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1.1 Slipforms

Slip forming, continuous poured, continuously formed, or slip-form construction is a

construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. Slip
forming is used for tall structures, (such as bridges, towers, buildings, and dams) as well
as horizontal structures, such as roadways. Slip-forming enables continuous, non-
interrupted, cast-in-place concrete structures which have superior performance
characteristics to piecewise construction using discrete form elements. Slip forming relies
on the quick-setting properties of concrete, and requires a balance between quick-setting
capacity and workability. Concrete needs to be workable enough to be placed into the
form and consolidated through vibration, yet quick-setting enough to emerge from the
form with strength. This strength is needed because the freshly set concrete must not only
permit the form to "slip" by the concrete without disturbing it, but also support the
pressure of the new concrete as well as resist collapse caused by the vibration of the
compaction machinery.

In vertical slip forming the concrete form may be surrounded by a platform on which
workers stand, placing steel reinforcing rods into the concrete and ensuring a smooth
pour. Together, the concrete form and working platform are raised by means of hydraulic
jacks. Generally, the slip-form rises at a rate which permits the concrete to harden by the
time it emerges from the bottom of the form.

In horizontal slip forming for pavement and traffic separation walls concrete is laid
down, vibrated, worked, and settled in place while the form itself slowly moves
ahead. Jumpform systems comprise the formwork and working platforms for
cleaning/fixing of the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. The formwork supports
itself on the concrete cast earlier so does not rely on support or access from other parts of
the building or permanent works.3

1.2 Procedure for slipform assembly

A slipform assembly can only start after the foundations of the walls have been correctly
laid and a starter for the walls laid out in its correct alignment with all the necessary steel
for the walls already in position. The slipform shuttering is then firmly aligned to this
starter with the means of yokes on each side of the shuttering that help to keep the panels
in position. The yokes are all connected by horizontal crossbeams. Hydraulic jacks are
then installed rigidly to the crossbeams that can all act simultaneously so that the entire
slipform shuttering moves upwards. The heights of such slipform shuttering will normally
be between 1. 1 meters to 1. 5 meters in height. The yokes and horizontal crossbeams are
also used to support a working platform that can afford space for men and materials. The
jacks climb using jacking rods that are installed within the concrete and become a
permanent part of the structure, or can be retrieved if so desired. It is important that the
structure should be rigid and shape is maintained at all times. It is necessary to make sure
there is no lag or else it prevents the structure from free upward movement. It is also
possible to reduce wall thicknesses as the construction gains height and arrangements
have to be made in the slip form structure that will enable such reduction at regular

1.3 Slipform for cooling towers

For cooling tower construction, the use of tapered slip forming is made. Tapered slip-
forming is also used in the construction of conical chimneys, cooling towers, piers and
other tall concrete structures involving constant or changing thicknesses in walls,
diameters and/or shapes. A form is used with sections which overlap so that one gradually
slides over the other. This is commonly done in chimney construction but it is not
satisfactory for architectural concrete because the lap shows. While the tapered slip-
forming process is similar to that used on the standard slip-forming, it requires greater
attention, contractor experience and expertise ensures the success of such projects.

1.4 Advantages of slip form systems

1.4.1 Planning

Fast construction can be achieved by careful planning of the construction process. Crane
availability is critical for normal jump form. Self-climbing formwork cuts down the
requirement for crane time considerably. By allowing the crane to be used for other

construction work this may reduce the total number of cranes needed on site. The
formwork is independently supported, so the shear walls and core walls can be completed
ahead of the rest of the main building structure. This can help to provide stability to the
main structure during its construction and can have the beneficial effect of taking the
jump form core off the project critical path.

1.4.2 Management

The formwork system is easy to clean and reuse with little formwork waste generated
compared to traditional formwork. Climbing formwork systems offer simplicity, safety
and cost effectiveness for certain high-rise building structures. The repetitive nature of the
work, combined with the engineered nature of the formwork, allows fine tuning of the
construction operations, which in turn leads to minimal concrete wastage. Many repeated
uses of formwork are possible before maintenance or replacement is needed, the number
of uses depending on the quality of the surface finish of concrete specified.

1.4.3 Safety

 Working platforms, guard rails, ladders and wind shields are normally built into
the completed system.
 Completed formwork assembly is robust.
 Less congested construction site due to minimal scaffolding and temporary works.
 Strength of concrete in the wall below must be closely controlled to achieve
stability during operation.
 Site operatives can quickly become familiar with health and safety aspects of their
 High levels of planning and control means that health and safety are normally
addressed from the beginning of the work.

Fig1.1 Tapered slip form.



2.1 Jump forms

Jump forms are used for the construction of the cores of high-rise buildings and similar
structures. Cores are structures that house the lifts, staircases etc in a building. The
structure is cast in a series of vertical sections called ´lifts´. After the concrete has gained
sufficient strength the formwork is moved back and then „jumped‟ to the next level

These are constructed in a staged process. It is a highly-productive system designed to

increase speed and efficiency while minimising labour and crane time. Systems are
normally modular and can be joined to form long lengths to suit varying construction

The formwork is generally part of a complete system consisting of three or more levels:
1. The upper level is for storage and concreting.
2. The main platform is for fixing the reinforcement and setting the shutters
3. The lower level gives access to the finished concrete surface, to allow any remedial
work and for attaching fixings to cast-in sockets and plates.

For most structures a crane is used to lift the complete assembly to the higher level.
However, for larger structures this may be impracticable, requiring the use of self-
climbing systems that have built-in hydraulic lifting jacks.

Fig 2.1 Wall Forming - Jump form

2.2 Jump-form system in cooling towers

Jump forms are used primarilty on large structures and those requiring tighter control or
changing geometry. Natural draft cooling towers make exclusive use of jump forms. They
are used to form Nuclear containment vessels, underground shafts ,bulilding core and non
circular structures.

2.3 Advantages of jump form systems

2.3.1 Safety

 Working platforms, guard rails, and ladders are built into the completed units of
market-leading formwork systems
 Self-climbing formwork systems are provided with integral freefall braking
 The completed formwork assembly is robust and provides a stable working
 The reduced use of scaffolding and temporary work platforms results in less
congestion on site
 The setting rate of concrete in those parts of the structure supporting the form is
critical in determining the rate at which construction can safely proceed.
 The repetitive nature of the work means that site operatives can quickly become
familiar with health and safety aspects of their job. Formwork suppliers provide
materials and resources to help train the labour force.

2.3.2 Sustainability features

 The formwork system is easy to clean and reuse with little formwork waste
generated compared to traditional formwork.
 Climbing formwork systems offer simplicity, safety and cost effectiveness for
certain high-rise building structures.
 The repetitive nature of the work, combined with the engineered nature of the
formwork, allows fine tuning of the construction operations, which in turn leads to
minimal concrete wastage.
 Many repeated uses of formwork are possible before maintenance or replacement
is needed, the number of uses depending on the quality of the surface finish of
concrete specified.
2.3.3 Planning

 Jump form is typically used on buildings of 5 storey's or more; fully self-climbing

systems are generally used on structures with more than 20 floor levels.
 Assembly and lifting operations for self-climbing formwork systems require
personnel to be comprehensively trained to ensure competence.
 The raising operation must be carefully planned and coordinated, and access to the
working area during lifting should be restricted to essential personnel.

2.4 Cooling tower

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere
through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either
use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the
wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, solely on air
to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.

Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries,
petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for
cooling buildings.

Fig 2.2 Working of a cooling tower



3.1 Introduction to formworks

Formwork is temporary or permanent moulds into which concrete or similar materials are
poured. In the context of concrete construction, the false work supports the shuttering

Formworks can also be named based on the construction such as slab formwork for use in
slab, beam formwork, column formwork for use in beams and columns respectively etc.

The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the
cost of the structure or even more. Designs of these temporary structures are made to
economic expenditure. The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping.
Stripped formwork can be reused. Reusable forms are known as panel forms and non-
usable are called stationary forms.

Timber is the most common material used for formwork. The disadvantage with timber
formwork is that it will warp, swell and shrink. Application of water impermeable cost to
the surface of wood mitigates these defects.

A good formwork should satisfy the following requirements:

 It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads.

 It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both

horizontally and vertically, so as to retain its shape.

 The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout.

 Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in desired

sequences without damage to the concrete.

 The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily available and should be
suitable for reuse.

 The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line and levels should have
plane surface.
 It should be as light as possible.

 The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted when exposed to
the elements.

 It should rest on firm base.

3.2 Timber formwork

Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement.

It should be:
 well-seasoned
 light in weight
 easily workable with nails without splitting
 free from loose knots

 Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and
even surface on all faces which come in contact with concrete.

3.2.1 Normal sizes of members for timber formwork

Table 3.1: Sizes of timber formwork members

Sheeting for slabs, beam, column side 25 mm to 40mm thick

and beam bottom

Joints, ledges 50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm

Posts 75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm

3.3 Plywood formwork

Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up panels of required
sizes. The cost of plywood formwork compares favourably with that of timber shuttering
and it may even prove cheaper in certain cases in view of the following considerations:

 It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing is

 By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in the labour cost of
fixing and dismantling.
 Number of re-uses is more as compared with timber shuttering. For estimation
purpose, number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25.

3.4 Steel formwork

This consists of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by
small steel angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps
or bolts and nuts. The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired modular
shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation where large
number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shuttering is considered most
suitable for circular or curved structures.

Steel forms compared with timber formwork:

 Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and
their reuses are more in number.
 Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed.
 The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such
surfaces need no further treatment.
 Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.
 Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.

3.5 Concrete formwork

They have the following operations mainly:-

1. Propping and centring

2. Shuttering
3. Provision of camber

4. Cleaning and surface treatment

3.5.1 Order and method of removing formwork

The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:

1. Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls beams and column sides should be removed
first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.

2. Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.

3. Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering should be
removed in the end.

Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early removal
of formwork. The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be removed
until all the concrete reaches strength of atleast twice the stresses to which the concrete
may be subjected at the time of removal of formwork. All formworks should be eased
gradually and carefully in order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to

Fig3.1: Details of timber formwork for RCC beam and slab floor

Fig 3.2:Details at section (A) shown in above figure

Fig 3.3: Elevation

Table 3.2: Period of Removal of Formwork

Description of structural member Time Period


1 Walls, columns and vertical sides of

1 to 2 days

2 Slabs (props left under) 3 days

3 Beam soffits (props left under) 7 days

4 Removal of props to slabs

(a) For slabs spanning up to 4.5 m 7 days

(b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m 14 days

5 Removal of props to beams and arches

(a) Spanning up to 6 m 14 days
(b) spanning over 6 m 21 days

3.6 Table form or fly form

A table form/flying form is a large pre-assembled formwork and falsework unit, often
forming a complete bay of suspended floor slab. It offers mobility and quick installation
for construction projects with regular plan layouts or long repetitive structures, so is
highly suitable for flat slab, and beam and slab layouts. It is routinely used for:

 Residential flats
 Hotels
 Hostels
 Offices
 Commercial buildings

3.6.1 Benefits of table form

 Fast construction for large floor layouts.

 Fully assembled units can be manoeuvred quickly into place.
 Using appropriate quality control, high-quality surface finishes can be achieved.
 Reduced long-term workforce requirement on site.
 The need for infill areas and decking joints is minimised.
 Individual components of the formwork system can be precisely adjusted.
 Repetitive nature of the work makes it easier to plan construction activities.

3.6.2 Safety

 Decking with non-slip surfaces can be used to enhance safety.

 Interconnected truss members provide a stable working platform.
 Repetitive nature of work ensures quick familiarity of safety procedures.
 False work units can be assembled at ground level minimising work at height.
 Table formwork systems can include standard health and safety features such as
guard rails.

3.7 Scaffolding and formwork design

Based on loading

 The formwork design must be double-checked to ensure there are no errors.

 the design drawings should be followed and Supervisors should not omit
items, no matter how unnecessary they may seem, unless they first check with
the Designer
 It‟s important to check that the support-work and formwork has been erected
according to the design drawings. These checks should also include:
 ensuring all bracing is installed
 all support-work is erected straight, vertical and level
 the equipment is in good condition
 the supporting ground is firm and capable of carrying the load
 the support-work and formwork is all tightened and secured properly
 remembering that support-work erected on top of existing elevated slabs
transfer the load on to these slabs, so they must be designed, and supported in
such a way that they can carry this load

Formwork is the temporary moulds or shutters in which concrete is placed, so that it will
have desired shape or outline when hardened. This temporary casing is shuttering.

Fig 3.4: Mivan Shuttering

3.8 Mivan formwork

Mivan technology is suitable for constructing large number of houses in a short span of
time using room size forms to construct walls and slabs in one continuous pour on
concrete. In this system of formwork construction, cast–in–situ concrete wall and floor
slabs cast monolithic provides the structural system in one continuous pour. On the
removal of the formwork mould a high quality concrete finish is produced to accurate
tolerances and verticality. The high tolerance of the finish means that, no further
plastering is required.
Uses of this formworks are:
 They have good Speed, Strength, and Safety.
 Column and beam construction are eliminated.
 Walls and slabs are cast in one operation.
 Specially designed, easy to handle light weight pre-engineered aluminium
 Fitting and erecting the portion of shuttering.
 Carrying out concreting of the walls and slabs together.

Advantages of Mivan formworks over conventional systems are:
 More seismic resistance: -The box type construction provides more
seismic resistance to the structure.
 Increased durability: -The durability of a complete concrete structure is
more than conventional brick bat masonry.
 Lesser number of joints thereby reducing the leakages and enhancing the
 Higher carpet area- Due to shear walls the walls are thin thus increasing
 Integral and smooth finishing of wall and slab- Smooth finish of
aluminium can be seen vividly on walls.
 Uniform quality of construction – Uniform grade of concrete is used.
 Negligible maintenance – Strong built up of concrete needs no
 Faster completion Unsurpassed construction speed can be achieved due to
light weight of forms.
 Lesser manual labour- Less labour is required for carrying formworks.
 Simplified foundation design due to consistent load distribution.
 The natural density of concrete wall result in better sound transmission

3.9 Doka formwork system

Fig 3.5 Doka Formwork

Doka offers formwork solutions for all areas of construction activity – for anything from
housing developments to transportation infrastructure and power-generation facilities, or
for building the world‟s tallest structures. You can choose from formwork systems and
components for any construction project and any requirement.

3.9.1 Timber formwork beams

Doka timber formwork beams are the basis for many Doka formwork systems and have a
wide range of uses. Hundreds of thousands of these carefully manufactured beams do
sterling service on countless construction sites every day. The H20 top and H20 eco
beams are familiar names all over the world, and are the right choice for any application.

3.9.2 Panel floor formwork

Dokadek 30 is a beam-less, hand-set formwork system designed as a lightweight steel

construction with yellow coated frames faced with a wood/plastic-composite sheet.
Dokadek 30 combines the advantages of a panel floor formwork system with those of
Doka-flex (floor-slab) formwork, which means its 3 m² large panels make it fast in typical
zones, it is also quick and flexible in the infill zones. Dokadek 30 with or without drop-
head: Slab formwork at its most evolved.

3.9.3 Shifting devices for tables

With doka shifting devices, slab-forming operations can be accomplished even faster. By
making the crane unnecessary for both the horizontal and vertical repositioning
operations, they simplify and optimise the logistics for the entire site, by doing away with
un-productive waiting times. The usage of cranes can be saved here is then available for
use elsewhere. This accelerates the entire site workflow, saving on labour costs and
boosting the contractors' competitiveness.

3.9.4 Concremote

Measuring the strength development of the concrete directly, using Concremote, permits
better management of the forming and CIP concreting operations.


The formwork should be made with good quality material and constructed properly. The
type of material to be used for formwork depends upon the nature of construction as well
as the availability and cost of material. In constructing floor slab, we can use plywood as
shuttering instead of timber planks. This type of shuttering ensures quality surface finish
that is necessary for floors. The material of the formwork should be cheap, easily
available and should be suitable for re-use several times.

Nowadays, steel formwork is widely used in construction as it can be re-used because it is

not easily get damaged. But for the small construction and no need of re-use, in that type
of construction timber formwork is cheaper than others. The slip form is technique
especially recommended when building high structures. The effectiveness increases when
we use this method and also if this method is widely applied it would help the
construction industry with rapid construction. The difficulties in this technique decreases
with the better knowledge of the method, site organization, training, and discipline of


1. Recent Scenario In Formwork: Aluminium Forms, Mayank Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar

Pitroda, Prof. J.J.Bhavsar.

2. Role of formwork systems in high-rise construction, Hisham A. Abou Ibrahim and

Farook R. Hamzeh, 2015 Pg. 3-9.



5. “Building Formwork”, Building construction By B.C. Punmia (2008 edition).

6. Miss. Patil Dhanashri Suryakant, ―Emerging Trends in Formwork - Cost Analysis &
Effectiveness of Mivan Formwork over the Conventional Formwork‖, IOSR Journal
of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 27-30.

7. Conditions and constraints in the application of formwork for high-rise and complex
building structures - the Hong Kong cases, Raymond wong wai man, division of
building science and technology, city university of Hong Kong.