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Higher Technological institute

Department of mechanical engineering

A Report on


Submitted to : Dr/ Ahmed Hussein

Dr/saeed zo elfakkar

Eng/ Marwa


Submitted by:

Name/ Mahmoud magdy abd elmonem ID/20141007

August 2017

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to petrojet heavy equipment

workshops and also HTI training management

For their generous help and guidance throughout the project phases &
training period.

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This report introduces the phases of project implementation of the topics

of training and gained knowledge .

Petrojet heavy equipment authority is pioneering company in the field of heavy

equipment established in the beginning of the 1975S has a group of workshops equipped with
the latest equipment and a selection of professional cadres with experience high efficiency

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chapter 1: introduction ……………………………………………………………. 4

Chapter 2 :

The overhauls workshop

-inroduction ………………………………………………………………………..

chapter 3 :
-safety and health in the work shop………………………………5,6
chapter 4:
Diesel workshop:
- Diesel engine component s and its mechanism of working… 7-11
- Diesel car main compnents and how it works…………... 12-14

chapter 5:
-a brief about benzine workshoop ………………………… 15

Chapter 6 :
The tests workshop
-the stages of making a pipeline ready for use …..………………. 16-17
-short notes about filling pumps …………………………………… 16
-short notes about the cleaning brush ……………………………… 16

Chapter 7 :
the heavy equipments workshop
- introduction ……. ………………………………………. 18
- some heavy construction equipments in details…………. 18-21

Chapter 8: conclusion and recooemndations …………………….

Chapter 9: References ………………………………………………

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Chapter 1:

PETROJET’s activities cover the construction and installation of
industrial plants, oil refineries, oil and gas production facilities, gas
processing and liquefaction, onshore field development and onshore
cross-country pipelines. In addition, PETROJET Coating plants,
marine yards and workshops avail providing a wide range of
integrated services including pipeline coating and fabrication of
platforms and Static Equipment.
Also, PETROJET is involved in various stages of design, material
procurement, execution and installation services and testing stages
of Total Project Management System (TPMS).
While adding up to this heritage, PETROJET is extending its activities
outside the oil sector in areas such as fertilizers, chemicals, power
generation, and infrastructures and in the field of Heavy equipment
maintenance involves an understanding of all the systems found on
large, motorized machines, such as bulldozers, cranes or backhoes.
Heavy equipment may include hydraulics, large diesel engines and
many moving parts and thus require specialized maintenance and
repair techniques. Often, heavy equipment cannot be taken to an
appropriate repair shop, so maintenance workers must make repairs
on site, Heavy machinery maintenance workers are trained in a
variety of ways. While many receive on-the-job training, some
employers prefer potential maintenance workers to attain some
formal training. Community and technical colleges often offer classes
in this field, and training programs are offered at the diploma,
certificate, associate's or bachelor's degree level. Programs generally
cover diverse heavy equipment topics, such as basic repairs and the
proper operation of heavy equipment, as well as studies in diesel
technology. Check out the links below for more information about
relevant programs of study and petrojet heavy equipment authority
specialized in this field perfectly.

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Safety and health in the workshop

1) Never work alone in the workshop, work at least in pairs. This is so because in case of
industrial/workshop accident the other partner will be a helper (Ecclesiastes 4:9-10) it’s all
about Teamwork.

2) Think about what you are doing; think before you start a job and during the entire time you
are doing it. Remember that your own personal caution is of more value to you than all the
safeguards that can be set up.

3) Know where the main switch is. This stops processes immediately should anything go wrong
in the industry.

4) Smoking and carrying matches or naked flames by employees is prohibited in and about the
complex except in zone specifically designed for such purposes. Safety section must see that
“No smoking” signs are placed in and about their area to warn the employee and visitors.

5) When work is being done which requires the wearing of a safety belt, the supervisor in
charge shall determine whether or not stand-by personnel are required, and if necessary, will
provide suitable personnel.

6) Any one working at or going to any plant area in the complex must wear a safety cap and
safety shoes.

7) Always use a safety belt when working at height such as on stacks or columns where the
danger of falling exists.

8) Do not tamper with or attempt to repair equipment or instruments which you do not

9) Ability to communicate with the outside world, very important. This is usually achieved by
the installation of telephones. Important phone numbers should include the following in
Emergency cases;

a. Fire Service number

b. Ambulance number

c. Police number

d. NEPA/PHCN number

10) Defective tools are dangerous, do not use them. In fact never use a tool except for its
proper purpose.

11) Metal ladders may not be used for electrical work and must not be used near electrical
circuits or equipment.

12) Machines must be rendered inoperative by the removal of fuses or locking out of moving
parts. Replace guards before equipment is put back in operation.

13) Provide a first Aid Box.

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14) Protective valve caps must be placed on all cylinders (oxygen, acetylene, ammonia,
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, butane or propane, chlorine, etc.) at all times when not in use or in

15) Guards may not be removed from equipment while it is in operation and equipment must
never be operated with guards removed.

16) Goggles or shield must be used when working on emery wheels, using wire brushes,
chipping, etc; or any other circumstances where eye hazards exist.

17) Only authorized employees from the Electrical section may operate switch gear, apart from
routine stopping and starting of motors and lighting.

18) When electrically-driven equipment is shut down for repairs, the electrical circuits must be
isolated before commence.

19) All injuries must be reported immediately by completing the official “Accident report
form”. No employee who is feeling ill or suffering from after effects of injuries or illness should
be permitted to report to work, without the doctor’s permission.

20) Make a close safety inspection of the work area before a job is undertaken whether or not
the related equipment is company owned, operated or maintained.

21) Avoid carrying tools and materials which will prevent reasonably free use of the hands in
going up or coming down ladders or structures.

22) Employee must not be permitted to use any make shift apparatus of any type which involves
the use of compressed air, steam, gas, oil, gasoline or electricity without the approval of his

23) Before turning on electricity, steam, gas, or water, or setting in motion any machinery,
equipment, investigate to be sure that no one is in a position to be injured.

24) Keep your hands off machinery that you are not operating or repairing.

25) Report all leaks of any nature and size at once. Be at alert for defective and dangerous
runways, railings, ladders, cables, switches, pressure gauges and the absence of safeguards. If
any unsafe act/practice/condition is seen, it should be corrected or reported by the employee

26) All ropes should be tested before trusting your life to them.

27) Special care must be taken in the dismantling and erection of scaffolds and handling tools
and materials to and from scaffolds or other elevated work levels. Warning signs should be
placed at the ground level that would indicate that work is being done overhead. Arrange tools
and/or any materials on scaffolds and other elevated places or work in such a position to
prevent them from falling and injuring people below.

28) Pressure must be released before repair work is started on lines, vessels, pumps, etc.

29) The use of gasoline for cleaning purpose of any nature is prohibited. A cleaning solvent
should be used in cleaning orifice meters, instruments, and electrical motors.

30) All stairways, platforms and walk ways must be kept clear at all times.
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Overhauling workshop

In the first part of this series, we discussed how to view the claim
that a used boat has overhauled or rebuilt engines. The bottom line
is to view such claims with suspicion until the claim can be proven.
In this part we discuss in greater detail why that is so, and just how
complex the issue can be.

Most engine overhaulers are very reluctant to perform partial

overhauls. In almost no case will they give any kind of warranty
unless every aspect of the engine is gone through and all
necessary parts and components replaced.

Because of that, most reputable overhaulers do not like to make

partial overhauls. If some other old part breaks down and wrecks
the engine, one that was not, but should have been replaced, the
owner usually comes back knocking on their door claiming that
they didn't do something right. If they do accept half-way
overhauls, the invoices will usually say NO WARRANTY.

However, not all engine rebuilders play by the same rules. In many
regions there are mechanics that work out of the back of trucks
and small rented garages. These are the ones most likely to take
on any kind of job requested by a boat owner, no matter how
unreasonable or ill-advised .

As we often emphasize, high performance diesels are complex

pieces of machinery, which is why the cost so much. They are a
completely different animal when compared to a simple, naturally

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aspirated low power diesel that turns out a hundred or two
horsepower. Hi performance engines can contain three times as
many parts and components than a simple old 6 banger diesel.

Many people think of an overhaul as consisting of replacement of

bearings, rings and cylinder liners. But that's only part of the story.
Here's the rest:

 Cylinder heads & valves

 Crankshaft bearing

 Page 8
 Crankshaft seals

 Injection pump

 Injectors

 Page 9
.Piston rings

 Oil cooler

 Page 10
In addition to this list of major items, on every overhaul there will be
numerous ancillary and apparently minor parts -- bolts, nuts, rings,
pins, sleeves, shims, o-rings, gaskets, and etcetera -- that also add
up. Then there will be the waste disposal charge, environmental
charge, new oil, fluids and, of course, the onmipresent taxes. All of
which usually creates quite a few pages of paper to contain all the

Of course, when you add up the cost of all these items, whether to
repair or replace as the case may be, the estimated cost of doing
just cylinder kits and bearings doubles. Then you have to consider
the unexpected problems that may crop up, such as discovering a
cracked cylinder head or manifold.

Now, one of the reasons we emphasize that you should always get
invoices to verify the so called overhaul, is that only a detailed
invoice can tell you to what degree the overhaul was carried out.
Not even the most sophisticated engine survey can tell you that.

Hopefully, this gives you the incentive not to treat that term
"overhaul" casually. How deeply you delve into the issue of a claim
for recent overhauls is an issue of serious money that warrants
some serious investigation. into the truth of the matter.
Let's say the subject boat is 12 years old. We'll use something of a
worst case scenario here and say that one engine was overhauled,
the other not. You have the invoice in hand and it shows that
basically the rings, liners, bearing were replaced. None of the
other items contained in our list above appear on that invoice. The

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aforementioned items were replaced and the engine simply

buttoned back up with all the original parts that still, of course, have
12 years worth of wear.

Do you really have a "rebuilt" engine in this case? No, you don't.
What you have is a partially rebuilt engine. All the remaining parts
still have 12 years worth of wear. After all this money was spent, is
the engine really more reliable than it was before? Obviously, only
in terms of those few parts that were replaced, but as the new
owner, you're still left with facing all those other parts that weren't
rebuilt. Any one of these remaining parts could still cause you

At what time the overhaul was conducted relative to the period of

ownership is often relevant. When done early in the ownership
period, the greater chance that more of the engine was gone over
to make sure that all is well. Why? Because the owner knows that
he has to live with the results. When an overhaul is done shortly
before the boat is put up on the market, chances are greater that
the boat was just being "made ready" to sell, and that as little as
possible was done to "get by". The current owner won't have to
face future problems, the new owner will.

These are among the things that a detailed set of invoices will
reveal. All you have to do is go down the list of components that
are on the engine, and check these against the invoice in order to
see what was done. Or not done. The length of the parts list can
very quickly size up the scope of "rebuild."

A major overhaul is technically a "rebuild." All the major parts and

systems are gone over. Whatever needs to be done, gets done.
Anything less basically falls into the category of repairs & maintain.
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Diesel workshop

"Diesel engine "

*The main components of diesel engine and their functions:

1- oil drain plug: it's the part from which we fill the oil pan.
2- oil intake screen assembly: it's the part from which the oil pump start
sucking the oil.
3- oil pan: it's part which full of oil which lubricate the engine parts and it's
the only part for sucking oil.
4-oil pump: it's to suck the oil from the pan using small gears which work a
suction function which make the oil to sucked and pushed into the engine
parts to lubricate and also reduce the friction.
5- cranckshaft:it's the most important part in the engine and it gives the
motion to all parts of the engine .

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Note: the cranckshaft takes its first motion from the flywheel
6- connecting rod: it's made to convert the rotation motion of the cranckshaft
to a translation motion in the pistons .
7-starter solenoid: it's an electric part work wih DC current and transform
the electric energy into kinetic energy.
Note :this part may breakdown if we make the contact key in contact much
time .
8-starter motor: it's the part which the starter solenoid transform to it the
kinetic energy to rotate the flywheel then rotate the cranckshaft .
9- Camshaft: it's part which control the valves of air and exhaust throughout
the rocker arms, there are skewers which constructed on the camshaft and
connected with the rocker arms to control this valves , the number of them as
the number of valves " every two valves need one skewer and one rocker
arm" .
-There's a cam nose which help in closing and opening the valves.
-in some engines it's designed with two camshafts to make the engine more
balanced and accurate in work.
10- valve lifter : is an hydraulic par with a spring to transfer the motion of
the cam shaft to the skewers easily.
11- fuel injection pump: it's to suck the fuel from the fuel tank and send it to
the injectors which inject it into the combustion chamber to explode .
Note: in some diesel engines the pressure of the fuel pump may reach near
1600 bar because of the huge parts of the engine such as in the common rail
Note: in the diesel engine the fuel injection pump pumps the fuel in two
stages the low pressure part and high pressure part.
12-piston: it's the part which compress the fuel with the air to make it
explode and then it's pushed to rotate the cranckshaft and then the all parts of
the engine .
Note1: the piston doesn't reach to the maximum point in its motion but it
starts from the bottom dead center ( TDC) and reach to ( BDC) the
difference between them called CC of the engine.

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Note2: in the 4 stroke engine the pistons work on 4 stages are:

a. Intake: This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center

(T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the
intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-
fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the
cylinder through its downward motion.

b. Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of

the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston
compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during
the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are
closed during this stage.

c. Combustion: This is the start of the second revolution of the four

stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360
degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. (the end of the
compression stroke) the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by
aspark plug (in a gasoline engine) or by heat generated by high
compression (diesel engines), forcefully returning the piston to
B.D.C. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to
turn the crankshaft.

d. Exhaust: During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again

returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open. This
action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve

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13-wrist pin: it's to attach the piston with the connecting rod to transfer the
motion .
14-precombustion chamber or comusbtion chamber : it's the place where the
air and the fuel mix and the piston compress them to make them explode .
15-fuel injector: is to inject the fuel into the combustion chamber as a
dribbles .
16-glow plugs : it's a part in the diesel engine used in cold weathers as at
cold weathers the air-fuel mixture doesn't reach to a temperature which help
the combustion of this air-fuel mixture , this glow plug work as a heater to
reach the air-fuel mixture to this temperature of combustion at the start stage
of the engine and the pistons movement until the engine reach to the
tempreature of combustion the mission of this plug ends .
17- intake valve : it's control the entry of the air into the combustion
chamber to complete the combustion process with the entry fuel .
Note: this valve is controlled by the rocker arm which controlled by the
camshaft mechanism .
18-exhaust valve: it's control the exit of the exhaust which result from the
combustion process controlled as intake valve .
19-valve spring : it's made to easily control the opening and closing the
exhaust and intake valves throughout the rocker arm .
20-rocker arm : it's used for opening and closing the air and exhaust valves
through the skewers connected with it and with the cam shaft.
21- adjuster : it's made to adjust the exhaust and intake opening and closing .
Example :-
In some engines it's adjusted as every 3 opening and closing in the intake
valve the exhaust valve open to exit the exhaust
22- engine exhaust outlet: it's the part which mounted on the combustion
chamber as when the exhaust valve open the exhaust out from this chamber
it take it out .

Note: in some engines there such as generators there's an oil intercooler

which work on cooling the oil through the cooled air comes from the
radiator without mixing as the cooled air pass around the oil in a specialized
stream around the oil without mixing .

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TurboCharger components:

a) Turbocharger exhaust inlet : it's the part which connected with the engine
exhaust outlet and the main function of it is to take the exhaust and use it in
the rotating of a fan in the turbocharger which will rotate another fan infront
of it for sucking air and push it in a high pressure into the combustion
chamber .
b) fresh air inlet: it's the part at which there's a fan which sucks the air and
compress it .
c)pressurized air outlet: it's the part at which the pressurized air which
sucked pass through it to the combustion chamber which will increase the
rate of combustion in the combustion chamber so it will increase the power
of the engine .
d) turbocharger exhaust outlet : it's the part from which the final exhaust of
the engine get away through it .
-Note: the turbocharger gives approximately 1/3 of the power of the
engine .

-The mechanism of the turbocharger :

It works when the exhaust out from the combustion chamber of the engine
to rotate a fan in a certain direction which rotate another fan infront of it in
the other direction " in the direction of sucking " to suck the fresh air and
compress it in a high pressure to the air valves and from which to the
combustion chamber to increase the rate of combustion and the power of
engine , then the final exhaust of the engine .

-how the diesel engine work:-

By operating the contact key the starter motor take a motion from the starter
solenoid and send a gear to rotate the flywheel which rotates the cranckshaft
, the air enters to combustion chamber through the air valve , then fuel pump
pumps the fuel to the combustion chamber , the piston which connected in
the cranckshaft with the connecting rod compress this mixture at the TDC
point , at this point the explosion done and then the piston back to rotate the
cranckshaft and all parts of the engine and the process repeated .
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-The diesel engine car main components

-the power pump: its function is to pump the power oil of the steering wheel
in the steering box to simplify the steering wheel rotation.
-the air box : it's the part which sucks the air from the outer atmosphere to
send it to the air valves , also it has a filter in it to filter the air from any
impurities .
-water pump: it's connected on the engine and work through a belt connected
on it and rotate by using any other rotated part in the engine and it works on
pumping the cooling water from the water tank to the radiator and then to
the engine parts.
- the radiator : in the foreward part of the car and it has a fan connected in it ,
the radiator consists of small thickness pipes rotated around them selves ,
when the water pump send the cooling air there the fan cool it and then it's
sent to the engine parts to cool it throughout a lines specialized for it.
-the survo : it's a part which compress the vacum oil to the linings which
prevents the motion of to stop the car.
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- the metring unit: it's a part in the diesel engines which control the amount
of gas entered to high pressure part .
-The gear box : it controls the speed of the car through a gears which
interlocked with each other , the gears shaft is connected with the
cranckshaft so it takes its motion from it,then by using the fetis fork to
choose a certain interlocked gears and to choose a certain speed , the clutch
take the motion result from these gears to convert it to the wheels .
-The cerdan shaft : it's used in the diesel cars to transfer the motion of the
gear box particulary from the clutch , at the end of this shaft there's a carona
which transfer the motion of the shaft to the back wheel as a huge number of
diesel cars are a rear-wheel drive cars as it gives a huge torque .
-the carona:it's a part to transfer the motion of the cerdan shaft to the wheels.

-thermostate: it's used when the tempreature of the car increases , in this
case, the thermostate open the water cycle and the cooling fan in the
-the axle : it's used in the front drive cars to transfer the motion from the gear
box to the front wheels .
-the car battery: it's the source of the electric charge in the car and it works
on 12v current
-The dynamo: it works on converting the mechanical energy into electric
energy to recharge the battery .
-censer: it works on taking the vapor from the cylinder head and send it to
the air filter and reuse it .

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-oil filter: it works on filteraton of the lubrication oil of the engine.

-gas filter: it works on filteration of the fuel from any impurities.

-the exhaust box: it has been made for the filteration of the exhaust out from
the engine , to throttle the exhaust so it will reduce the high noise result from
it .
Note-The gas cycle is as following:
The gas pump pumps the fuel from the tank to the gas filter in a low
pressure, then after the filter the pump pumps it in a high pressure , then to
the gas line on the cylinder head which has a number of injectors , the
injectors inject the gas as a ribbles in the combustion chamber , and the rest
part that wasn't converted into ribbles back to the tank and pumped again.
Note: the small diesel cars use a vacuum oil in the braking system , but in
the huge diesel cars we use a compressed air using a compressor as this
system give more stability in the braking system as the heavy weight of the
car .
Note: if there'snt an intercooler for cooling of the oil there's an oil cooler
with a small pipes rotated aroung themselves and a fan directed on it to cool

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A brief about the benzine workshop

There are some remarkable differents between the diesel cars and benzine
cars :
1- in the benzine cars there are a spark plugs which gives a spark to the air
fuel mixture to help in exploding of this mixture , and the electric charge
enters to these sparks controlled by an electronic device .
2- in the benzine cars we get high performance but less torque compare with
the diesel cars .
3- the pulling system in the most benzine cars are a front wheel drive
through an axle called "coupling " which connected with the gear box .
4- in the benzine cars the fuel pump called preparing pump which only reach
the fuel to the injectors and the injectors gives it the high pressure required
in this combustion process .

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The tests and HDD workshop
In this workshop we learn how to test a pipeline and make it ready for use :
There are some procedures which made in testing the pipelines and making
it ready for use :
1- filling stage.
2-cleaning stage .
3-sweeping stage.

Filling stage

In this stage at which we test the pressure of the pipeline by pumping the
water with pressure about 150% of the pipeline pressure to test it .

Short note about the cleaning brush

It has a diameter as the pipeline diameter and it enters the pipeline by
compressing it
There are two types of them :
One to clean the pipeline with the help of water from any impurities in the
The other one for drying the pipeline after sweeping stage and it made of
cardboard sponge .
short notes about the filling pumps
There are two types :-
1- the piston pump :- used for pumping water from seas, rivers ,…..

2-multistages pump :- used for pumping water from canals and drains by
increasing its pressure at a multistages through a feathering .
Cleaning stage

It's the stage at which we set the cleaning brush at the front of the pipeline
and we enter the water with it to make the water and the brush to clean the
pipeline .

it's the stage at which we sweep the dirty water and the brush out of the
pipeline .
in this stage we use an air compressor for sweeping
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Note : There's a stage can be done or not , it's the stage of mounting a
sponge brush at the front of the pump and compress it with the compressor
to dry the pipeline from any water .
Note : there's a device used in measuring the tempreature and pressure of the
pipeline during the project.

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Chapter 7
Heavy equipments workshop

Construction equipment denotes to all vehicles and machinery intended

for the reason of the construction of buildings or any other man-made
structure, and it performs tasks that were in the older days
unmanageable or hard for humans alone to carry out by increasing the
input force so that the force applied is much greater.

Hydraulics is the most widespread method for the transmission of power

in construction equipment, which in layman's terms is the transfer,
control and supply of energy and signals via pressurized liquid.

Several people will have seen, and can classify, usual types of
construction machinery on building projects around the country.
Warning! Construction is big business around the world and the Jakarta,
Indonesia is no exception. The country has a huge amount of new-build
estates and, while the recession has slowed the housing market
somewhat, building sites are still a common sight as you travel around
the country.

There are several types of heavy construction equipment available on

the market for all types of heavy construction work. Axis Capital,
Singapore, a company is servicing many Southeast Asian countries
such as KL Malaysia, Beijing China, Jakarta Indonesia and many more,
will explain some of them in this article.

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Crawler Dozers: A crawler dozer is actually a bulldozer that is operated
to push large masses of waste, rubble or leftover of anything before or
after a construction project is done , but it can't travel a long distances
as it doesn't have a walk engine but it walk with a hydraulic system,
Crawler dozers are easily available for sale or rent from Axis Capital,

Vibratory Rollers: They can likewise be called as road rollers which are
used to compact concrete, asphalt and other materials for roads and to
make solid foundations. They are moreover essential part of the heavy
construction equipment industry. They can as well be used at landfill
sites and for agricultural purposes. Used vibratory rollers are in high
demand since of their moderately low cost as matched to new ones.
Axis Capital, Singapore provides both new and used vibratory rollers for
sale and rent. Reviews regarding the product will help your purchase
but it can't travel long distances as it doesn't have a walk engine but it
walk with a hydraulic system .

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Crane: A crane is one of the most broadly used heavy construction
equipment, and debatably the most significant one in putting up high
rise buildings and other giant structures. It includes ropes and chains,
and used to lift and carry materials used in construction over short
distances or transport them to a higher part of the building. Heavy
machines like generators can only be taken to the top of the buildings or
any other floor for the reason that there is no substitute solution offered,
to avoid complaints. This is the reason why the construction of buildings
can’t resume without a crane on the site and it can travel a long
distances .

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Boom man lift : it's used for lifting someone for mounting or changing
something in a high place , it used for lifting by a degree "45-50 , …. "not
vertical .

Cesar man lift: it's used for lifting someone to a high place to mount or
change something but in a vertical direction not with a certain degree

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Conclusion and Recommendations

It's concoluded from this training period that the heavy equipments field is a
very important and huge field , specially for the mechanical engineer , I hope
to continue in this field to know more and more about this field how to
maintain , how to manufacture how to make every thing in this field , I think
I don't have a hundred percent knowledge about this field , but I think I
gained a lot of information in this course and I hope to continue .

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