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(Electrical IV/I)

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

1. A single cylinder engine operating at 2000 rpm develops a torque of 8 N-m. The indicated

power of the engine is 2.0 kW. Find loss due to friction as the percentage of brake power.

2. An engine with 90% mechanical efficiency has rating of 38 kW brake power. Estimate its

indicated power and frictional power loss. Also determine the mechanical efficiency at quarter

load assuming frictional power to remain same.

3. A vertical single cylinder four stroke diesel engine has a bore = 80 mm and stroke = 100 mm

respectively. It develops a torque of 3.5 N-m. If the mechanical efficiency is 90%, calculate the

mean effective pressure of the engine.

4. A diesel engine consumes fuel at the rate of 5.5 gm/sec. and develops a power of 75 kW. If the

mechanical efficiency is 85%. The lower heating value of the fuel is 44 MJ/kg. Determine:

(a) Brake specific fuel consumption,

(b) Indicated specific fuel consumption,

(c) Brake thermal efficiency and

(d) Indicated thermal efficiency.

5. A two stroke diesel engine was motored when the meter reading was 1.5 kW. Then the test on

the engine was carried out for one hour and the following observations were recorded: Brake

torque = 120 Nm; Speed = 600 rpm; Fuel used = 2.5 kg; calorific value of fuel = 40.3 MJ/kg;

Determine:

(a) Brake power,

(b) Indicated power,

(c) Mechanical efficiency and

(d) Indicated thermal efficiency.

6. In a test for four-cylinders, four-stroke engine has a diameter of 100 mm, stroke = 120 mm,

speed of engine = 1800 rpm, fuel consumption of 0.2 kg/min, calorific value of fuel is 44000

kJ/kg. Difference in tension on either side of brake pulley = 40 kg, Brake circumference is 300

cm. If the mechanical efficiency is 90%. Determine

(a) Brake-thermal efficiency,

(b) Indicated thermal efficiency,

(c) Indicated mean effective pressure and

(d) Brake specific fuel consumption.

7. A gas turbine unit has a pressure ratio of 6: 1 and maximum cycle temperature of 610°C. The

isentropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine are 0.80 and 0.82 respectively. Determine

the thermal efficiency and the power output in kilowatts of an electric generator geared to the

turbine when the air enters the compressor at 15°C at the rate of 16 kg/s. Take cp = 1.005 kJ/kg

K and γ = 1.4 for the compression process, and take cp = 1.11 kJ/kg K and γ = 1.333 for the

combustion and expansion process.

8. Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle at 100 kPa, 300 K. The

compressor pressure ratio is 10. The turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. Determine the thermal

efficiency of the cycle for a regenerator effectiveness of 80%. Take cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K and γ =

1.4.

9. Air is drawn in a gas turbine unit at 15°C and 100 kPa and pressure ratio is 7 : 1. The

compressor is driven by the H.P. turbine and L.P. turbine drives a separate power shaft. The

isentropic efficiencies of compressor, and the H.P. and L.P. turbines are 0.82, 0.85 and 0.85

respectively. If the maximum cycle temperature is 610°C, calculate :

(a) The pressure and temperature of the gases entering the low pressure turbine.

(b) The net power developed by the unit per kg/s mass flow.

(c) The thermal efficiency of the unit.

[For compression process cpa = 1.005 kJ/kg K and γ = 1.4 and for combustion and expansion

processes: cpg = 1.15 kJ/kg K and γ = 1.333].

10. Air enters the compressor at 100 kPa, 300 K and is compressed to 1000 kPa. The temperature at

the inlet to the first turbine stage is 1400 K. The expansion takes place isentropically in two

stages, with reheat to 1400 K between the stages at a constant pressure of 300 kPa. A

regenerator having an effectiveness of 100% is also incorporated in the cycle. Determine the

thermal efficiency. Take cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K and γ = 1.4.

11. The gas turbine has an overall pressure ratio of 5:1 and the maximum cycle temperature of

550°C. The turbine drives the compressor and an electric generator. The mechanical efficiency

of drive being 0.97. The ambient temperature is 20° C and the isentropic efficiencies of the

compressor and turbine are 0.8 and 0.83 respectively. Calculate the power output is kW for an

air flow of 15 kg/s. Calculate also the thermal efficiency and the work ratio. Neglect changes in

kinetic energy, and the loss of pressure in combustion chamber. ( Ans: 655 kW, 12%, 0.168)

[Work Ratio = Net Work/Gross Work]

12. In a gas turbine plant, air is compressed through a pressure ratio of 6:1 from 15 C. It is then

heated to the maximum permissible temperature of 750 °C and expanded in two stages each of

expansion ratio 6^ (0.5), the air being reheated between stages to 750°C. A heat exchanger

allows the heating of the compressed gases through 75% of the maximum range possible. (hint:

this means effectiveness). Calculate:

(a) The cycle efficiency

(b) Work ratio

(c) Work per kg of air

The isentropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine are 0.8 and 0.85

respectively.

[ Ans: 32.75%, 0.3852, 152 kJ/kg]

13. At the design speed of the following data apply to a gas turbine set employing the heat

exchanger: Isentropic efficiency of compressor = 75%, isentropic efficiency of the turbine =

85%, mechanical transmission efficiency = 99%, combustion efficiency = 98%, mass flow =

22.7 kg/s, pressure ratio = 6:1, heat exchanger effectiveness = 75%, maximum cycle

temperature = 1000 K. The ambient air temperature and pressure are 15° C and 101.30 kPa

respectively. Calculate:

(a) The net power out

(b) Specific fuel consumption

(c) Thermal efficiency

Take the lower calorific value of fuel as 43125 kJ/kg and assume no pressure loss in

heat exchanger and combustion chamber.

14. A steam power plant equipped with regenerative as well as reheat arrangement is supplied with

steam to the HP turbine at 80 bar and 470° C. For feed heating, a part of steam is extracted at 7

bar and remainder of the steam is reheated to 350°C in a reheater and then expanded in LP

turbine down to 0.035 bar. Determine:

(a) Heat supplied in boiler and reheater

(b) Cycle efficiency

(c) Power developed by the system

The steam supplied by the boiler is 50 kg/s

15. The following particulars refer to a steam plant consisting of a boiler, economizer and a super

heater. Steam pressure = 14 bar, mass of steam generated = 5000 kg/h; Mass of coal used = 675

kg/h; Calorific value of coal = 29,800 kJ/kg; Temperature of feed water entering the

economizer = 30°C; Temperature of feed water leaving the economizer = 130°C; Dryness

fraction of steam leaving the boiler = 0.97; Temperature of steam leaving the super heater =

320°C. Determine

(a) Overall efficiency of the plant,

(b) The percentage of the available heat utilized in the boiler, economizer and super

heater respectively.

16. On a reheat cycle, steam leaves the boiler and enters the turbine at 4 MPa, 4000C. After

expansion in the turbine to 400 kPa, the steam is reheated to 4000C and then expanded in the

low-pressure turbine to 10 kPa. Determine the cycle efficiency.

17. A steam power plant running on Rankine cycle has steam entering HP turbine at 20 MPa,

500ºC and leaving LP turbine at 89.6 % dryness. Considering condenser pressure of 0.005 MPa

and reheating occurring upto the temperature of 500ºC determine:

a) the pressure at which steam leaves HP turbine

b) the thermal efficiency.

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