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Dec 25, 2017

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Spread Spectrum

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Spread Spectrum

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Spectrum Communication System

National Institute of Technology, Calicut

Submitted by:

K. Subash Chandra B140644EC

K. Dency Daniel B140220EC

M.Tejesh Reddy B140443EC

M. Narendra Reddy B140773EC

M.Pavan Kumar B140493EC

M. Dinesh Sai B140681EC

1 Aim

1. To generate all possible maximal length pseudo-noise (PN)

sequences of length 15, 31 and 63. Plot the discrete autocorrelation of

at least 2 sample sequences and cross correlation between two

sample sequences for each of the sequence lengths.

and use them as seed sequences for generating gold codes. Plot the

autocorrelation and cross correlation functions of gold codes.

autocorrela-tion and cross correlation of some sample sequences.

correla-tion properties of these sequences.

include spreading and despreading assuming perfect mode

synchronisation, i.e spread the random data with m-sequence of

length 31 and 63 and then modulate using BPSK and do the

reverse operation at receiver. Get the BER performance plot.

Repeat the experiment for AWGN chan-nel (0-14 dB) and Rayleigh

fading channel (0-30 dB). To compare the performance with

respective plots obtained without spreading and de-spreading.

2 Theory

2.1 Spreading sequences

In spread spectrum communication, typically in CDMA, the user data is

multiplied with a spreading sequence to obtain spreading. When the

signal is received, the spreading is removed from the desired signal by

multiplying it by the same sequence that is exactly synchronized to the

transmitted PN signal.The desired property of the sequences is low

cross correlation with other spreading sequences.Some well known

sequences are PN sequences, gold codes and Walsh codes.

1

2.2 Pseudo Noise Sequences

These are noise like wideband spread spectrum signals. Pseudo random noise

is a signal similar to noise which satis es one or more of the standard texts for

statistical randomness. PN sequences are deterministically generated how-

ever. They are almost like random sequences which apparently lack a de nite

pattern. In reality, it is a deterministic sequence of pulses that will repeat

periodically. Pseudorandom sequences can be generated using a Linear For-

ward Shift Register (LFSR) based on a Mth degree primitive polynomial.

Shift register sequences having the maximum possible period of an r-

stage shift register are called maximal length sequences or m-

sequences. A primi-tive generator plynomial always yields an m-

sequence. The maximum period of an r-stage shift register can be

proven to be 2r-1. The m-sequence has three important properties:

Balance property, Run-length property and Shift and Add property.

The Walsh code, also known as Hadamard codes are error correcting codes

used over highly noisy or unreliable channels. It is an example of a linear code

over a binary alphabet that maps messages of length k to codewords of length

k

2 . In CDMA it is used to de ne individual communication channels. Since

Walsh codes are orthogonal in nature their cross correlation is zero and other

Walsh codes appear as random noise to a particular Walsh code. A Walsh-

Hadamard matrix of order N is an N*N matrix of 1's and -1's in which

T

HH = NIN .

Some pairs of m sequences with the same degree can be used to generate

gold codes by linearly combining two m-sequences with di erent o set in Galois

eld. All pairs of m-sequences do not yield gold codes and those which yield

gold codes are called preferred pairs.By xing the seed of an m-sequence

generator as r, 2r gold codes are obtained by changing the second generator

2

from 0 to 2r-1. Theoretical cross-correlation of gold sequences is three valued

and is given by where t(n) is given by

n+1

t(n) = 2 2 + 1; n is odd

n+2

= 2 2 + 1; niseven

3 Code

1. Correlation plotting function

function [corr] = cor(c1,c2)

c1 = [c1 c1];

corr = [];

N = length(c2);

for i=1:N

corr=[corr sum(c1(i:N+i-1).*c2)/N];

end

stem(corr);

2. PN Sequence

function [pnseq] = pnsq(G, m)

S = [1 zeros(1, m-1)];

N = 2^m-1;

pnseq = [];

for i=1:N

pnseq = [pnseq S(1)];

k = mod(sum(S.*G(1:m)), 2);

S = circshift(S', -1)';

S(m) = k;

end

pnseq = 2*pnseq-1;

end

3. Gold Codes

clc;

m = [5 6];

G = [1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0;

1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1];

for i=1:length(m)

c11 = (pnsq(G(i, 1:7), m(i))==1);

c12 = [];

k = 3;

v11 = [c11 c11 c11 c11 c11];

for j=1:(2^m(i)-1)

c12 = [c12 v11(k)];

k = k+5;

end

X1 = 2*xor(c11, circshift(c12', 1)')-1;

X2 = 2*xor(c11, circshift(c12', 2)')-1;

figure;

subplot(211);

cor(X1, X1);

title(['Auto-correlation of ',num2str(2^m(i)-1),' length goldcode']);

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude');

subplot(212);

cor(X1, X2);

title(['Cross-correlation of ',num2str(2^m(i)-1),' length goldcode']);

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude');

end

clc;

clear all;

N=32;

H32 = ones(N);

k = N/2;

while k>=1

for i=1:N/k

for j=1:N/k

if mod(i, 2) + mod(j,2)==0

H32((i-1)*k+1:i*k, (j-1)*k+1:j*k) = ~H32((i-1)*k+1:i*k, (j-1)*k+1:j*k);

end

end

end

k = k/2;

end

H32 = 2*H32-1;

N=64;

H64 = ones(N);

k = N/2;

while k>=1

for i=1:N/k

for j=1:N/k

if mod(i, 2) + mod(j,2)==0

H64((i-1)*k+1:i*k, (j-1)*k+1:j*k) = ~H64((i-1)*k+1:i*k, (j-1)*k+1:j*k);

end

end

end

k = k/2;

end

H64 = 2*H64-1;

figure;

subplot(211);

cor([H32(3, :)],[H32(3, :)] );

title('Auto-correlation of 32 length Walsh-Hadamard Code');

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude');

subplot(212);

cor([H32(3, :)], [H32(15, :)]);

title('Cross correlation of 32 length Walsh Hadamard Code');

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude');

figure;

subplot(211);

cor(H64(8,:), H64(8,:));

title('Auto-correlation of 64 length Walsh-Hadamard Code');

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude');

subplot(212);

cor(H64(8,:), H64(15,:));

title('Cross correlation of 64 length Walsh Hadamard Code');

xlabel('Time Index');

ylabel('Amplitude'

4 Inferences

1. A PN generator will produce a periodic sequence that eventually re-

peats but that appears to be random.

terms of minimizing the value of the out of phase autocorrelation.

sequence.

longer than the on period.

the cros correlation with a time-shifted version of itself is also

equivalent to the same.

length sequences, which helps in generating a large number of code.

to depict the message.

8. Walsh codes were found to possess excellent cross-correlation

properties as the cross-correlation of one Walsh code with another

is always zero, since they are orthogonal.

9. The autocorrelation property of the Walsh code is poor and hence it

is used only in synchronous CDMA networks where the start of the

codeword can be identi ed.

5. Results

1. The simulation of spread spectrum communication system was

per-formed.

codes, walsh codes and PN sequences were determined and

analysed.

spread-ing was plotted and analysed.

sequence.

gave better performance.

6 . Graphs

1

Figure 3: Gold Code of length 31

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