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Dec 25, 2017

Topic 7 FF in Res 1

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topic 7

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Topic 7 FF in Res 1

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I

Handbook, 3rd Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing

Acknowledgement

Dr. Ismail M. Saaid ,Mr. Ali Fikret and AP Dr Khalik M Sabil

Learning Outcome

To describe type of fluid in reservoir .

reservoir

1

Introduction

• Flow in porous media is a very complex

phenomenon and as such cannot be

described as explicitly as flow through pipes

or conduits.

– In a pipe: measure the length and diameter of a pipe and

compute its flow capacity as a function of pressure

lend themselves to measurement.

The shapes of oil bearing formations and

aquifer are irregular.

are heterogeneous with respect to porosity,

permeability , connate water saturation .

irregular well pattern through the pay zone .

2

Why the flow is complex ?

The production rates usually different from

well to well. In general, a high rate well

drains a larger radius than lower rate well.

zone or not fully perforated.

DARCY’S LAW

L

q

A

dx

For one-dimensional, horizontal flow through a porous •

medium, Darcy’s Law states that:

kA dp Cross sectional area (cm2)

q=− Viscosity of flowing fluid (cp)

µ dx Permeability (Darcy)

Pressure gradient (atm/cm)

and reciprocal to viscosity

3

Objectives

• To identify reservoir characteristics that

influence the flow

• To present mathematical equations

describing the flow behavior of reservoir

fluids.

• To apply fluid flow equations in reservoir

engineering scenarios

Reservoir Characteristics

• Types of fluids in the reservoir

• Flow regimes

• Reservoir geometry

reservoir

4

Types of fluids

As classified by isothermal compressibility.

1. Incompressible fluids

2. Slightly compressible fluids

3. Compressible fluids

• described/classified mathematically by the isothermal compressibility

coefficient (c)

1. Incompressible fluids

volume (or density) does not change with

pressure, i.e.:

5

2. Slightly compressible fluids

• exhibit small changes in volume, or density, with

changes in pressure.

• changes in the volumetric behavior of this fluid

as a function of pressure can be mathematically

described by integrating the coefficient of

isothermal compressibility, ‘c’ to give:

where;

p = pressure

V = volume at pressure p,

pref = initial pressure

Vref = fluid volume at initial

pressure

-------------- (3)

6

• The ex may be represented by a series

expansion as:

-------------- (4)

the term c (pref−p)] is very small, the ex term

can be approximated by truncating Equation

(4) to:

-------------- (5)

gives:

-------------- (6)

to give:

-------------- (7)

ρ = density at pressure p

Vref = volume at initial (reference) pressure pref

ρref = density at initial (reference) pressure pref

7

3. Compressible Fluids

• Fluids that experience large changes in

volume as a function of pressure.

• All gases are considered compressible

• The truncation of the series expansion, as

given by Equation (5), is not valid in this

category and the complete expansion as

given by Equation (4) is used.

compressible fluid is described by:

-------------- (8)

8

Figure(1): P-V relationship

as a function of pressure for the three types of fluids:

(Gas)

Figure(2)

Fluid density versus pressure for different fluid types

9

FLOW REGIMES

• Three types of flow regimes that describe

the fluid flow behavior and reservoir

pressure distribution as a function of time:

Steady-state flow

Unsteady-state flow

Pseudo steady-state flow

Steady-State Flow

• The pressure at every location in the reservoir

remains constant does not change with time

-------------- (9)

10

• In reservoirs, the steady-state flow

condition can only occur when the

reservoir is completely recharged and

supported by strong aquifer or pressure

maintenance operations.

Scenario:

Open outer boundary. Infinite reservoir boundary.

Production is balanced by fluid entry across the outer boundary.

Never occur in reality!

• the rate of change of pressure with respect

to time at any position in the reservoir is

not zero or constant

-------------- (10)

Scenario:

analysis of well test where rate is deliberately changed and pressure

response is analyzed.

Pressure disturbance for a short period (In cases of well closure/ repair)

No boundary effect

11

Pseudo steady-State Flow

• The pressure at different locations in the

reservoir is declining linearly as a function

of time

-------------- (11)

Reservoir Scenario?

- Reservoir has been producing long enough.

- Pressure reduction has reached boundary of reservoir. Boundary

effect.

Figure (3)

Flow regimes

12

RESERVOIR GEOMETRY

• The shape of a reservoir has a significant

effect on its flow behavior

• Most reservoirs have irregular boundaries

• Rigorous mathematical description of

geometry is often possible only with the

use of numerical simulators

• One of the following flow geometries:

Radial flow

Linear flow

13

Radial Flow

• Flow into or away from a wellbore will follow radial

flow lines from a substantial distance from the

wellbore

• In the absence of severe reservoir heterogeneities

fluids move toward the well from all directions and

coverage at the wellbore.

Figure (4)

Ideal radial flow into a wellbore.

14

Linear Flow

• When flow paths are parallel and the fluid

flows in a single direction

• The cross sectional area to flow must be

constant

• A common application of linear flow

equations is the fluid flow into vertical

hydraulic fractures

Figure (5)

Linear flow

15

Figure (6)

Ideal linear flow into vertical fracture

Flow

• Depending upon the type of wellbore

completion configuration

• possible to have a spherical or hemispherical

flow near the wellbore

• A well with a limited perforated interval could

result in spherical flow in the vicinity of the

perforations

• A well that only partially penetrates the pay

zone could result in hemispherical flow

16

Figure (7)

Spherical flow due to limited entry

Figure (8)

Hemispherical flow in a partially penetrating well

17

NUMBER OF FLOWING

FLUIDS IN THE RESERVOIR

• Single-phase flow (oil, water, or gas)

18

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