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Sirhan

General Chemistry

(1501130)

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Lecturer:

Dr. Ala Sirhan; Office location: Law Faculty building , 2nd floor, room no. 220.

MAIN TEXTBOOKS:

• Brady, J.; Senese, F., Chemistry: The Study of Matter and Its Changes, 6th

Ed.

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL:

• Silberberg, M.; Amateis, P., Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and

Change, 7th Ed., 2015, McGraw-Hill.

• Ebbing, D. D.; Gammon, S. D., General Chemistry, 8th Ed., Houghton Mifflin

Co.

COURSE ASSESSMENT:

• 40% for 2 Exams (1st on 3rd week & 2nd on 5th week)

• 10% for Quizzes and activities

• 50% for Final exam

Course Contents: Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Scientific Measurements

Sl units, non Sl units Decimal Multipliers, Factor-Label method, Density & specific

gravity, Laboratory Measurements, Significant figures, Uncertainty and Accuracy &

Precision.

Molecular and formula masses, The mole concept, Percentage composition, Chemical

formulas, Balancing chemical equations, Stoichiometry, Limiting reactant, Percentage

Yield

Gases

Pressure, Pressure- volume- temperature relationships, Ideal gas laws, Stoichiometry

of reactions between gases, Dalton`s law, Graham’s law, Kinetic theory, Real gases.

Thermochemistry

Energy, Calorimetry, Energy changes in chemical reactions, P-V work, First, second

and third laws of thermodynamics, Enthalpy, Hess’s law, Standard heat of formation.

Thermodynamics

Enthalpy and spontaneity, The second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs free energy,

Free energy and equilibrium, Free energy and maximum work, The third law of

thermodynamics, Thermodynamic equilibrium constants.

Course Contents: Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dynamic equilibrium in chemical systems, Equilibrium law for chemical reactions,

Significance of K, Relationship between Kc and Kp, Heterogeneous equilibria, Le

Chatelier’s principle, Equilibrium calculations.

Rate of reaction, Factors that affect reaction rates, Measuring rate of

reaction, Concentration and rate, Concentration and time, Theories about

reaction rates, Activation energy, Collision theory and Catalysts.

General Chemistry

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

(1501130)

Scientific

Measurements

1st Chapter

Dr. Ala’ Sirhan, PhD Applied Science University

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

its properties,

the changes that matter undergoes,

and

the energy associated with these changes.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Definitions

Matter anything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the

universe: books, planets, trees, professors, students

make up a sample of matter

identity

those which the substance those which the substance shows

shows by itself without as it interacts with, or transforms

interacting with another into, other substances such as

substance such as color, melting flammability, corrosiveness

point, boiling point, density

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.1 Distinguishing Between Physical and

Chemical Change

physical or a chemical change, and explain briefly:

(a) Frost forms as the temperature drops on a humid winter night.

(b) A corn stalk grows from a seed that is watered and fertilized.

(c) Dynamite explodes to form a mixture of gases.

(d) Perspiration evaporates when you relax after jogging.

(e) A silver fork tarnishes slowly in air.

SOLUTION:

(a) physical change (b) chemical change (c) chemical change

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

energy from a chemical reaction

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

less stable

EQUALS

kinetic energy

more stable

lifted weight is converted to kinetic energy as the weight falls.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

less stable

change in potential energy

EQUALS

kinetic energy

more stable

gained by a stretched spring is converted to kinetic energy when the

moving balls are released.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

less stable

change in potential energy

EQUALS

kinetic energy

more stable

when the charges are separated is converted to kinetic energy as the

attraction pulls these charges together.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

less stable

change in potential energy

EQUALS

kinetic energy

more stable

energy than the exhaust. As the fuel burns, some of its potential energy is

converted to the kinetic energy of the moving car.

SI Base Units

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

system of units known as the International System of Units or SI units.

Table 1. 2

(Dimension) Abbreviation

mass kilogram kg

length meter m

time second s

temperature kelvin K

amount of substance mole mol

luminous intensity candela cd

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit

SI Equivalent

Length English Equivalent

1 kilometer(km) English to

1000(103)m SI Equivalent

0.62miles(mi)

1 mi = 1.61km

1 meter(m)

100(102)cm

1000(103)mm 1.094yards(yd)

39.37inches(in)

1 yd = 0.9144m

1 foot (ft) = 0.3048m

1 centimeter(cm)

0.01(10-2)m

0.3937in

1 in = 2.54cm

(exactly!)

1 kilometer(km)

1000(103)m

0.62mi

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit

SI Equivalent

English Equivalent

Volume English to

1 cubic meter(m3) SI Equivalent

1,000,000(106)

cubic centimeters

35.2cubic feet (ft3)

1 ft3 = 0.0283m3

1 cubic decimeter(dm3)

1000cm3

0.2642 gallon (gal)

1.057 quarts (qt) 1 gal = 3.785 dm3

1 qt = 0.9464 dm3

0.001 dm3

0.0338 fluid ounce 1 qt = 946.4 cm3

1 fluid ounce = 29.6 cm3

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Table 1.4 Common SI-English Equivalent Quantities

Quantity SI Unit

SI Equivalent

Mass English Equivalent

English to

1 kilogram (kg) SI Equivalent

1000 grams

2,205 pounds (lb)

1 (lb) = 0.4536 kg

1 gram (g)

1000 milligrams

0.03527 ounce(oz)

1 lb = 453.6 g

1 ounce = 28.35 g

Prefixes

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Prefixes are used with the base units and other derived units to express

small or large measured quantities in terms of a few simple digits

Symbol Notation

Notation

tera T trillion 1,000,000,000,000 1x1012

giga G billion 1,000,000,000 1x109

mega M million 1,000,000 1x106

kilo k thousand 1,000 1x103

hecto h hundred 100 1x102

deka da ten 10 1x101

----- ---- one 1 1x100

deci d tenth 0.1 1x10-1

centi c hundredth 0.01 1x10-2

milli m thousandth 0.001 1x10-3

micro millionth 0.000001 1x10-6

nano n billionth 0.000000001 1x10-9

pico p trillionth 0.000000000001 1x10-12

femto f quadrillionth 0.000000000000001 1x10-15

The Factor Label Method Dr. Ala? Sirhan

• Used to convert

km to miles, m to km, mol to g, g to mol, etc.

• To use this we need: 1) desired quantity, 2) given quantity, 3) conversion factors

• Conversion factors are valid relationships or equities expressed as a fraction

E.g. for 1 km=0.6 miles the conversion factor is

1 km 0.6 miles

or

0.6 miles 1 km

• All dimensional analysis problems are set up the same way. They follow

this same pattern:

given quantity

The number & units you The conversion factor The units you want to

start with (The equality that looks like a end with

fraction)

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.2 Converting Units of Length

into feet.

• Remember

12 inches = 1 foot

Written as an “equality” or “ratio” it looks like

60 inches x = 5 feet

given quantity

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.3 Converting Units of Length

PROBLEM: To wire your stereo equipment, you need 325 centimeters (cm) of

speaker wire that sells for $0.15/ft. What is the price of the wire?

PLAN: Known - length (in cm) of wire and cost per length ($/ft)

We have to convert cm to inches and inches to ft followed by

finding the cost for the length in ft.

SOLUTION:

length (cm) of wire

Length (in) = length (cm) x conversion factor

2.54 cm = 1 in

= 325 cm x in = 128 in

length (in) of wire

2.54 cm

12 in = 1 ft Length (ft) = length (in) x conversion factor

length (ft) of wire = 128 in x ft = 10.7 ft

1 ft = $0.15 12 in

Price ($) = length (ft) x conversion factor

Price ($) of wire

= 10.7 ft x $0.15 = $1.60

ft

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.5 Converting Units of Volume

from the volume of water it displaces. A graduated cylinder

contains 19.9mL of water. When a small piece of galena, an

ore of lead, is submerged in the water, the volume increases to

24.5mL. What is the volume of the piece of galena in cm3

and in L?

PLAN: The volume of galena is equal to the change in the water

volume before and after submerging the solid.

4.6 mL x 1 cm = 4.6 cm3

1 mL = 1 cm3 1 mL = 10-3 L mL

-3

volume (cm3) of volume (L) of 4.6 mL x 10 L = 4.6x10-3 L

galena galena mL

Density and Specific Gravity Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Specific Gravity: Specific gravity is the ratio of its mass to the mass of an equal

volume of water at 4oC. Or is the density of the object divided by the density of

the water. Specific gravity is dimensionless (not associated with units of

measure).

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Oxygen Gas 0.00133

Grain alcohol Liquid 0. 789

Water Liquid 0.998

Table salt Solid 2.16

Aluminum Solid 2.70

Lead Solid 11.3

Gold Solid 19.3

*At room temperature(200C) and normal atmospheric pressure(1atm).

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.4 Calculating Volume from Mass and Density

• You have 1.5 pounds of gold. Find its volume in cm3 if the density of gold is

19.3 g/cm3.

x x = 35 cm3

2.2 lb 1 kg 19.3 g

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.5 Calculating Density from Mass and Length

PROBLEM: Lithium (Li) is a soft, gray solid that has the lowest density

of any metal. If a slab of Li weighs 1.49 x 103 mg and has

sides that measure 20.9 mm by 11.1 mm by 11.9 mm, what

is the density of Li in g/cm3 ?

PLAN: Density is expressed in g/cm3 so we need the mass in grams

and the volume in cm3.

SOLUTION:

lengths (mm) of sides -3

1.49x103mg x10 g = 1.49g

10 mm = 1 cm 1mg

1cm

mass (mg) of Li lengths (cm) of sides 20.9mm x = 2.09cm

10mm

103 mg = 1 g multiply lengths

Similarly the other sides will be 1.11

mass (g) of Li volume (cm ) 3

cm and 1.19 cm, respectively.

2.09 x 1.11 x 1.20 = 2.76cm3

density (g/cm3) of Li 1.49g

density of Li = = 0.540 g/cm3

2.76 cm3

Temperature Scales and Interconversions

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

absolute zero and only has positive values.

formally called centigrade, most commonly used scale around the

world; water freezes at 0oC, and boils at 100oC.

weather reports; water freezes at 32oF and boils at 212oF.

K = C + 273.15

C = K - 273.15

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.6 Converting Units of Temperature

(a) If normal body temperature is 98.60F, does the child have a fever?

(b) What is the child’s temperature in kelvins?

and we use the 0C to kelvin relationship to find the temperature

in kelvins.

SOLUTION:

9

(a) Converting from 0C to 0F (38.70C) + 32 = 101.70F

5

Significant Figures

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Consider the following measurements? More digits indicate

more precise

8 8.0 8.00 measurement.

one final estimated digit,

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

843

307

0.0025,

a decimal point.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.7 Determining the Number of Significant Figures

PROBLEM: For each of the following quantities, underline the zeros that are

significant figures(sf), and determine the number of significant

figures in each quantity. For (d) to (f), express each in

exponential notation first.

to the placement of zeros.

SOLUTION:

(d) 4.715x10-5 m 4sf (e) 5.7600x104 s 5sf (f) 7.160x10-7 cm3 4sf

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

same number of decimal places as there are in the

measurement with the fewest decimal places.

+ 23.28 mL

106.78 mL = 106.8 mL

Example: subtracting two volumes 865.9 mL

- 2.8121 mL

863.0879 mL = 863.1 mL

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

least certainty limits the certainty of the result.

Therefore, the answer contains the same number of

significant figures as there are in the measurement with the

fewest significant figures.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Rules for Rounding Off Numbers

1. If the digit removed is more than 5, the preceding number

increases by 1.

5.379 rounds to 5.38 if three significant figures are retained

and to 5.4 if two significant figures are retained.

2. If the digit removed is less than 5, the preceding number is

unchanged.

0.2413 rounds to 0.241 if three significant figures are retained

and to 0.24 if two significant figures are retained.

3.If the digit removed is 5, the preceding number increases by

1 if it is odd and remains unchanged if it is even.

17.75 rounds to 17.8, but 17.65 rounds to 17.6.

If the 5 is followed only by zeros, rule 3 is followed; if the 5 is

followed by nonzeros, rule 1 is followed:

17.6500 rounds to 17.6, but 17.6513 rounds to 17.7

4. Be sure to carry two or more additional significant figures

through a multistep calculation and round off only the final

answer.

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Sample Problem 1.8 Significant Figures and Rounding

PROBLEM: Perform the following calculations and round the answer to the

correct number of significant figures:

1g

16.3521 cm2 - 1.448 cm2 4.80x104 mg 1000 mg

(a) (b)

7.085 cm 11.55 cm3

PLAN: In (a) we subtract before we divide; for (b) we are using an exact

number.

(a) = = 2.104 cm

7.085 cm 7.085 cm

1g

4.80x104 mg 1000 mg 48.0 g

(b) = = 4.16 g/ cm3

11.55 cm3 11.55 cm3

Precision and Accuracy

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Precision -

Refers to reproducibility or how close the measurements are to each

other.

Standard Deviation

Accuracy -

Refers to how close a measurement is to the real value.

Absolute Error

Relative Error

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

Dr. Ala? Sirhan

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