You are on page 1of 240

School of Science and Engineering

Department of Civil & Construction Engineering

Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High


Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Siti Fairuz Sapiee

This thesis is presented for the Degree of


Master of Philosophy
of
Curtin University

November 2013
‘To the best of my knowledge and belief this thesis contains no material previously
published by any other person except where due acknowledgement has been made.
This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other
degree or diploma in any university.’

Signature : Date :25thNovember 2013


Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

ABSTRACT

Self-drilling screws are the primary means of fastening cold-formed steel members in
cold-formed thin-gauge steel construction. The fabrication of connections is the most
labour intensive aspect of the cold-formed thin-gauge steel construction process, thus
a better understanding of the behaviour of screw connections could lead to optimum
connection design and reduce the cost of fabrication. This study was carried out to
investigate the behaviour and strength of single-shear connections formed with self-
drilling screws. The objectives of the study are to determine the influence of the
number of screws, screw spacing and screw patterns on the strength of the self-
drilling screw connections. The screw patterns take the diagonal shapes, diamond
shapes or box shapes of screws arrangement in screw connection. The failure loads
of the specimens were recorded and the failure modes were observed from the tests
carried out in the laboratory. The nominal shear strength per screw was calculated
using the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design
equations. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results, which
correlate well with the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations. The results showed that the screw connection strength increased as the
number of screws increased. It was also found that the connection strength of screw
for the specimens with screw spacing more than 3d is greater than the specimens
with screw spacing less than 3d. Thus, the numbers of screws and screw spacing
affect the performance of the screw connection significantly as compared to screw
patterns.

i
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ................................................................................ i
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................... ii
NOTATIONS............................................................................. v
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................ vii
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................... xi
ACKNOWLEDGDEMENTS ...............................................xiii
1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1
1.1 Background ................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 Cold-Formed Steel ............................................................................. 1
1.1.2 Screw Connections ............................................................................. 1
1.1.3 Self-Drilling Screw ............................................................................ 2
1.1.4 Standard Tests for Screw .................................................................... 3
1.2 Objectives .................................................................................................. 6
1.3 Scopes of Study ......................................................................................... 6
1.4 Methodology .............................................................................................. 9
1.5 Report Outlines ........................................................................................ 11
2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................... 12
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 12
2.2 Design Standard for Screw ...................................................................... 12
2.2.1 Ultimate Strength Under Shear ........................................................ 13
2.2.2 Reduction Factor of 0.75 Fu ............................................................. 14
2.3 Screw Connection Behaviour .................................................................. 18
2.3.1 Effect of Steel Sheet Thickness ........................................................ 21
2.3.2 Effect of Number of Screws ............................................................. 23
2.4 Screw Connection Strength ..................................................................... 28
2.4.1 Effect of Number of Screws on Connection Strength ...................... 28
2.4.2 Effect of Screw Spacing on Connection Strength ............................ 39

ii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2.4.3 Effect of Screw Patterns on Connection Strength ............................ 42


2.5 Research Gaps ......................................................................................... 50
2.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................. 53
3 LABORATORY PROGRAMME .............................................. 54
3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 54
3.2 Self-Drilling Screw Properties ................................................................. 54
3.3 Cold-Formed Steel Properties.................................................................. 55
3.4 Test Assemblies and Setup ...................................................................... 56
3.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................. 64
4 DESIGN EVALUATIONS ......................................................... 65
4.1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 65
4.2 Design Evaluation for Number of Screws (N) Series .............................. 65
4.3 Design Evaluation for Screw Spacing (S) Series .................................... 67
4.4 Design Evaluation for Screw Patterns (P) Series .................................... 69
4.5 Conclusions ............................................................................................. 74
5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ............................................... 75
5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 75
5.2 Number of Screw (N) .............................................................................. 75
5.2.1 Experimental Results........................................................................ 75
5.2.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for N Series Specimens ........... 76
5.2.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for N Series
Specimens ....................................................................................................... 82
5.2.4 Effect of Number of Screws ............................................................. 84
5.2.5 Failure Modes ................................................................................... 86
5.3 Screw Spacing (S).................................................................................... 92
5.3.1 Experimental Results........................................................................ 92
5.3.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for S Series Specimens ............ 93
5.3.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for S Series
Specimens ....................................................................................................... 98
5.3.4 Effect of Screw Spacing ................................................................. 100
5.3.5 Failure Modes ................................................................................. 102
5.4 Screw Pattern (P) ................................................................................... 106
5.4.1 Experimental Results...................................................................... 106

iii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

5.4.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for P Series Specimens .......... 107
5.4.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for P Series
Specimens ..................................................................................................... 113
5.4.4 Effect of Screw Pattern .................................................................. 114
5.4.5 Failure Modes ................................................................................. 120
6 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................ 127
6.1 Number of Screws (N) ........................................................................... 127
6.2 Screw Spacing (S).................................................................................. 128
6.3 Screw Patterns (P).................................................................................. 128
6.4 Recommendations for Future Works ..................................................... 129

REFERENCES ...................................................................... 130


BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................. 136
Appendix A: Stress-Strain Graph for Coupon Test ......... 142
Appendix B: Specimen’s Measured Dimensions ............... 145
Appendix C: Pn Calculation for N Series Specimen .......... 151
Appendix D: Pn Calculation for S Series Specimen .......... 154
Appendix E: Pn Calculation for P Series Specimen .......... 157
Appendix F: Calculation Spread Sheets ............................. 165
Appendix G: Load against Displacement Data ................. 174
Appendix H: Published Paper ............................................. 222

iv
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

NOTATIONS

The following symbols are used throughout this thesis. The symbols are defined
when they appear for the first time. Occasionally a symbol is used for more than one
parameter for reasons of common practice. Where this applies, the exact meaning of
the symbol is made clear when it appears in the text.

Ag = gross area of the member


An = net area of the connected part
d = nominal screw diameter
Ft = nominal tensile stress in the flat sheet
Fu = ultimate strength of the connected part
Fu1 = tensile strength of the member in contact with the screw head
Fu2 = tensile strength of the member not in contact with the screw head
Fy = yield strength of the connected part
g = transverse centre-to-centre spacing between fastener gage lines
L1 = steel sheet length in contact with the screw head
L2 = steel sheet length not in contact with the screw head
n = number of screws in a connection
N1 = number of screw in line 1
N2 = number of screw in line 2
N3 = number of screw in line 3
nb = number of screw holes in the cross section being analyzed
Pns = nominal shear strength per screw
Pn =nominal tensile strength
P = shear connection strength
s = sheet width divided by the number of screw holes in the cross section being
analysed when evaluating Ft
s’ = longitudinal centre-to-centre spacing of any two consecutive holes
t1 = thickness of the member in contact with the screw head
t2 = thickness of the member not in contact with the screw head
w1 = steel sheet width in contact with the screw head
w2 = steel sheet width not in contact with the screw head

v
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

= Mean

Greek Symbols
η = Deviation
σ = Standard Deviation

vi
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1: Screw Loaded in Shear or Tension (Serrette and Peyton 2009) ............... 2
Figure 1-2: Standard Lap-Joint Shear –units mm (AISI 2008b) .................................. 5
Figure 1-3: Screw Patterns for Three Screws Connection ........................................... 8
Figure 1-4: Screw Patterns for Four Screws Connection ............................................. 8
Figure 2-1: Screwed Connection Specimens (Roger and Hancock 1997, 1999) ....... 16
Figure 2-2: Tilting Mode (Serrette and Peyton 2009)................................................ 19
Figure 2-3: Bearing and Tilting Failure Modes (Roger and Hancock 1997) ............. 19
Figure 2-4: Bearing Failure Mode (Roger and Hancock 1997) ................................. 20
Figure 2-5: Piling of the Steel Sheet .......................................................................... 20
Figure 2-6: Bearing and Pull through or Pull-over (Serrette and Peyton 2009) ........ 20
Figure 2-7: Screw Shear (Yan and Young 2012) ....................................................... 21
Figure 2-8: Test Specimens Layout (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ......................... 24
Figure 2-9: Mode of Failure (a) Tilting and Pull-out (b) Tilting and Net Section
Failure (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ...................................................................... 25
Figure 2-10: F-d Curve of a T+N Failure (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ................ 26
Figure 2-11: F-d Curve of a T+B+PO Failure (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ......... 26
Figure 2-12: Steel sheet fracture (Li, Ma and Yao 2010) .......................................... 27
Figure 2-13: Screw Configurations (Serrette and Lopez 1996) ................................. 30
Figure 2-14: Specimen Dimensions (Serrette and Lopez 1996) ................................ 30
Figure 2-15: Effect of Number of Screws on Connection Strength for 0.76 mm Steel
SheetThickness-No.12 Screws-3d Spacing (LaBoube and Sokol 2002) ................... 32
Figure 2-16: Group Effect-Number of Screws Graph for 1.35 mm Steel Sheet
Thickness-No.10 Screws-3d Spacing (LaBoube and Sokol 2002) ............................ 32
Figure 2-17: Arrangement of Screw (Koka, Yu and LaBoube 1997) ........................ 35
Figure 2-18: Load Versus Number of Screws for Single Screw Connection (Koka,
Yu and LaBoube 1997) .............................................................................................. 35
Figure 2-19: Joint Layout (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ......................................... 37
Figure 2-20: Put/Put2screws against Number of crews (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) .. 37
Figure 2-21: Test Specimen (Carril, LaBoube and Yu 1994) .................................... 38
Figure 2-22: General Test Setup for Connection Tests (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu
1998) .......................................................................................................................... 40

vii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-23: Effect of Screw Spacing on Connection Strength (Sokol, LaBoube and
Yu 1998) .................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 2-24: Effect of Screw Spacing (Li, Ma, and Yao 2010) ................................. 41
Figure 2-25: Screw Patterns for Four Screws (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998) ......... 43
Figure 2-26: Screw Patterns for Two Screws (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998) ......... 44
Figure 2-27: Design Details (Yan and Young 2012) ................................................. 47
Figure 2-28: Layout for different bolt arrangement (Noorashikin 2006) .................. 49
Figure 3-1: Self-drilling Screw .................................................................................. 54
Figure 3-2: Number of Screw Series Labelling ......................................................... 56
Figure 3-3: S2-15 Specimen ...................................................................................... 57
Figure 3-4: Screw Spacing Series Labelling .............................................................. 58
Figure 3-5: Screw Pattern Series Labelling ............................................................... 58
Figure 3-6: N Series Test Specimens (mm) ............................................................... 59
Figure 3-7: S Series Test Specimens (mm) ................................................................ 59
Figure 3-8: P Series Test Specimens (mm) ................................................................ 60
Figure 3-9: Specimen with Centreline ....................................................................... 61
Figure 3-10: Universal Testing Machine GOTECH .................................................. 62
Figure 3-11: Front and Side View of the Specimen in the UTM Machine ................ 63
Figure 4-1: Thicker Member Contact with Screw Head ............................................ 65
Figure 4-2: Arrangement of S Series Specimens ....................................................... 67
Figure 4-3: Screws arrangement for S Series Test Specimens .................................. 68
Figure 4-4: P Series Screw Arrangement ................................................................... 70
Figure 4-5: N Series Specimen (N3-ST) compared with P Series specimen (P3-DG
and P3-DM) ............................................................................................................... 73
Figure 4-6: N Series Specimen (N4-ST) compared with P Series Specimen (P4-DM
and P4-BX) ................................................................................................................ 73
Figure 5-1: Load against Displacement Graph for N1 Series Specimens.................. 77
Figure 5-2: Load against Displacement Graph for N2 Series Specimens.................. 78
Figure 5-3 : Load against Displacement Graph for N3 Series Specimens................. 79
Figure 5-4: Load against Displacement Graph for N4 Series Specimens.................. 80
Figure 5-5: Load against Number of Screw Graph for N Series Specimens ............. 84
Figure 5-6: Effect of Number of Screw ..................................................................... 85
Figure 5-7: Tilting of Screws Occurred at the Beginning of Test (N1-ST-4 specimen)
.................................................................................................................................... 87

viii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-8: Tilting of the Screw and Bearing of the Steel Sheet (N1-ST-4 tested
specimen) ................................................................................................................... 88
Figure 5-9: Screw Shear Off when Tested to Destruction (N1-ST-4 tested specimen)
.................................................................................................................................... 88
Figure 5-10: Screw Shear Off (N1-ST-4 tested specimen) ........................................ 89
Figure 5-11: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N1-ST-1 tested specimen) ....................... 89
Figure 5-12: Magnified View of Failure of Screw Threads of Tilting Failure Mode 90
Figure 5-13 : End Section of Specimen curls out of Plane (N3-ST-1 specimen) ...... 91
Figure 5-14: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N3-ST-1 tested specimen) ....................... 91
Figure 5-15: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N4-ST-1 tested specimen) ....................... 92
Figure 5-16: Load against Displacement Graph for S2-15 Series Specimens ........... 94
Figure 5-17 : Load against Displacement Graph for S2-40 Series Specimens .......... 95
Figure 5-18 : Load against Displacement Graph for S3-15 Series Specimens .......... 96
Figure 5-19: Load against Displacement Graph for S3-25 Series Specimens ........... 97
Figure 5-20: Load against Number of Screw Graph for S Series Specimens .......... 101
Figure 5-21: Initial Stage of Test (S3-15-1 specimen) ............................................ 103
Figure 5-22: Test Specimen Before Fail (S3-15-1 specimen) ................................. 103
Figure 5-23: Screw sheared off (S3-15-1 specimen) ............................................... 104
Figure 5-24: Screw shear off (S3-15-1 specimen) ................................................... 104
Figure 5-25 : Tilting and Bearing Failure (S3-15-3 specimen) ............................... 105
Figure 5-26: Failure Mode of Combination of Tilting and Bearing (S3-25-3
specimen) ................................................................................................................. 105
Figure 5-27: P Series Specimens Screw Arrangement ............................................ 106
Figure 5-28: Load against Displacement Graph for P3-DG Series Specimens ....... 108
Figure 5-29: Load against Displacement Graph for P3-DM Series Specimens ...... 109
Figure 5-30: Load against Displacement Graph for P4-DM Series Specimens ...... 110
Figure 5-31: Load against Displacement Graph for P4-BX Series Specimens ....... 111
Figure 5-32: Different Shape of Three Screws Connections ................................... 115
Figure 5-33: Symmetrical Axis ................................................................................ 117
Figure 5-34: Non-Uniform Stress Redistribution .................................................... 118
Figure 5-35: Different Shape of Four Screws Connections ..................................... 119
Figure 5-36: Initial of Test (P3-DG) ........................................................................ 121
Figure 5-37: Initial Tear of Steel Sheets (P3-DM specimen) .................................. 122
Figure 5-38: Stage 1 of Testing (P4-DM-3 specimen) ............................................ 123

ix
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-39: Stage 2 of Test (P4-DM-3 specimen) ................................................. 124


Figure 5-40 : Screw Head Pushed Toward Sheet .................................................... 124
Figure 5-41: Sheet Curl out of Plane (P4-BX-4 specimen) ..................................... 125
Figure 5-42: Tilting and Bearing Failure Mode (P4-BX-4 specimen) .................... 126

x
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1: Screw Number and Screw Diameter (ITW Buildex 2012) ........................ 3
Table 1-2: Recommended Geometrical Proportions for Standard Lap-Joint
Connection Tests (AISI 2008b) ................................................................................... 5
Table 1-3: Specimen Descriptions ............................................................................... 9
Table 2-1: Comparison of Maximum Load Capacities (per Screw) for 2-screw and 4-
screw connections (Serrette and Lopez 1996) ........................................................... 31
Table 2-2: Effect of Number of Screws on Shear Strength (Li, Ma and Yao 2010) . 34
Table 2-3: Steel Mechanical Properties (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006) ................... 36
Table 2-4: Test Results (Carril, LaBoube and Yu 1994) ........................................... 38
Table 2-5 : Results for Four Screw Patterns (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998) ........... 44
Table 2-6 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength (Sokol, LaBoube and
Yu1998) ..................................................................................................................... 45
Table 2-7 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength of No.2 screw with
0.76 mm Sheet Thickness (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998) ....................................... 45
Table 2-8 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength No.2 screw with 1.35
mm Sheet Thickness (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998) ............................................... 45
Table 2-9: Single Shear Connection Results (Yan and Young 2012)........................ 48
Table 2-10: Summaries of Relevant Literatures ........................................................ 50
Table 3-1: Technical Properties of Screw (ASTEKS 2009) ...................................... 55
Table 3-2: Yield Strength and Ultimate Strength for Cold-formed Steel Sheets....... 55
Table 3-3: Screw Spacing for S Series Specimen ...................................................... 57
Table 4-1: Calculated Results for N Series Specimens.............................................. 66
Table 4-2 : Calculated Results of Screw Spacing(S) Series ...................................... 69
Table 4-3: Nominal Shear Strength, P of P Series ..................................................... 72
Table 5-1: Experimental Results for N Series Specimens ......................................... 76
Table 5-2: Experimental Results for N series Specimens .......................................... 82
Table 5-3: Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for N Series
Specimens .................................................................................................................. 83
Table 5-4: Group Effect for N Series Specimens ...................................................... 86
Table 5-5: Experimental Results for S Series Specimens .......................................... 93
Table 5-6 : Experimental Results for S series Specimens ......................................... 99

xi
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 5-7: Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for S series


Specimens ................................................................................................................ 100
Table 5-8: Experimental Results for P Series Specimens ........................................ 107
Table 5-9 : Experimental Results of P series ........................................................... 113
Table 5-10: Experimental Results and Calculated Results for P series ................... 114
Table 5-11: Effect of Screw Patterns for Three Screws Connections ..................... 116
Table 5-12: Effect of Screw Patterns for Four Screws Connections ....................... 120

xii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

ACKNOWLEDGDEMENTS

I would like to express my appreciation to my supervisor Associate Professor Ir Lau


Hieng Ho for his advice, guidance, encouragement, support and endless motivation
throughout this research work.

I am also grateful to Ecosteel Sdn. Bhd. for providing me all the test specimens and
staff at Department of Civil and Construction Engineering for giving me kind
assistances and advices especially Mr. George ak Edmund Dingun, a lab technician
at Curtin Sarawak University.

I would like to express my heartful thanks to my friend, Ms Tang Su Yii for assisting
me with the test data collection and laboratory work.

Lastly, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my family, especially my


parents for their understanding and unending support.

xiii
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.1.1 Cold-Formed Steel

Cold-formed steel is one of the commonly used building materials in light-weight


steel construction because of its lightness, high strength and stiffness, recyclability
and most importantly ease in transportation and handling. Cold-formed steel also has
a high strength to weight ratio and is an excellent alternative to timber in the areas
that are prone to termite infestation. Historically, cold-formed steel was only used for
sheeting and decking. Recently it has been used on structural members such as roof
trusses and stud walls of steel framed houses. This is due to its enhanced corrosion
resistance, ease of maintenance and pleasing appearance.

The cold-formed steel structural members are made from thin steel sheets, strip, plate
or flat bar through cold-rolling or brake-pressing process. Normally, the thicknesses
of cold-formed steel sheet or strip come in various thicknesses, ranging from 0.378
mm to 6.35 mm (Yu and LaBoube 2010). The cold-rolling or brake-pressing process
increases the strength and hardness, as well as produces an accurate thickness of steel
sheets and other steel products (Rogers and Hancock 1998). The cold-formed steel is
also capable of achieving a high strength with stress grade of G550 e.g. 550 MPa
nominal yield and tensile strength but it is less ductile. According to Daulet and
LaBoube (1996), G550 is considered as low ductility steel as the % of elongation is
low roughly about 8%.

1.1.2 Screw Connections

Connection is an important structural element that functions to transfer load from one
member to another. The fabrication of connections is the most labour-intensive
aspect of the construction process, thus a better understanding of the behaviour of
screw connections could lead to optimum connection design, and may also reduce
the cost of the fabrication.

1
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

A screw connection is defined as the link between structural elements through


screws. Screw connections are said to be loaded in tension if the direction of the
forces on the connections are more or less parallel to the axis of the screw. The screw
connections are said to be loaded in shear if the direction of the external loads or
forces acting on the connections are more or less perpendicular to the axis of the
screw. Figure 1-1 shows the screws loaded in shear or in tension.

Figure 1-1: Screw Loaded in Shear or Tension (Serrette and Peyton 2009)

The loading conditions of screw connections are depending on the application of the
connecting structural elements. Screw connections in thin-walled members are used
for (Toma, Sedlacek and Weynand 1993):

1. Connecting steel sheets to the supporting structure, e.g. to a purlin


2. Interconnecting two or more sheets, e.g. longitudinal seams of sheets
3. Assembling linear cold-formed sections, e.g. in storage racking.

1.1.3 Self-Drilling Screw

Fasteners that are commonly used in construction with cold-formed steel are bolts
and nuts, screws, rivets, pin and other special devices such as adhesive bonding. In
order to fasten sheet metal cladding and roofing to framing members and to make
joints in cladding and roofing, self-drilling screws are the most commonly used
fasteners. Self-drilling screws are externally threaded fasteners with the ability to
drill their own hole and form their own internal threads.The use of self-drilling

2
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

screws is effective because two or more thin steel sheets can be clamped in one easy
operation with self-drilling screws. The usage of self-drilling screws ensures correct
hole size, resulting in better thread engagement and tighter clamp. It could reduce the
fabrication time by eliminating the task of alignment and pre-drilling hole during the
assembly.The use of self-drilling screws is also economic as the fastening process
does not require power drills and drill bits, costly press tools, machine taps and
maintenance. Thus, self-drilling screws can provide a rapid, effective and economical
means to fasten thin-walled steel members such as cold-formed steel structural
members.

Self-drilling screws are made either by carbon steel plated with zinc for corrosion
protection or stainless steel with carbon steel drill point. Self-drilling screws come in
a variety of lengths, diameters, strengths and coatings. Screw diameter selection is
based on the required connection capacity. As the screw diameter increases, the
capacity of the screw also increases. The gauge of a screw is determined by the basic
size of the thread outside diameter. Table 1-1 shows the generic gauge number and
screw diameter according to screw manufacturers.

Table 1-1: Screw Number and Screw Diameter (ITW Buildex 2012)

Screw Number Screw Diameter (mm)


6 3.5
8 4.2
10 4.8
12 5.5

1.1.4 Standard Tests for Screw

Currently, the standard test methods for determining shear strength of screws are
stated in the American Iron and Steel Institute’s Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual
(AISI 2008a). AISI Manual (2008a) provides procedures for conducting tests to
determine the shear strength of carbon steel screws connections. The test is intended
to determine the ability of a screw to withstand a load applied transversely to the axis
of screw.

3
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

In this research, the experimental procedures are adopted from AISI Manual section
AISI S905-08 (2008b) for mechanically fastened cold-formed steel connections.

Table 1-2 shows the recommended geometrical proportions for single shear
connections. Figure 1-2 shows the standard shear-test specimen recommended by
AISI Manual (2008b). The single-lap joint is using two flat straps connected with
two fasteners e.g. screws to prevent under-torquing, over-torquing and limits lap
shear connection distortion of flat unformed members.

4
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 1-2: Standard Lap-Joint Shear –units mm (AISI 2008b)

Table 1-2: Recommended Geometrical Proportions for Standard Lap-Joint Connection


Tests (AISI 2008b)

Fastener Diameter Specimen Dimensions (mm)


d (mm) w Ls e1 p lg
≤ 6.5 60 260 30 60 150
Tolerance +2 +5 +1 +1 +5

5
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

1.2 Objectives

The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of self-drilling
screws connections used in cold-formed steel structures. The objectives of the study
are:
to evaluate the behaviour and shear strength of screw connection for high
strength cold-formed steel with low ductility.
to determine the effects of number of screws, screw spacing and screw patterns
on the screw connection shear strength.

1.3 Scopes of Study

This study determines the effects of number of screw, screw spacing and screw
patterns on the connection shear strength for self-drilling screw of cold-formed thin-
gauge steel construction. A total set of 48 specimens comprising of number of screws
series specimens i.e. N series, screw spacing series specimens i.e. S series, and screw
patterns series specimens i.e. P series were tested in the laboratory. The failure
modes were observed and the test data collected were analyzed. The experimental
results were compared with the calculated results using the equations from American
Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007).

In design calculations, the connection strength is calculated by considering all


different failure modes and the lowest connection strength is taken as the design
load. The nominal shear strength P of the specimens is calculated by using the AISI
Specification (2007) design equations. From literature review, the ultimate tensile
strength Fu of steel sheets, is used in the calculation to determine the nominal tensile
strength per screw Pns. Previous studies also showed that when screw connections
with G550 steel sheets have same steel sheet thickness, 0.75 Fu reduction factor is
unemployed in the calculation to determine the connection strength of screw (Rogers
and Hancock 1997, 1999, Seleim and LaBoube 1996). Thus, 0.75 Fu reduction factor
is not applied in the design equation to determine the connection strength of screws
in this study. The calculated results of P are compared with the experimental results
obtained from the testing.

6
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

For N series specimens, the effect of increasing number of screws on connection


strength was studied. The load against number of screw graph is plotted to show the
relationship between the increasing number of screws and the connection strength of
screw. From design calculation, the connection strength of multiple screws is
multiplied by the connection strength of single screw connection. For example, the
connection strength of four screws is four times as strong as the connection strength
of single screw. The reduction in connection strength per screw as the increasing
number of screws in normal ductility screw connection is called “Group Effect”
reduction (LaBoube and Sokol 2002). Thus, this study is carried out to investigate
the effect of multiple screws connection on the connection strength per screw when
low ductility steel sheet is used in screw connections.

AISI Specification (2007) design guidelines limit the screw spacing to not less than
3d, where d is the nominal screw diameter. For S series specimens, the effect of
screw spacing on connection strength is determined in this study. The screw spacing
is oriented perpendicular to the applied force and the screw spacings are varied from
less than 3d to more than 3d. The calculated results using the AISI Specification
(2007) design equations are compared with the experimental results for specimens
with less than 3d and more than 3d. The effect of screw spacings on the calculated
results was determined in this study. The effect of screw spacing on the connection
strength of screws was also investigated in this study.

Screw patterns in screw connections are occurred in many shapes, such as a


staggered, and they can be categorized by a number of rows and a number of
columns in the specimens. A row is defined as a line of screws arranged
perpendicular i.e. transverse to the direction of loading where a column is a line of
screws arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the direction of loading. This study is
carried out to investigate the effect of screw patterns when the screws are not
arranged in symmetrical shape e.g. three screw connections specimens as shown in
Figure 1-3. The effect of number of rows when the screws are arranged in a
symmetrical pattern is also investigated in this study e.g. four screws connections as
shown inFigure 1-4. The connection strength of P series specimens is also compared
with the connection strength of N series specimens that act as a control specimen e.g.
P3-DG series specimens and P3-DM series specimens are compared with N3-ST

7
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

series specimens, whereas P4-DM series specimens and P4-BX series specimens are
compared with N4-ST series specimens.

Figure 1-3: Screw Patterns for Three Screws Connection

Figure 1-4: Screw Patterns for Four Screws Connection

8
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

1.4 Methodology

The specimens are made of low ductility steel sheets with grade G550 and connected
with self-drilling screw of 5.35 mm diameter. The steel sheets have identical
thickness of 1.2 mm. All the specimens are categorised into three series according to
the parameters determined, such as, number of screws with “N” series, screw spacing
with “S” series, and screw pattern with “P” series. For N series specimens, the
number of screws varied from one to four screws connections. For S series
specimens, the screw spacings varied from less than 3d to more than 3d where d is
the outer diameter of screw. The screw spacing is a distance between the centre of
screws. For P series specimens, the screws are arranged in a diamond (DM) and a
diagonal (DG) patterns for three screws connection and the screws are arranged in a
diamond (DM) and a box (BX) patterns for four screws connections. The
descriptions of the specimen series are shown in Table 1-3.

Table 1-3: Specimen Descriptions

Specimen
Specimen
Parameter Number of Screw Series
Series
Labelling
1 N1-ST
Number of 2 N2-ST
N
screws 3 N3-ST
4 N4-ST
<3d S2-15
2
Screw >3d S2-40
S
spacing <3d S3-15
3
>3d S3-25
Diagonal (DG) P3-DG
3
Screw Diamond (DM) P3-DM
P
patterns Diamond (DM) P4-DM
4
Box (BX) P4-BX

9
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The specimens are tested by the Universal Testing Machine in the structural
laboratory at Curtin Sarawak University. The failure modes of screw connection for
the specimens with low ductility steel sheet e.g. G550 are observed in this study. The
effect of number of screws in connection and the effect of different screw patterns on
the behaviour of screw connection are also observed in this study. The maximum
loads are recorded after the test specimens failed.

10
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

1.5 Report Outlines

Brief descriptions of each chapter in the thesis are as follow;

Chapter 2 reviews and summaries all the literatures on connections used in cold-
formed steel structures especially screw connection. It reviewed previous works on
the behaviors and strength of screw connection, the factors that affect the screw
connection strength and the design equations for screw connections.

Chapter 3 illustrates the laboratory programme of single-lap shear test to determine


the screw connection strength. A test programme was setup for 48 numbers of
specimens from three different parameters investigated e.g. number of screws, screw
spacing and screw patterns. The preparation of the test specimens is also described in
this chapter.

Chapter 4 demonstrates the design calculations for all the specimens tested. The
design calculations were based on the design equations from American Iron and
Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) to calculate the nominal tensile strength per
screw Pns.

Chapter 5 discusses both the experimental results and failure modes of the screw
connections obtained from this study. The experimental results were recorded and
compared with the calculated results using AISI Specification (2007) design
equations.

Finally, Chapter 6 concludes the findings of this study and provides


recommendations for future research.

11
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents previous research work on the use of self-drilling screws in
connections for cold-formed steel structures. Many studies have looked at the
behavior of the connections and at the factors that affect the connection strength of
the screws. These factors include the number of screws, screw spacing and screw
patterns. However, unlike the first two factors, there are still a limited number of
studies that look at the effects of screw patterns on the screw connections. Further
study is therefore needed to enhance the understanding of the effects that the patterns
may have on the screw connections and the advancement of screw connections.

2.2 Design Standard for Screw

The American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI) outlines the design
guidelines for cold-formed steel connections in "Specification for the Design of
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members" (AISI 2007).

In this specification, the design standards for bolted connections, screwed


connections and welded connections are provided. These design standards are based
primarily on experimental data obtained from previous test programmes. The design
equations for screwed connections in the AISI Specification (2007) Specification are
used to determine the nominal shear strength, the nominal tensile strength and shear
fracture of both the connected parts and screws. The nominal shear strengths are
calculated based on the failure in tilting or bearing. These design requirements are
used for screws with diameters range from 2.03 mm to 6.35 mm e.g. screw No. 6 to
No. 12 (AISI 2007).

As mentioned above, there are also provisions for design equations for the nominal
shear strength per screw Pns of screw connections. The provisions include the
employment of the yield strength, Fy and ultimate strength, Fu in design equations for
tilting and bearing failure. Also included in these provisions is the application of

12
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

reduction factor 0.75 Fu for low ductility steel i.e. yield stress greater than 380 MPa,
to determine the nominal shear strength per screw, Pns in AISI Specification (2007)
design standard.

2.2.1 Ultimate Strength Under Shear

Previously, there were no design guidelines for screw connections in the American
Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members (Pekoz 1990). In 1990s, many of the national specifications were
based on the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS)
recommendations (ECCS 1987 quoted in Pekoz 1990, 575). The design equations for
nominal shear strength per screw, Pns for tilting and bearing failure mode as stated in
the European Recommendations (1987) are as follows:

1. for t2/t1 = 1.0, the smallest of


Equation 2-1

Equation 2-2

2. for t2/t1 ≥ 2.5


Equation 2-3

3. for 1.0 < t2/t1< 2.5


Pns is taken by linear interpolation between above two cases.

In the above equations, t1 is the thickness of steel sheet member in contact with the
screw head, t2 is the thickness of steel sheet member not in contact with the screw
head and d is the nominal screw diameter.

The above equations were investigated by Pekoz (1990) through this analysis of
more than 3500 connection test data from United States, Canada, Sweeden, Britain
and Netherlands. From his analysis, Pekoz found that the provisions by the ECCS
recommendations for shear design did not correlate well when yield strength Fy was
used. He then introduced the application of the ultimate strength, Fu into the
equations and the results from the design calculations correlate well with the

13
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

experimental results. The coefficients were also modified in order to ensure that the
ratio of the calculated results to the experimental results is closer to 1. The above
equations by the European Recommendations were modified by Pekoz as follows:

1. for t2/t1 = 1.0, the smallest of


Equation 2-4

Equation 2-5

2. for t2/t1 ≥ 2.5


Equation 2-2

3. for 1.0 < t2/t1< 2.5


Pns is taken by linear interpolation between two cases.

Therefore, a new set of design equations for estimating the strength of cold-formed
steel-to-steel connections by Pekoz (1990) was recommended and introduced into the
1996 AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
(AISI 1996). Based on Pekoz’s study, the 1996’s AISI (1996) introduces provisions
for the estimation of the connection strength which is based on the failure in the
connected elements, e.g. tilting or bearing. Thus, in this study, the AISI Specification
design equations as proposed by Pekoz (1990) were used to calculate the strength of
screw connections. The ultimate tensile strength, Fu of steel sheets was used in the
calculation to determine the Pns.

2.2.2 Reduction Factor of 0.75 Fu

Currently, there are a number of design equations available for the prediction of
connection strength for cold-formed steel members such as design equations
provided by the Australia Standards/New Zealand Standards 4600 (AS/NZS 2005),
Canadian Standards Association (CSA 2012), American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI 2007) and European Committee for Standardisation (ECS 2005). According to
all of them, cold-formed steel design standards allow the use of thin, high strength
steel sheets e.g. Fy = 550 MPa, but the yield strength, Fy and ultimate strength, Fu has

14
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

to be reduced to 0.75 of their minimum specified values. This is due to the low
ductility exhibited by steel sheets which were cold-reduced in thickness.

Rogers and Hancock (1997, 1999) carried out tests on 150 single overlap screw
connection specimens with multiple-point fasteners at the University of Sydney. The
various number and arrangements of screws in the specimens are as shown in Figure
2-1.The steel sheets used for the specimens were the 0.42 mm and 0.60 mm thick
G550 steel type. There were two categories of screw connection specimens
investigated,
(1) screw connections with the same steel sheets thickness,
(2) screw connections with different steel sheets thicknesses.

15
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-1: Screwed Connection Specimens (Roger and Hancock 1997, 1999)

The strength of screw connections in their study were calculated using AISI
Specification design equations. The 0.75 Fu reduction factor was applied to the AISI
design equations for the connection strength of screws connections. According to
them, the screw connection strength with the same steel sheet thickness was
accurately calculated using AISI Specification design equations when 0.75 Fu
reduction factor was not applied in the equations. However, the calculated results
without the 0.75 Fu reduction factor became unconservative when the sheets used

16
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

were of different thicknesses. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the
calculated results of connection strength of screws when the 0.75 Fu reduction factor
was not applied in the design equations for connections with G550 steel sheets of the
same thickness for 1.2 mm.

Roger and Hancock’s (1999) also reviewed the Australia Commonwealth Scientific
and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Division of Building, Construction
and Engineering screw connection test results (Macindoe and Pham 1995, 1996,
quoted in Roger and Hancock 1999, 132). In the test, single overlap screwed
connection specimens, composed of G550 steel sheets with varying thickness of 0.42
mm, 0.60 mm, 0.75 mm, 0.80 mm, 0.95 mm and 1.00 mm were examined. The screw
connections specimens were connected by different and identical steel sheets
thickness. The strength of screw connections were calculated using AISI (1997) and
AS/ZN (1996) design equations without 0.75 Fu reduction factor applied. They found
that the calculated results without 0.75 Fu reduction factor became conservative
when G550 steel sheets with identical steel sheets thickness were used in the
connections. The test results show that the experimental results-to-calculated results
were found to be above or only slightly less than one when 0.75 Fu reduction factor
were not applied in AISI Specification (1997) and AS/ZN (1996) design equations.
These results indicate that if Fu is not reduced by 0.75, the current design standards
can be used to provide a reasonable estimate of screw connection for G550 steel
sheets of the same thickness. In other words, the reduction of 0.75 Fu is not required
in the design equations when the steel sheets in the single-overlap screwed
connections are of the same thickness.

AISI Specification (2007) also provides design equations to calculate the connection
strength of bolts. Seleim and LaBoube (1996) carried out an experiment to study
single lap bolted connections. In his research, low ductility steel sheets of ultimate
strength between 488 MPa to 535 MPa were used. Each bolted connection consists
of two identical steel sheets thickness. The design equations in AISI Specification
were used to calculate the nominal strength capacity Pn of the bolted connections and
0.75 Fu reduction factor was not utilized in the calculations. The nominal strength
capacity Pn, as calculated by the AISI specification was compared to the ultimate test
load, Pu. The nominal strength capacity Pn was calculated according to the predicted

17
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

failure modes such as bearing and net section failure. For bearing failure mode, the
ratio of Pu/Pn ranged from 0.89 to 1.16, with a mean of 1.01. For net section failure
mode, the ratio of Pu/Pn ranged from 0.94 to 1.19 and a mean of 1.07. In his research,
AISI design equations yielded good predictions of the connection strength of bolts
even without the 0.75 Fu reduction factor in the calculations. Thus, for low-ductility
steel sheets in connections, the Pn calculation for bolted connections can be omitted
the 0.75 Fu reduction factor. Thus, Seleim and LaBoube’s research shows that the
design equations to calculate the connection strength of bolts for low ductility steel
sheet with identical steel sheets thickness does not require 0.75 Fu reduction factor.
Therefore in this study, in order to calculate the connection strength of screw for low
ductility steel with 1.2 mm identical steel sheets thickness, the 0.75 Fu reduction
factor was not employed in the AISI Specification (2007) design equations.

2.3 Screw Connection Behaviour

Screw connections are designed with the aid of applicable design standards, for
example, North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members (AISI 2007) and Australia/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZ 4600
(AS/NZ 2005). American Iron and Steel Institution (AISI) released its first edition of
the Specification for the Design of Light Gage Steel Structural Members in 1946
(AISI 1946). Since the 1946 edition of the Specification, AISI has updated its data
and added information for designers. The screw connection strength equations in the
1996 edition is based on the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
(ECCS 1987 quoted in Pekoz 1990, 575) Recommendations which are derived from
the results of 3500 tests from the United States, Canada, Sweden, United Kingdom,
and the Netherlands. The most recent edition of the North American Specification for
the Design of Cold-formed Steel Structural Members was released in 2007.

According to AISI Specification (2007), screw connections loaded in shear failed in


one mode or in combination of several modes. These modes are screw shear, edge
tearing, tilting and subsequent pull-out of the screw, hole bearing of the joined
materials and tensile fracture at the net section of the connected part elements.

18
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The tilting failure mode is categorized into screw failure type. Tilting action occurred
because of inherent eccentricity associated with the lap connection. The tilting failure
of the screw is followed by the threads tearing out of the lower sheet. The tilting
failure mode as illustrated in Figure 2-2 shows the end section of steel sheet curls out
of plane. Some of the screws will show pull-out action after significant tilting. In
some cases, the failure is caused by a combined failure mode of tilting and bearing as
shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-2: Tilting Mode (Serrette and Peyton 2009)

Figure 2-3: Bearing and Tilting Failure Modes (Roger and Hancock 1997)

Bearing failure mode generally refers to failure in the connected element or


component resulting from local deformation at the loaded face of the fastener. The
screws remain perpendicular to the steel sheets and show an initial pull-out tear in
the direction of load (Figure 2-4). The steel sheets will also exhibit some piling in
front of the screws as shown in Figure 2-5. Consequently, failure can potentially
result from some combination of bearing and pull through or pull-over in either
connected element as shown by Figure 2-6. Finally, fastener failure in a shear
19
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

connection may result from fracture of the fastener. The fracture of the fastener is
illustrated in Figure 2-7.

Figure 2-4: Bearing Failure Mode (Roger and Hancock 1997)

Figure 2-5: Piling of the Steel Sheet

Figure 2-6: Bearing and Pull through or Pull-over (Serrette and Peyton 2009)

20
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-7: Screw Shear (Yan and Young 2012)

AISI Specification (2007) design equations that are used to calculate the nominal
shear strength per screw are focus on the tilting and bearing failure modes. The
design equations depend on the thickness of the connected members. When the head
of the screw is connected with the thinner steel sheet, the bearing failure mode is
considered in the calculation of nominal shear strength per screw. When both steel
sheets are the same thickness, or when the thicker member is in contact with the
screw head, tilting failure mode must also be considered in the calculation of
nominal shear strength per screw. Instead of sheet thickness used in the connections,
the number of screws in the connections may also affect the failure mode in screw
connections. The effect of steel sheet thickness and number of screws are discussed
in Section 2.3.1. and Section 2.3.2.

2.3.1 Effect of Steel Sheet Thickness

The thicknesses of steel sheets affect the failure mode of screw connections where a
thick steel sheet may cause failure by shearing, whereas a thin steel sheet may cause
failure by tilting and bearing.

Daulet and LaBoube (1996) carried out a study on 264 shear test specimens. The two
steel sheets were connected with self-drilling screws No.10 and No.12 e.g. screw
diameter of 4.8 mm and 5.5 mm. The thicknesses of the steel sheets used were 0.74
mm, 1.04 mm, 1.35 mm, 1.83 mm and 2.49 mm. The study involved tests carried out
for a single screw in single shear, two screws in single shear and single screw in
double shear. They observed that steel sheets with thicknesses of 0.74 mm, 1.04 mm
and 1.35 mm caused tilting and bearing failure of the screws. The second failure
mode, screw shearing, occurred when the 1.83 mm and 2.49 mm thick steel sheets

21
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

were used. In other words, according to their study, the thinner steel sheets such as
0.74 mm, 1.04 mm and 1.35 mm would experience a tilting failure of the screws in
combination with bearing failure of the screw holes. Meanwhile, with the thicker
steel sheets which were greater than or equal to 1.83 mm, the screws would
experience failure by screw shearing. These results are applied to predict the
connection behaviour of self-drilling screws with 1.2 mm steel sheets for this study.
This is because 1.2 mm is still in the range of a thinner steel sheet and thus, the
expected failure would be a combination of tilting and bearing.

Rogers and Hancock (1997, 1999) later conducted a research to study the failure
modes in self-drilling screw connections when the arrangement of screw lines were
perpendicular and parallel to the applied force as shown in Figure 2-1. Tilting of the
screws and bearing were the failure modes observed when the same extremely thin
G550 steel sheets, ranging from 0.41 mm to 0.6 mm thick, were used. On the other
hand, when two steel sheets of different thickness were utilised, bearing distress in
the thinner connected element was observed. They further stated that the
combination of bearing and tilting failure modes also occurred due to the use of
screw fasteners with threads that did not extend up to the base of the screw heads. In
other words, the threaded shank was not located directly below the screw heads due
to limitations in the manufacturing. Thus their research concludes that the identical
thinner steel sheets may fail in tilting and bearing failure mode for both screw lines
perpendicular and parallel to the applied force. However, further study is needed to
determine the effect of thinner steel sheets on the failure mode when different screw
patterns are arranged in the connections.

The effects of steel sheet thickness on the failure mode of screw connections were
also investigated by Rodriguez-Ferran et al. (2006). The single shear tests were
carried out on steel sheets grade G350 or G250 with the thickness of the sheets
varied from 0.85 mm to 3.0 mm, and its width is 100 mm. They found that when
both steel sheets were of the same thickness e.g. varied at 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm, tilting
always occurred at the beginning of the test. After a period of joint elongation, the
final failure mode that took place was either pull-out or net section failure. On the
other hand, when the steel sheets were of different thicknesses, different failure
modes were observed. When the sheet in contact with the screw head was thinner

22
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

than the one not in contact with the head, bearing failure occurred in the thinner sheet
was as significant as the tilting during the first step of loading. The joints that were
more prone to bearing were those with small diameter screws and great differences
between t1 and t2. However, Rodriguez-Ferran et al.’s research carried out single
shear test on normal ductility steel sheets with grade G350 and G250. The failure
mode results on the connection strength behaviour of screw connection with 1.2mm
steel sheet thickness of low ductility steel with Grade G550 is required to be
investigated in this study.

2.3.2 Effect of Number of Screws

The numbers of screws are varied in screw connections to determine the effect of
increasing the number of screw on the failure modes of screw connections.

Daulet and LaBoube (1996) furthered their research to investigate the failure modes
in screw connections by varying the number of screws for single and double screws
in connections. The screws were arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the applied
force. The results of the research revealed that both single and double screws in
single shear connections experienced tilting or bearing failure. However, this
conclusion was solely based on single and double screws in connections. In the case
where multiple screws are employed in the connections, the failure modes are still
debateable. Therefore, this study will provide further investigation on the types of
failure mode that occurs when multiple screws are used in connections.

Koka, Yu and LaBoube (1997), carried out a research on the behaviour of screw
connections with more than two screws. In their research, the screws were also
arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the applied force. The same steel sheet thickness
of 0.74 mm and 0.43 mm were used in their study. The first row suffered a greater
amount of deformation compared to the subsequent rows. All the tested specimens
failed in a combination of screw tilting and bearing in the steel sheets. According to
their observation, the screws started to tilt at about 75% of the ultimate capacity.
Then, at 85% of the ultimate capacity, the screws exhibited significant tilting and
after 90% of the ultimate capacity, sheet separation began. The sheet separation was
due to the drill tip end of the screw slipping out of the enlarged hole. This occurred

23
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

thread by thread until the screw could no longer hold the load. From their findings, it
can be concluded that the number of screws in connections does not influence the
failure mode of the screw connections. However, these results were mainly for the
specimens with the same steel sheet thickness of 0.43 mm and 0.74 mm. For the
thickness more than 0.74 mm e.g. 1.2 mm, further research is required to study the
effects of number of screws to the behaviour of screw connections.

Rodriguez-Ferran et al. (2006) conducted an experiment to identify the various


failure modes of screw connections by varying the number of screws in the screwed
connections and the thickness of the steel sheets. The number of screws in his test
specimens was arranged in columns, as shown by Figure 2-8. Each column consisted
of a line of screws perpendicular to the applied forces. The number of screws in each
connection was varied in order to determine the effect of increasing the number of
screws to the failure modes of screw connections.

Figure 2-8: Test Specimens Layout (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

According to their research, the failure modes depended on the number of screw
columns. In their research, column is the line of screws perpendicular to the applied
force. If the number of screws was small e.g. four columns or less, tilting and pull-
out of screws would occur. If the number of screws was large e.g. six columns, tilting
and net section failure would occur on the steel sheets. All of these failures occurred
when the steel sheets of the specimens were of identical thicknesses. Figure 2-9
shows the failure modes of screw specimens that connected steel sheets with the
same thickness of 1.0 mm. The screws experienced tilting and pull-out failure, and
tilting and net section failure. The final modes of failure were either pull-out and
pull-through or net section failure depending on the number of columns. The joints

24
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

with 6 columns would always experience net section failure. The failure modes
affected by number of screws reported in their research were less comparative with
this study. This is because the arrangement of screws in Rodriguez-Ferran et al.’s
research was different to the screw arrangement of this study. In Rodriguez-Ferran et
al.’s research, the screws were arranged in two lines parallel to the applied force
whereas in this study, the screws were arranged in a single line parallel to the applied
force.

(a) (b)
Figure 2-9: Mode of Failure (a) Tilting and Pull-out (b) Tilting and Net Section Failure
(Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

Other than physical characteristics as described and shown above, the failure modes
were also observed from the Force against Displacement i.e. F-d curve. The
connections which failed in tilting and net section i.e. T+N are different from the
connections failed in tilting, bearing and pull-out i.e. T+B+PO as shown by the Force
against Displacement curves. Figure 2-10 shows the F-d curve of a T+N section
failure and Figure 2-11 shows the F-d curve of a T+B+PO failure. Figure 2-10 shows
the curve has three stages e.g. elastic behaviour, hardening and failure stages while
Figure 2-11 shows the curve also has three stages but these stages are not apparent as
T+N section failure joints because both yielding and failure occurred gradually in
T+B+PO failure. Thus, the connection behaviour is not only visible on steel sheet

25
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

specimens affected by the number of screws, but can also be shown in the graph
plotted using data recorded by data lodger during the test.

Figure 2-10: F-d Curve of a T+N Failure (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

Figure 2-11: F-d Curve of a T+B+PO Failure (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

26
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Similar conclusion was made from Li, Ma and Yao (2010) study. In their study, the
specimens were all made from normal ductility steel sheets with thickness of 1.0
mm. They stated that tilting and bearing failure or a combination of several failure
modes usually occurred when the connections were made with less number of
screws. On the other hand, if the connections were made of a large number of
screws, the steel sheets would fracture. In their study, the failure mode of a large
number of screws connections was represented by the specimen with nine screws in a
connection and the screws were arranged in three rows and three columns. The tilting
failure mode occurred when a small number of screws, e.g. specimen with five
screws, and were arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the applied force. In their
study, it was also observed that the failures almost always occurred in a row closest
to the jaws of the testing machine. And when the steel sheets fractured, it always
occurred in the sheet that had the screw threads exposed as shown by Figure 2-12.
According to the researchers, although different failure modes were sometimes
observed for certain specimens with the same details, their strengths were still
similar.

Figure 2-12: Steel sheet fracture (Li, Ma and Yao 2010)

27
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2.4 Screw Connection Strength

The connection strength of screws is affected by a number of factors such as number


of screw, screw spacing, screw patterns, stripped screws and so forth. In order to
investigate these factors, shear tests can be carried out in a study. The effect of
number of screws on connection strength can be investigated by carrying out shear
tests on specimens with screws arranged a line parallel to the applied force and
varying number from one to multiple numbers of screws.

The American and Iron Steel Institute (AISI 2007) design specification limits the
spacing of screws in a connection to not less than 3d, where d is the nominal
diameter of screw. The spacing is measured from centre-to-centre distance of screws,
parallel i.e. longitudinally or perpendicular i.e. transversely to the applied force.

The screws can be arranged in various patterns. The effect of screw patterns on screw
connections have been investigated by a number of previous studies. It is found that,
on the one hand, screw connection strength affected by number of screws and screw
spacing. On the other hand, screw patterns have no significant effect on the
connection strength of screws. This will be further discussed in the subsequent
sections.

2.4.1 Effect of Number of Screws on Connection Strength

Normally, in a cold-formed steel structure, more than one screw is applied to the
connection. The number of screws used in a connection will affect the connection
strength. An increased in the number of screws will increase the connection strength
of the screws. However, several studies found that the screw connection strength
does not increase proportional to the number of screws in a connection. Instead, the
connection strength per screw in a connection reduces as the number of screws in a
connection increases.

Daulet and LaBoube (1996) further their research on the effect of number of screws
on the connection strength. The screws were arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the
applied force. The steel sheets used were of the low and normal ductility steel. The

28
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

results of the tests for normal ductility steel specimens indicated that the connection
strength of two screws in single shear connections did not necessarily produce twice
the connection strength of a single screw in a single shear connection. Normal
ductility steel sheets achieved only 90% of expected capacity compared to low
ductility steel sheets which achieved an average of 99% of expected capacity. Daulet
and LaBoube (1996) explained that connection deformation might have produced
secondary stresses on the connections where more screws were used, resulting in a
reduction of performance in the connection. They observed that during testing, the
reduction of performance in normal ductility steel sheets was due to greater sheet
separation of the tested specimens. The increased of sheet separation in normal
ductility materials might have produced more secondary effects which led to slightly
premature failures and in turn reduced the connection strength. On the other hand,
when low ductility steel sheets were used, reduction in connection strength per screw
for connections with two screws was not observed. In other words, reduction in
connection strength did not occur when low ductility steel sheets were used in
screwed connections. The researchers also claimed that low ductility steel sheets
have lower Fu/Fy ratio and this was why they performed better than normal ductility
steel sheets. When the Fu/Fy ratio was lower, they experienced less stress distribution
capacity, thus increased their performance. However their conclusion was not
conclusive enough for multiple screws in connections because the experiment was
carried out only for single and double screws. Thus, study is important to determine
the effects of multiple screws on the of connection strength per screw for low
ductility steel. In the study, single lap shear tests on specimen with one to four
screws using low ductility steel will be carried out.

Another study on the performance of self-tapping screws in lap-shear metal-to-metal


connections was carried out by Serrette and Lopez (1996). All of the connections
tested used the same nominally specified screw, No.12 e.g. diameter 5.5 mm but with
different head and thread styles. The head styles used included Pancake head: Type
A, Hexagon Washer Head: Type B, and Hexagon Washer Head with large washer:
Type C as shown in Figure 2-13.

29
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-13: Screw Configurations (Serrette and Lopez 1996)

The screw patterns such as the end, edge, and centre-to-centre dimensions were
determined based on the AISI recommendations (CCFSS 1993) for 20 gauge
coupons prior to failure in bearing as shown in Figure 2-14. The results of the
research showed that the connection strength per screw decreased as the number of
screws in a connection increased. Table 2-1 shows the comparison of maximum load
capacities per screw for 2-screws and 4-screws connections by using 3 types of
screws; Type A, Type B and Type C.

Figure 2-14: Specimen Dimensions (Serrette and Lopez 1996)

30
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 2-1: Comparison of Maximum Load Capacities (per Screw) for 2-screw and 4-
screw connections (Serrette and Lopez 1996)

Screw Type Maximum Load Ratio X2/X4 Maximum Load Ratio X2S/X4S
A 1.02 1.03
B 1.07 1.04
C 1.10 1.04

Table 2-1 shows that the connection strength per screw for 2-screw connection was
higher than the connection strength per screw for 4-screw connection in all screw
types. This is because the value for both connection strength ratio for normal screw
e.g. X2/X4 and stripped screw e.g. X2S/X4S is more than 1. The maximum load
ratio of X2/X4 is more than one and this indicates that the maximum load per screw
for X2 (two screws connection) is more than the maximum load per screw for X4
(four screws connections). This means that, when the number of screws in screw
connections increases, the connection strength per screw decreases. In other words,
there is a reduction in connection strength per screw when the number of screws in
the connection is increased. In their study, Serrette and Lopez investigated the effects
of screw types on the connection strength per screw for 2-screw and 4-screw metal-
to-metal connections. However, the grade of steel used in their research was not
revealed, and as a result, the causes of the reduction in maximum load capacities per
screw as the numbers of screws increased are still unclear.

LaBoube and Sokol (2002) used steel sheets of the same thickness in their test on the
strength of screw connections of normal ductility steel sheets. Their test revealed that
the connection strength of specimen with four screws was less than the connection
strength of four times a single screw connection.

Figure 2-15 shows the constant slope of the trend line of 0.76 mm steel sheet
thickness, connected with No.12 screw e.g. 5.5 mm diameter. The graph indicates
that although there is a constant increase in the connection strength of screws, the
connection strength does not double when the number of screws is doubled. This
shows that the connection strength per screw in a connection decreases as the number
of screws in the connection increases. The decreasing in connection strength is

31
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

defined as the “Group Effect” reduction. The “Group Effect” is defined as the ratio
of the connection strength per screw to the average strength for a single screw
connection of the same sheet thickness and screw size. The relationship between the
“Group Effect” and the number of screws is shown in Figure 2-16.

Figure 2-15: Effect of Number of Screws on Connection Strength for 0.76 mm Steel
SheetThickness-No.12 Screws-3d Spacing (LaBoube and Sokol 2002)

Figure 2-16: Group Effect-Number of Screws Graph for 1.35 mm Steel Sheet
Thickness-No.10 Screws-3d Spacing (LaBoube and Sokol 2002)

32
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-16 shows the Group Effect of steel sheet with 1.35 mm thickness and 3d
spacing of No.10 screw which is 4.8 mm in diameter. The graph shows that the
connection strength per screw diminishes as the number of screws increases. The
diminishing of connection strength was due to the use of normal ductility steel sheets
in the connections. Normal ductility steel sheets, as claimed by Daulet and LaBoube
(1996), only achieve 90% of the expected connection strength. However, a study is
required to determine the effect of multiple screws on the connection strength per
screw for low ductility steel.

Similar results were also obtained from a research carried out by Li, Ma, and Yao
(2010) on shear behavior of screw connections for cold-formed steel. They
conducted a test on 75 steel-to-steel single lap screw connections. They used screws
with diameter of 4.2 mm and arranged them in 3 different ways: in a line parallel to
the force i.e. L-Longitudinal, a row perpendicular to the force i.e. T-Transverse, and
interlacing or in several lines by several rows i.e. I-Interlacing. The screw row is
defined as a line of screws perpendicular to the applied force. They also varied the
number of screws in the connections from two to five. All of the specimens were
made from normal ductility steel sheets with the ultimate strength, Fu mean value of
366 MPa and thickness of 1.0 mm. Table 2-2 shows the effect of number of screws
on shear strength of specimens arranged in a line parallel to the applied force. The
label, for example, SC2-3D-L, represents the number and arrangement of screws in a
connection. In this case, there are two screws in the connection, with the spacing 3d
and arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to applied force. Table 2-2 shows the results
for mean shear strength, P and the ratio of mean shear strength per screw to single
screw connection shear strength (P per screw/P1). P1 is the mean strength of single
shear connection strength specimens. The researchers discovered that, the strength
per screw in a connection diminished as the number of screws increased. The
decrease in connection strength per screw was possibly due to the low performance
of normal ductility steel sheets used in the tests. In order to substantiate this finding,
the current study intends to further the investigation by looking at the connection
strength per screw with low ductility steel sheets and determine if the reduction in
connection strength do happen to low ductility steel.

33
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 2-2: Effect of Number of Screws on Shear Strength (Li, Ma and Yao 2010)

Specimen P (kN) P/P1 P per screw/P1


Longitudinal
SC2-3D-L 5.468 1.77 0.885
SC3-3D-L 7.731 2.51 0.837
SC4-3D-L 10.286 3.34 0.835
SC5-3D-L 11.810 3.83 0.766

Koka, Yu and LaBoube (1997), tested 21 specimens of single shear screw


connections with low ductility steel sheets, such as Structural Grade 80 of A635 steel
sheets. The screws were arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to the applied force as
shown in Figure 2-17. The thickness of the steel sheets ranged from 0.43 mm to 0.74
mm. The graph load against number of screws in Figure 2-18 shows that the curve
almost flattens at the top for a specimen with four screws. This means that the load
distribution on a screw group was not linear and also the load was not distributed
equally when the number of screws was equal to four. However, the screw
connection strength increased proportionally when the numbers of screws were one
to three. It can be deduced that low ductility steel sheets probably do not decrease the
strength per screw in connection unless a large number of screws are used. However,
in their study, the steel sheets used were limited to low ductility steel of A635 with
the above mentioned with tensile strength of 799 MPa and 743 MPa respectively.
Thus, the effects of number of screws on low ductility steel with grade G550 e.g.
tensile strength of 590 MPa and 1.2 mm thickness are still unknown. Thus, this study
also determines the impact of more than three numbers of screws used in the
connections on the connection strength with low ductility steel sheets when the load
distribution on a screw group is linear and the load can be distributed equally
between them.

34
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-17: Arrangement of Screw (Koka, Yu and LaBoube 1997)

Figure 2-18: Load Versus Number of Screws for Single Screw Connection (Koka, Yu
and LaBoube 1997)

35
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Rodriguez-Ferran et al. (2006) carried out experiment on screwed joints in straps.


The grades of steels used were S350 GD+Z or S250 GD+Z with steel mechanical
properties shown in Table 2-3. Based on the steel sheet mechanical properties used
as shown in Table 2-3, measured ultimate stress, Fut for both steel types are between
345 MPa to 520 MPa and thickness ranges from 0.85 mm to 3.0 mm. They have low
ductility in mechanical properties because the high Fut. The results obtained were
based on the entire single lap shear testing including the specimens with identical
steel sheets thickness and different steel sheet thickness.

Table 2-3: Steel Mechanical Properties (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

Figure 2-19 shows the arrangement of the screws on the specimens. The spacing and
the longitudinal and transverse edge distances are also shown in Figure 2-19. There
are two lines of screws that were arranged parallel to the applied force is labelled as
row whereas the lines of screws that were arranged perpendicular to the applied force
is the column. The row is constant at two whereas the number of columns is varied
from one to six. Therefore one column with two rows has two screws and two
columns with two rows have four screws. The connection strengths of the specimens
with six screws e.g. three columns and eight screws e.g. four columns were
compared to the strength of the specimens with two screws e.g. one column. Figure
2-20 shows the graph of ratio of tested ultimate load to tested ultimate load of 2
screws i.e. Put/Put 2screws against number of screws in the connections i.e. n. The figure
shows that an increase in the number of screws does not cause a decrease in the
strength per screw. For instance, the strength of eight screw joints is similar to the

36
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

strength of four times of two-screw joints. The results obtained in their research
shows that there was no group effect in single lap shear testing. Therefore, the results
of Rodriguez-Ferran et al.’s research suggest that the connection strength per screw
for multiple screws in connection does not decrease when low ductility steel sheets
are used. However, the effects of number of screws in connection on the group effect
when single line of screws parallel to the applied force in low ductility steel are still
unknown and unclear.

Figure 2-19: Joint Layout (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

Figure 2-20: Put/Put2screws against Number of crews (Rodriguez-Ferran et al. 2006)

Other than screwed connections, the results of study by Carril, LaBoube and Yu
(1994) showed that bolted connections also showed similar results when the number

37
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

of bolts in a connection was increased. In their study, the bolts were arranged in a
line parallel i.e. longitudinal to the applied force as shown in Figure 2-21. They used
low ductility steel for the specimens and the thicknesses of the steel sheets were
1.067 mm, 1.78 mm and 3.048 mm. The diameter of bolts used was 12.7 mm. The
specimens were categorized with Type A, Type B and Type C. Type A was for
single bolt connections, Type B was for two bolts connections and Type C was for
three bolts connections. The test results of the study for the steel sheet thickness at
3.048 mm are as tabulated in Table 2-4. The table shows that the connection strength
of bolts increases as the number of bolts increases.

Figure 2-21: Test Specimen (Carril, LaBoube and Yu 1994)

Table 2-4: Test Results (Carril, LaBoube and Yu 1994)

Spacing Pattern Specimen Number of Strength (kips)


(inch) Screw
A AN31-2 1 6.58
A AN31-3 1 6.54
B BN31-1 2 6.60
1.625
B BN31-2 2 6.60
C CN31-2 3 6.92
C CN31-3 3 6.75
A AN32-1 1 8.09
A AN32-2 1 8.20
B BN32-1 2 14.46
3.250
B BN32-2 2 14.69
C CN32-1 3 16.00
C CN32-2 3 15.83

38
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2.4.2 Effect of Screw Spacing on Connection Strength

AISI Design Specification (2007) provides a guideline for spacing of a fastener in a


connection to not less than 3d, where d is the nominal screw diameter. The spacing
less than 3d is impractical as the head of the screws coming very close to each other.
The screw spacing also affects the strength of a connection especially when spacing
is less than 3d, the connection strength of screws is expected to decrease.

Sokol, LaBoube and Yu (1998) conducted total of 200 a single lap connection tests
on normal ductility steel sheets with three different thicknesses of 0.76 mm, 1.02 mm
and 1.35 mm and three self-drilling screw sizes of No.8, No.10 and No. 12 e.g. 4.2
mm, 4.8 mm and 5.5 mm in diameter. The effect of screw spacing was investigated
for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 screws in a connection. The screw spacing was measured by the
distance perpendicular i.e. transverse to the applied force and parallel i.e.
longitudinal to the applied force as shown in Figure 2-22. The results of this research
show that specimens with 3d screw spacing has greater connection strength than the
specimens with 2d screw spacing as shown in Figure 2-23. The figure shows the
results for specimens with N16 steel sheet e.g. 1.35 mm thickness and using No.8
screw. Thus, screw spacing has a direct influence on the connection strength of
screws. In Sokol, Laboube and Yu’s research, the calculated results of nominal shear
strength of screw connection is yet to be compared to the experimental results of
specimens with spacing less than 3d and more than 3d. Thus, this study sets out to
determine the effects of screw spacing less than 3d on nominal shear strength design
equations.

39
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-22: General Test Setup for Connection Tests (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

40
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-23: Effect of Screw Spacing on Connection Strength (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu
1998)

Li, Ma, and Yao (2010) furthered their study by looking at the effect of an indefinite
increase in screw spacing on the screws connection strength. Their study was carried
out on six different spacings including 3d, 4d, 5d, 10d, 15d and 20d. For each
connection, five screws were used and they were arranged parallel i.e. longitudinal to
the applied force. The effects of these screw spacings are shown in Figure 2-24.

Figure 2-24: Effect of Screw Spacing (Li, Ma, and Yao 2010)

41
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The graph connection strength against screw spacings shows that the connection
strength increases as the screw spacing increases within a certain range but only up
to 5d. When the screw spacing exceeded 5d, the shear strength seemed to be
unaffected by the increase of spacing. In addition, the graph also shows no linear
correlation between the spacing of screws and connection strength especially when d
was increased more than 5d. Although, the results of the study revealed the effect of
increasing screw spacing beyond 5d, they did not investigate what would happen to
the connection strength when the screw spacing is less than 3d. The behavior of
screw connection for screw spacing less than 3d is critical because it could happen in
a congested connection area. Furthermore, their research only focused on the screw
spacing that was parallel i.e. longitudinally to the applied force. Further study is
needed to determine the effects of screw spacing when the spacing is oriented
perpendicular i.e. transversely to the applied force. This study extended these
research on the effects of screw spacing by investigating the effect of screw spacing
less than 3d on connection strength and the screw spacing perpendicular to the
applied force.

2.4.3 Effect of Screw Patterns on Connection Strength

Screw in screw connections can be arranged in many shapes, such as staggered


shape, diamond shape and they can be categorized by number of rows and number of
columns in specimens. A row is defined as a line of screws arranged perpendicular
i.e. transverse to the direction of loading where a column is a line of screws arranged
parallel i.e. longitudinal to the direction of loading.

The common understanding is that, the pattern of screws in a connection does not
significantly affect the connection strength but the number of rows in the connection
does. In other words, an increased in the number of rows will increase the connection
strength of the screws. Other than looking at the effects of number of screws and
screw spacing, Sokol, LaBoube, and Yu (1998) also looked at the effects of screw
pattern on connection strength.Their study used steel sheets N20 e.g. 0.76 mm thick
and screws No.8. Figure 2-25 shows how the screws were arranged.

42
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-25: Screw Patterns for Four Screws (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

According to them, screw patterns did not significantly influence the strength of the
connectionbut the trend of rows does. The more rows of the screwed connection had,
the higher was the strength of the connection. Table 2-5 shows the connection
strength results of the different screw patterns. The results in Table 2-5 show that the
connection strength of the screws, except for specimen 4E, increases as the number
of row increases. Specimen 4E consisted of 2 rows but the connection strength is
higher than the specimen with 3 rows. Based on these overall results, the researchers
conclude that the number of rows affects the connection strength of screw
connections.

43
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 2-5 : Results for Four Screw Patterns (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

Pattern Number of Connection


Connection Strength Group Effect
Row Strength (lbs) per Screw
(lbs)
4C 1 1492 373 0.71
4A 2 1506 377 0.72
4A 2 1524 381 0.72
4B 3 1559 390 0.74
4B 3 1563 391 0.74
4E 2 1583 396 0.75
4D 4 1663 416 0.79
Note: N20 (0.76 mm thick), No.8 Screw, 3d Spacing

Furthermore, according to Sokol, LaBoube, and Yu (1998), the same effect was also
observed on the column pattern with two screws in connections. As shown by Figure
2-26, the screws arranged perpendicularly to the applied force were in single row
whereas the screws arranged parallel to the applied force were in double rows. The
connection strength results for single row and double rows are compared in Table
2-6.

Figure 2-26: Screw Patterns for Two Screws (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

According to the results shown in Table 2-6, the connection strength of screws
arranged in double rows is higher if compared to the connection strength of screws
arranged in single rows. These results are based on a study with 1.02 mm thick steel
sheets and screw types No.8 e.g. 4.2 mm diameter.

44
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 2-6 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength (Sokol, LaBoube and
Yu1998)

Pattern Number of Row Strength (lbs) Strength per Group Effect


Screw (lbs)
2A 1 1146 573 0.83
2A 1 1197 599 0.87
2B 2 1188 594 0.86
2B 2 1281 641 0.93
Note: N18 (1.02 mm thick), No.8 Screw, 3d Spacing

The same results were also obtained for steel sheets with thicknesses of 0.76 mm and
1.35 mm and screw type No.8 and No.10 e.g. 4.2 mm and 4.8 mm diameter
respectively as shown in Table 2-7 and Table 2-8.

Table 2-7 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength of No.2 screw with 0.76
mm Sheet Thickness (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

Pattern Number of Row Strength (lbs) Strength per Group Effect


Screw (lbs)
2A 1 749 375 0.71
2A 1 789 395 0.75
2B 2 900 450 0.85
2B 2 844 422 0.80
Note: N20 (0.76 mm), No.8 Screw, 3d Spacing

Table 2-8 : Effect of Number of Rows on Connection Strength No.2 screw with 1.35 mm
Sheet Thickness (Sokol, LaBoube and Yu 1998)

Pattern Number of Row Strength (lbs) Strength per Group Effect


Screw (lbs)
2A 1 2652 1326 0.87
2A 1 2697 1349 0.89
2B 2 2835 1418 0.93
2B 2 2812 1406 0.92
Note: N16 (1.35 mm), No.10 Screw, 3d Spacing

The researchers explained that the connection strength of screws arranged in double
rows was higher because this arrangement increased the rotational stability of the
connection and thus offered more resistance to rotation. As a result, the double row
screw patterns developed better structural performance if compared to single row
screws in connections. They explained that as the connection was loaded, the sheets
lapped each other and caused eccentricity in loading. The eccentricity then caused

45
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

the connection to rotate and this resulted in screw tilting. Thus, the screws were put
into tension and sheared instead of only shear. This phenomenon gives less strength
to the connection with fewer rows because the screws tend to pull out of the sheets
rather than bear on them. However in their research, except 4E specimen, all the
screws in the specimens were arranged in symmetrical. Thus, the increase in the
number of rows would increase the connection strength of the screws. Further study
is required in order to investigate the effect of screws patterns that are not arranged
symmetrically. In Sokol, LaBoube and Yu’s research, the calculated results of
nominal shear strength of screw connection for patterns specimens are yet to be
compared to the experimental results of pattern specimens. Thus, this study sets out
to determine the effects of screw patterns on nominal shear strength design
equations.

The experimental single shear screwed results obtained by Yan and Young (2012)
for two screws with different number of rows were similar to the Sokol, LaBoube
and Yu’s (1998) experimental results. Figure 2-27 shows that the arrangement of the
screws in the specimens. This finding was based on the specimens consisted of G550
steel sheets with the same thickness at 0.42 mm, G500 1.20 mm and G450 1.90 mm.
Yan and Young’s results were based on the effects of screwed connections of thin
steel sheets at elevated temperatures.

Table 2-9 shows that the results of shear connection for specimen with two screws
arranged in a line parallel to applied force e.g. S2-P was higher than the shear
connection for specimen with two screws arranged in a line perpendicular to applied
force e.g. S2-V. The specimens consisted of 1.2 mm thick G500 steel sheets also
shows similar results. The results for the test on the specimens with four screws e.g.
S4-S and S4-D were similar. There was no huge difference between the connection
strength of both four screws specimens with different patterns even though they had
different number of rows. The screw arrangement in their study seems similar with
this study. However, Yan and Young (2012) results were based on the effects of
screwed connections of thin steel sheets at elevated temperatures. Thus, this study is
important because it will investigate the effects of screw patterns on connection
strength.

46
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 2-27: Design Details (Yan and Young 2012)

47
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 2-9: Single Shear Connection Results (Yan and Young 2012)

Steel Thickness Number Pattern Number Strength (kN)


Type (mm) of Screw of Row
S2-V 1 2.57
2
S2-P 2 3.31
G550 0.42
S4-S 2 6.17
4
S4-D 3 6.12
S2-V 1 15.09
G500 1.2 2
S2-P 2 16.96

In addition to look at the effect of number of rows on screwed connections, Li, Ma


and Yao (2010) extended their study to look at the effects of screw patterns on the
connections. Their study was carried out on twelve different geometric screw
patterns, on 36 shear strength test specimens.They found that, the connections with
screws arranged parallel i.e. longitudinally to the applied force and in multiple rows
perpendicular to applied force had more strength than those with a line of screws
arranged perpendicular i.e. transversely to the applied force. This phenomenon only
occurred for connections with two and three screws, and spacing that was equal to
3d. A different results were obtained when the number of screws were increased to
four and five and the spacing was more than 3d. In other words, the results obtained
for four screws connections were not substantial and thus unable to support the
hypothesis that if the number of rows in a connection is increased, the connection
strength of the screws would also increase. Therefore, this study will further the
investigation on the effects of screw pattern on connection strength especially for
three and four screws connection and spacing more than 3d.

Previously, not as much research had been done on the effects of screw patterns on
connection strength if compared to the studies on bolt patterns. Noorashikin (2006)
investigated the effects of six different patterns of 6 bolts as shown in Figure 2-28. In
her study, the row indicates a line of screws perpendicular to the applied force. Her
results showed that the connection strength of the specimens with the patterns of
bolts that had more rows as in Arrangement 1 was higher if compared to patterns
with fewer rows. The same result was also observed with Arrangements 4 and 5.
Arrangement 5 with 3 rows was stronger than Arrangement 4 with 2 rows. Based on
these observations, Noorashikin concluded that if the number of rows in a pattern is

48
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

increased, the shear effects of the pattern can be minimised. According to her, this is
because, once the loading is applied, the first bolt will receive higher stress than the
rest of the bolts. A staggered pattern, such as Arrangement 3 and 6, would cause zig-
zag failure pattern due to the very short distance between the bolts. Even though
Noorashikin’s (2006) experiment was on the effects of number of rows on bolted
connection, the concluding results were similar to those of the experiment on the
effects of number of rows on screwed connections. In other words, in both cases, an
increase in the number of rows causes an increased in the connection strength.

Figure 2-28: Layout for different bolt arrangement (Noorashikin 2006)

49
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2.5 Research Gaps

The summaries of relevant literatures are tabulated in Table 2-10.

Table 2-10: Summaries of Relevant Literatures

Previous Studies Research Gaps


Rodriquez-Ferran et al (2006)
The results of the research showed that This conclusion solely applied to normal
the thinner steel sheets would experience ductility steel sheets with Grade G350
a tilting failure of the screws in and G250. The failure modes of steel
combination with bearing failure of the sheets for low ductility steel with Grade
screw holes. G550 still unknown. Thus, further study
is needed to investigate the screw
connection behaviour for steel sheets
with Grade 550 for low ductility steel.
Daulet and LaBoube (1996)
The results of the research revealed that This conclusion was solely based on
both single and double screws in single single and double screws in connections.
shear connections experienced tilting and In the case where multiple screws are
bearing failure. employed in the connections, the failure
modes are still unknown and debateable.
Daulet and LaBoube (1996)
The connection strength of screws with However their conclusion was not
low ductility steel increase directly with conclusive enough for multiple screws in
the number of screws. connections because the experiment was
carried out only for single and double
screws. Thus, further study is important
to determine the effects of multiple
screws on the connection strength per
screw for low ductility steel.
Serrette and Lopez (1996)
The results showed that when the number The grade of steel used in their research
of screws in screw connections increases, was not revealed, and as a result, the

50
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

the connection strength per screw causes of the reduction in maximum load
decreases. capacities per screw as the numbers of
screws increased are still unclear.
LaBoube and Sokol (2002)
Researchers found that the connection The diminishing of connection strength
strength per screw diminished as the was due to the use of normal ductility
number of screws increased. steel sheets in the connections. A study is
required to determine the effect of
multiple screws on the connection
strength per screw for low ductility steel.

Li, Ma, and Yao (2010)


The researchers discovered that, the The decrease in connection strength per
strength per screw in a connection screw was possibly due to the low
diminished as the number of screws performance of normal ductility steel
increased. sheets used in the tests. In order to
substantiate this finding, the current
study intends to further the investigation
by looking at the connection strength per
screw with low ductility steel sheets and
determine if the reduction in connection
strength do happen to the screw
connection with low ductility steel.

Sokol, LaBoube and Yu (1998)


The results of this research show that The calculated results of nominal shear
specimens with 3d screw spacing has strength of screw connection is yet to be
greater connection strength than the compared to the experimental results of
specimens with 2d screw spacing. Thus, specimens with spacing less than 3d and
screw spacing has a direct influence on more than 3d. Thus, this study sets out to
the connection strength of screws. determine the effects of screw spacing
less than 3d and more than 3d on
nominal shear strength design equations.

51
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Li, Ma, and Yao (2010)


Researchers found that the connection Their study was carried out on six
strength increases as the screw spacing different spacings including 3d, 4d, 5d,
increases. 10d, 15d and 20d. They did not
investigate what would happen to the
connection strength when the screw
spacing is less than 3d. The behavior of
screw connection for screw spacing less
than 3d is critical because it could
happen in a congested connection area.
Furthermore, their research only focused
on the screw spacing that was parallel i.e.
longitudinally to the applied force. The
effect of screw spacing perpendicular to
the applied force is still unknown.
Sokol, LaBoube and Yu (1998)
Researchers found that the screw patterns This conclusion is based on the screws in
did not significantly influence the the specimens that were arranged in
strength of the connectionbut the trend of symmetrical patterns. Further study is
rows does. required in order to investigate the effect
of screws patterns that are not arranged
symmetrically.

52
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2.6 Conclusions

A review on the literature shows that the failure modes of screw connections depend
on the thickness of steel sheets. In order to study the failure mode of screw
connections to tilting and bearing failures, same thickness of steel sheets which are
1.2 mm, was used in this study.

A review of previous research also shows that multiple screw connection strength is
not directly proportional to multiple of single screw connection strength. This is due
to “Group Effect” that is observed from connections with normal ductility steel
members only. Hence, this study determines the effects of a number of screws on
connections with low ductility steel sheets.

Due to the limited research on the effects of screw spacing, further study on this is
highly desired. In addition, this study also investigates the effects of screw spacing
more than 3d and less than 3d based on the design guideline provided by AISI
Specification (2007) on screw connections.

The studies on the effects of screw patterns in screwed connection are still limited if
compared to those on bolted connections. Thus, further research is needed to study
the effects of screw patterns and number of rows in screw connections.

53
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

3 LABORATORY PROGRAMME

3.1 Introduction

A total of 48 specimens of self-drilling screw connections were fabricated. The


samples were tested using the Universal Testing Machine GOTECH GT-7001-L060
in the Structural Laboratory at Curtin Sarawak University. The tests were carried out
to determine the shear strength and behaviour of self-drilling screw connection.

3.2 Self-Drilling Screw Properties

The mechanical properties of the screws were provided by the manufacturer. The
type of screws used in this study is the ASTEKS, type AT2 screws as shown in
Figure 3-1. This type of screws used in this study because it is commonly available
from the market in Malaysia. The technical properties of the screws are shown in
Table 3-1.

Figure 3-1: Self-drilling Screw

54
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 3-1: Technical Properties of Screw (ASTEKS 2009)

Fastener Description 12-14×20 mm


Diameter, d Gauge #12 (5.35 mm)
Thread Form 14 TPI (threads per inch)
Drive Hex Head 5/16 inch
Length 20.00 ± 0.75 mm
Drill Point 7.00 -7.50 mm length
4.35 – 4.45 mm diameter
Type of steel AISI C 1022 Steel, Hardened heat treated
Mechanical Properties
- Single Shear 9.0 kN
Corrosion Classification AS 3566.2 – 2002 Class 2, with minimum 12
µ zinc (98% Purity ) electroplating

3.3 Cold-Formed Steel Properties

The cold-formed steel sheets used in this study were ZINCALUME steel (Zinc
Aluminium Alloy), AZ150 coating, with Grade of G550. The steel sheets were high-
tensile steel with thickness 1.20 mm. Zincalume steel sheets have minimum coating
requirements, which complies with AS1397 i.e. Steel Sheet and Strip-Hot-Dip Zinc
Coated or Alimunium/Zinc Coated. Coupon test have been done in Structural
Laboratory, Curtin Sarawak University to obtain the yield strength, Fy and ultimate
strength, Fu of the steel sheets. The average yield strength, Fy for the steel sheet is
561.50 MPa and the average ultimate strength, Fu, for the steel sheet is 590.32 MPa
as shown in Table 3-2. The graphs of Stress (MPa) against Strain (%) for cold-
formed steel sheets are shown in Appendix A.

Table 3-2: Yield Strength and Ultimate Strength for Cold-formed Steel Sheets

Coupon Average Fy (MPa) Fu (MPa)


Thickness (mm)
TC-75-1 1.204 563 591.62 1.05
TC-90-2 1.195 560 589.02 1.05
Average 561.50 590.32 1.05

55
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

3.4 Test Assemblies and Setup

The test specimens consisted of two overlapping 1.2 mm thick, flat steel sheets and
connected using self-drilling screws. The steel sheet thickness 1.2 mm is used
because it is readily available and common section size for local industry. The size
for each steel sheet was 450 mm length and 70 mm width. Two packing shims with
the length of 130 mm, 1.2 mm thickness and 70 mm width were attached to both
ends of the specimens. The packing shims were provided to allow for centric loading
across the lap joint.

All the specimens are categorized into three series according to the parameters
determined, such as, number of screws, with “N” series, screw spacing, with “S”
series, and screw pattern, with “P” series.

The specimens are labelled in the manner as shown in Figure 3-2, where the number
stated after series category, “N” is the number of screws in connection whereas, “ST”
indicates the arrangement of the screws in the connection e.g. the screws are
arranged parallel to the applied force in standard arrangement. The last number
recorded in the label is the serial number of specimens with similar details as shown
in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2: Number of Screw Series Labelling

According to American Iron and Steel Institute Cold-Formed Steel Design


Specification (AISI 2007), the minimum spacing recommended by the standard is
not less than 3d, where d is the outer diameter of the screw. Thus, in this study, the
effect of screw spacing in the connections are studied by varying the screw spacing

56
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

more than 3d and also less than 3d. This was done for both two and three screw
connections. The spacings studied are stated in Table 3-3.

Table 3-3: Screw Spacing for S Series Specimen

Outer Diameter Spacing less Spacing more


Number of
of Screw, d 3d (mm) than 3d than 3d
Screw
(mm) studied(mm) studied(mm)
2 5.35 16.05 15 40
3 5.35 16.05 15 25

The screw spacing for specimens less than 3d are chosen at 15 mm because it is a
minimum distance that can prevent the screw heads from overlapping each other on
the test specimens as shown in Figure 3-3. The screw spacing more than 3d
specimens are chosen at 40 mm and 25 mm for two and three screws respectively.
These dimensions are chosen to allow the minimum edge distance for screw
connection in the specimen. According to AISI (2007) design rule for screw
connections, the minimum edge distance is not less than 1.5d.

Small Gap
Screw Head

15 mm

Figure 3-3: S2-15 Specimen

For screw spacing series, the specimens are labelled as shown in Figure 3-4. The
number denoted after series category “S” is the number of screws in the connection.
The number such as “15” indicates the screw spacing, which covers the spacing, less
than 3d e.g. 15 mm and more than 3d e.g. 25 mm and 40 mm. The last number
recorded in the label is the serial number of specimens with similar details.

57
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 3-4: Screw Spacing Series Labelling

For screw pattern series, the specimens are labelled as shown in Figure 3-5. The
number denoted after series category “P” is the number of screws in the connection.
The two letters in the middle indicate the pattern of screws, “DM” for diamond
shape, “BX” for box shape and “DG” for diagonal shape. The last number recorded
in the label is the serial number of specimens with similar details.

Figure 3-5: Screw Pattern Series Labelling

The layouts for all specimens are shown in Figure 3-6 to Figure 3-8. For these
specimens, the screws were arranged either in parallel or perpendicular to the applied
force. For N series specimens, the steel sheets overlapped each other and are
connected by one, two, three or four screws at the centre of the specimens as shown
in Figure 3-6. The screw spacing, longitudinal and transverse edge distances are the
same for all the specimens. The only difference was in the number of screws, which
varied from one to four screws for the N series. The details of each N series
specimen are shown in Appendix B.

58
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 3-6: N Series Test Specimens (mm)

S series test specimens are shown in Figure 3-7. The steel sheets overlapped each
other and are connected by two and three screws at the centre of the specimens. The
screws are arranged in a line perpendicular to the applied force. The screw spacings
are varied to less than 3d and more than 3d for the connections. The details of each S
series specimen are shown in Appendix B.

Figure 3-7: S Series Test Specimens (mm)

59
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Three different patterns are studied and compared with the standard arrangement of
screws. There are diamond (DM) and diagonal (DG) patterns for three screws
connections whereas diamond (DM) and box (BX) patterns are used for four screws
connections as shown in Figure 3-8. The longitudinal spacing of the screws is 60
mm. A centreline was drawn on each of the specimen to ensure the specimens are
arranged concentrically during the experiment setup as shown inFigure 3-9.

Figure 3-8: P Series Test Specimens (mm)

60
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 3-9: Specimen with Centreline

A total of 48 specimens were tested. The single lap shear test method was adopted
from the American Iron and Steel Manual (2008b) e.g. AISI S905-08 “Test Methods
for Mechanically Fastened Cold-Formed Steel Connections” . The testing was
conducted using the Universal Testing Machine (UTM), GOTECH GT-7001-L060
with GT-U55 operating software as shown in Figure 3-10.The experimental tests of
the specimens were conducted at Curtin University Structural Laboratory in
Sarawak, Malaysia.

61
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 3-10: Universal Testing Machine GOTECH

According to AISI Manual Section 8.2.2 (2008b), the standard test for single shear
specimen consists of two flat steel components connected using two fasteners e.g.
screws to prevent under-torquing, over-torquing and limit lap shear connection
distortion of flat unformed members. However, one screw connection specimens
were tested in this study to determine the single screw strength and the mode of
failure as the control specimens.

The locations of the screws were marked on the steel sheets according to the design
and the steel sheets were screwed together by using a screw gun. The specimen
dimensions were checked and measured to ensure the specimens comply with the
AISI Manual (2008b) testing standard.

62
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The connection test specimens were mounted onto the Universal Testing Machine
(UTM) by inserting them into the top and bottom grip of the machine as shown in
Figure 3-11. The gripped end of each test specimen is at 130 mm where the packing
are attached to the specimens. An initial load was applied to eliminate the gaps and
slip occurred during testing. Specimens were aligned using the laser marker to ensure
the specimens were placed in the centre of the grips to avoid any eccentricity.

Axial load was applied at a constant rate that is not more than 2 kN per minute. At
least four specimens of each series were carried out. Overall specimen deformation
was recorded every second during the test using a data logger. The screw failures
were observed and recorded. Failure was defined by the inability of the connection to
carry additional loading.

Figure 3-11: Front and Side View of the Specimen in the UTM Machine

63
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

3.5 Conclusions

A total of 48 screw connection specimens were designed according to recommended


geometry by AISI Manual (2008b). The specimens were labelled according to the
series category. All the specimens were tested using the Universal Testing Machine
(UTM) and the experimental testing was conducted at Curtin University Structural
Laboratory in Sarawak, Malaysia. The specimens were tested until the maximum
load was taken as the ultimate connection strength of the screws and the screw
failure modes were observed.

64
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

4 DESIGN EVALUATIONS

4.1 Introduction

The design evaluation in this study is based on the American Iron and Steel Institutes
Specification (AISI 2007).

4.2 Design Evaluation for Number of Screws (N) Series

In this study, the thickness of both steel sheet members is 1.2 mm. The width of the
steel sheet is constant at 70 mm whereas the nominal diameter of screw is 5.35 mm
i.e. Type #12. The ultimate tensile strength, Fu for the steel sheet is 590.32 MPa
without any 0.75 reduction factor applied. There are one to four screws arranged in a
line parallel to the applied force for the N series specimens.

There are three equations in AISI Specification (2007) that are used to calculate the
nominal shear strength per screw, Pns that failed in either tilting or bearing. For
members that have the same steel sheet thickness or a thicker steel sheet member that
is in contact with the screw head as shown in Figure 4-1, Pns based on different
failure modes are calculated according to the equations below:

Figure 4-1: Thicker Member Contact with Screw Head

65
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Tilting or Equation 4-1

Bearing or Equation 4-2


Bearing Equation 4-3

In the above equations, t1 is the thickness of steel sheet member in contact with the
screw head, t2 is the thickness of steel sheet member not in contact with the screw
head, d is the nominal screw diameter, Fu1 is the tensile strength of the steel sheet
member in contact with the screw head and Fu2 is the tensile strength of member not
in contact with the screw head.

The shear strength of a connection with more than one screw P, is calculated as
follows:

Equation 4-4

Where n is the number of screws in connections.

The calculated results for nominal shear strength as specified by AISI Specification
(2007) for one to four screws connections are tabulated in Table 4-1. The full
calculations are shown in Appendix C-1 to Appendix C-4.

Table 4-1: Calculated Results for N Series Specimens

Specimen n P Tilting (kN) P Bearing (kN)


N1-ST-1 1 7.54 10.23
N2-ST-2 2 15.08 20.46
N3-ST-3 3 22.62 30.69
N4-ST-4 4 30.16 40.96

According to AISI Specification (2007) design rules, P is taken as the smaller value
when comparing between tilting and bearing failure.From the calculations, the
calculated results of P by tilting failure are smaller than the calculated results of P by
bearing failure as shown in Table 4-1. Thus, N series specimens are predicted to fail
by tilting in the screw connection. The calculated results of P are compared with the
experimental results in Section 5.2.3.

66
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

4.3 Design Evaluation for Screw Spacing (S) Series

AISI Specification (2007) recommended that the minimum screw spacing is not less
than 3d, where d is the outer diameter of the screw. Thus, in this study, the effect of
screw spacing in connections are studied by varying the screw spacing more than 3d
and also less than 3d. This was done for both two and three screws connections. The
screws were arranged in a line perpendicular to the applied force as shown in Figure
4-2.

Figure 4-2: Arrangement of S Series Specimens

There are three equations in AISI Specification (2007) that are used to calculate the
nominal shear strength, P of two and three screws in connections that failed either by
tilting or bearing as shown by Equation 4-1 to Equation 4-3. The calculated results of
nominal shear strength for two and three screws connections are shown in Table 4-2.

According to the AISI Specification (2007) design standard for bolts, the failure of
rupture in net section may also occur when a single row of bolts are arranged
perpendicular to the applied force. The nominal tensile strength, Pn is calculated as
follows:

67
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Equation 4-5

Equation 4-6

In the above equations, An is the net area of connected part, Ft is the nominal tensile
stress in flat sheet, Fu is the tensile strength of the connected part, d is the nominal
bolt diameter and s is the sheet width divided by the number of bolt holes in the cross
section being analysed when evaluating Ft.

For S series specimens, the screws are arranged in a line perpendicular to the applied
force as shown in Figure 4-3. When a single row of screws are arranged
perpendicular to the applied force, the failure of rupture in net section may also occur
in the connections. Instead of tilting and bearing failure modes, the screw
connections are also predicted to fail by rupture in net section. Since there is no
design equations for screw failed by rupture in net section failure, thus, the nominal
tensile strength, Pn by rupture in net section failure of the bolted connections are used
to calculate Pn by rupture in net section failure for screw connections. The full
calculations are shown in Appendix D-1 to D-2.

Figure 4-3: Screws arrangement for S Series Test Specimens

68
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 4-2 shows the calculated results of P for S series specimens that failed either
by tilting, bearing or rupture in net section.

Table 4-2 : Calculated Results of Screw Spacing(S) Series

Specimen n P (kN) P (kN) Pn(kN)


Tilting Bearing Rupture in Net Section
S2 2 15.08 20.46 16.05
S3 3 22.62 30.69 21.91

From the calculations, the calculated results of P by bearing failure show greater
value compared with the calculated results of P by tilting failure and rupture in net
section as shown inTable 4-1. The calculated result of P by tilting failure is less than
calculated result of P by rupture in net section failure for two screws connections,
whereas for three screws connection, the calculated result of P by rupture in net
section failure is less than the calculated result of P by tilting failure. Thus, S series
specimens are predicted to fail by tilting for two screws connections and predicted to
fail by rupture in net section for three screws connections in this study. The
experimental results of S series specimens are compared with calculated results in
Section 5.3.3.

4.4 Design Evaluation for Screw Patterns (P) Series

The number of screws used for P series specimens were grouped into three and four
screws connections and arranged in two different patterns. The screws are arranged
in a staggered shape. For three screws in connections, the screws are arranged in a
diamond (DM) and a diagonal (DG) patterns whereas for four screws in connections,
the screws are arranged in a diamond (DM) and a box (BX) patterns as shown in
Figure 4-4.

69
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 4-4: P Series Screw Arrangement

AISI Specification (2007) design equations are also used to calculate the nominal
shear strength P that failed in either tilting or bearing. The nominal shear strength, P
for P series specimens are compared with the N series specimens which act as the
control specimens e.g. P3-DG and P3-DM specimens are compared with N3-ST
specimens whereas P4-DM and P4-BX specimens are compared with N4-ST
specimens.

The calculated results of nominal shear strength, P for P3-DG and P3-DM specimens
are similar with the calculated results of nominal shear strength, P for N3-ST
specimen whereas the calculated results of nominal shear strength, P for P4-DM and
P4-BX specimens are similar with the calculated results of nominal shear strength, P
for N4-ST specimen as shown in Table 4-3.

According to AISI Specification (2007) design equations for bolts, the failure of
rupture in net section may also occur when the bolts are arranged in a staggered
pattern. The nominal tensile strength, Pn when the bolts are arranged in a staggered
pattern is calculated as follows:

70
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Equation 4-6
In the above equation, An is the net area of connected part. Ft is the nominal tensile
stress in flat sheet. When the line of screws is in a staggered pattern, An is calculated
according to Equation 4-7. For a single bolt, or a single row of bolts perpendicular to
the applied force, Ft is calculated according to Equation 4-8. For multiple bolts in a
line parallel to the applied force, Ft is equal to the ultimate tensile stress, Fu.

Equation 4-7

Equation 4-8

In the above equations Ag is the gross area of the member, nb is the number of bolt
holes in the cross section being analyzed, d is the nominal bolt diameter and s is the
sheet width divided by the number of bolt holes in the cross section being analyzed
when evaluating Ft, t is the steel sheet thickness, s’ is the longitudinal centre-to-
centre spacing of any two conservatives holes, g is transverse centre-to-centre
spacing between fastener gage lines and Fu is the tensile strength of connected part.

For P series specimens, the screws are arranged in a staggered screw pattern. When
the screws are arranged in a staggered pattern, failure of rupture in net section may
also occur in the connections. Instead of tilting and bearing failure modes, the screw
connections for P series specimens may also fail by rupture in net section. Since
there is no design equations for screw failed by rupture in net section failure, thus,
the nominal tensile strength, Pn by rupture in net section failure of the bolted
connections are used to calculate Pn by rupture in net section failure for screw
connections. Hence, the nominal tensile strength, Pn of the screw connections are
also calculated using the AISI Specification (2007) design equations of rupture in net
section failure. The full calculations are shown in Appendix E.

71
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 4-3: Nominal Shear Strength, P of P Series

Specimen n Corresponding P Tilting (kN) P Bearing (kN) P Rupture in


N Series N Series N Series Net Section
(kN)

P3-DG 3 N3-ST 22.62 30.69 26.25


P3-DM 3 N3-ST 22.62 30.69 24.08
P4-DM 4 N4-ST 30.16 40.96 42.01
P4-BX 4 N4-ST 30.16 40.96 42.01

In design evaluation of P series specimens, the possible failure modes are tilting,
bearing and rupture in net section. P is taken as the smaller value when comparing
between failure by tilting, bearing and rupture in net section. From the calculations,
all the calculated results of P by tilting failure show the smaller values compared
with the calculated results of P by bearing failure and rupture in net section as shown
in Table 4-3. Thus, all P series specimens are predicted to fail by tilting in the screw
connections. The calculated results of Pare compared with the experimental results in
Section 5.4.3. The experimental results for P series specimens are also compared
with experimental results for N series specimens which act as the control specimens
e.g. P3-DG and P3-DM compared with N3-ST whereas P4-DM and P4-BX
compared with N4-ST. Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6 show the comparison of screw
arrangements between the N series specimens with P series specimens.

72
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 4-5: N Series Specimen (N3-ST) compared with P Series specimen (P3-DG and
P3-DM)

Figure 4-6: N Series Specimen (N4-ST) compared with P Series Specimen (P4-DM and
P4-BX)

73
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

4.5 Conclusions

The nominal shear strength, P of the specimens are calculated using AISI
Specification (2007) design equations. In design calculations, the connection strength
is calculated by considering all the different failure modes and the lowest connection
strength is taken as the failed load.

For N series specimens, the screws are arranged in a line parallel to the applied force.
N series specimens are predicted to fail by tilting in the screw connection. This is
because the calculated results of P by tilting failure are smaller than the calculated
results of P by bearing failure.

According to AISI Specification (2007) design standard, the screws that are arranged
in a line perpendicular to the applied force may fail by tilting, bearing or rupture in
net section. The screws in S series specimens are arranged in a line perpendicular to
the applied force. S series specimens are predicted to fail by tilting for two screws
connections and predicted to fail by rupture in net section for three screws
connections. This is because the calculated results of P failed by tilting failure are
smaller than the calculated results of P by bearing failure and net section failure for
two screws connections. However, the calculated results of P by rupture in net
section failure are smaller than the calculated results of P by tilting failure and
bearing failure for three screws connections.

The screws in P series specimens are arranged in a staggered pattern. The connection
strength of P series specimens are calculated by considering three different failure
modes e.g. tilting, bearing and rupture in net section failure. P series specimens are
predicted to fail by tilting in the screw connections because the calculated results of
P by tilting failure are smaller than the calculated results of P by bearing failure and
rupture in net section failure.

74
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Introduction

A total of 48 specimens were tested in the Structural Laboratory at Curtin Sarawak


University. The experimental programme categorized the test specimens to three test
series according to the parameterdetermined, such as, number of screws, with “N”
series, screw spacing, with “S” series, and screw pattern, with “P” series. In this
chapter, all the experimental results and the failure modes of the specimens were
presented and discussed. The experimental results were tabulated and plotted and
then compared with the calculated results using the American Iron and Steel Institute
Specification (AISI 2007) design equations. The critical factors that influenced the
connection strength are also discussed.

5.2 Number of Screw (N)

A total of 16 specimens with screws are arranged in a line parallel to the applied
force, were tested. The numbers of screws on the specimens are varied from one to
four screws in a connection. In this chapter, the calculated results according to the
American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design equations are
compared with the experimental results. The effects of number of screws on the
connection strength are investigated.

5.2.1 Experimental Results

The experimental results for N series specimens were recorded and tabulated in
Table 5-1. The experimental results showed that the screw connection strength
increased as the number of screw in the connection increased. The failure modes
were observed and the maximum loads were recorded as the strength of screw
connection. The maximum loads were achieved when the test specimens failed to
carry any additional load. All failed specimens showed the similar failure modes
which are tilting and bearing failure modes. However some of the screws in one and
two screws connection specimens were shear off, but it was only occurred after the
maximum value was achieved and the specimens are tested to destruction.

75
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 5-1: Experimental Results for N Series Specimens

Number Experimental
Specimen Failure Modes
of screw Results (kN)
N1-ST-1 7.26 Tilting + Bearing
N1-ST-2 8.14 Tilting + Bearing
1
N1-ST-3 8.14 Tilting + Bearing
N1-ST-4 7.15 Tilting + Bearing (1 Screw shear off)
N2-ST-1 16.65 Tilting + Bearing (2 Screw shear off)
N2-ST-2 16.99 Tilting + Bearing
2
N2-ST-3 16.24 Tilting + Bearing (2 Screw shear off)
N2-ST-4 14.67 Tilting + Bearing (2 Screw shear off)
N3-ST-1 22.15 Tilting + Bearing
N3-ST-2 24.41 Tilting + Bearing
3
N3-ST-3 23.27 Tilting + Bearing
N3-ST-4 24.03 Tilting + Bearing
N4-ST-1 28.91 Tilting + Bearing
N4-ST-2 32.01 Tilting + Bearing
4
N4-ST-3 32.69 Tilting + Bearing
N4-ST-4 31.32 Tilting + Bearing

5.2.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for N Series Specimens

The experimental results of the N series specimens were plotted from the test data
collected by the Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Figure 5-1 to Figure 5-4 show
the Load against Displacement graphs for N1-ST, N2-ST, N3-ST and N4-ST
specimens. The full test data of the Load against Displacement graph from the single
shear testing are shown in Appendix G-1.

76
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

14
N1-ST-1
12 N1-ST-2

10 N1-ST-3
Load (kN)

8.14 8.14 N1-ST-4


8

6 7.15 7.26

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-1: Load against Displacement Graph for N1 Series Specimens

77
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

N2-ST-1
18 N2-ST-2
16.65 16.66
16.24
16 N2-ST-3
N2-ST-4
14 14.67
12
Load (kN)

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-2: Load against Displacement Graph for N2 Series Specimens

78
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

26
24.03 23.27 24.41
24

22 22.15

20

18

16
Load (kN)

14

12

10

8 N3-ST-1

6 N3-ST-2

4 N3-ST-3

2 N3-ST-4
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-3 : Load against Displacement Graph for N3 Series Specimens

79
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

34
32.69
32 31.32 32.01
30
28.91
28

26

24

22
Load (kN)

20

18

16

14

12
N4-ST-1
10
N4-ST-2
8

6 N4-ST-3

4 N4-ST-4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-4: Load against Displacement Graph for N4 Series Specimens

80
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The connection strength of each specimen is taken as the highest load in each of the
curve. The graphs show that at the beginning of each test, a curve was linear until
maximum load was achieved. The linear curve implies that the specimens remain
elastic at the beginning of the testing and followed by a plastic deformation formed in
the tested specimen. The peaks of the curve represent the points at which the threads
of the screw were pulled through the hole. The peaks of the curve are obvious in
specimens with one and two screws in connections as shown in Figure 5-1 and
Figure 5-2. The Load against Displacement curves for N3 and N4 specimens
remained smooth throughout the whole experiment testing as shown in Figure 5-3
and Figure 5-4; no peaks of the curve are observed in the graph of N3 and N4
specimens because none of the screws were pulled out from the hole during testing.

Load against Displacement curves for N3-ST test specimens show that the gradient
of the slopes for N3-ST-3 and N3-ST-4 specimens are different from the gradient of
the slope for N3-ST-1 and N3-ST-2 specimen as shown in Figure 5-3. This is
because they went through different loading rates. The loading rates for the N3-ST-3
and N3-ST4 specimens were higher than the loading rates of the N3-ST-1 and N3-
ST-2 specimens. The loading rate is controlled manually and the loading rate at the
beginning of the test was generally larger as it is controlled by the control valve
manually. However the loading rate for all the testing was kept to below 0.5 kN per
minutes where it is accordance with loading rate stated in AISI (2008b) standard. In
AISI (2008b), axial load was applied at a constant rate that is not more than 2 kN per
minute.

All the curves of N series specimens show that the specimens actually failed in a
ductile manner although low ductility steel with Grade 550 used in this experiments.
The screws did shear off at the end of the experiment but it occurred only after the
screw connection had effectively failed in a combination of tilting and bearing
failure modes and the test specimens were tested to destruction.

81
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

5.2.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for N


Series Specimens

In this section, the experimental results are compared with the calculated results
obtained using the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (2007) design
equations. Some of the outliners are disregarded from the experimental results. The
experimental results from each category are shown in Table 5-1. According to AISI
Manual (2008b), the preferable value of deviation η is less than ± 15%. The
deviation η and standard deviation σ are calculated according to Equation 5-1 and
Equation 5-3. Table 5-2 shows that the deviation is less than 15% for all specimens.
Thus the results are used in this study. The low values of standard deviation σ
indicate that the data tend to be very close to the mean. Thus the experimental
results stated in Table 5-2 are used in comparing the experimental results and
calculated results in this study.

Deviation Equation 5-1

Mean Equation 5-2

Standard Deviation Equation 5-3

Where x is the experimental result and n is the number of specimens.

Table 5-2: Experimental Results for N series Specimens

Specimen x (kN) (kN)


N1-ST-1 7.26 -7.52
N1-ST-2 8.14 7.85 3.69 0.51
N1-ST-3 8.14 3.69
N2-ST-1 16.65 0.12
N2-ST-2 16.99 16.63 2.16 0.38
N2-ST-3 16.24 -2.35
N3-ST-2 24.41 2.13
N3-ST-3 23.27 23.90 -2.64 0.58
N3-ST-4 24.03 0.54
N4-ST-2 32.01 0
N4-ST-3 32.69 32.01 2.12 0.69
N4-ST-4 31.32 -2.16

82
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

According to the AISI Specification (2007) design rules, the nominal tensile strength
P is taken as the smaller value when comparing between tilting and bearing
failure.The AISI Specification (2007) design equations also used the ultimate
strength Fu instead of the yield strength Fy to calculate the nominal tensile strength
P. There is no 0.75 Fu reduction factor applied in the design calculation in this study.

N series specimens are predicted to fail by tilting in the screw connection. This is
because the calculated results of P by tilting failure showed the smaller value
compared with the calculated results of P by bearing failure. The experimental
results also showed that the tested specimens were failed in combination of tilting
and bearing failure mode. Table 5-3 shows that the ratio of experimental results to
calculated results are as low as 0.96 and as high as 1.13. In general, the ratios of the
experimental results to the calculated results for N series specimens are more than
one. Figure 5-5 shows that the experimental results are generally higher compared
with the calculated results. It is found that the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations without 0.75 Fu reduction factor correlate well with the experimental
results for screw connection of low ductility steel with the same steel sheets
thickness (1.2 mm).

Table 5-3: Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for N Series


Specimens

Specimen P Exp (kN) P Cal Tilting (kN)


N1-ST-1 7.26 0.96
N1-ST-2 8.14 7.54 1.08
N1-ST-3 8.14 1.08
N2-ST-1 16.65 1.10
N2-ST-2 16.99 15.08 1.13
N2-ST-3 16.24 1.08
N3-ST-2 24.41 1.08
N3-ST-3 23.27 22.62 1.03
N3-ST-4 24.03 1.06
N4-ST-2 32.01 1.06
N4-ST-3 32.69 30.16 1.08
N4-ST-4 31.32 1.04

83
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

35

30

25
Load (kN)

20

15

10
Experimental Results
5
Calculated Results

0
0 1 2 3 4
Number of Screw

Figure 5-5: Load against Number of Screw Graph for N Series Specimens

5.2.4 Effect of Number of Screws

The experimental results for N series specimens show that the connection strength of
screws increased with the number of screw in connection. Figure 5-6 shows the
relationship between the connection strength and the number of screws. As shown in
Figure 5-6, linear slope of the curve indicates that the number of screw has a direct
relation with the connection strength. The connection strength of multiple screws is
multiple of the connection strength for single screw connection. For example, the
connection strength of four screws is four times stronger than the connection
strength of single screw.

84
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

35

30

25
Load (kN)

20

15

10

0
0 1 2 3 4
Number of Screws

Figure 5-6: Effect of Number of Screw

LaBoube and Sokol (2002) found that there is a diminishing in connection strength
per screw as the number of screw is increasing for normal ductility steel
connections. In his study, the diminishing in connection strength per screw is shown
by the “Group Effect”, where the Group Effect is reducing as the number of screw in
connection is increasing. The "Group Effect" is defined as the ratio of the
connection strength per screw to the average strength for a single screw connection
of the same sheet thickness and screw size (LaBoube and Sokol 2002). The "Group
Effect" provides an indication of the ability of the fastener group to share the load
(LaBoube and Sokol 2002). Table 5-4and Figure 5-6 show that there is no
decreasing in the strength for multiple screws in screw connections. The “Group
Effect” reduction found by LaBoube and Sokol (2002) are not observed in this
study. Table 5-4 shows that the connection strength per screw is close to the average
strength of a single screw connection and the Group Effect is close to one.
Therefore, there is no Group Effect reduction occurred in multiple screws
connections for the low ductility steel sheet in this study. This is because low
ductility steel sheets have lower Fu/Fy ratio and this was why they performed better

85
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

than normal ductility steel sheets. When the Fu/Fy ratio was lower, they experienced
less stress distribution capacity, thus increased their performance.

Table 5-4: Group Effect for N Series Specimens

Specimen n PExp Group


name (kN)
(kN) Effect

N1-ST-1 7.26 7.26 1


N1-ST-2 1 8.14 8.14 1
N1-ST-3 8.14 8.14 1
N2-ST-1 16.65 8.33 1.06
N2-ST-2 2 16.99 8.50 1.08
N2-ST-3 16.24 8.13 1.04
N3-ST-2 24.41 8.14 1.04
N3-ST-3 3 23.27 7.76 0.99
N3-ST-4 24.03 8.01 1.02
N4-ST-2 32.01 8.00 1.02
N4-ST-3 4 32.69 8.17 1.04
N4-ST-4 31.32 8.83 1.12

In conclusion, the increment number of screws increases the connection strength of


screw connection in this study. The experimental results of N series specimens also
show that the multiple screws in connection did not reduce the connection strength
per screws when the low ductility steel is used.

5.2.5 Failure Modes

All tested specimens showed that the specimens failed in combination of tilting and
bearing failure. Tilting of the screws generally observed from the beginning of the
test as shown in Figure 5-7. After the load was applied, tilting of the screws occurred
and bearing of the steel sheet was observed as shown in Figure 5-8. Figure 5-9 shows
the screw head shearing off after the maximum load was achieved and the specimen
was tested to destruction. Figure 5-10 also shows the screw sheared off and initial
tear at the edge of piled steel sheet in the direction of loading. Although many
specimens experienced screw shearing, they occurred only after the connection had
failed due to tilting and bearing failure and the specimens are not carrying any further
load. Figure 5-11 shows tilting and bearing failure with pull-out action of screw after

86
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

significant tilting for N1-ST-1 specimens. The steel sheet also exhibited some piling
in front of the screw and the failure in screw threads is shown in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5-7: Tilting of Screws Occurred at the Beginning of Test (N1-ST-4 specimen)

87
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-8: Tilting of the Screw and Bearing of the Steel Sheet (N1-ST-4 tested
specimen)

Figure 5-9: Screw Shear Off when Tested to Destruction (N1-ST-4 tested specimen)

88
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Initial tear

Figure 5-10: Screw Shear Off (N1-ST-4 tested specimen)

Figure 5-11: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N1-ST-1 tested specimen)

89
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-12: Magnified View of Failure of Screw Threads of Tilting Failure Mode

For N3-ST and N4-ST series specimens, the tested specimens showed that the steel
sheet curls out of the plane at the end of the section. The edge curling effect was
mainly obvious in the three and four screws connections. Figure 5-13 shows the end
section of the specimen curls out of plane for N3-ST-1 specimen during testing.
Figure 5-14 and Figure 5-15 show the combination of tilting and bearing failure for
three and four screw connections. There are no screws shear off happened during the
testing for N3-ST and N4-ST series specimens. The first row suffered a greater
amount of deformation on the steel sheet compared to the steel sheet at subsequent
rows. It was consider that the increasing number of row can minimise the shear
effect because the first screw will receive the higher stress and others experience less
stress once the loading was applied.

From the observations of N series tested specimens, it is found that all N series
specimens failed in a combination of tilting and bearing failure modes. Thus
increasing number of screws in connections did not affect the failure mode of screw
connections. It is also observed that, the screw connections with the low ductility
steel e.g. grade G550 are failed in a combination of tilting and bearing failure mode.

90
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Steel sheet
curls out of
plane

Steel sheet
curls out of
plane

Figure 5-13 : End Section of Specimen curls out of Plane (N3-ST-1 specimen)

Piling of the steel sheet

1st 2nd 3rd


Steel sheet curls out of plane

Figure 5-14: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N3-ST-1 tested specimen)

91
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Piling of the steel sheet

1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Curls out of plane

Figure 5-15: Tilting and Bearing Failure (N4-ST-1 tested specimen)

5.3 Screw Spacing (S)

A total of 16S series specimens were tested. The screws are arranged in a line
perpendicular to the applied force. The screw spacings are varied from less than 3d
to more than 3d in a connection. In this section, the calculated results using the
American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design equations are
compared with the experimental results. The effects of screw spacing in a
connection are also discussed.

5.3.1 Experimental Results

The maximum load that achieved in the experimental testing was recorded as the
connection strength of screw connection. The maximum load was achieved when the
test specimen failed to carry any additional load. The failure modes and the
connection strength are tabulated in Table 5-5. All S series specimens failed in a
combination of tilting and bearing failure modes, even the screw spacing of the
specimens are different. Specimen S3-15-2 was excluded from the test because the
specimen was found damage before the test.

The experimental results for both S2 and S3 series specimens are shown in Table
5-5. The connection strength of the tested specimens with screw spacing more than
3d are higher than the connection strength of the tested specimens with spacing less
than 3d. This is occurred for both S2 and S3 series specimens.

92
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 5-5: Experimental Results for S Series Specimens

Number Screw Experimental


Specimen Failure Modes
of screw Spacing Results (kN)
S2-15-1 12.44 Tilting + Bearing
S2-15-2 < 3d 11.59 Tilting + Bearing
2
S2-15-3 12.56 Tilting + Bearing
S2-15-4 14.22 Tilting + Bearing
S2-40-1 15.25 Tilting + Bearing
S2-40-2 > 3d 15.99 Tilting + Bearing
2
S2-40-3 15.47 Tilting + Bearing
S2-40-4 22.51 Tilting + Bearing
S3-15-1 16.77 Tilting + Bearing
S3-15-2 < 3d N/A -
3
S3-15-3 14.53 Tilting + Bearing
S3-15-4 18.98 Tilting + Bearing
S3-25-1 24.08 Tilting + Bearing
S3-25-2 > 3d 21.53 Tilting + Bearing
3
S3-25-3 27.98 Tilting + Bearing
S3-25-4 22.95 Tilting + Bearing

5.3.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for S Series Specimens

The experimental results of the S series specimens were plotted from the test data
collected by the Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Figure 5-16 to Figure 5-19
show the Load against Displacement curves for S2-15, S2-40, S3-15 and S3-25
specimens. The full test data of the Load against Displacement for single shear
testing are shown in Appendix G-2.

93
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

16 S2-15-1
14.22
14 S2-15-2
12.44 12.56
12 11.59 S2-15-3
Load (kN)

10 S2-15-4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-16: Load against Displacement Graph for S2-15 Series Specimens

94
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

24 S2-40-1
22.51
22 S2-40-2

20 S2-40-3

18 S2-40-4

15.99 15.47
16 15.25
Load (kN)

14

12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-17 : Load against Displacement Graph for S2-40 Series Specimens

95
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

20 S3-15-1
18.98
18 S3-15-3
16.77
16 S3-15-4
14.53
14

12
Load (kN)

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-18 : Load against Displacement Graph for S3-15 Series Specimens

96
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

30

S3-25-1 27.98
28

26 S3-25-2
24.08
24 S3-25-3
22.95
22 S3-25-4 21.53
20

18
Load (kN)

16

14

12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-19: Load against Displacement Graph for S3-25 Series Specimens

97
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-16 to Figure 5-19 show the Load against Displacement curves for S series
specimens. The highest load in each of the curves is taken as the connection strength
of each specimen. The graphs show that at the beginning of each test, a curve was
linear until the maximum load was achieved. The linear curve implies that the
specimens remain elastic at the beginning of the testing and followed by a plastic
deformation formed in the tested specimen. However, some of the curves have some
peaks before it achieved maximum load as shown in Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19for
S3-15-3 and S3-25-4 specimens’ curve. The peaks of the curve represent the points
at which the threads of the screw were pulled through the hole.

All the S2 series specimens failed in a combination of tilting and bearing failure
modes. Throughout the Load against Displacement curves as shown in Figure 5-17
for S2-40 series specimens, it shows that the gradient of the slope of S2-40-4
specimen is different from other S2-40 specimens. This is because they went through
different loading rates. The loading rate for S2-40-4 specimen is higher than other
S2-40 specimens. As mentioned, the loading rate is controlled by the control valve
manually and generally larger at the beginning of the test. It is also found that, the
gradient of the slopes of S3-25-1 and S3-25-2 specimens are different from S3-25-3
and S3-25-4 specimens as shown in Figure 5-19. This is because, the loading rate for
S3-25-1 and S3-25-2 specimen are higher than the loading rate of the S3-25-3 and
S3-25-4 specimens.

5.3.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for S


Series Specimens

The experimental results for the S series specimens are compared with the calculated
results using the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design
equations. Some of the outliners are disregarded from the experimental results. The
experimental results are shown in Table 5-6. According to the AISI Manual (2008b),
the deviation η is calculated and the value is preferable at ± 15%. Table 5-6 shows
that the deviation η is less than 15% for all S series specimens. Since the deviation η
is less than 15%, thus, the results are used in this study. The results also have a low
value of standard deviation σ as shown in Table 5-6. The low value of σ indicates

98
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

that the data points tend to be very close to the mean. Thus the experimental results
stated in Table 5-6 are used to compare with the calculated results in this study.

Table 5-6 : Experimental Results for S series Specimens

Number
Specimen Spacing x (kN)
of Screw (kN)
S2-15-1 12.44 1.97
S2-15-2 < 3d 11.59 12.20 -5.00 0.53
S2-15-3 12.56 2.95
2
S2-40-1 15.25 -2.06
S2-40-2 > 3d 15.99 15.57 2.70 0.38
S2-40-3 15.47 -0.64
S3-15-1 16.77 0.06
S3-15-3 < 3d 14.53 16.76 -13.31 2.23
S3-15-4 18.98 13.24
3
S3-25-1 24.08 5.38
S3-25-2 > 3d 21.53 22.85 -5.78 1.28
S3-25-4 22.95 0.44

For S series specimens, the specimens with two screws connection are predicted to
fail by tilting failure. However, the specimens with three screws connections are
predicted to fail by rupture in net section failure. This is because the calculated
results using the AISI Specification (2007) design equations for nominal tensile
strength P by rupture in net section failure is smaller than the calculated results of P
by tilting failure for three screws connections. All S series tested specimens failed in
combination of tilting and bearing failure in the testing and no rupture in net section
failure occurred on the tested specimens. Thus, AISI Specification (2007) design
equations of P by tilting failure are used to calculate P for the screws arranged a line
perpendicular to the applied force in this study.

Table 5-7 shows the experimental results for the specimens with spacing less than 3d
are lesser than the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations.This is shown by the ratio of P experimental results to P calculated results
(P exp/P cal) in Table 5-7. The value of P exp/P cal ratio for specimens with screw
spacing less than 3d is less than one, whereas the P exp/P cal ratio for specimens
with screw spacing more than 3d is more than one. This happens in both two and
three screws connections. It shows that the calculated results using the AISI

99
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Specification (2007) design equations are conservative for the specimens with screw
spacing more than 3d compared with the specimens with screw spacing less than 3d.
The specimens with screw spacing less than 3d has connection strength lesser than
the predicted results.

Table 5-7: Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for S series Specimens

P Cal Tilting
Specimen Spacing P Exp (kN)
(kN)
S2-15-1 12.44 0.82
S2-15-2 <3d 11.59 15.08 0.77
S2-15-3 12.56 0.83
S2-40-1 15.25 1.01
S2-40-2 >3d 15.99 15.08 1.06
S2-40-3 15.47 1.02
S3-15-1 16.77 0.74
S3-15-3 <3d 14.53 22.62 0.64
S3-15-4 18.98 0.84
S3-25-1 24.08 1.06
S3-25-2 >3d 21.53 22.62 0.95
S3-25-4 22.95 1.01

In conclusion, the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations correlate well with the experimental results for screw connection with
screw spacing more than 3d when the screws are arranged in a line perpendicular to
the applied force.

5.3.4 Effect of Screw Spacing

The effect of screw spacing was determined using different screw spacings. The
screw spacing is oriented perpendicular to the applied force. The screw spacings are
varied from spacing less than 3dtospacing more than 3d. The experimental results
show that the specimens with spacing more than 3d have higher connection strength
compared with the specimens with screw spacing less than 3d as shown in Figure
5-20.

100
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

26
24
22
20
18
Load (kN)

16
14
12
10
8
6 P Exp : < 3d Spacing
4 P Exp : > 3d Spacing
2 P Cal (AISI 2007)

0
0 1 2 3 4
Number of Screws

Figure 5-20: Load against Number of Screw Graph for S Series Specimens

Figure 5-20 also shows that the experimental results of the specimens with screw
spacing more than 3d are more than the calculated results, whereas the experimental
results of specimens with screw spacing less than 3dareless than the calculated
results. Thus, it is noted that the specimens with spacing less than 3d did not
correlate well with the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations. The use of screw spacing more than 3d is preferable in screw connections
as recommended by AISI Specification (2007).

It is concluded that, the screw spacing affects the connection strength of screw
connection when the screws are arranged in a line perpendicular to the applied force.
The connection strength of specimens with screw spacing more than 3d is higher
than the connection strength of specimens with screw spacing less than 3d. The AISI
Specification (2007) design equations correlate well with the experimental results for
screw connection with screw spacing more than 3d.

101
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

5.3.5 Failure Modes

The failure modes for the S series specimens are similar to those for N series
specimens. The screws failed in a combined failure of tilting and bearing failure
modes and some failed specimens demonstrated the screws being shear off at the end
of the testing after the specimens had failed in tilting and bearing failure modes and
tested to destruction.

Figure 5-21 shows the specimen with screw spacing less than 3d for three screws
connection during testing. Initially when the load was applied during testing, the
edge of steel sheets curls out of plane. The curling effect became more obvious as the
load was applied continuously to the specimen as shown in Figure 5-22. The screws
would then shear off at the end of the testing after the specimens failed due to tilting
and bearing failure as shown in Figure 5-23. Figure 5-24 shows the screw sheared off
and initial tear in the direction of loading was observed. There is no piling in front of
the screws was observed when both edge of the steel sheet curl out of plane. Figure
5-25 shows the failed specimen with screw spacing less than 3dwhere there is no
screw being shear off. Figure 5-25 also shows that when both edge of the steel sheet
curl out of plane, the steel sheet was in contact with screw head and did not exhibit
any piling in front of the screws head.

102
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-21: Initial Stage of Test (S3-15-1 specimen)

Figure 5-22: Test Specimen Before Fail (S3-15-1 specimen)

103
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-23: Screw sheared off (S3-15-1 specimen)

Figure 5-24: Screw shear off (S3-15-1 specimen)

104
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-25 : Tilting and Bearing Failure (S3-15-3 specimen)

Figure 5-26 shows the failed specimen with screw spacing more than 3d for three
screws connection. It was observed that the screw tilted and the steel sheet that was
not in contact with screw head was curling out of plane. The steel sheet that was in
contact with screw head was not exhibit any steel sheet curl out of plane but some
piling in front of the screws was exhibited.

Figure 5-26: Failure Mode of Combination of Tilting and Bearing (S3-25-3 specimen)

Even the screw spacing of the specimens are varied from less than 3d to more than
3d in this study, all the specimens were failed in the same failure modes i.e. a
combined of tilting and bearing failure modes. Thus, the screw spacing does not
affect the failure mode of the specimens.

105
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

5.4 Screw Pattern (P)

All P series specimens with different screw patterns were tested using the Universal
Testing Machine (UTM). The numbers of screws used in a connection were three
and four. The specimens with three screws were arranged in a diagonal (DG) and a
diamond (DM) shape and the specimens with four screws were arranged in a
diamond (DM) and a box (BX) shape as shown in Figure 5-27. In this section, the
calculated results using the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI
2007) design equations are compared with the experimental results. The connection
strength of P series specimens are also compared with the connection strength of N
series specimens which act as the control specimens.

Figure 5-27: P Series Specimens Screw Arrangement

5.4.1 Experimental Results

Table 5-8shows the experimental results of 16 test specimens carried out in a


laboratory at Curtin Sarawak University. The failure modes for all screw pattern
tested specimens are similar. All tested specimens showed failure in a combination of
tilting and bearing failure modes. Some of the screws in the specimens sheared off,
but only after the maximum load achieved and the specimens are tested to
destruction.

106
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 5-8: Experimental Results for P Series Specimens

Number Experimental
Specimen Failure Modes
of Screw Results (kN)
P3-DG-1 22.83 Tilting + Bearing (2 screw shear off)
P3-DG-2 22.79 Tilting + Bearing (2 screw shear off)
P3-DG-3 22.10 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
3 P3-DG-4 24.79 Tilting + Bearing
P3-DM-1 23.47 Tilting + Bearing
P3-DM-2 24.03 Tilting + Bearing (2 screw shear off)
P3-DM-3 23.30 Tilting + Bearing (2 screw shear off)
P3-DM-4 24.79 Tilting + Bearing
P4-DM-1 31.81 Tilting + Bearing
P4-DM-2 32.49 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
P4-DM-3 28.68 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
P4-DM-4 27.48 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
4
P4-BX-1 31.08 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
P4-BX-2 30.41 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
P4-BX-3 28.58 Tilting + Bearing (1 screw shear off)
P4-BX-4 31.65 Tilting + Bearing

5.4.2 Load against Displacement Graphs for P Series Specimens

The experimental results of P series specimens were plotted from the test data
collected by the Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Figure 5-28 to Figure 5-31
shows the Load against Displacement curve for P3-DG, P3-DM, P4-DM and P3-BX
specimens. All the series of the test data are shown in Appendix G-3

107
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

26
24.79
24
24.83 22.79
22 22.10

20

18

16
Load (kN)

14

12

10

8 P3-DG-1

6 P3-DG-2

4 P3-DG-3

2 P3-DG-4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-28: Load against Displacement Graph for P3-DG Series Specimens

108
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

26 24.79
24.03
24 23.47

22 23.30

20

18
Load (mm)

16

14

12

10

8 P3-DM-1

6 P3-DM-2

4 P3-DM-3

2 P3-DM-4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-29: Load against Displacement Graph for P3-DM Series Specimens

109
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

34
32.49
31.81
32

30
28.68
28
27.48
26

24

22

20
Load (kN)

18

16

14

12

10

8 P4-DM-1

6 P4-DM-2

4 P4-DM-3

2 P4-DM-4

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-30: Load against Displacement Graph for P4-DM Series Specimens

110
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

34

32 31.65
31.08
30 30.41
28.58
28

26

24

22

20
Load(kN)

18

16

14

12

10

8 P4-BX-1

6 P4-BX-2

4 P4-BX-3
2 P4-BX-4
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement (mm)

Figure 5-31: Load against Displacement Graph for P4-BX Series Specimens

111
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-28 to Figure 5-31 show the Load against Displacement curves for P series
specimens. The shapes of the curves for every P series specimens are consistence.
The maximum load achieved in the experimental testing was recorded as the
connection strength of the screw connection. Similar to N series and S series tested
specimens, all P series tested specimens failed in a combination of tilting and bearing
failure modes.

Figure 5-28 and Figure 5-29 show the Load against Displacement curves for P3-DG
and P3-DM series specimens with three screws connections. Figure 5-28 show that
the Load against Displacement curves for P3-DG-1, P3-DG-2 and P3-DG-3
specimens demonstrated sudden dropping in load. The sudden dropping in load
happened as the screws were sheared off after maximum load had achieved and the
specimens had failed in combination of tilting and bearing. However, there is no
sudden dropping in load demonstrated in Load against Displacement curve was
found in P3-DG-4 specimens since there was no screw shear off occurred in the
specimens. Thus, it was noted in this study that the sudden dropping in load shown in
the Load against Displacement curves are the sign of screw shear off during testing.

The sudden droppings in load also are found in the Load-against Displacement
curves for P3-DM-3 specimens as shown in Figure 5-29. The curve for P3-DM-3
specimen shows that the load is suddenly dropping after maximum load had achieved
and the specimen had failed in combination of tilting and bearing. It is also observed
that the sudden dropping in load for Load against Displacement curve demonstrated
that the screws were shear off during testing.

Figure 5-30 and Figure 5-31 show the Load against Displacement curves for P4-DM
and P4-BX. All the curves for both P4-DM and P4-BX specimens are found
consistence in its Load against Displacement curves. Some peaks are observed
before the maximum load had achieved in Load against Displacement curve for P4-
DM-2 specimens. The peaks of the curve represent the points at which the threads of
the screws in P4-DM-2 specimens were pulled through the hole. The peaks of the
curve before the maximum load had achieved are also obvious in Load against
Displacement curves for P3-DG-3 and P3-DG-4 specimens as shown in Figure 5-28.

112
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The peaks also represent that the point at which the threads of the screws in P3-DG-3
and P3-DG-4 specimens were also being pull through the hole during testing.

5.4.3 Comparison of Experimental and Calculated Results for P


Series Specimens

The experimental results for P series specimens are compared with the calculated
results using the American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design
equations. Some of the outliner results are disregarded from this study. The
experimental results are shown in Table 5-9. Similar to N series and S series, the
deviation η is less than 15% for all P series specimens as shown in Table 5-9. Thus,
the experimental results are used in this study as the preferable value of deviation η is
± 15% (AISI 2008b). The low values of standard deviation, σ shown in Table 5-9
also show that the experimental results tend to be very close to the mean. Thus the
experimental results are used in comparing the experimental results and calculated
results in this study.

Table 5-9 : Experimental Results of P series

Number Specimen x (kN)


of Screw (kN)
P3-DG-1 22.83 1.15
P3-DG-2 22.79 22.57 0.97 0.41
P3-DG-3 22.10 -2.08
3
P3-DM-1 23.47 -0.55
P3-DM-2 24.03 23.60 1.82 0.38
P3-DM-3 23.30 -1.27
P4-DM-1 31.81 2.65
P4-DM-2 32.49 30.99 4.84 2.03
P4-DM-3 28.68 -7.45
4
P4-BX-1 31.08 0.10
P4-BX-2 30.41 31.05 -2.06 0.62
P4-BX-4 31.65 1.93

In the design evaluation of P series specimens, the possible failure modes are tilting,
bearing and rupture in net section.From the calculations, all the calculated results of
nominal tensile strength P by tilting failure show the smallest values compared with
the calculated results of P by bearing failure and rupture in net section failure. Thus,
all P series specimens are predicted to fail in tilting failure. After the tests were

113
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

conducted, all P series specimens failed in a combination of tilting and bearing


failure modes. Thus, the calculated results of P by tilting failure using the AISI
Specification (2007) design equations for P series are used to compare with the
experimental results in this study. The comparison of the experimental results and the
calculated results are shown in Table 5-10.

Table 5-10: Experimental Results and Calculated Results for P series

Number Specimen P Exp P Cal Tilting Percentage


of Screw (kN) (kN) Difference (%)
P3-DG-1 22.83 1.01 1
P3-DG-2 22.79 22.62 1.01 1
P3-DG-3 22.10 0.98 2
3
P3-DM-1 23.47 1.04 4
P3-DM-2 24.03 22.62 1.06 6
P3-DM-3 23.30 1.03 3
P4-DM-1 31.81 1.05 5
P4-DM-2 32.49 30.16 1.08 8
P4-DM-3 28.68 0.95 5
4
P4-BX-1 31.08 1.03 3
P4-BX-2 30.41 30.16 1.01 1
P4-BX-4 31.65 1.05 5

Table 5-10 shows that the experimental results for the P series specimens are
generally higher than the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007)
design equations. This is shown by the ratio of P by experimental results to P by
calculated results (P exp/P cal) in Table 5-10. Most of the values of P exp/P cal ratio
for the specimens are more than one. Thus the calculated results of P failed by tilting
using AISI Specification (2007) design equations correlate well with the
experimental results for P series specimens. The percentage difference between the
experimental results and the calculated results also low which is less than 8% as
shown in Table 5-10. Thus, it shows that the calculated results using the AISI
Specification (2007) design equations for P series specimens correlate well with the
experimental results even the specimens have different screw patterns.

5.4.4 Effect of Screw Pattern

The effect of screw patterns was determined by rearranged the screws in different
shapes or patterns. For three screws connections, the screws are arranged in a

114
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

diagonal (DG) and a diamond (DM) shape. For four screws connection, the screws
are arranged in a diamond (DM) and a box (BX) shape. The connection strength for
P series specimens are compared with the connection strength of N series specimens
which act as a control specimens. The comparisons are corresponding to the number
of screws in the connection.

The screws in N series specimens are arranged in a line parallel i.e. longitudinally to
the applied force, whereas, the screws in P3-DG specimens are arranged in a
staggered shape and the screws in P3-DM specimens are arranged in a diamond
shape as shown in Figure 5-32.Table 5-11 shows the comparison of the experimental
results for N series specimen and the experimental results of P series specimens.

Figure 5-32: Different Shape of Three Screws Connections

Table 5-11 shows the experimental results for three screws connections with
different screw patterns. The experimental results are arranged in an increasing order
of an average strength e.g. N3-ST specimens are the highest connection strength and
followed by P3-DM and P3-DG specimens. The results show that the connection
strength of N series specimens are similar to the connection strength of P3-DM
specimens. The connection strength of N3-ST specimens is only 1.3% higher than
the connection strength of P3-DM specimens as shown in Table 5-11. However the
connection strength of N series specimens is5.6% higher than the connection strength

115
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

of P3-DG specimens as shown in Table 5-11.Since the percentage difference is less


than 10%, thus, screw patterns have minimal effect on the connection strength of
screw.

Table 5-11: Effect of Screw Patterns for Three Screws Connections

Experimental Results Percentage


Specimen
(kN) Different (%)
N3-ST-1 24.41
N3-ST-3 23.27
N3-ST-4 24.03
Average 23.90 -
P3-DM-1 23.47
P3-DM-2 24.03
P3-DM-3 23.30
Average 23.60 -1.3
P3-DG-1 22.83
P3-DG-2 22.79
P3-DG-3 22.10
Average 22.57 -5.6

Low ductility steels were used in this study. The low ductility steel possessed lower
Fu/Fy ratio, therefore it has less stress redistribution capacity (Daulet and LaBoube
1996). When low ductility steels has less stress redistribution capacity, the stress
redistribution was uneven throughout the section.

In this study, the connection strength of P3-DG specimens is slightly lower than the
connection strength of N3-ST specimens. The minimum difference found in the
connection strength between N3-ST specimens and P3-DG specimens was because
of the different in a screw pattern. Figure 5-33 shows that both N3-ST and P3-DG
specimens have same number of screw rows. However, the screw pattern for P3-DG
specimens is arranged in an unsymmetrical pattern if compared with the screw
pattern for N3-ST specimens. The screws in N3-ST specimens are arranged in a
symmetrical pattern for both x-axis and y-axis as shown in Figure 5-33.

116
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Row 1

Row 2 x

Row 3

y
Figure 5-33: Symmetrical Axis

It is mentioned that stress redistribution was uneven due to low ductility steels. The
unsymmetrical screws arrangement in P3-DG specimens increased the uneven stress
redistribution over the section. The combination of unsymmetrical screw
arrangement and low ductility steels used leaded to even more non-uniform stress
redistribution over the section. Hence, more stress concentrated at the screw-hole
region as shown in Figure 5-34 due to the secondary stresses caused by
unsymmetrical screw arrangement which subsequently reduced the connection
performance in P3-DG specimens in this study. Thus, it is found in this study that the
connection strengths of P3-DG specimens are slightly less than the connection
strength of N3-ST specimens because of the unsymmetrical screw pattern of P3-DG
specimens. The percentage difference in connection strength between P3-DG and
N3-ST specimens is only 5.6% as shown in Table 5-11. Therefore, the
unsymmetrical screw patterns and symmetrical screw patterns have minimal effect
on the connection strength of screws in this study.

117
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Stress
Concentration

Figure 5-34: Non-Uniform Stress Redistribution

For specimens with four screws in connections, the screws in P4-DM specimens are
arranged in a diamond shape whereas the screws in P4-BX specimens are arranged in
a box shape. All the screws patterns have different number of rows of screws, e.g.
N4-ST specimens have four rows of screws, P4-DM specimens have three rows of
screws and P4-BX specimens have two rows of screws as shown in Figure 5-35. A
row is defined as a line of screws perpendicular to the direction of loading. The
screws for all screw patterns are arranged symmetrically for both x-axis and y-axis as
shown in Figure 5-3.

118
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Row 4

Figure 5-35: Different Shape of Four Screws Connections

Table 5-12 shows the experimental results of N4-ST as a control specimen compared
with the experimental results of P4-DM and P4-BX specimens. The results are
arranged in an increasing order of an average strength e.g. N4-ST specimens are the
highest connection strength and followed by P4-BX and P4-DM specimens. The
connection strength of N4-ST specimens is 3% higher than the connection strength
of P4-DM and P4-BX specimens even though all the specimens have different
number of rows of screws. The connection strength of P4-DM specimens and P4-BX
specimens did not have any significant difference as shown in Table 5-12. Thus, the
minimum percentage difference in connection strength between N4-ST specimens
with P4-DM and P4-BX specimens showed that the number of rows have minimal
effect on the connection strength of screw when low ductility steels used in this
study.

119
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Table 5-12: Effect of Screw Patterns for Four Screws Connections

Experimental Percentage
Specimen
Results (kN) Difference (%)
N4-ST-2 32.01
N4-ST-3 32.69
N4-ST-4 31.32
Average 32.01 -
P4-BX-1 31.08
P4-BX-2 30.41
P4-BX-4 31.65
Average 31.05 -3.0
P4-DM-1 31.81
P4-DM-2 32.49
P4-DM-3 28.68
Average 30.99 -3.2

In conclusion, the numbers of rows and the symmetrical and unsymmetrical screw
patterns show some minimal effect on the connection strength of the screws in this
study.

5.4.5 Failure Modes

All P series specimens failed in a combination of tilting and bearing failure mode.
The failure modes observed for P series specimens were similar to the failure modes
for N series specimens and S series specimens.Figure 5-36 shows the screw tilted at
the beginning of testing for P3-DG specimen. Bearing of the steel sheets and tilting
of the screws occurred during the testing. For P3-DM specimen, initial tear in the
direction of loading on the steel sheets not in contact with screw head occurred
during testing as shown in Figure 5-37. Even though both P3-DG and P3-DM
specimens have different screw patterns, both of the specimens failed in the same
failure modes.

120
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-36: Initial of Test (P3-DG)

121
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-37: Initial Tear of Steel Sheets (P3-DM specimen)

Figure 5-38 shows the initial stage of testing for P4-DM-3 specimens. The screws
start to tilt after the tensile force was applied. Tilting of the screws and bearing of the
steel sheets occurred after the load continuing applied to the specimen as shown in
Figure 5-39. The screw-heads pushed toward the steel as shown in Figure 5-40. For
P4-BX specimens, Figure 5-42 shows the steel sheets of P4-BX-4 specimen was
curled out of plane at the end of the sections during testing. As the screws were
subjected to higher tensile force, the curling effect became more obvious as shown in
Figure 5-42. It was also observed that P4-DM and P4-BX tested specimens have
same basic pattern of failures even both specimens have different patterns. Thus, it is
found in this study that the same pattern of failures lead to similar connection
strength achieved in screw connections. From observations, it is also found that all P
series tested specimens failed in combination of tilting and bearing failure mode.
Thus, the screw patterns did not affect the failure modes of the screw connection.

122
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-38: Stage 1 of Testing (P4-DM-3 specimen)

123
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-39: Stage 2 of Test (P4-DM-3 specimen)

Figure 5-40 : Screw Head Pushed Toward Sheet

124
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-41: Sheet Curl out of Plane (P4-BX-4 specimen)

125
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Figure 5-42: Tilting and Bearing Failure Mode (P4-BX-4 specimen)

126
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

6 CONCLUSIONS

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the behaviour and strength of screw
connection for high strength cold-formed steel and determine the effects of number
of screws, screw spacing and screw patterns on the connection strength of screws. A
total of 48 specimens comprising of two low ductility steel sheets that are connected
using self-drilling screws were designed, fabricated and tested. The specimens are
categorized into three series according to the parameters determined such as number
of screws, with “N” series, screw spacing, with “S” series, and screw pattern, with
“P” series. N series specimens are varied from one to four screws connection. The
screws are arranged in a line parallel to the applied force. S series specimens are
varied from screw spacing less than 3d to more than 3d where d is the nominal
diameter of the screws. The screws are arranged in a line perpendicular to the applied
force in S series specimens. P series specimens are varied with different screw
patterns e.g. three screws connections with a diagonal (DG) screw pattern and a
diamond (DM) screw pattern, whereas four screws connections with a diamond
(DM) screw pattern and a box (BX) screw pattern. The effects of number of screws,
screw spacing and screw patterns were studied and reviewed. All experimental
results were compared with the calculated results using the American Iron and Steel
Institute Specification (AISI 2007) design equations.

6.1 Number of Screws (N)

AISI Specification (2007) design equations provide a prediction of connection


strength for single shear connection that failed in tilting or bearing failures. The
calculated results in this study are calculated without considering the 0.75 Fu
reduction factors. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the
calculated results correlate well with the experimental results when 0.75 Fu reduction
factor is unemployed in the design equations to which low ductility steels are used in
screw connections. The connection strength increased proportionally to the number
of screws in a connection. The connection strength of four screws, e.g. an average of
32.01 kN, is almost four times the connection strength of single screw, e.g. an
average of 7.84 kN. Thus, there is no Group Effect reduction occurred although

127
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

multiple screws, e.g. 4 screws, are used in the connections. This is due to the usage
of low ductility steel sheet that is incapable of redistributing stress. The less stress
distribution capacity of low ductility steel caused the experimental results to achieve
almost 100% of the calculated results. As a conclusion, the increases number of
screws increases the connection strength of screw. Thus the objective of this study
which is to determine the effect of number of screws on connection strength of
screws is met by evaluating the experimental results obtained in this study.

6.2 Screw Spacing (S)

The screw spacing varied from more than 3d to less than 3d in this study. The
experimental results of S series specimens show that the screw spacing affects the
connection strength of screw. The specimens with screw spacing more than 3d
achieved higher connection strength compared with the specimens with screw
spacing less than 3d. For two screws connections, the connection strength for
specimens with screw spacing more than 3d is an average of 15.57 kN whereas the
connection strength for specimens with screw spacing less than 3d is an average of
12.20 kN. For three screws connections, the connection strength for specimens with
screw spacing more than 3d is an average of 22.85 kN whereas the connection
strength for specimens with screw spacing less than 3d is an average of 16.76 kN.
Besides, the experimental results of specimens with screw spacing more than 3d
correlate well with the calculated results using the AISI Specification (2007) design
equations compared with the experimental results of specimens with screw spacing
less than 3d. Thus, it is concluded that the screw spacing affect the connection
strength of screw where the connection strength of the specimens with spacing more
than 3d is higher than the connection strength of the specimens with screw spacing
less than 3d. The objective of the study which is to investigate the effect of screw
spacing is achieved.

6.3 Screw Patterns (P)

The screws are arranged in a diagonal (DG) and a diamond (DM) pattern for three
screws connections. The diagonal pattern specimens have three rows of screws
whereas the diamond pattern specimens have two rows of screws. A row is a line of

128
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

screws perpendicular to the loading. For four screws connection, the screws are
arranged in a box (BX) and a diamond (DM) patterns. The box pattern specimens
have two rows of screws whereas the diamond pattern specimens have three rows of
screws. The experimental results of control specimens from N series specimens are
compared with the experimental results of P series specimens with respect to the
number of screws. The experimental results showed that screw pattern have minimal
effect on the connection strength as the different between the P series to N series is
only less than 5.6% different. The calculated results of P series are calculated based
on the N series specimens using the AISI Specification (2007) design equations. The
experimental results of P series correlate well with the calculated results. As a
conclusion, screw patterns have minimal effect on connection strength of screws,
thus, the objective of this study to investigate the effect of screw patterns on
connection strength of screws is achieved.

6.4 Recommendations for Future Works

This research studied the effect of number of screws, screw spacing and screw
patterns on the screw connection strength for low ductility steel.

The study on the effect of increasing the screw spacing on connection strength of
screw should be investigated further. The specimens with screw spacing larger than
3d such as 4d, 5d should be considered to investigate the limit of screw spacing in
connection strength.

In screw patterns used, the more number of rows i.e. the more lines of screws
perpendicular to applied force give more rotational stability on the specimens. This
rotational stability offers more resistance to rotation. Thus, more screw patterns with
more numbers of screws is needed to show the effect of patterns on the connection
strength of screw. The patterns of screws could be arranged with more number of
rows i.e. lines of screws perpendicular to the applied force and more number of
columns i.e. lines of screw parallel to the applied force to determine the effect of
number of row and columns on self-drilling screws strength under tensile force.

129
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

REFERENCES

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 1946. Specification for the Design of Light
Gage Steel Structural Members. New York.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 1996. Specification for the Design of Cold-
Formed Steel Structural Members.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 1997. Commentary on the 1996 Edition of
the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 2007. North American Specification for the
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 2008a. "S904-08 Standard Test Methods
for Determining the Tensile and Shear Strength of Screws." In AISI Manual
Cold-Formed Steel Design. American Iron and Steel Institute.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute). 2008b. "S905-08 Test Methods for
Mechanically Fastened Cold-Formed Steel Connections." In AISI Manual
Cold-Formed Steel Design. American Iron and Steel Institute.

AS/NZS (Australia/New Zealand Standard). 1996. Cold-Formed Steel Structures


4600.

AS/NZS (Australia/New Zealand Standard). 2005. Cold-Formed Steel Structures


4600.

ASTEKS. 2009. Product Data Sheet. Australia: ASTEKS Corp Pte Ltd.
http://asteks.com.au/pdf2/ASTeks-
XTSeal%20Product%20Specification/XT%2012%20-
%2014%20x%2020%20HxW.pdf

130
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

CCFSS (Centre for Cold-Formed Steel Structures). 1993. “AISI Specification


Provisions for Screw Connection.” CCFSS Technical Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1,
University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, February.

CSA (Canadian Standards Association). 2012. North American Specification for the
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members CSA-S136.

Carril,L. Jeffrey, Roger A. Laboube, Wei-Wen Yu. 1994. “Tensile and Bearing
Capacities of Bolted Connections.” University of Missouri-Rolla.
https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/25290/Civil_94
1.pdf?sequence=1.

Daudet, L. Randy and Roger A. LaBoube. 1996. “Shear Behavior of Self Drilllng
Screws Used in Low Ductility Steel.”In International Specialty Conference
on Cold-Formed Steel Structures: Recent Research and Developments in
Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction Held in St. Louis, Missouri
U.S.A,. 17-18 October 1996, 595-613.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=
&title=International%20Specialty%20Conference%20on%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Structures%3A%20Recent%20Research%20and%20D
evelopments%20in%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Design%20and%20Construction&date=1996&volume=
&issue=&spage=595&epage=613&aulast=Daudet&aufirst=L.%20Randy&ati
tle=Shear%20behavior%20of%20self%20drilllng%20screws%20used%20in
%20low%20ductility%20steel.

ECS (European Committee for Standardisation). 2005. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel


Structures.

ITW Buildex. 2012. Self-Drilling Screws. Australia: ITW Buildex.


http://www.buildex.com.au/pdf/pages/Corporate/SelfDrilling.pdf.

131
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Koka, Exaud N., Wen-Wen Yu and Roger A. Laboube. 1997. “Screw and Welded
Connection Behaviour Using Structural Grade 80 of A653 Steel.” Fourth
Progress Report, University of Missouri-Rolla.
https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/25302/Civil_97
4.pdf?sequence=1.

LaBoube, Roger A. and M. A. Sokol. 2002. "Behavior of Screw Connections in


Residential Construction." Journal of Structural Engineering 128 (1): 115-
118.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering&date=2002&v
olume=128&issue=1&spage=115&epage=118&aulast=LaBoube&aufirst=R.
A.&atitle=Behavior%20of%20screw%20connections%20in%20residential%
20construction.

Li,Yuanqi, Rongkui Ma, and Xingyou Yao. 2010. "Shear Behavior of Screw
Connections for Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Steel Structures" In 20th
International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures - Recent
Research and Developments in Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction,
November 3, 2010 - November 4, 2010, St. Louis, MO, United States, 493-
503.

Noorashikin, M. J. 2006. "Effect of Bolt Arrangement and Size to the Capacity of


Splice Connection." Final Year Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
University Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
http://www.efka.utm.my/thesis/IMAGES/3PSM/2006/1JSB/PART4/noorashi
kinca020041d06ttt.pdf.

Pekoz, Teoman. 1990. "Design of Cold-Formed Steel Screw Connections" In 10th


International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures, St.
Louis, MO, United States, 23-24 October 1990, 575-587.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=
&title=International%20Specialty%20Conference%20on%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Structures&date=1990&volume=&issue=&spage=575

132
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

&epage=587&aulast=Pekoz&aufirst=Teoman&atitle=Design%20of%20cold-
formed%20steel%20screw%20connections.

Rodriguez-Ferran, Antonio, MiquelCasafont, Alfredo Arnedo, FrancescRoure. 2006.


"Experimental Testing of Joints for Seismic Design of Lightweight
Structures. Part 1. Screwed Joints in Straps. "Thin-walled structures 44 (2):
197-210. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2006.01.002.

Rogers, A. Colin and Gregory J. Hancock. 1997. “Screwed Connection Tests of Thin
G550 and G300 Sheet Steels.” Sydney: Centre for Advanced Structural
Engineering, University of Sydney.
http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/civil/publications/1997/r761.pdf.

Rogers, A. Colin and Gregory J. Hancock. 1999. "Screwed Connection Tests of Thin
G550 and G300 Sheet Steels." Journal of Structural Engineering 125 (2):
128-136.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20structural%20engineering%20New%20Yo
rk%2C%20N.Y.&date=1999&volume=125&issue=2&spage=128&epage=13
6&aulast=ogers&aufirst=Colin%20A.&atitle=Screwed%20connection%20tes
ts%20of%20thin%20G550%20and%2G300%20sheet%20steels.

Seleim, S. and R. LaBoube.1996."Behavior of Low Ductility Steels in Cold-Formed


Steel Connections." Thin-walled structures 25 (2): 135-151.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
2638231&title=Thin-
Walled%20Structures&date=1996&volume=25&issue=2&spage=135&epage
=151&aulast=Seleim&aufirst=S.&atitle=Behavior%20of%20low%20ductilit
y%20steels%20in%20cold-formed%20steel%20connections.

Serrette, Reynaud and Victor Lopez. 1996. “Performance of Self-Tapping Screws in


Lap-Shear Metal-to-Metal Connections.” In International Specialty
Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures: Recent Research and

133
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Developments in Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction, Missouri


U.S.A
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=
&title=International%20Specialty%20Conference%20on%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Structures%3A%20Recent%20Research%20and%20D
evelopments%20in%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Design%20and%20Construction&date=1996&volume=
&issue=&spage=615&epage=622&aulast=Serrette&aufirst=Reynaud&atitle=
Performance%20of%20self-tapping%20screws%20in%20lap-
shear%20metal-to-metal%20connections.

Serrette, Reynaud and Dean Peyton. 2009. "Strength of Screw Connections in Cold-
Formed Steel Construction." Journal of Structural Engineering 135 (8): 951-
958.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering&date=2009&v
olume=135&issue=8&spage=951&epage=958&aulast=Serrette&aufirst=Rey
naud&atitle=Strength%20of%20screw%20connections%20in%20cold-
formed%20steel%20construction.

Sokol, Marc Allen, Roger A. LaBoube and Wen WenYu.1998.“Determination of the


Tensile and Shear Strengths of Screws and the Effect of Screw Patterns on
Cold-Formed Steel Connections.” Civil Engineering Study 98-3, Cold-
Formed Steel Series, Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Missouri-Rolla.

Toma, A., G. Sedlacek and K. Weynand. 1993. "Connections in Cold-Formed Steel."


Thin-walled structures 16 (1): 219-237.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
2638231&title=Thin-
Walled%20Structures&date=1993&volume=16&issue=1&spage=219&epage
=237&aulast=Toma&aufirst=A.&atitle=Connections%20in%20cold-
formed%20steel.

134
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Yu, Wen-Wen and Roger A. Laboube. 2010. "Introduction." In Cold-Formed Steel


Design. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Yan, Shu, and Ben Young. 2012. "Screwed Connections of Thin Sheet Steels at
Elevated Temperatures – Part I: Steady State Tests." Engineering Structures
35 (0): 234-243. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.10.030.

135
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Acharya, R. Sandesh and K.S. Sivakumaran. 2012. “Finite element Models for Thin-
Walled Steel Member Connections.” International Scholarly Research
Network ISRN Civil Engineering 2012.doi: 10.5402/2012/197170.

Babalola, R. Michael, Roger A. LaBoube. 2004. “Strength of Screw Connections


Subject to Shear Force.” Final Report, University of Missouri-Rolla.
http://www.smdisteel.org/~/media/Files/SMDI/Construction/CFSD%20-
%20Report%20-%20RP04-2.pdf.

Bambach, R. Michael, and Kim J. R. Rasmussen. 2007. "Behavior of Self-Drilling


Screws in Light-Gauge Steel Construction." Journal of Structural
Engineering 133 (Compendex): 895-898.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2007)133:6(895).

Bayan, A, Sariffuddin, S and Hanim, O. 2011. "Cold-Formed Steel Joints and


Structures-a Review." International Journal of Civil and Structural
Engineering 2 (2): 621-634.doi: 10.6088/ijcser.00202010137.

Couchaux, Mael, Mohammed Hjiaj, Ivor Ryan and A.Bureau. 2009. "Effect of
Contact on the Elastic Behaviour of Bolted Connections" Nordic Steel
Construction Conference Sweden.
http://www.nordicsteel2009.se/pdf/157.pdf.

Epstein, H. I., and B. H. Thacker. 1991. "The Effect of Bolt Stagger for Block Shear
Tension Failures in Angles." Computers & Structures 39 (5): 571-576. doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-7949(91)90065-T.

Franca, Ryan Michael. 2009. "Screw Connections Subject to Tension Pull-out and
Shear Forces." Master’s thesis, University of Science and Technology,
Missouri.

136
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/34544/2026%2
0Screw%20connections%20subject%20to%20tension%20pull-
out%20and%20shear%20forces.pdf?sequence=1.

Francka, Ryan Michael and Roger A. LaBoube. 2010. "Screw Connections Subject
to Tension Pull-out and Shear Forces" 20th International Specialty
Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures - Recent Research and
Developments in Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction, 3-4 November
2010, St. Louis, MO, United States, 635-651.

LaBoube, R. A. 1996. “Additional Design Considerations for Bolted Connections.”


In International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures:
Recent Research and Developments in Cold-Formed Steel Design and
Construction, Held in St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A., 17-18 October 1996, 575-
593.

Lin, Shin-Hua, Wei-Wen Yu, Theodore V. Galambos, and Edward Wang. 2005.
"Revised Asce Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel
Structural Members." Engineering Structures 27 (9): 1365-1372. doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.03.007.

Lu, Wei, Pentti Mäkeläinen, Jyri Outinen, and Zhongcheng Ma. 2011. "Design of
Screwed Steel Sheeting Connection at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures."
Thin-Walled Structures 49 (12): 1526-1533. doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2011.07.014.

Mael Couchaux , Mohammed Hjiaj, Ivor Ryan, A.Bureau. 2009. "Effect of Contact
on the Elastic Behaviour of Bolted Connections" Nordic Steel Construction
Conference Sweden,

Moe, Primo. 2011. "Investigation of High Strength Steel Connections with Several
Bolts in Double Shear." Journal of constructional steel research 67 (3): 333-
347.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0

137
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

143974X&title=Journal%20of%20Constructional%20Steel%20Research&da
te=2011&volume=67&issue=3&spage=333&epage=347&aulast=Moe&aufir
st=Primo&atitle=Investigation%20of%20high%20strength%20steel%20conn
ections%20with%20several%20bolts%20in%20double%20shear.

Moss, Stephen and Mahen Mahendran. 2002. “Structural Behaviour of Self-Piercing


Riveted Connections in Steel Framed Housing.” In International Specialty
Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures: Recent Research and
Developments in Cold-Formed Steel Design and Construction Held in
Orlando, Florida U.S.A., 17-18 October 2002. 748-762.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=
&title=International%20Specialty%20Conference%20on%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Structures%3A%20Recent%20Research%20and%20D
evelopments%20in%20Cold-
Formed%20Steel%20Design%20and%20Construction&date=2002&volume=
&issue=&spage=748&epage=762&aulast=Moss&aufirst=Stephen&atitle=Str
uctural%20behaviour%20of%20self-
piercing%20riveted%20connections%20in%20steel%20framed%20housing.

Pedreschi, Remo. and Brajraman Sinha. 1996. "Potential of Press-Joining in Cold-


Formed Steel Structures." Construction & Building Materials 10 (4): 243-
250.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
9500618&title=Construction%20and%20Building%20Materials&date=1996
&volume=10&issue=4&spage=243&epage=250&aulast=Pedreschi&aufirst=
R.F.&atitle=Potential%20of%20press-joining%20in%20cold-
formed%20steel%20structures

Rogers, A. Colin, Gregory J. Hancock. 1998. “Failure Modes of Bolted-Sheet-Steel


Connections Loaded in Shear.” Research Report, Centre for Advanced
Structural Engineering, University of Sydney, Australia.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20structural%20engineering%20New%20Yo
rk%2C%20N.Y.&date=2000&volume=126&issue=3&spage=288&epage=29

138
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

6&aulast=Rogers&aufirst=Colin%20A.&atitle=Failure%20modes%20of%20
bolted-sheet-steel%20connections%20loaded%20in%20shear.

Rogers, A. Colin. 2000. "Failure Modes of Bolted-Sheet-Steel Connections Loaded


in Shear." Journal of structural engineering 126 (3): 288-296.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20structural%20engineering%20New%20Yo
rk%2C%20N.Y.&date=2000&volume=126&issue=3&spage=288&epage=29
6&aulast=Rogers&aufirst=Colin%20A.&atitle=Failure%20modes%20of%20
bolted-sheet-steel%20connections%20loaded%20in%20shear.

Rogers, A. Colin, D. Yang and Gregory J. Hancock. 2003. "Stability and Ductility of
Thin High Strength G550 Steel Members and Connections." Thin-walled
structures 41 (2): 149-166.doi:10.1016/S0263-8231(02)00084-8.

Teh, H. Lip and Drew D. A. Clements. 2012. "Block Shear Capacity of Bolted
Connections in Cold-Reduced Steel Sheets." Journal of structural
engineering 138 (4): 459-467.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering&date=2012&v
olume=138&issue=4&spage=459&epage=467&aulast=Teh&aufirst=Lip%20
H.&atitle=Block%20shear%20capacity%20of%20bolted%20connections%20
in%20cold-reduced%20steel%20sheets.

Teh, H. Lip and Drew D. A. Clements. 2012. "Tension Capacity of Staggered Bolted
Connections in Cold-Reduced Steel Sheets." Journal of structural
engineering 138 (6): 769-776.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering%20%28United
%20States%29&date=2012&volume=138&issue=6&spage=769&epage=776
&aulast=Teh&aufirst=Lip%20H.&atitle=Tension%20capacity%20of%20stag
gered%20bolted%20connections%20in%20cold-reduced%20steel%20sheets.

139
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Teh, Lip and Benoit P. Gilbert. 2012. "Net Section Tension Capacity of Bolted
Connections in Cold-Reduced Steel Sheets." Journal of structural
engineering 138 (3): 337-344.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering%20%28United
%20States%29&date=2012&volume=138&issue=3&spage=337&epage=344
&aulast=Teh&aufirst=Lip%20H.&atitle=Net%20section%20tension%20capa
city%20of%20bolted%20connections%20in%20cold-
reduced%20steel%20sheets.

Yuanqi, Li. 2013. "Experimental Investigation and Design Method Research on


Low-Rise Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Steel Framing Buildings." Journal of
structural engineering 139 (5): 818-36.
http://sfx.lis.curtin.edu.au/sfx_local?sid=EI%3ACompendex&genre=&issn=0
7339445&title=Journal%20of%20Structural%20Engineering&date=2013&v
olume=139&issue=5&spage=818&epage=36&aulast=Yuanqi&aufirst=Li&at
itle=Experimental%20Investigation%20and%20Design%20Method%20Rese
arch%20on%20Low-Rise%20Cold-Formed%20Thin-
Walled%20Steel%20Framing%20Buildings.

“Every reasonable effort has been made to acknowledge the owners of copyright
material. I would be pleased to hear from any copyright owner who has been omitted
or incorrectly acknowledged.”

140
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX A

141
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix A: Stress-Strain Graph for Coupon Test

Sheet Average % Fy Fu
Thickness Elongation (MPa) (MPa)
(mm)
TC-75-1 1.204 1.500 563 591.62 1.05
TC-90-2 1.195 3.632 560 589.02 1.05
Average 561.50 590.32 1.05

Stress-Strain Graph ( TC-75-1)


700
Fu = 591.62Mpa
600
Fy = 563Mpa
500
Stress (MPa)

400

300

200

100

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Strain (%)

142
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Stress-Strain Graph (TC-90-2)


700

600 Fu = 589.02MPa

500 Fy = 560MPa
Stress (MPa)

400

300 Final Strain


Moderated
200 E1
E2
100 E3
E4
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Strain (%)

143
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX B

144
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix B: Specimen’s Measured Dimensions

Dimensions and Specifications of Specimens

No. Parameter Specimen Number Length Width Thickness Number


of screw (mm) (mm) (mm) of
specimen
1 N1-ST 1 450 70 1.2 4
Number of
2 N2-ST 2 450 70 1.2 4
screw
3 N3-ST 3 450 70 1.2 4
4 N4-ST 4 450 70 1.2 4
5 S2-15 2 450 70 1.2 4
Screw
6 S2-40 2 450 70 1.2 4
Spacing
7 S3-15 3 450 70 1.2 4
8 S3-25 3 450 70 1.2 4
9 P3-DG 3 450 70 1.2 4
10 Screw P3-DM 3 450 70 1.2 4
11 Pattern P4-DM 4 450 70 1.2 4
12 P4-BX 4 450 70 1.2 4

*All measurements in unit mm.


Measured dimensions for N1-ST
Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
N1-ST-1 1.25 1.25 70 70 451 451
N1-ST-2 1.24 1.24 70 70 450 449
N1-ST-3 1.24 1.24 71 70 451 450
N1-ST-4 1.24 1.24 69 69 449 449
Average
N1-ST 1.24 1.24 70 70 450 450

Measured dimensions for N2-ST


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
N2-ST-1 1.23 1.23 70 70 449 449
N2-ST-2 1.23 1.21 70 70 448 449
N2-ST-3 1.21 1.21 70 70 449 449
N2-ST-4 1.21 1.21 70 70 449 449
Average

145
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

N2-ST 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 449

Measured dimensions for N3-ST


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
N3-ST-1 1.19 1.20 70 70 449 449
N3-ST-2 1.23 1.22 70 70 449 449
N3-ST-3 1.21 1.21 70 70 450 449
N3-ST-4 1.21 1.21 70 70 449 449
Average
N3-ST 1.21 1.21 70 70 449 449

Measured dimensions for N4-ST


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
N4-ST-1 1.20 1.21 70 70 448 449
N4-ST-2 1.18 1.21 70 71 448 448
N4-ST-3 1.19 1.21 70 70 450 449
N4-ST-4 1.19 1.21 70 70 448 448
Average
N4-ST 1.19 1.21 70 70 449 449

Measured dimensions for S2-15


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
S2-15-1 1.22 1.20 71 71 448 449
S2-15-2 1.22 1.21 70 70 448 448
S2-15-3 1.22 1.20 70 70 450 449
S2-15-4 1.22 1.22 71 70 448 448
Average
S2-15 1.22 1.21 71 70 449 449

146
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Measured dimensions for S2-40


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
S2-40-1 1.22 1.22 70 70 450 450
S2-40-2 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 446
S2-40-3 1.22 1.23 70 70 449 449
S2-40-4 1.23 1.21 69 69 449 450
Average
S2-40 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 449

Measured dimensions for S3-15


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
S3-15-1 1.23 1.20 71 70 449 448
S3-15-2 1.23 1.23 70 70 449 448
S3-15-3 1.22 1.22 70 70 450 449
S3-15-4 1.23 1.23 71 70 449 448
Average
S3-15 1.23 1.22 71 70 449 448

Measured dimensions for S3-25


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
S3-25-1 1.22 1.21 69 69 449 449
S3-25-2 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 449
S3-25-3 1.22 1.21 69 70 449 449
S3-25-4 1.21 1.20 70 70 450 449
Average
S3-25 1.22 1.21 70 70 449 449

147
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Measured dimensions for P3-DG


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
P3-DG-1 1.22 1.21 70 69 448 450
P3-DG-2 1.22 1.22 70 69 450 449
P3-DG-3 1.22 1.21 70 69 449 450
P3-DG-4 1.21 1.21 70 70 449 449
Average
P3-DG 1.22 1.21 70 69 449 450

Measured dimensions for P3-DM


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
P3-DM-1 1.22 1.21 69 70 450 450
P3-DM-2 1.20 1.22 70 70 448 448
P3-DM-3 1.21 1.23 71 69 450 449
P3-DM-4 1.21 1.22 69 69 448 450
Average
P3-DM 1.21 1.22 70 70 449 449

Measured dimensions for P4-BX


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
P4-BX-1 1.22 1.22 70 69 449 449
P4-BX-2 1.22 1.23 70 69 448 448
P4-BX-3 1.23 1.22 70 70 448 449
P4-BX-4 1.23 1.22 70 69 450 459
Average
P4-BX 1.23 1.22 70 69 449 449

148
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Measured dimensions for P4-DM


Specimen T1 T2 W1 W2 L1 L2
P4-DM-1 1.23 1.23 70 70 449 449
P4-DM-2 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 449
P4-DM-3 1.22 1.22 70 70 448 449
P4-DM-4 1.22 1.22 70 70 450 450
Average
P4-DM 1.22 1.22 70 70 449 449

149
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX C

150
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix C: Pn Calculation for N Series Specimen

The calculated results of Pns for N series specimens are calculated using the
American Iron and Steel Institute Specification (AISI, 2007) design equations.

Appendix C-1: N1-ST Specimen


According to the Equation 4-1, the nominal shear strength Pns for tilting failure is
calculated as follows:

Pns=7.54 kN

According to theEquation 4-2, the nominal shear strength Pns for bearing failure is
calculated as follows:

Pns= 10.23N

Appendix C-2: N2-ST Specimen


According to the Equation 4-4, P for two screws connection of tilting failure is
calculated as follows:

P = 15.08kN

The nominal shear strength P of two screw connection of bearing failure is calculated
as follows:

P = 20.46kN

151
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix C-3: N3-ST Specimen


According to the Equation 4-4, P for three screws connection of tilting failure is
calculated as follows:

P = 22.62kN

The nominal shear strength P for three screws connection of bearing failure is
calculated as follows:

P = 30.69kN

Appendix C-4: N4-ST Specimen


According to the Equation 4-4, P for four screws connection of tilting failure is
calculated as follows:

P = 30.16kN

The nominal shear strength P for four screws connection of bearing failure is
calculated as follows:

P = 40.96kN

152
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX D

153
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix D: Pn Calculation for S Series Specimen

The calculations in this section are according to the American Iron and Steel
Specification (AISI, 2007) design equations.

According totheEquation 4-5, nominal tensile strengthPnof two and three number of
screws in a connection is determined as follows:

For a single row of screws perpendicular to the force, nominal tensile stressFtis
determine according to the Equation 4-6 as follows:

Where s is the sheet width divided by the number of the screw holes in the cross
section being analyzedwhen evaluating Ft.

Appendix D-1: S2 Specimen


For two screws connection in S series specimens, a net area Anis determine as
follows:

An= 71.16 mm2

Ft = 225.59Mpa

Pn= 16.05kN

154
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix D-2: S3 Specimen


For three screws connections, a net area Anis determine as follows:

An= 64.74mm2

Ft = 338.37Mpa

Pn= 21.91kN

155
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX E

156
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix E: Pn Calculation for P Series Specimen

The calculations in this section are according to the American Iron and Steel
Specification (AISI, 2007) design equations.

Appendix E-1
Three Number of Screws

1. Diagonal Shape
There are two possible fracture lines for a diagonal screws pattern e.g. line ABC and
line ABDEF. The fracture of steel can occur at a screw location which has smaller
cross sectional area.

The calculation of the net area for both line ABC and line ABDEF are as follows:
Net area for line ABC:

An = 77.58 mm2

157
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Net area for line ABDEF was determined according to the Equation 4-7because the
line is in a staggered pattern.

An = 187.87mm2

Since the net area, An for the line ABC is smaller than the line ABDEF, thus, the
possible failure will occur at the line ABC. An for the line ABC was chosen in the
calculation of Pn.

The nominal tensile stress, FtforlineABC was determined according to the Equation
4-8 as follows:

Ft = 338.38Mpa

Pn= 26.25kN

158
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2. Diamond Shape

There are two possible fracture lines for a diamond screws pattern e.g. line ABCDE
and line ABDE. The fracture of steel can occur at a screw location which has smaller
cross sectional area.

The calculation of the net area for both line ABDE and line ABCDE are as follows:
Net Area for line ABDE:

An = 71.16 mm2

The net area for line ABCDE was determined according totheEquation 4-7because
the line is in a staggered pattern.

An = 187.87mm2

Since the net area, An for line ABDE is smaller than the line ABCDE, thus, the
possible failure will occur at the line ABDE. An for the line ABDE was chosen in the
calculation of Pn.

159
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

The nominal tensile stress, Ftforthe line ABDE was determined according to the
Equation 4-8 as follows:

Ft = 338.38Mpa

Pn= 24.08kN

160
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix E-2
Four Number of Screws

1. Diamond Pattern

There are two possible fracture lines for a diamond screws pattern e.g. line ABCDE
and line ABDE. The fracture of steel can occur at a screw location which has smaller
cross sectional area.

The calculation of net area for both line ABDE and line ABCDE are as follows:
Net Area for ABDEline:

An = 71.16 mm2

Net area for line ABCDE was determined according totheEquation 4-7because the
line is in a staggered pattern.

An = 187.87mm2

161
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Since the net area An for the line ABDE is smaller than the line ABCDE, thus, the
possible failure will occur at the line ABDE. An for the line ABDE was chosen in the
calculation of Pn.

The nominal tensile stress, Ftfor the line ABDE is equal to Fu, because there are
multiple screws in the line parallel to the applied force.

Ft = 590.32Mpa

Pn = 42.01kN

162
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

2. Box Pattern

The possible fracture line for box screws pattern is the line ABCD.

Net Area for line ABDE:

An = 71.16 mm2

The nominal tensile stress, Ftfor the line ABCD is equal to Fu, because there are
multiple screws in the line parallel to the applied force.

Ft = 590.32Mpa

Pn = 42.01kN

163
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX F

164
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F: Calculation Spread Sheets

The numerical calculation is based on American Iron and Steel InstituteSpecification


(AISI, 2007) design equations. These spread sheetsare include the inputs, basic
parameters and output sections.

165
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-1
Table below shows the calculations for the N seriesspecimens. The number of screw
varied from one to four screws connections. The dimensionsare based on the N1-ST-
2 specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR N SERIES SPECIMEN


Reference
INPUT (According
to AISI
Width, w = 70 mm (2007)design
equations)
Thickness (Head), t1 = 1.2 mm

Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.2 mm

Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm

Number of screw, n = 1

Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa


Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

Tilting, Pns = 7.54 kN Pns=4.2 (t2³d) ½ Fu2

Bearing Pns= 10.23 kN Pns=2.7 t1d Fu1

Bearing Pns = 10.23 kN Pns=2.7 t2 d Fu2

OUTPUT

Tilting, Pns = 7.54 kN


1 Screw
Bearing, Pns = 10.23 kN

Tilting, P = 15.08 kN
2 Screws P= 2Pns
Bearing, Pns = 20.46 kN

Tilting, P= 22.62 kN
3 Screws P= 3Pns
Bearing, Pns = 30.69 kN

Tilting, P= 30.16 kN
4 Screws P=4Pns
Bearing, P = 40.96 kN

166
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-2
Table below shows the calculations for the S2 series specimens. The screw spacings
are varied from less than 3dto more than 3d. The screw spacing for less than 3d is
15mm and the screw spacing for more than 3d is 40mm. The dimensions of the S2
series specimenarebased onthe S2-15-1specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR S2 SERIES SPECIMEN


Reference
INPUT (According
to AISI
Width, w = 70 mm
(2007)
design
Thickness (Head), t1 = 1.20 mm equations)

Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.20 mm

Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm

Number of screw, n = 2

Transverse spacing (S2-15), g = 15 mm

Transverse spacing (S2-40), g = 40 mm

Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa


Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 35 mm S = w/n

Gross area of member, Ag = 84 mm Ag = wt

Net Area ,A = 71.10 mm A = Ag- ndt

Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 225.59 MPa Ft = (2.5d/s) Fu ≤Fu

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, Pn = 16.05 kN Pns= AnFt

Tilting, P = 15.08 kN 2 Screws P= 2Pns

Bearing, P= 20.46 kN 2 Screws P= 2Pns

167
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-3
Table below shows the calculations for the S3 series specimens. The screw spacings
are varied from less than 3dto more than 3d. The screw spacing for less than 3d is
15mm and the screw spacing for more than 3d is 25mm. The dimensions of the S3
series specimen arebased onthe S3-25-4specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR S3 SERIES SPECIMEN


Reference
INPUT (According
to AISI
Width, w = 70 mm
(2007)
design
Thickness (Head), t1 = 1.2 mm equations)

Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.2 mm

Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm

Number of screw, n = 3

Transverse spacing (S3-15), g = 15 mm

Transverse spacing (S3-25), g = 25 mm

Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa

Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 23.33 mm s = w/n

Gross area of member, Ag = 84 mm Ag = wt

Net Area ,A = 64.74 mm A = Ag- ndt

Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 338.37 MPa Ft = (2.5d/s) Fu ≤Fu

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, P = 21.91 kN Pns= AnFt

Tilting, P = 22.62 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns

Bearing, P= 30.69 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns

168
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-4
Table below shows the calculations for the P3-DG series specimens. The dimensions
of the P3-DG specimen arebased on the P3-DG-4specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR P3-DG


Reference
INPUT (According
to AISI
Width, w = 70 mm (2007)
design
Thickness (Head), t1 = 1.2 mm equations)

Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.2 mm
Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm
Number of screw in connection, n
3
=
Number of screw in LINE 1, n1 = 1

Number of screw in LINE 2, n2 = 3

Longitudinal Spacing, s' = 60 mm

Transverse spacing, g = 15 mm
Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa

Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 23.33 mm s = w/n

Gross area of member, Ag= 84 mm Ag = wt

Net Area ,An1 = 77.58 mm An1 =Ag - n1dt

Net Area ,An2 = 187.87 mm An2= 0.9 [ Ag - nbdt + ∑(s'²/4g)t ] for


staggered hole
* The less net area is chosen for
nominal shear strength calculation
Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 338.38 MPa Ft = (2.5d/s) Fu ≤Fu

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, Pn = 26.25 kN Pns = An1Ft

Tilting, P = 22.62 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns

Bearing, P = 30.69 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns

169
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-5
Table below shows the calculations for the P3-DM series specimens. The dimensions
of the P3-DG specimen are based on the P3-DM-2specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR P3-DM


Reference
INPUT
(According
Width, w = to AISI
70 mm (2007)
design
Thickness (Head), t1 = 1.20 mm equations)
Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.20 mm
Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm
Number of screw in connection,
3
n=
Number of screw in LINE 1, n1
2
=
Number of screw in LINE 2, n2
3
=
Longitudinal Spacing, s' = 60 mm
Transverse spacing, g = 15 mm
Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa
Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 23.33 mm s = w/n
Gross area of member, Ag= 84 mm Ag = wt
Net Area ,An1 = 71.16 mm An1 =Ag - n1dt
Net Area ,An2 = 187.87 mm An2= 0.9 [ Ag - nbdt + ∑(s'²/4g)t ] for
staggered hole
* The less net area is chosen for nominal
shear strength calculation
Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 338.38 MPa Ft = (2.5d/s) Fu ≤Fu

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, Pn = 26.25 kN Pns = An1Ft


Tilting, P = 22.62 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns
Bearing, P = 30.69 kN 3 Screws P= 3Pns

170
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-6
Table below shows the calculations for the P4-BX series specimens. The dimensions
of the P4-BX specimen are based on the P4-BX-1specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR P4-BX


Reference
INPUT (According
to AISI
Width, w = (2007)
70 mm
design
Thickness (Head), t1 = equations)
1.2 mm
Thickness(Body), t2 =
1.2 mm
Screw diameter, d =
5.35 mm
Number of screw in connection, n = 4

Number of screw in LINE 1, n1 = 2

Tensile strength (Head), Fu1= 590.32 Mpa


Tensile strength (Body), Fu2= 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 17.5 mm s = w/n

Gross area of member, Ag= 84 mm Ag = wt

Net Area ,An1 = 71.16 mm An1 =Ag - n1dt

Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 590.32 MPa Ft = Fu for multiple screws in


the line parallel to the force

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, Pn = 42.01 kN Pns = An1Ft

Tilting, P = 30.16 kN 4 Screws P= 4Pns

Bearing, P = 40.96 kN 4 Screws P= 4Pns

171
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix F-7
Table below shows the calculations for the P4-DM series specimens. The dimensions
of the P4-DM specimen are based on the P4-DM-1specimen.

NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR P4-DM


(According
INPUT
to AISI
Width, w = 70 mm (2007)
design
1.2 mm equations)
Thickness (Head), t1 =
Thickness(Body), t2 = 1.2 mm

Screw diameter, d = 5.35 mm


Number of screw in 4
connection, n =
Number of screw in LINE 1, n1 2
=
Number of screw in LINE 2, n2 4
=
Longitudinal Spacing, s' = 60 mm

Transverse spacing, g = 15 mm
Tensile strength (Head), Fu1 = 590.32 Mpa
Tensile strength (Body), Fu2 = 590.32 Mpa

BASIC PARAMETERS

s= 17.5 mm s = w/n
Gross area of member, Ag= 84 mm Ag = wt
Net Area ,An1 = 71.16 mm An1 =Ag - n1dt
Net Area ,An2 = 117.29 mm An2= 0.9 [ Ag - nbdt + ∑(s'²/4g)t ] for
staggered hole
* The less net area is chosen for
nominal shear strength calculation
Nominal Tensile Stress,Ft = 590.32 MPa Ft = Fu for multiple screws in the line
parallel to the force

OUTPUT

Rupture in net section, Pn = 42.01 kN Pns = An1Ft


Tilting, P = 30.16 kN 4 Screws P= 4Pns
Bearing, P = 40.96 kN 4 Screws P= 4Pns

172
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX G

173
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix G: Load against Displacement Data

A values are extracting from the row data provided by the testing.
Appendix G-1 : Number of Screw Specimen

Test Sample : N1-ST-1


Test Date & Time : 12-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
3.430715 0.2 7.203092 5.4 4.246054 10.6
3.983502 0.4 7.202111 5.6 4.062284 10.8
4.420325 0.6 7.176232 5.8 4.174642 11.0
4.821608 0.8 7.146423 6.0 4.512047 11.2
5.174899 1.0 7.158543 6.2 4.637017 11.4
5.473978 1.2 7.135284 6.4 4.951819 11.6
5.735875 1.4 7.095484 6.6 5.253354 11.8
5.972221 1.6 7.070097 6.8 5.23026 12.0
6.181215 1.8 6.999013 7.0 5.149021 12.2
6.484062 2.0 6.914006 7.2 5.4992 12.4
6.563334 2.2 7.037012 7.4 5.795003 12.6
6.676021 2.4 7.038977 7.6 5.939136 12.8
6.788707 2.6 6.996393 7.8 6.003505 13.0
6.870602 2.8 6.971168 8.0 5.950111 13.2
6.920886 3.0 6.926946 8.2 5.775021 13.4
6.991151 3.2 6.94185 8.4 0.766694 13.6
7.105312 3.4 6.762993 8.6 1.824768 13.8
7.177378 3.6 6.735314 8.8 2.837473 14.0
7.161655 3.8 6.667013 9.0 3.979898 14.2
7.176395 4.0 6.077211 9.2 4.35137 14.4
7.195395 4.2 5.782882 9.4 4.400834 14.6
7.209645 4.4 5.896061 9.6 0.093687 14.8
7.235197 4.6 6.042651 9.8 0.710842 15.0
7.25698 4.8 6.149769 10.0 1.447727 15.2
7.243386 5.0 5.575854 10.2 1.72371 15.4
7.215213 5.2 4.921518 10.4

174
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N1-ST-2


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 7.442715 4.0 6.782812 8.0
3.360614 0.2 7.536402 4.2 6.391357 8.2
3.879168 0.4 7.637623 4.4 6.358927 8.4
4.317466 0.6 7.696424 4.6 6.193664 8.6
4.815875 0.8 7.784871 4.8 5.968946 8.8
4.991292 1.0 7.841541 5.0 5.832182 9.0
5.229932 1.2 7.920159 5.2 5.683135 9.2
5.4784 1.4 7.994683 5.4 5.618766 9.4
5.685919 1.6 8.031863 5.6 5.45072 9.6
5.856424 1.8 8.087059 5.8 5.245001 9.8
6.053135 2.0 8.117032 6.0 5.19439 10.0
6.229697 2.2 8.113757 6.2 5.217976 10.2
6.412322 2.4 8.123584 6.4 5.238286 10.4
6.542534 2.6 8.067896 6.6 5.301672 10.6
6.678807 2.8 7.98158 6.8 5.070402 10.8
6.794932 3.0 7.897393 7.0 3.770248 11.0
6.909584 3.2 7.822705 7.2 3.656251 11.0
7.034718 3.4 7.745234 7.4
7.269591 3.6 7.637951 7.6
7.352633 3.8 7.362131 7.8

175
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N1-ST-3


Test Date & Time : 23-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 7.607323 3.8 7.929005 7.8
3.455775 0.2 7.700191 4.0 7.954718 8.0
4.023465 0.4 7.814024 4.2 8.022854 8.2
4.508444 0.6 7.877247 4.4 8.074119 8.4
4.947397 0.8 7.991408 4.6 8.043001 8.6
5.288405 1.0 8.04513 4.8 7.911315 9.0
5.588301 1.2 8.122603 5.0 7.792568 9.2
5.945525 1.4 8.113757 5.2 7.635986 9.4
6.142562 1.6 8.084438 5.4 7.139707 9.6
6.331738 1.8 8.019252 5.6 6.609032 9.8
6.499457 2.0 7.867912 5.8 6.420183 10.0
6.665048 2.2 7.010642 6.2 6.591179 10.2
6.809509 2.4 6.885015 6.4 6.584136 10.4
6.926126 2.6 7.036193 6.6 5.468245 10.6
7.054209 2.8 7.337727 6.8 4.715309 10.8
7.144294 3.0 7.592582 7.0 4.279959 11.0
7.280729 3.2 7.77668 7.2 4.017406 11.1
7.402425 3.4 7.905255 7.4
7.510688 3.6 7.980434 7.6

176
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N1-ST-4


Test Date & Time : 20-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 6.931367 4.4 6.333867 8.8
3.441853 0.2 6.999503 4.6 6.03397 9.0
3.948123 0.4 7.038649 4.8 5.9981 9.2
4.418851 0.6 7.041271 5.0 6.173026 9.4
4.832417 0.8 7.063218 5.2 6.361713 9.6
5.199304 1.0 7.071898 5.4 6.361713 9.8
5.489702 1.2 7.102854 5.6 6.044617 10.0
5.744392 1.4 7.132991 5.8 5.663154 10.2
5.963705 1.6 7.107767 6.0 5.615654 10.4
6.323385 1.8 7.086475 6.2 5.80958 10.6
6.361713 2.0 7.080415 6.4 5.929474 10.8
6.436562 2.2 7.071242 6.6 6.043306 11.0
6.52206 2.4 7.040778 6.8 6.163199 11.2
6.585282 2.6 7.049132 7.0 6.099978 11.4
6.637695 2.8 7.023253 7.2 5.976808 11.6
6.650635 3.0 6.997047 7.4 5.810235 11.8
6.621971 3.2 6.970513 7.6 5.505916 12.0
6.614601 3.4 6.94447 7.8 5.094151 12.2
6.624428 3.6 6.842103 8.0 5.144598 12.4
6.663901 3.8 6.855698 8.2 5.108401 12.6
6.705667 4.0 6.644738 8.4 4.904484 12.8
6.837189 4.2 6.401348 8.6 0.226847 12.9

177
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N2-ST-1


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 15.36026 4.6 15.89846 9.4
3.772542 0.2 15.56171 4.8 15.40464 9.6
4.515159 0.4 15.73419 5.0 14.91229 9.8
5.389462 0.6 15.89486 5.2 13.98394 10.0
6.296688 0.8 16.01394 5.4 13.07966 10.2
7.131681 1.0 16.13792 5.6 12.97893 10.2
8.03088 1.2 16.26437 5.8 12.84299 10.2
8.836229 1.4 16.38705 6.0 12.01258 10.4
9.55215 1.6 16.44568 6.2 11.8316 10.6
10.36929 1.8 16.55378 6.4 11.86763 10.8
11.10011 2.0 16.60734 6.6 12.0989 11.0
11.8316 2.2 16.63781 6.8 12.17571 11.2
12.1708 2.4 16.29319 7.0 12.59861 11.4
12.63563 2.6 15.73074 7.2 12.61729 11.6
12.80401 2.6 15.19958 7.4 11.94985 11.8
13.1858 2.8 15.09868 7.6 11.36201 12.0
13.49798 3.0 14.98371 7.8 10.50982 12.2
13.7602 3.2 15.07592 8.0 9.608328 12.4
14.03226 3.4 15.25772 8.2 4.931837 12.6
14.36901 3.6 15.5057 8.4 0.886096 12.8
14.54803 3.8 15.7486 8.6
14.6915 4.0 15.91976 8.8
14.95209 4.2 15.97151 9.0
15.17272 4.4 16.01754 9.2

178
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N2-ST-2


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.61607 3.0 16.69218 6.0
4.04181 0.2 13.95102 3.2 16.76638 6.2
5.362273 0.4 14.31709 3.4 16.83517 6.4
6.669634 0.6 14.63189 3.6 16.92624 6.6
7.532143 0.8 14.93637 3.8 16.68449 6.8
8.541738 1.0 15.19925 4.0 16.6455 7.0
9.198693 1.2 15.43249 4.2 16.75377 7.2
9.901344 1.4 15.65327 4.4 16.80503 7.4
10.41859 1.6 15.8264 4.6 16.0593 7.6
11.01331 1.8 16.15201 4.8 8.541738 7.8
11.36578 2.0 16.19443 5.0 8.338148 8.0
11.81309 2.2 16.30024 5.2 8.162403 8.2
12.22583 2.4 16.42341 5.4 7.867419 8.4
12.70688 2.6 16.52414 5.6
13.15664 2.8 16.63011 5.8

179
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N2-ST-3


Test Date & Time : 23-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 14.77438 4.2 15.95677 8.4
4.162686 0.2 15.15454 4.4 15.60266 8.6
5.03142 0.4 15.24823 4.6 14.89821 8.8
5.641369 0.6 15.42331 4.8 14.04864 9.0
6.458837 0.8 15.52421 5.0 13.47865 9.2
7.235031 1.0 15.7278 5.2 12.72981 9.4
8.009424 1.2 15.85097 5.4 11.15646 9.6
8.819358 1.4 15.9114 5.6 10.2874 9.8
9.493184 1.6 15.83442 5.8 6.580369 10.0
10.22385 1.8 15.55713 6.0 6.600678 10.2
10.93338 2.0 15.22054 6.2 6.053624 10.4
11.49747 2.2 14.82598 6.4 5.586008 10.6
11.95804 2.4 14.79666 6.6 5.147874 10.8
12.44302 2.6 14.93113 6.8 4.28995 11.0
12.84463 2.8 15.22054 7.0 3.145559 11.2
13.21708 3.0 15.45804 7.2 2.536757 11.4
13.52664 3.2 15.77054 7.4 0.73279 11.6
13.82588 3.4 16.0331 7.6 0.790443 11.8
14.12119 3.6 16.17543 7.8 0.570148 11.6
14.36672 3.8 16.23063 8.0 0.317586 11.5
14.57947 4.0 16.17658 8.2 0.030301 11.3

180
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N2-ST-4


Test Date & Time : 20-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.73416 5.6 12.01471 11.6
3.932072 0.3 13.78756 5.8 12.30511 11.8
4.747739 0.4 13.93971 6.0 12.42844 12.0
6.123891 0.7 14.1035 6.2 12.37472 12.2
6.402331 0.8 14.21455 6.4 11.95689 12.4
6.832439 0.8 14.33985 6.6 11.19937 12.6
7.652037 1.0 14.41241 6.8 10.44234 12.8
8.755971 1.2 14.4907 7.0 10.48787 13.0
8.904037 1.3 14.5192 7.2 10.51637 13.2
9.346267 1.4 14.53018 7.4 10.64609 13.4
10.09314 1.6 14.56211 7.6 10.86197 13.6
10.72045 1.8 14.5934 7.8 10.71177 13.8
11.25817 2.0 14.61223 8.0 9.854992 14.0
11.67092 2.2 14.64139 8.2 9.728385 14.2
12.13034 2.4 14.68004 8.4 9.630767 14.4
12.45563 2.6 14.67447 8.6 9.269451 14.6
12.80663 2.8 14.6065 8.8 8.138817 14.8
13.09555 3.0 14.52756 9.0 7.378183 15.0
13.32731 3.2 14.37359 9.2 6.963798 15.2
13.52337 3.4 14.14609 9.4 4.239175 15.4
13.73744 3.6 14.04159 9.6 5.436469 15.6
13.81737 3.8 13.73416 9.8 3.14949 15.8
13.79476 4.0 12.45612 10.0 3.262176 16.0
13.81016 4.2 12.17588 10.2 3.212385 16.2
13.83358 4.4 11.59459 10.4 3.381251 16.4
13.79476 4.6 11.32467 10.6 3.587133 16.6
13.6503 4.8 11.27242 10.8 1.532569 16.8
13.35876 5.0 11.34318 11.0 0.029318 17.0
13.33698 5.2 11.45144 11.2
13.47374 5.4 11.68074 11.4

181
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N3-ST-1


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 17.1141 3.4 21.65923 6.8
3.684752 0.2 17.55519 3.6 21.7485 7.0
4.578218 0.4 17.90258 3.8 21.88903 7.2
5.528191 0.6 18.22311 4.0 21.96945 7.4
6.592654 0.8 18.43194 4.2 22.109 7.6
7.685123 1.0 18.78262 4.4 22.07526 7.8
8.701266 1.2 19.11527 4.6 21.66923 8.0
9.736245 1.4 19.40092 4.8 21.68675 8.2
10.80922 1.6 19.6674 5.0 21.58864 8.4
11.85764 1.8 19.89474 5.2 21.39635 8.6
12.88819 2.0 20.15091 5.4 20.95036 8.8
13.74268 2.2 20.42869 5.6 18.85747 9.0
14.53755 2.4 20.64898 5.8 13.69239 9.2
15.2076 2.6 20.91285 6.0 13.23805 9.4
15.72518 2.8 21.28498 6.2 12.84152 9.6
16.20917 3.0 21.38768 6.4 12.23189 9.8
16.61274 3.2 21.54376 6.6 11.76968 9.8

182
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N3-ST-2


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 19.18422 4.2 23.73231 8.4
2.609479 0.2 19.44367 4.4 23.99748 8.6
3.540126 0.4 19.83234 4.6 24.25905 8.8
4.481418 0.6 20.15566 4.8 24.34406 9.0
5.622534 0.8 20.46178 5.0 24.38648 9.2
6.649815 1.0 20.81998 5.2 24.34586 9.4
7.657443 1.2 21.1392 5.4 23.91591 9.6
8.564995 1.4 21.4319 5.6 23.61815 9.8
9.491874 1.6 21.73098 5.8 23.65991 10.0
10.49115 1.8 21.95749 6.0 23.17772 10.2
11.58116 2.0 22.18401 6.2 22.61855 10.4
12.60238 2.2 22.43608 6.4 21.48169 10.6
13.61803 2.4 22.53616 6.6 20.83112 10.8
14.54688 2.6 22.36615 6.8 20.61869 11.0
15.37729 2.8 22.16649 7.0 20.15222 11.2
16.13579 3.0 22.27098 7.2 20.14746 11.4
16.78865 3.2 22.47212 7.4 20.08522 11.6
17.32948 3.4 22.71289 7.6 19.85838 11.8
17.79497 3.6 22.96332 7.8 19.71572 12.0
18.21574 3.8 23.23504 8.0 19.709 12.2
18.63717 4.0 23.50022 8.2 19.63596 12.3

183
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N3-ST-3


Test Date & Time : 23-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 22.11735 2.4 22.94268 4.8
4.524331 0.2 22.37319 2.6 22.91615 5.0
6.38284 0.4 22.60429 2.8 23.04947 5.2
8.633459 0.6 22.94907 3.0 22.93024 5.4
11.09389 0.8 23.10221 3.2 22.6567 5.6
13.80099 1.0 23.22145 3.4 22.11965 5.8
16.76818 1.2 23.42176 3.6 22.11784 6.0
19.61253 1.4 23.56999 3.8 21.45679 6.2
20.87157 1.6 23.7061 4.0 20.13404 6.4
21.20849 1.8 23.65074 4.2 19.0984 6.6
21.45548 2.0 23.59947 4.4
21.81303 2.2 23.32644 4.6

184
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N3-ST-4


Test Date & Time : 20-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 22.4885 1.8 24.00272 3.6
4.283398 0.2 22.80625 2.0 23.98142 3.8
5.760115 0.4 23.04898 2.2 23.35035 4.0
7.613874 0.6 23.1787 2.4 22.63689 4.2
9.813719 0.8 23.40358 2.6 21.81762 4.4
12.35785 1.0 23.56393 2.8 20.03691 4.6
15.09279 1.2 23.74901 3.0 19.57765 4.8
18.01232 1.4 23.86088 3.2 19.62023 5.0
20.97394 1.6 23.97176 3.4 19.30559 5.2

185
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N4-ST-1


Test Date & Time : 23-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 23.09877 3.6 28.15279 7.2
4.325001 0.2 23.67122 3.8 28.12249 7.4
5.714583 0.4 24.27641 4.0 27.60607 7.6
7.24404 0.6 24.78072 4.2 27.7656 7.8
8.778576 0.8 25.23753 4.4 28.04748 8.0
10.32589 1.0 25.63946 4.6 28.23208 8.2
11.83405 1.2 26.02338 4.8 28.48758 8.4
13.29897 1.4 26.41287 5.0 28.77912 8.6
14.70952 1.6 26.79024 5.2 28.90754 8.8
16.02016 1.8 27.13763 5.4 28.59945 9.0
17.30557 2.0 27.45735 5.6 28.73458 9.2
17.61857 2.2 27.75675 5.8 28.55653 9.4
18.70826 2.4 27.77002 6.0 27.00398 9.6
19.66626 2.6 27.92398 6.2 26.13476 9.8
20.49846 2.8 28.00768 6.4 24.17339 10.0
21.24256 3.0 28.06698 6.6 23.80601 10.0
21.96535 3.2 28.25254 6.8
22.69208 3.4 28.23027 7.0

186
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N4-ST-2


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.84088 3.6 30.56229 7.2
4.191185 0.2 22.75154 3.8 30.84302 7.4
5.589448 0.4 23.32283 4.0 31.15471 7.6
7.066985 0.6 23.98863 4.2 31.43954 7.8
8.414636 0.8 24.64559 4.4 31.43315 8.0
9.703162 1.0 25.29698 4.6 31.78251 8.2
11.11469 1.2 25.85861 4.8 31.94384 8.4
12.67232 1.4 26.40026 5.0 31.96366 8.6
11.30976 1.6 26.91979 5.2 31.93762 8.8
13.32158 1.8 27.49322 5.4 31.65083 9.0
14.71083 2.0 27.8529 5.6 31.31408 9.2
15.82492 2.2 28.2645 5.8 30.69479 9.4
17.00616 2.4 28.68691 6.0 29.61166 9.6
18.07521 2.6 29.21726 6.2 28.62696 9.8
19.01257 2.8 29.44803 6.4 27.83144 10.0
19.87312 3.0 29.7987 6.6 27.04886 10.2
20.61623 3.2 29.89976 6.8 26.16293 10.4
21.20767 3.4 30.36656 7.0 25.76689 10.5

187
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N4-ST-3


Test Date & Time : 23-07-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 19.49166 3.6 30.78962 7.2
2.382141 0.2 20.57364 3.8 31.18714 7.4
3.662148 0.4 21.76062 4.0 31.54731 7.6
4.726446 0.6 22.67669 4.2 31.9119 7.8
5.766339 0.8 23.63354 4.4 32.15218 8.0
6.544499 1.0 24.50523 4.6 32.37985 8.2
6.614764 1.2 25.26586 4.8 32.58688 8.4
7.589798 1.4 25.97129 5.0 32.67336 8.6
8.554348 1.6 26.63906 5.2 32.665 8.8
9.520373 1.8 27.09488 5.4 32.61014 9.0
10.56731 2.0 27.65045 5.6 32.45699 9.2
11.64029 2.2 28.16197 5.8 32.1969 9.4
12.74226 2.4 28.68216 6.0 31.90764 9.6
13.83653 2.6 29.05249 6.2 31.38106 9.8
14.93015 2.8 29.39481 6.4 31.02925 10.0
16.01492 3.0 29.687 6.6 30.16838 10.2
17.16013 3.2 30.03964 6.8 29.10326 10.2
18.3607 3.4 30.4324 7.0

188
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : N4-ST-4


Test Date & Time : 08-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 26.47887 3.2 30.73607 6.4
4.419506 0.2 26.99284 3.4 30.80814 6.6
5.998264 0.4 27.40133 3.6 30.82239 6.8
8.027113 0.6 27.59018 3.8 30.96079 7.0
10.367 0.8 27.93004 4.0 31.08822 7.2
12.94634 1.0 28.20553 4.2 31.17306 7.4
15.74696 1.2 28.56702 4.4 31.05807 7.6
17.96416 1.4 28.91687 4.6 31.10246 7.8
19.3847 1.6 29.18597 4.8 31.26052 8.0
20.58183 1.8 29.48259 5.0 31.30278 8.2
21.65743 2.0 29.84441 5.2 31.16405 8.4
22.7237 2.2 30.07649 5.4 30.76506 8.6
23.62716 2.4 30.33888 5.6 29.19629 8.8
24.37321 2.6 30.50496 5.8 27.22444 8.9
25.16464 2.8 30.65745 6.0
25.88924 3.0 30.54558 6.2

189
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix G-2 : Screw Spacing Specimen

Test Sample : S2-15-1


Test Date & Time : 18-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 11.41197 3.6 8.274434 7.2
4.120429 0.3 11.57313 3.8 7.972407 7.4
4.902847 0.4 11.71186 4.0 7.977485 7.6
6.002032 0.7 11.79982 4.2 7.840886 7.8
6.606412 0.8 11.83864 4.4 7.117104 8.0
7.230119 1.0 11.97638 4.6 5.802538 8.2
7.386373 1.2 12.07629 4.8 4.697783 8.4
7.863816 1.4 12.2242 5.0 4.363982 8.6
8.348959 1.6 12.38045 5.2 4.53334 8.8
8.731567 1.8 12.42303 5.4 4.382982 9.0
9.099601 2.0 12.4114 5.6 3.922736 9.2
9.443884 2.2 12.37996 5.8 3.365691 9.4
9.780469 2.4 12.2789 6.0 2.801767 9.6
10.10297 2.6 12.06581 6.2 2.120734 9.8
10.4163 2.8 11.7687 6.4 1.203027 10.0
10.85181 3.0 11.06948 6.6 1.113271 10.2
10.95991 3.2 9.217202 6.8 0.802728 10.4
11.1748 3.4 8.685215 7.0 0.841382 10.4

190
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-15-2


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 11.47535 3.6 9.177728 7.2
3.927649 0.2 11.08849 3.8 8.563849 7.4
4.826685 0.4 10.96712 4.0 7.641391 7.6
5.781409 0.6 11.00708 4.2 6.541059 7.8
6.789691 0.8 10.98301 4.4 5.687885 8.0
7.654003 1.0 11.08341 4.6 5.341145 8.2
8.36681 1.2 11.23032 4.8 5.283982 8.4
9.006896 1.4 11.29338 5.0 5.46284 8.6
9.73379 1.6 11.31549 5.2 5.67773 8.8
10.20271 1.8 11.31091 5.4 5.983032 9.0
10.61432 2.0 11.33106 5.6 6.033643 9.2
10.95041 2.2 11.31124 5.8 6.198742 9.4
11.18577 2.4 11.32008 6.0 5.269242 9.6
11.38019 2.6 11.15793 6.2 1.421357 9.8
11.51122 2.8 10.40974 6.4 0.408161 10.0
11.5602 3.0 10.43006 6.6 0.091066 10.1
11.58034 3.2 10.34931 6.8
11.53415 3.4 10.09281 7.0

191
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-15-3


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 10.737 2.8 12.50067 5.6
4.706955 0.3 11.0536 3.0 12.50182 5.8
4.985233 0.4 11.27635 3.2 12.50689 6.0
5.40666 0.6 11.4426 3.4 12.47446 6.2
6.001704 0.8 11.6 3.6 12.45579 6.4
6.47538 1.0 11.70957 3.8 11.59033 6.6
6.914333 1.2 11.86304 4.0 11.68418 6.8
7.61666 1.4 11.94707 4.2 11.72235 7.0
8.269521 1.6 12.10479 4.4 11.66895 7.2
8.8151 1.8 12.29905 4.6 10.68081 7.4
9.261588 2.0 12.37062 4.8 7.424863 7.6
9.615862 2.2 12.46431 5.0 6.374487 7.7
9.993721 2.4 12.51246 5.2
10.37944 2.6 12.50869 5.4

192
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-15-4


Test Date & Time : 03-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.41461 3.8 12.4725 7.6
3.872616 0.2 13.7607 4.0 11.48223 7.8
4.936914 0.4 13.80426 4.2 10.64102 8.0
5.941594 0.6 13.86061 4.4 9.686619 8.2
6.690762 0.8 13.85471 4.6 8.706837 8.4
7.369993 1.0 13.87928 4.8 8.609381 8.6
7.94227 1.2 13.94594 5.0 8.89896 8.8
8.720103 1.4 14.01375 5.2 9.441263 9.0
9.329232 1.6 14.09843 5.4 9.787349 9.2
10.06301 1.8 14.11595 5.6 9.989463 9.4
10.73487 2.0 14.20096 5.8 10.21959 9.6
11.25686 2.2 14.14625 6.0 10.04171 9.8
11.49222 2.4 14.15346 6.2 8.71093 10.0
11.76493 2.6 14.12529 6.4 7.52248 10.2
12.15114 2.8 14.0945 6.6 7.368028 10.4
12.4648 3.0 13.86945 6.8 4.520892 10.6
12.72539 3.2 13.46817 7.0 3.055148 10.8
12.95043 3.4 13.26785 7.2 1.779399 11.0
13.2238 3.6 13.0415 7.4 0.691679 11.0

193
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-40-1


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.94004 3.8 14.96127 7.6
3.756655 0.2 14.16886 4.0 14.66808 7.8
4.576416 0.4 14.3867 4.2 14.23142 8.0
5.295119 0.6 14.60699 4.4 13.95315 8.2
5.991548 0.8 14.77045 4.6 13.78854 8.4
6.663082 1.0 14.90116 4.8 13.77511 8.6
7.613547 1.2 15.00434 5.0 13.64817 8.8
8.565323 1.4 15.0715 5.2 13.47456 9.0
9.532657 1.6 15.1891 5.4 13.20168 9.2
10.05481 1.8 15.24102 5.6 12.79205 9.4
10.61088 2.0 15.21563 5.8 12.18652 9.6
11.14614 2.2 15.23168 6.0 9.462883 9.8
11.64995 2.4 15.09983 6.2 8.721413 10.0
12.10823 2.6 15.06314 6.4 5.106926 10.2
12.49919 2.8 14.95291 6.6 4.939863 10.4
12.80712 3.0 14.87724 6.8 5.140505 10.6
13.11111 3.2 14.96176 7.0 4.224271 10.8
13.42476 3.4 15.06707 7.2 1.917473 11.0
13.69288 3.6 15.08607 7.4 1.528147 11.0

194
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-40-2


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.4567 3.0 15.31275 6.0
3.726681 0.2 13.64457 3.2 15.27967 6.2
4.522857 0.4 13.99917 3.4 15.3026 6.4
5.301507 0.6 14.29268 3.6 15.19303 6.6
6.09883 0.8 14.62927 3.8 15.02809 6.8
6.961505 1.0 15.05282 4.0 14.93391 7.0
7.766854 1.2 15.32373 4.2 14.81189 7.2
8.501118 1.4 15.53403 4.4 14.64958 7.4
9.247502 1.6 15.67342 4.6 14.85169 7.6
9.968171 1.8 15.93106 4.8 14.99189 7.8
10.69883 2.0 15.98101 5.0 11.0762 8.0
11.26325 2.2 15.68619 5.2 7.159853 8.2
11.82537 2.4 15.48326 5.4 7.255014 8.4
12.3811 2.6 15.47818 5.6 7.184257 8.6
12.84102 2.8 15.36222 5.8 3.491153 8.7

195
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-40-3


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 12.97451 3.0 15.15143 6.0
3.724551 0.2 13.27932 3.2 14.84235 6.2
4.703024 0.4 13.50944 3.4 14.78011 6.4
5.508536 0.6 13.8059 3.6 14.55523 6.6
6.144854 0.8 14.08008 3.8 14.51871 6.8
6.916625 1.0 14.45041 4.0 14.57669 7.0
7.616987 1.2 14.55441 4.2 14.82106 7.2
8.46279 1.4 14.72213 4.4 14.86889 7.4
9.18084 1.6 14.9136 4.6 14.8494 7.6
9.947534 1.8 15.06986 4.8 14.83007 7.8
10.64118 2.0 15.16452 5.0 12.28562 8.0
11.2449 2.2 15.29818 5.2 7.375726 8.2
11.87549 2.4 15.38122 5.4 7.22455 8.3
12.20814 2.6 15.44526 5.6
12.60517 2.8 15.41299 5.8

196
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S2-40-4


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 18.94473 3.2 21.45743 6.4
8.253753 0.2 19.29941 3.4 21.69776 6.6
8.741116 0.4 19.64263 3.6 21.95912 6.8
9.269327 0.6 19.97594 3.8 22.18782 7.0
9.932675 0.8 20.28429 4.0 22.3318 7.2
10.80558 1.0 20.49867 4.2 22.42258 7.4
11.68822 1.2 20.70911 4.4 22.4365 7.6
12.54254 1.4 20.97661 4.6 22.38583 7.8
13.54689 1.6 21.14 4.8 22.34359 8.0
14.50296 1.8 21.23847 5.0 22.36986 8.2
15.31954 2.0 21.30133 5.2 22.4843 8.4
16.01253 2.2 21.23634 5.4 22.48176 8.6
16.76363 2.4 21.172 5.6 22.3467 8.8
17.43951 2.6 21.13427 5.8 21.67688 9.0
18.01347 2.8 21.23519 6.0 20.3325 9.2
18.48896 3.0 21.19525 6.2 18.58957 9.3

197
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-15-1


Test Date & Time : 18-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.61836 3.0 14.8453 6.0
3.468059 0.2 14.12251 3.2 14.62812 6.2
3.987923 0.4 14.60257 3.4 14.37769 6.4
3.681311 0.6 14.97732 3.6 14.04208 6.6
4.626371 0.8 15.37663 3.8 13.59167 6.8
5.560294 1.0 15.79659 4.0 13.43852 7.0
6.581188 1.2 16.04604 4.2 13.11569 7.2
7.524282 1.4 16.37607 4.4 12.43778 7.4
8.443136 1.6 16.62699 4.6 11.11633 7.6
9.303518 1.8 16.74067 4.8 8.973975 7.8
10.13638 2.0 16.62093 5.0 6.008256 8.0
10.92568 2.2 16.24717 5.2 4.617363 8.2
11.71383 2.4 16.1312 5.4 4.149747 8.3
12.4191 2.6 15.97708 5.6
13.06623 2.8 15.51864 5.8

198
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-15-3


Test Date & Time : 18-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 13.61296 3.4 7.923926 6.8
3.434319 0.2 13.93382 3.6 6.335178 7.0
4.289786 0.4 14.30021 3.8 4.658474 7.2
5.47021 0.6 14.52428 4.0 3.902262 7.4
6.358927 0.8 14.43256 4.2 3.893581 7.6
7.328555 1.0 14.23716 4.4 3.79842 7.8
8.24397 1.2 14.06436 4.6 3.060553 8.0
9.043421 1.4 14.17492 4.8 3.110672 8.2
9.771299 1.6 14.21947 5.0 3.160791 8.4
10.56321 1.8 13.98951 5.2 3.274788 8.6
8.23709 2.0 13.69141 5.4 3.357338 8.8
10.14572 2.2 13.38693 5.6 3.669518 9.0
11.08439 2.4 13.10423 5.8 3.448568 9.2
11.65814 2.6 12.62433 6.0 1.227595 9.4
12.13542 2.8 12.19701 6.2 0.419299 9.6
12.60648 3.0 11.86026 6.4 0.706911 9.8
13.09997 3.2 10.63348 6.6 0.623871 9.9

199
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-15-4


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 18.64421 3.8 12.95158 7.6
3.958933 0.2 18.81095 4.0 12.15082 7.8
5.142305 0.4 18.88318 4.2 11.56839 8.0
6.315523 0.6 18.87483 4.4 10.53472 8.2
7.345916 0.8 18.97179 4.6 9.691206 8.4
8.264771 1.0 18.80522 4.8 9.393765 8.6
9.144643 1.2 18.63389 5.0 8.22284 8.8
10.17078 1.4 18.69368 5.2 8.427412 9.0
11.28749 1.6 18.68843 5.4 8.814281 9.2
12.35588 1.8 18.75182 5.6 8.416439 9.4
13.35761 2.0 18.70433 5.8 9.276984 9.6
14.2822 2.2 18.74494 6.0 10.25185 9.8
15.14864 2.4 18.67615 6.2 10.71406 10.0
15.97069 2.6 17.91012 6.4 10.5832 10.2
16.6609 2.8 16.48728 6.6 1.331437 10.4
17.30229 3.0 16.10402 6.8 0.605035 10.6
17.6949 3.2 15.05987 7.0 0.475478 10.8
18.04655 3.4 14.2686 7.2 0.001802 11.0
18.36414 3.6 13.68453 7.4

200
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-25-1


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.36425 2.2 23.7798 4.4
5.076299 0.2 21.6974 2.4 23.95981 4.6
7.617642 0.4 22.05511 2.6 24.06169 4.8
9.67974 0.6 22.37303 2.8 23.80896 5.0
12.74521 0.8 22.58873 3.0 23.49268 5.2
15.25838 1.0 22.81886 3.2 23.36427 5.4
17.73011 1.2 23.00804 3.4 23.15888 5.6
19.4417 1.4 23.20343 3.6 22.887 5.8
20.21053 1.6 23.37492 3.8 22.22889 6.0
20.59461 1.8 23.5089 4.0 21.56293 6.2
20.95707 2.0 23.6586 4.2 19.56667 6.3

201
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-25-2


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 19.13836 2.6 21.20161 5.2
4.345474 0.2 19.58059 2.8 20.97361 5.4
5.623352 0.4 20.03216 3.0 20.14911 5.6
6.245585 0.6 20.32272 3.2 17.9414 5.8
7.361639 0.8 20.48339 3.4 13.30585 6.0
9.021311 1.0 20.82735 3.6 13.13371 6.2
10.75174 1.2 21.03144 3.8 12.26432 6.4
12.47217 1.4 21.17229 4.0 11.97032 6.6
14.08483 1.6 21.4016 4.2 11.14319 6.8
15.61625 1.8 21.39979 4.4 10.83232 7.0
16.41309 2.0 21.45253 4.6 9.533149 7.2
17.4253 2.2 21.50232 4.8
18.51793 2.4 21.47464 5.0

202
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-25-3


Test Date & Time : 18-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 19.66446 3.8 27.5833 7.6
3.804316 0.2 20.34417 4.0 27.79377 7.8
4.232951 0.4 20.99212 4.2 27.847 8.0
4.76985 0.6 21.62582 4.4 27.95838 8.2
5.305603 0.8 22.22529 4.6 27.96493 8.4
5.988437 1.0 22.7802 4.8 27.94232 8.6
6.738589 1.2 23.28533 5.0 27.82685 8.8
7.52854 1.4 23.76342 5.2 27.69321 9.0
8.494893 1.6 24.20189 5.4 27.18104 9.2
9.499573 1.8 24.63396 5.6 25.88072 9.4
10.58189 2.0 25.01739 5.8 24.99479 9.6
11.65192 2.2 25.33203 6.0 24.47247 9.8
12.89425 2.4 25.71497 6.2 23.96767 10.0
14.01015 2.6 26.09299 6.4 23.82894 10.2
15.13848 2.8 26.41975 6.6 23.93885 10.4
16.21425 3.0 26.73766 6.8 24.11852 10.6
17.21352 3.2 27.00202 7.0 23.83091 10.8
18.0934 3.4 27.25638 7.2 22.89699 11.0
18.8768 3.6 27.42001 7.4 22.53026 11.1

203
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : S3-25-4


Test Date & Time : 10-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 15.8716 3.8 22.27819 7.6
3.73487 0.2 16.5451 4.0 22.43854 7.8
4.466678 0.4 17.09199 4.2 22.60282 8.0
5.230423 0.6 17.70407 4.4 22.73303 8.2
6.26262 0.8 18.20133 4.6 22.85309 8.4
7.171646 1.0 18.85305 4.8 22.94285 8.6
8.178126 1.2 19.28921 5.0 22.74712 8.8
9.167572 1.4 19.83398 5.2 21.88526 9.0
9.979963 1.6 20.22461 5.4 21.06517 9.2
10.82708 1.8 20.56513 5.6 20.91416 9.4
9.052758 2.0 20.88173 5.8 20.21446 9.6
10.55191 2.2 21.08909 6.0 19.59796 9.8
11.67075 2.4 21.4776 6.2 17.4194 10.0
12.39929 2.6 21.48317 6.4 11.93183 10.2
11.44489 2.8 21.48317 6.6 5.71016 10.4
12.69607 3.0 21.55081 6.8 2.505309 10.6
13.46751 3.2 21.83924 7.0 0.705437 10.7
14.27532 3.4 22.03169 7.2
15.09246 3.6 22.17959 7.4

204
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix G-3 : Screw Pattern Specimen

Test Sample : P3-DG-1


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 18.18692 3.0 22.65752 6.2
4.60082 0.2 18.85632 3.2 22.77267 6.4
5.309697 0.4 19.36112 3.4 22.79068 6.6
6.176303 0.6 19.85133 3.6 22.57088 6.8
6.180561 0.6 20.24344 3.8 22.37008 7.0
7.134629 0.8 20.63031 4.0 22.35517 7.2
8.317019 1.0 20.98885 4.2 22.35517 7.4
9.671386 1.2 21.25123 4.4 22.35517 7.6
10.74142 1.4 21.7051 4.6 22.35534 7.8
11.88482 1.6 21.91622 4.8 21.70755 8.0
12.43712 1.8 22.08476 5.0 21.20014 8.2
14.0144 2.0 22.21579 5.2 17.06775 8.4
15.03268 2.2 22.34338 5.4 7.137904 8.6
15.93433 2.4 22.37385 5.6 7.092535 8.7
16.78816 2.6 22.50389 5.8
17.51407 2.8 22.56187 6.0

205
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DG-2


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.30921 3.4 22.7915 6.8
6.384314 0.2 21.55245 3.6 22.7689 7.0
8.601029 0.4 21.71001 3.8 22.49472 7.2
10.3267 0.6 21.77487 4.0 22.36565 7.4
11.72857 0.8 21.86741 4.2 22.20416 7.6
13.1003 1.0 21.79059 4.4 22.03153 7.8
14.28941 1.2 21.71837 4.6 21.69609 8.0
15.18091 1.4 21.52345 4.8 21.01194 8.2
16.16937 1.6 21.59798 5.0 20.42247 8.4
17.13441 1.8 21.86037 5.2 19.80973 8.6
17.71766 2.0 22.14765 5.4 18.88449 8.8
18.50794 2.2 22.37106 5.6 16.24897 9.0
19.11576 2.4 22.30276 5.8 14.85562 9.2
19.66052 2.6 22.30456 6.0 10.1087 9.4
20.25671 2.8 22.52551 6.2 9.228502 9.6
20.66389 3.0 22.79118 6.4 5.795166 9.8
21.0257 3.2 22.79805 6.6 5.25319 9.9

206
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DG-3


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 17.20992 3.0 20.04198 6.0
3.594176 0.2 17.58565 3.2 20.02004 6.2
4.685172 0.4 18.20821 3.4 20.26114 6.4
5.55931 0.6 18.81685 3.6 20.63162 6.6
6.490776 0.8 19.27857 3.8 20.85077 6.8
7.479732 1.0 19.70704 4.0 21.18589 7.0
8.548616 1.2 20.08932 4.2 21.49446 7.2
9.677611 1.4 20.62114 4.4 21.71968 7.4
10.81479 1.6 20.78673 4.6 21.91048 7.6
12.09939 1.8 21.13167 4.8 22.08836 7.8
13.27539 2.0 21.27368 5.0 21.9688 8.0
14.38293 2.2 21.26975 5.2 21.02341 8.2
15.50603 2.4 21.48922 5.4 13.4757 8.4
16.26126 2.6 21.33543 5.6 13.67405 8.6
15.20957 2.8 20.63097 5.8 13.24673 8.7

207
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DG-4


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 18.92675 3.4 24.59825 6.8
4.258666 0.2 19.55603 3.6 24.69194 7.0
5.719332 0.4 20.10619 3.8 24.56943 7.2
6.643427 0.6 20.61246 4.0 24.75025 7.4
7.82336 0.8 21.10203 4.2 24.52291 7.6
9.10779 1.0 21.48529 4.4 24.2145 7.8
10.27036 1.2 21.8322 4.6 24.19616 8.0
11.51483 1.4 22.35992 4.8 24.42742 8.2
12.66986 1.6 22.79871 5.0 24.43987 8.4
13.84193 1.8 23.09795 5.2 24.46215 8.6
14.84973 2.0 23.37803 5.4 24.43643 8.8
15.73451 2.2 23.56623 5.6 23.73476 9.0
16.54445 2.4 23.86465 5.8 23.58702 9.2
17.32834 2.6 23.96046 6.0 23.63109 9.4
15.07706 2.8 23.96046 6.2 22.71911 9.6
17.58679 3.0 24.04842 6.4 20.44343 9.7
18.28633 3.2 24.29639 6.6

208
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DM-1


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 17.76303 3.0 23.46435 5.8
3.740603 0.2 18.42179 3.2 23.47483 6.0
4.681241 0.4 19.06433 3.4 23.39048 6.2
5.413703 0.6 19.75748 3.6 23.17444 6.4
6.339929 0.8 20.30667 3.8 23.1674 6.6
7.573255 1.0 20.85176 4.0 22.95791 6.8
8.804944 1.2 21.23797 4.2 22.71649 7.0
10.0255 1.4 21.68872 4.4 22.59414 7.2
11.23786 1.6 21.93669 4.6 22.74466 7.4
12.36849 1.8 22.52895 4.8 22.95791 7.6
13.47194 2.0 22.90927 5.0 23.06765 7.8
15.46426 2.4 23.18951 5.2 22.71813 8.0
16.24095 2.6 23.38573 5.4 21.7313 8.1
17.063 2.8 23.38623 5.6

209
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DM-2


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 16.8355 2.6 22.20596 5.2
3.686225 0.2 17.72798 2.8 22.36041 5.4
4.497305 0.4 18.61408 3.0 22.56547 5.6
5.468573 0.6 19.33229 3.2 23.03719 5.8
6.506173 0.8 19.95911 3.4 23.3361 6.0
7.631074 1.0 20.50469 3.6 23.59161 6.2
8.776446 1.2 20.9592 3.8 23.96112 6.4
10.06563 1.4 21.44746 4.0 23.98028 6.6
11.30158 1.6 21.83433 4.2 24.03728 6.8
12.44482 1.8 22.11703 4.4 24.01321 7.0
13.55252 2.0 22.15617 4.6 23.43355 7.2
14.71427 2.2 21.92555 4.8 21.96519 7.4
15.87897 2.4 21.99483 5.0 21.10874 7.4

210
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DM-3


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 19.62809 3.8 23.11712 7.6
3.823971 0.2 20.0071 4.0 21.97584 8.0
5.068273 0.4 20.56169 4.2 12.30068 8.2
6.127494 0.6 20.69222 4.4 12.14312 8.4
7.212757 0.8 21.03455 4.6 12.31035 8.6
8.290484 1.0 21.19948 4.8 12.65643 8.8
9.335455 1.2 21.45237 5.0 13.03708 9.0
10.4448 1.4 21.65284 5.2 13.24132 9.2
11.56789 1.6 21.81664 5.4 13.60624 9.4
12.63547 1.8 22.02596 5.6 13.89205 9.6
13.47587 2.0 22.16354 5.8 13.81081 9.8
14.29841 2.2 22.27803 6.0 13.71352 10.0
14.99206 2.4 22.52338 6.2 13.01841 10.2
15.67817 2.6 22.72222 6.4 5.71966 10.4
16.51988 2.8 23.0765 6.6 5.413048 10.6
17.24071 3.0 23.14283 6.8 4.928561 10.8
18.03476 3.2 23.26273 7.0 4.47372 11.0
18.64749 3.4 23.22391 7.2 4.321233 11.0
19.15622 3.6 23.10828 7.4

211
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P3-DM-4


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 18.1802 3.0 24.19517 6.0
4.231478 0.2 18.74396 3.2 24.33931 6.2
5.64317 0.4 19.27611 3.4 24.40957 6.4
7.008185 0.6 19.79761 3.6 24.77301 6.6
7.514948 0.8 20.44491 3.8 24.77301 6.8
8.614623 1.0 20.97673 4.0 24.79366 7.0
9.713972 1.2 21.45679 4.2 24.61103 7.2
10.8636 1.4 21.88805 4.4 24.37764 7.4
12.08923 1.6 22.31783 4.6 24.13997 7.6
13.07295 1.8 22.71878 4.8 23.81322 7.8
14.15624 2.0 23.01049 5.0 22.81263 8.0
15.12161 2.2 23.12121 5.2 22.21235 8.2
16.02965 2.4 23.50579 5.4 21.70903 8.4
16.85761 2.6 23.78325 5.6
17.55977 2.8 24.01828 5.8

212
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-BX-1


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 20.01824 2.6 29.73172 5.2
5.163107 0.2 21.26287 2.8 29.82098 5.4
6.38546 0.4 22.40103 3.0 30.28123 5.6
7.473672 0.6 23.44535 3.2 30.59357 5.8
8.419386 0.8 24.50752 3.4 30.85728 6.0
9.095834 1.0 25.36249 3.6 30.85728 6.2
10.18421 1.2 26.09201 3.8 30.94637 6.4
11.3892 1.4 26.8985 4.0 31.09428 6.6
12.88918 1.6 27.5286 4.2 30.94637 6.8
14.43534 1.8 28.36981 4.4 30.86694 7.0
15.97462 2.0 28.63351 4.6 30.47204 7.2
17.35585 2.2 29.0253 4.8 29.1791 7.4
18.69482 2.4 29.51617 5.0 28.22879 7.5

213
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-BX-2


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 20.71532 2.6 29.29506 5.2
4.549227 0.2 21.85823 2.8 29.6626 5.4
5.830218 0.4 22.75842 3.0 29.88928 5.6
7.511507 0.6 23.58358 3.2 30.2655 5.8
9.209175 0.8 24.41972 3.4 30.33543 6.0
10.52571 1.0 25.13892 3.6 30.40423 6.2
11.7402 1.2 25.77098 3.8 30.35149 6.4
12.98106 1.4 26.45594 4.0 30.10516 6.6
14.11612 1.6 27.0749 4.2 29.9204 6.8
15.55254 1.8 27.59477 4.4 29.93744 7.0
16.83304 2.0 28.2016 4.6 29.84752 7.2
18.05458 2.2 28.53934 4.8 28.73801 7.4
19.29118 2.4 28.96748 5.0 27.34057 7.5

214
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-BX-3


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 17.55633 2.4 26.90211 4.8
3.700802 0.2 18.67484 2.6 27.44391 5.0
4.772798 0.4 19.72604 2.8 27.87059 5.2
6.00498 0.6 20.71532 3.0 28.23141 5.4
6.913351 0.8 21.61256 3.2 28.5115 5.6
8.082146 1.0 22.42904 3.4 28.30594 5.8
9.30663 1.2 23.2796 3.6 27.60558 6.0
10.61268 1.4 24.05776 3.8 26.76796 6.2
12.04583 1.6 24.77302 4.0 25.296 6.4
13.61394 1.8 25.3086 4.2 23.09124 6.6
14.86856 2.0 25.95033 4.4 22.99542 6.6
16.18149 2.2 26.39649 4.6

215
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-BX-4


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 25.03606 3.4 31.31654 6.8
4.562821 0.2 25.83486 3.6 31.51521 7.0
6.158613 0.4 26.5213 3.8 31.61872 7.2
8.043656 0.6 27.174 4.0 31.65443 7.4
10.01829 0.8 27.7692 4.2 31.58695 7.6
11.54939 1.0 28.26843 4.4 31.09313 7.8
12.49363 1.2 28.71819 4.6 30.29662 8.0
13.75398 1.4 29.20235 4.8 29.64917 8.2
14.87462 1.6 29.62788 5.0 29.33338 8.4
16.28959 1.8 29.93203 5.2 29.18221 8.6
17.40139 2.0 30.08616 5.4 29.02956 8.8
18.82308 2.2 30.36345 5.6 28.49298 9.0
19.82333 2.4 30.52364 5.8 28.11316 9.2
21.02586 2.6 30.65499 6.0 27.08817 9.4
22.06788 2.8 30.9354 6.2 26.38338 9.6
23.18984 3.0 31.14145 6.4 25.42915 9.7
24.12982 3.2 31.24922 6.6

216
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-DM-1


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 25.62734 3.4 31.80413 6.7
4.786884 0.3 26.44891 3.6 31.75811 6.8
6.619023 0.4 27.17105 3.8 31.6677 6.9
7.664812 0.6 27.81441 4.0 31.70029 7.0
8.804617 0.8 28.33935 4.2 31.78038 7.2
10.02681 1.0 28.81286 4.4 31.66541 7.4
11.34285 1.2 29.22135 4.6 31.33782 7.6
12.77682 1.4 29.74564 4.8 31.07855 7.8
14.19097 1.6 30.03898 5.0 30.73344 8.0
15.73762 1.8 30.30531 5.2 30.51496 8.2
17.29378 2.0 30.58555 5.4 29.7078 8.4
18.79129 2.2 30.91984 5.6 29.72566 8.6
20.26556 2.4 31.06053 5.8 30.06306 8.8
21.57898 2.6 31.21826 6.0 30.41275 9.0
22.72615 2.8 31.52831 6.2 30.56769 9.2
23.68415 3.0 31.68014 6.4 28.83301 9.4
24.7491 3.2 31.78874 6.6

217
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-DM-2


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.39979 3.2 31.54829 6.8
4.042957 0.2 22.54238 3.4 31.71896 7.0
5.382583 0.4 23.57654 3.6 31.84836 7.2
6.955444 0.6 24.53716 3.8 31.95924 7.4
8.632804 0.8 25.50106 4.0 31.99838 7.6
9.900198 1.0 26.2214 4.2 32.01313 7.8
10.81021 1.2 26.89867 4.4 32.11844 8.0
11.70286 1.4 27.47111 4.6 32.23391 8.2
12.69132 1.6 27.97459 4.8 32.49745 8.4
13.62197 1.8 28.46219 5.0 32.39852 8.6
14.50888 2.0 28.89 5.2 32.077 8.8
15.90141 2.2 29.38432 5.4 30.95636 9.0
17.30901 2.4 30.0421 5.8 30.30269 9.2
18.76919 2.6 30.4478 6.0 29.51748 9.4
18.77345 2.6 30.97111 6.2 28.16049 9.6
18.04065 2.8 31.20434 6.4 26.29494 9.8
20.12634 3.0 31.37844 6.6

218
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-DM-3


Test Date & Time : 24-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.55998 3.0 28.23666 6.0
5.283819 0.2 22.51044 3.2 27.91006 6.2
6.244602 0.4 23.24634 3.4 27.75102 6.4
7.339528 0.6 23.9888 3.6 26.86378 6.8
8.398257 0.8 24.5257 3.8 26.7126 7.0
9.576881 1.0 25.01755 4.0 26.87983 7.2
10.89538 1.2 25.5651 4.2 27.27063 7.4
12.17162 1.4 26.05794 4.4 28.10874 7.8
13.5232 1.6 26.46823 4.6 28.4427 8.0
15.01843 1.8 26.86853 4.8 28.65267 8.2
15.98347 2.0 27.2423 5.0 28.49069 8.4
17.11148 2.2 27.64472 5.2 27.43311 8.6
18.35742 2.4 27.87714 5.4 25.36872 8.8
19.53932 2.6 28.3559 5.6
20.56742 2.8 28.41404 5.8

219
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Test Sample : P4-DM-4


Test Date & Time : 22-08-2012
Test Venue : Curtin Sarawak University,
Structural Laboratory
Tested by : Siti Fairuz

Load Displacement Load Displacement Load Displacement


(kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm)
0 0.0 21.78945 3.2 27.25916 6.4
5.422548 0.2 22.65015 3.4 26.94158 6.6
7.002615 0.4 23.34364 3.6 26.53178 6.8
8.208918 0.6 24.23792 3.8 25.82126 7.0
8.445593 0.8 24.6202 4.0 25.58475 7.2
8.580554 1.0 25.06833 4.2 25.74085 7.4
10.28625 1.2 25.52006 4.4 26.0016 7.6
11.68861 1.4 25.86058 4.6 26.38388 7.8
13.06279 1.6 26.17292 4.8 26.77467 8.0
14.39046 1.8 26.46119 5.0 26.89998 8.2
15.6785 2.0 26.77746 5.2 27.09275 8.4
16.93623 2.2 26.77467 5.4 27.09816 8.6
18.15138 2.4 27.16826 5.6 26.97434 8.8
19.22599 2.6 27.3368 5.8 26.87442 9.0
20.18153 2.8 27.44228 6.0 24.37976 9.2
21.02767 3.0 27.47029 6.2 22.35763 9.4

220
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

APPENDIX H

221
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Appendix H: Published Paper

222
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

223
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

224
Behaviour and Shear Strength of Screw Connections in High Strength Cold-Formed Steel Structures

225