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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

CALICUT

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION LAB REPORT

BPSK GENERATION AND DETECTION


HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

Submitted by:
Ch.Uday B140817EC
G.Manoj B140346EC
J.Sudheer B140319EC
K.Vineel B140798EC
Christy B120885EC
AIM:
To design and implement BPSK modulation and demodulation:
COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
1. IC AD633
2.741 OP-AMP
3. Resistors
4. Capacitors

Introduction:

BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) is also called as 2-phase PSK or Phase Reversal
Keying In this technique, the sine wave carrier takes two phase reversals such as 0°
and 180°. BPSK is basically a Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
modulation scheme, for message being the digital information. It does not
particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned, and
sometimes they may be on the real axis, at 0° and 180°. This modulation is the most
robust of all the PSK’s since it takes the highest level of noise or distortion to make
the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. It is, however, only able to modulate at
1 bit/symbol and so is unsuitable for high data-rate applications.
In the presence of an arbitrary phase-shift introduced by the communications
channel, the demodulator is unable to tell which constellation point is which. As a
result, the data is often differentially encoded prior to modulation. BPSK is
functionally equivalent to 2-QAM modulation.

BPSK refers to the technique of modifying the carrier phase of a signal both before
transmission and after receipt. Although there are numerous techniques that could
have been utilized to transmit and receive the data, BPSK was chosen for its
simplicity and robustness. The key identifying characteristic of BPSK is that the
modulation process creates two separate high frequency carriers depending on the
data that is being transmitted, representing either a one or a zero
S0 (t) = Acos(ω0t)
s1(t) = Acos(ω0t + π) = -Acos(ω0t)
These two signals are separated by a phase of 180 degrees and it is this large
difference in phase that accounts for the robustness of the BPSK method. Only a
very large noise distortion in the channel during the transmission process would be
able to create a large enough error for the demodulator to mistranslate the incoming
data. The most significant downside to using BPSK modulation and demodulation
is that it is unsuitable for high data rate applications due to the fact that this method
only transmits one bit per symbol. However, due to the overall complexity of the
system, this loss was deemed acceptable in order to attain a simple yet reliable
modulation scheme.
2𝐸𝑏
The BER of BPSK is given as , = 𝑄 (√ 𝑁0 )
Antipodal Signal: The pair of sinusoidal waves that differ only in a relative phase
shift of 180° are called antipodal signals

CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM

BPSK MODULATION:

Modulation is achieved by varying the phase of the basis (carrier) function


depending on the message bits .The multiplier IC AD633 multiplies the binary bit
stream with the carrier signal and produces the modulated wave with phase shift
corresponding to each bit differently. Here we will be getting a phase of o 1800.
IC AD633 INTERNAL DIAGRAM:

BPSK DEMODULATION:

Demodulation of a BPSK signal can be considered a two-stage process.


1. Translation back to baseband, with recovery of the bandlimited message
waveform
2. Regeneration from the bandlimited waveform back to the binary message bit
stream. Translation back to baseband requires a local, synchronized carrier.
PROCEDURE:
1. BSPK MODULATION:
1. Arrange the following circuit shown in the fig.1 using AD633
2. Apply input message signal (square wave) 1 KHz, -5Vpp
3. Carrier signal (sine wave) 10 KHz,-5Vpp
FIGURE 1:

Message Signal

+Vs=15v

AD633 BPSK Modulated Wave

Sine Wave
-Vs=-15v
5Vpp, 10 KHz
2. BPSK DEMODULATION:
1. Arrange the circuit in fig.2
2. Feed the modulated output
3. Apply carrier signal (sine wave)-10 KHz
4. Give the output from AD633 to a low pass filter and comparator.
FIGURE 2:

BPSK Modulated
wave r (t) +Vs=15v +Vcc
3
7
AD633 10K 0.01uF IC741 Vout
4
1
2
-Vcc
-Vs = -15v
OBSERVATIONS:
The phase of a carrier is changed according to the modulating waveform which is a
digital signal. It is considered to be more robust among all the modulation types due
to difference of 180 degree between two constellation points. Hence it can withstand
severe amount of channel conditions or channel fading.
RESULT:
A BPSK signal was generated using a square wave message and a sinusoid carrier.
The signal was coherently demodulated to retrieve the original message.