus


one final estimated digit,
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Rules for Determining Which Digits are Significant

1. All non-zero numbers are significant.

 843

2. Zeros between non-zero numbers are significant.

 307

3. Leading zeros before a number are not significant.

 0.0025,

4. Trailing zeros after a number are not significant unless there’s


a decimal point.

 250 250. 250.0


Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.7 Determining the Number of Significant Figures

PROBLEM: For each of the following quantities, underline the zeros that are
significant figures(sf), and determine the number of significant
figures in each quantity. For (d) to (f), express each in
exponential notation first.

(a) 0.0030 L (b) 0.1044 g (c) 53,069 mL

(d) 0.00004715 m (e) 57,600. s (f) 0.0000007160 cm3

PLAN: Determine the number of sf by counting digits and paying attention


to the placement of zeros.
SOLUTION:

(a) 0.0030 L 2sf (b) 0.1044 g 4sf (c) 53.069 mL 5sf

(d) 0.00004715 m (e) 57,600. s (f) 0.0000007160 cm3


(d) 4.715x10-5 m 4sf (e) 5.7600x104 s 5sf (f) 7.160x10-7 cm3 4sf
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Rules for Significant Figures in Answers

1. For addition and subtraction. The answer has the


same number of decimal places as there are in the
measurement with the fewest decimal places.

Example: adding two volumes 83.5 mL


+ 23.28 mL
106.78 mL = 106.8 mL
Example: subtracting two volumes 865.9 mL
- 2.8121 mL
863.0879 mL = 863.1 mL
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Rules for Significant Figures in Answers

2. For multiplication and division. The number with the


least certainty limits the certainty of the result.
Therefore, the answer contains the same number of
significant figures as there are in the measurement with the
fewest significant figures.

Multiply the following numbers:

9.2 cm x 6.8 cm x 0.3744 cm = 23.4225 cm3 = 23 cm3


Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Rules for Rounding Off Numbers
1. If the digit removed is more than 5, the preceding number
increases by 1.
5.379 rounds to 5.38 if three significant figures are retained
and to 5.4 if two significant figures are retained.
2. If the digit removed is less than 5, the preceding number is
unchanged.
0.2413 rounds to 0.241 if three significant figures are retained
and to 0.24 if two significant figures are retained.
3.If the digit removed is 5, the preceding number increases by
1 if it is odd and remains unchanged if it is even.
17.75 rounds to 17.8, but 17.65 rounds to 17.6.
If the 5 is followed only by zeros, rule 3 is followed; if the 5 is
followed by nonzeros, rule 1 is followed:
17.6500 rounds to 17.6, but 17.6513 rounds to 17.7
4. Be sure to carry two or more additional significant figures
through a multistep calculation and round off only the final
answer.
Dr. Ala? Sirhan
Sample Problem 1.8 Significant Figures and Rounding

PROBLEM: Perform the following calculations and round the answer to the
correct number of significant figures:
1g
16.3521 cm2 - 1.448 cm2 4.80x104 mg 1000 mg
(a) (b)
7.085 cm 11.55 cm3

PLAN: In (a) we subtract before we divide; for (b) we are using an exact
number.

SOLUTION: 16.3521 cm2 - 1.448 cm2 14.904 cm2


(a) = = 2.104 cm
7.085 cm 7.085 cm

1g
4.80x104 mg 1000 mg 48.0 g
(b) = = 4.16 g/ cm3
11.55 cm3 11.55 cm3
Precision and Accuracy
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Errors in Scientific Measurements


Precision -
Refers to reproducibility or how close the measurements are to each
other.
Standard Deviation

Accuracy -
Refers to how close a measurement is to the real value.

Absolute Error

Relative Error
Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Illustrating the difference between “accuracy” and “precision”

Not Accurate and Not Precise Precise but Not Accurate

Accurate but Not Precise Accurate and Precise


Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Precision and accuracy in the laboratory.

Accurate and Precise

Precise but Not Accurate


Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Precision and accuracy in the laboratory.


continued

Accurate but Not Precise

Not Accurate and Not Precise