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URBAN MODELS o Dilapidated housing and infrastructure central business district (CBD) and centered on major transportation

o Large percentage rent lines.


CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (1920s) a.k.a Burgess Model o Highest crime rate  Example: Calgary, Indianapolis
o High rate of people moving in or out  This model assumes the land use is conditioned by transportation
 Zone 3 – (Zone of Independent Workers Homes) - Primarily routes radiating outward from a city center. Industrial, retailing, and
occupied by members of the working class. Contains modest residential districts extend out from the CBD like wedges.
older houses rented by stable, working class families.
o Modest older homes Five Sectors
o Stable, working class families  CBD - central business district, the area of a city where retail and
o Second generation immigrants office activities are clustered. It is also called the central activities
 Zone 4 – (Zone of Better Residence) - Newer and more spacious district.
houses occupied mostly by families in the middle-class. There  Industry - are represented in form of a sector radiating out from
are a lot of condominiums in this area and residents are less the center. These forms sector because of the presence of a
likely to rent. transport linkage along which the activities grew. Presence of
 Developed by Edward W. Burgess (geographer) and his students at o Newer, more spacious homes railway line, river or road would attract similar activity and thus a
the University of Chicago in the early 1900s. o Less likely to be rented continuous corridor or “sector” will develop.
 Model was based on Chicago’s city layout. o Well educated o Industry follows rivers, canals, railroads, or roads
 Examples: Cleveland, Ohio; Chicago  Zone 5 – (Commuter’s Zone) - Located beyond the build-up area o Lower class workers work here. Paid little, bad working
 Argues that urban land use is best represented by a series of of the city. Mostly upper class residents live in this area. conditions.
concentric circles. (With each ring devoted to a different land use.) o Mostly upper class o Produces goods or other domestic products for city
 Assumptions: o Can afford to commute into city for work or  Low Class Residential
 Older buildings in city centre entertainment o Low income housing
 Newer buildings at edge of city o Near railroads that feed factories or
 Land values highest in city centre Problems with Burgess Model o Inhabitants tend to work in factories
 Strong economic and ethnic segregation  Old and too simple o Live near industry to reduce transportation costs
 Low income groups lack transport and live close to city centre.  Doesn't consider car ownership (assumes reliance on public o Pollution or poor environmental conditions due to
 Cities develop on a flat land with equal access to transport transit) industry (traffic, noise and pollution make it cheap)
 Does not work with more modern cities or cities outside United  Middle Class Residential
 The concentric pattern arises as land uses compete and are sorted States (Developed only for American cities) o More desirable area because it is further from industry
according to ability to pay for land. As one move toward the central  Assumes an unchanging landscape (Landscape not considered) and pollution
city, land becomes scarcer but accessibility improves, the rent  Assumes flat land, without geographic features inhibiting growth o Access to transportation lines for working people who
therefore increases, and land uses that cannot exact sufficient rent  Decentralization of business areas. work in the CBD, making transport easier
are sorted out. Similar activities are likely to be found at similar  Impact that industry and transport could have on land use not o Largest residential area
distances from the central business district (CBD). considered.  High Class Residential
 Zones are never as clear-cut. o Housing on outermost edge
Recognizes five distinct zones: o Furthest away from industry
 Zone 1 - Central Business District (CBD) - Center of transportation SECTOR MODEL (1939) a.k.a Hoyt Model o Quiet, clean, less traffic
to allow commuting. High cost of land leads to skyscrapers. Most o Corridor or spine extending from CBD to edge has best
government institutions, businesses, stadiums, and restaurants housing.
chose this area to build on due to its accessibility.
o Central Business District (CBD) Significance of Hoyt Model
o The CBD is the focal point of a city and serves as its  Ecological factors + economic rent concept to explain the land use
commercial, office, retail, and cultural center. It’s also pattern
usually is the center point for transportation networks.  Stress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial
o Nonresidential center for business. arrangement of the city
o Downtown area  Both the distance and direction of growth from the city center are
o Commuted to by residents from other zones. considered
 Developed by land economist Homer Hoyt in 1939.
 Zone 2 – (Zone of Transition) - Contains industrial eras and  Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as
 A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are
poorer-quality housing. Large percentage of people rent as they determinants in residential location
arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges radiating out from the
most often are immigrants or single individuals.
o Least desirable place to live in the city
 Example: Sectors of high class residential areas tend to grow towards example, around major highway intersections and surrounding  No consideration of influence of physical relief and government
higher grounds, sites with better view, more open space, the homes airports. policy.
of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying,  Example: Tokyo, Japan  The concepts may not be totally applicable to oriental cities with
smaller settlements.  These multiple nuclei may have arisen in one of two ways: different cultural, economic and political backgrounds.
» They were once separate settlements but were absorbed by growth
Features of Sector Model of the urban area. URBAN REALMS MODEL (1964)
 Presence of low income groups near industries supports Hoyt Model » They appeared as urban growth stimulated specialization and History
 The Hoyt model realized that transportation (in particular) and access specialized centers outside the CBD, around which complementary  As a means of improving upon the multiple nuclei model, the
to resources caused a disruption of the Burgess model. uses then located. geographer James E. Vance, Jr. proposed the Urban-Realms Model in
 Activities and their locations are highly influenced by transport  Residential land use develops in response to the influence of the 1964.
linkages. Low transportation cost and proximity to roads/railway various nuclei.  Using this model, Vance was able to look at San Francisco's urban
reduces the cost of production.  Theorized in 1949 to account for growing importance of car and ecology and summarize economic processes into a sturdy model
 This model applies well to Chicago sprawl of urban areas About the Model
 Account for major transportation routes and its affect on activities  Creation of different nuclei that support each other  This model proposes that each realm is a separate economic, social,
o Business districts to support suburbs and political entity that is linked together to form the larger
Limitations of Sector Model  Other districts develop to be further away from each other metropolitan framework.
 Only Railway lines are considered for growth of sectors and do not o Airports develop further away from cities  The model shows that the central business district is losing its
make allowances for private cars. dominance
 It is a monocentric representation of cities, multiple business centers Assumptions for Multiple Nuclei Model What is a Realm?
are not accounted in this model.  Land is not flat – This provides a more practical application of the  A realm is a self-sufficient urban area with an independent focal point
multiple nuclei model and is improvement over Burgess model. It is  It is also referred to as an edge city
 Physical features – physical features may restrict or direct growth difficult to find a flat land for big cities and the terrain features effects  Each realm of the model is separate and used for a different purpose,
along certain wedges the activities, development and direction of growth of urban area. but are linked together to make one large, fluid city.
 No reference to out of town development  Even distribution of resources – Resources are evenly distributed
within the city, no one enjoys privileges or have exclusive access to
resources.
MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL (1945)  Even distribution of people in Residential areas – People are
distributed homogeneously and not concentrated in a particular area
or pocket. This is essential as unevenly distributed population has
direct impact on markets.
 Even transportation cost – Transportation costs are even in the city
and not influenced by location.
 Profit maximization – A particular activity will locate itself where
maximum profit can be earned. For this a different combination of
rent, transportation costs, labor cost, proximity to market may be
tried and the combination which yields best result gives the final
location for the activity. This location also takes into account the
restrictions over the activity and the need to be separated from other
non compatible activities such as locating residential areas away from
industrial, locating large industries with more accessibility to reduce
transportation cost and to ease the movement of goods.

Limitations and criticism of the Harris & Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model
Multiple nuclei model was considered much better than the previous
 Developed by C. D. Harris and E. L. Ullman. simple models which attempted to explain the structure of urban areas.
 This model assumes that urban areas have more than one focal point  Negligence of height of buildings.
influencing land use.  Non-existence of abrupt divisions between zones.
 Land-use patterns are formed around several discrete nuclei that  Each zone displays a significant degree of internal heterogeneity and The Nature of Each Realm is based on 5 Criteria...
attract certain uses and repel others. These nuclei most often develop not homogeneity. 1. The physical terrain of the area, including water barriers and
in response to the evolving transportation network. They form, for  Unawareness of inertia forces. mountains.
2. The size of the metropolis as a whole.
3. The amount and strength of the economic activity taking place within Limitations/criticisms of 3 Urban Models 1. Concentric model with circular pattern of land use zones; while sector
each of the realms. Burgess Hoyt Ullman-Harris model with sectoral pattern of land use zones
4. The accessibility internally of each realm in regards to its major Zones, in reality, are never as clear cut as shown on each model 2. Land use zones in sector model developed along transport routes
economic function. Each zone usually contains more than one type of land use/housing radiating out from CBD; while concentric model never mention the
5. The inter-accessibility across the individual suburban realms. No consideration of characteristics of cities outside USA transport development
This model includes… Redevelopment schemes and modern edge-of-city developments are not 3. Sector model emphasizes the repelling forces of land uses; but
 A central city, which is the “new downtown” and the central business included (most of the models pre-date these developments) concentric model concerns the invasion, succession forces on the
district Based mainly on housing: other types of land pattern of the land use
 A suburban downtown use neglected
 Edge Cities/Outer Realms Cities not always built upon flat plains D. Difference among Concentric, Sector and Multiple nuclei models
 An airport Tended to ignore 1. Monocentric – concentric, sector model; polycentric – multiple nuclei
Why was it Invented? transport 2. Multiple nuclei more complex in term of land use zones, e.g.
 The purpose of this model was to explain and predict changing urban industrial suburbs
growth patterns as the automobile became increasingly prevalent and 3. Multiple nuclei allows the suburbanization, transport development,
Implicit assumptions of Burgess, Hoyt, and Harris and Ullman’s models of
large suburban “realms” emerged. outward growth of city
urban structure in common:
 This model does a good job at explaining suburban growth and how 4. Multiple nuclei model gives the idea of land use pattern of a city only
A. Their implicit assumptions are:
certain functions that are normally found in the central business 1. Great variation in characteristics e.g. heterogeneity of the population
district can be moved to the suburbs in culture and society.
What is it used for? 2. Competition for centrality because of limited space leading to highest
 The Urban Realms Model constitutes the latest step in identifying and land value. The opposite is true of peripheral areas.
modeling the modern American urban structure. 3. City center being center of employment.
 It shows that the outer cities are not "satellites" of the central city, 4. Commercial and industrial base to the economy of the city.
but are in fact becoming cities themselves and shaping the 5. Private ownership of property and capitalist mode of competition for
metropolis. space.
6. Expanding area and population of the city by invasion and succession.
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING URBAN MODELS 7. No historic survival in any district to influence the land-use pattern.
8. No districts being more attractive because of differences in terrain.
9. Hierarchical order of land use.

B. The Concentric, Sector models and multiple nuclei models have many
features in common:
1. Both models focus on importance of accessibility. The centrally
located C.B.D. is the most accessible and its land value or rent-bid is
the highest.
2. Distance decay theory is applicable in both models. Land value and
population density decline with distance from the central places.
3. There are clear-cut and abrupt boundaries between the land-use
zones.
4. Both concern the study of ground-floor functions instead of the
three-dimensional study as height of buildings is neglected
5. Residential segregation
Social-economic status segregates residential areas. The lower-
income groups live in the inner city which is suffering from urban decay or
in areas near the factory zone. Nearness to working places reduces time
and cost of transport, but gives better working opportunities and easiness
All Three Models of obtaining various orders of goods and services. In contrast, the higher-
 Developed during the first half of the twentieth century, a period of income groups occupy the urban periphery with better living environment
rapid urbanization in North America far away from the factory zone and the lower-income groups.
 Based on studies in Chicago (Burgess and Hoyt)
 Focus of the models is different types of land use C. Difference among Concentric and Sector models