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INTRODUCTION

COMPANY PROFILE

Established in 2008, Amrutha Polymers Private Limited is an Indian Non-


Government small scale industry located in Mangalagiri District, Andhra
Pradesh. They are a manufacturing based industry specialized in producing
plastic material based products for home and industrial purposes such as
chairs ,tables ,crates etc. of various grades and quality according to the
demand of the market/requirement of the customer. Even though they
manufacture products of different grades and quality, their main focus is on
producing plastic articles with re-cycled raw materials.

The factory is spread over a large area and consists of 2 main units, that
produce the required plastic products and other important related machines
that help functioning of the factory smoothly.

The company has 25 employees-most of them being low skilled laborers and
a few supervisors to run the factory efficiently.

The company has 4 directors namely Kapilavayi Prakash Kumar,


Ramamohana Rao Kapilavayi, Kapilavayi Vijayalakshmi and Kapilavai Jaya
Padma.

Amrutha Polymers Private Limited’s share capital is Rs. 7,500,000 and its
paid up capital is Rs. 7,100,000. This is classified as small scale industry
according to the standards specified by the Government of India in the
MSMED ACT 2006 (Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Development Act,
2006).

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3CI SCORE AND AGE ANALYSIS

1. 3Ci Score for Amrutha Polymers Private Limited is 39 out of 100 which
is considered Average in Industry.
2. Amrutha Polymers Private Limited is 229th best company in India
which is involved in Manufacture of natural polymers and modified
natural polymer in primary forms, while there are 118 companies rated
inferior than Amrutha Polymers Private Limited.
3. Amrutha Polymers Private Limited is 5th best company in Andhra
Pradesh which is involved in Manufacture of natural polymers and
modified natural polymer in primary forms, while there are 5
companies rated inferior than Amrutha Polymers Private Limited.
4. This company is ranked 607 out of 916 in India for its parent line of
business (Manufacture of plastics in primary forms and of synthetic
rubber.).
5. This company is ranked 6723 out of 10918 in India for its top line of
business (Manufacture of plastics in primary forms and of synthetic
rubber.).
6. Score calculated using the 3CiScore 1.0 model, this score ranges from
0 to 100 and measures overall strength of corporation. Scores are
calculated using customer satisfaction index, popularity and various
publicly available data.
7. Average age for main line of business (Manufacture of natural
polymers and modified natural polymer in primary forms) is 20 years
i.e., this company is 13 year younger than its main industry.

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8. Out of 347 companies, Amrutha Polymers Private Limited is 282nd
oldest company which is primarily involved in Manufacture of natural
polymers and modified natural polymer in primary forms in India.

Fig.1.1 Age Analysis Graphs

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PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING

INTRODUCTION

The Company-Amrutha Polymers, manufactures its plastic products using


Injection Molding Technique.

This method is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the
fabrication of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using
injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and
application. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection
molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The plastic is melted in
the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools
and solidifies into the final part.

Fig.2.1 Injection molding machine

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Injection molding is used to produce several everyday items such as
toothbrushes or small plastic toys. Many medical devices, including valves
and syringes, are manufactured using injection molding as well. Other
common products include different types of open containers, such as buckets.

The factory consisted of 2 Injection molding units namely:

 WINDSOR SPRINT 650TC -8800


 WINDSOR SPRINT 650TC -6270

The “650” number indicates the capacity of the machine. This is essential
because it indicates how large of a product can be molded from the machine.
For example, the above mentioned machines can manufacture basic chairs but
cannot manufacture huge plastic articles such as septic tanks etcetera.

INJECTION MOLDING-OVERVIEW

Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from


both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a
heated barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens
to the Configuration of the mold cavity. After a product is designed, usually
by an industrial designer or an engineer, molds are made by a mold maker (or
toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or aluminum,

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Fig.2.2 Injection molding machine overview

And precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection


molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest
component to entire body panels of cars.

PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

 Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material


into a mold cavity.
 Produces a solid or open-ended shape which has conformed to the
contour of the mold.
 Uses thermoplastic or thermoset materials.
 Produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks.
 Ejector pin marks are usually present.

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HISTORY& DEVELOPMENT

The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1851 by


Alexander Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International
Exhibition in London; calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived
from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when
cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and highly
flammable.

In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic


material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could
be processed into finished form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt
patented the first injection molding machine in 1872. This machine was
relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large
hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder
into a mold. The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing
products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs.

The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II


created a huge demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946,
American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection
machine, which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection
and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed material to be
mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to
virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw
injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In
the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding
process, which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that

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cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength
and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight
and waste.

The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from
producing combs and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many
industries including automotive, medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys,
plumbing, packaging, and construction

Fig.2.3Patent application of Hyatt’s injection molding machine.

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PROCESS CYCLE
The process cycle for injection molding is very short, typically between 2
seconds and 2 minutes, and consists of the following four stages:

1. Clamping - Prior to the injection of the material into the mold, the two
halves of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. Each
half of the mold is attached to the injection molding machine and one half
is allowed to slide. The hydraulically powered clamping unit pushes the
mold halves together and exerts sufficient force to keep the mold securely
closed while the material is injected. The time required to close and clamp
the mold is dependent upon the machine - larger machines (those with
greater clamping forces) will require more time. This time can be
estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine.

2. Injection - The raw plastic material, usually in the form of pellets, is fed
into the injection molding machine, and advanced towards the mold by the
injection unit. During this process, the material is melted by heat and
pressure. The molten plastic is then injected into the mold very quickly
and the buildup of pressure packs and holds the material. The amount of
material that is injected is referred to as the shot. The injection time is
difficult to calculate accurately due to the complex and changing flow of
the molten plastic into the mold. However, the injection time can be
estimated by the shot volume, injection pressure, and injection power.

3. Cooling - The molten plastic that is inside the mold begins to cool as
soon as it makes contact with the interior mold surfaces. As the plastic
cools, it will solidify into the shape of the desired part. However, during
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cooling some shrinkage of the part may occur. The packing of material in
the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mold and
reduce the amount of visible shrinkage. The mold cannot be opened until
the required cooling time has elapsed. The cooling time can be estimated
from several thermodynamic properties of the plastic and the maximum
wall thickness of the part.

4. Ejection - After sufficient time has passed, the cooled part may be
ejected from the mold by the ejection system, which is attached to the rear
half of the mold. When the mold is opened, a mechanism is used to push
the part out of the mold. Force must be applied to eject the part because
during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the mold. In order to
facilitate the ejection of the part, a mold release agent can be sprayed onto
the surfaces of the mold cavity prior to injection of the material. The time
that is required to open the mold and eject the part can be estimated from
the dry cycle time of the machine and should include time for the part to
fall free of the mold. Once the part is ejected, the mold can be clamped
shut for the next shot to be injected.

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Fig.3.1 Injection molding process.

After the injection molding cycle, some post processing is typically required.
During cooling, the material in the channels of the mold will solidify attached
to the part. This excess material, along with any flash that has occurred, must
be trimmed from the part, typically by using cutters. For some types of
material, such as thermoplastics, the scrap material that results from this
trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic grinder, also called
regrind machines or granulators, which regrinds the scrap material into
pellets. Due to some degradation of the material properties, the regrind must
be mixed with raw material in the proper regrind ratio to be reused in the
injection molding process.
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MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT
Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper, an injection
ram or screw-type plunger, and a heating unit. They are also known as presses,
they hold the molds in which the components are shaped. Presses are rated by
tonnage, which expresses the amount of clamping force that the machine can
exert. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. Tonnage
can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons, with the higher figures used in
comparatively few manufacturing operations.

The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the
part being molded. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from
2 to 8 tons for each square inch of the projected areas. As a rule of thumb, 4
or 5 tons/in2 can be used for most products. If the plastic material is very stiff,
it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold, thus more clamp
tonnage to hold the mold closed. The required force can also be determined
by the material used and the size of the part, larger parts require higher
clamping force.

Fig.4.1 Injection Molding Machine.

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Injection molding machines have many components and are available in
different configurations, including a horizontal configuration and a vertical
configuration. However, regardless of their design, all injection molding
machines utilize a power source, injection unit, mold assembly, and clamping
unit to perform the four stages of the process cycle.

POWER REQUIREMENTS
The power required for this process of injection molding depends on
many things and varies between materials used. Manufacturing Processes
Reference Guide states that the power requirements depend on "a material's
specific gravity, melting point, thermal conductivity, part size, and molding
rate." Below is a table from page 243 of the same reference as previously
mentioned which best illustrates the characteristics relevant to the power
required for the most commonly used materials.

Material Specific Gravity Melting Point (°F)

Epoxy 1.12 to 1.24 248

Phenolic 1.34 to 1.95 248

Nylon 1.01 to 1.15 381 to 509

Polyethylene 0.91 to 0.965 230 to 243

Polystyrene 1.04 to 1.07 338

Table 1 Power Requirements

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INJECTION UNIT
The injection unit is responsible for both heating and injecting the
material into the mold. The first part of this unit is the hopper, a large container
into which the raw plastic is poured. The hopper has an open bottom, which
allows the material to feed into the barrel. The barrel contains the mechanism
for heating and injecting the material into the mold. This mechanism is usually
a ram injector or a reciprocating screw. A ram injector forces the material
forward through a heated section with a ram or plunger that is usually
hydraulically powered. Today, the more common technique is the use of a
reciprocating screw. A reciprocating screw moves the material forward by
both rotating and sliding axially, being powered by either a hydraulic or
electric motor.

The material enters the grooves of the screw from the hopper and is
advanced towards the mold as the screw rotates. While it is advanced, the
material is melted by pressure, friction, and additional heaters that surround
the reciprocating screw. The molten plastic is then injected very quickly into
the mold through the nozzle at the end of the barrel by the buildup of pressure
and the forward action of the screw. This increasing pressure allows the
material to be packed and forcibly held in the mold. Once the material has
solidified inside the mold, the screw can retract and fill with more material for
the next shot. Important Components in an Injection Unit are:

1. Hopper
2. Barrel
3. Reciprocating Screw

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Fig.6.1 Injection molding machine - Injection unit.

HOPPER

A hopper is a large, pyramidal shaped container used in industrial


processes to hold particulate matter/raw material. Hoppers are usually
installed in groups to allow for a greater collection quantity. They are
employed in industrial processes such as injection molding and also in air
pollution control devices such as dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators,
and baghouses/fabric filters. However, due to limited size of barrel, mixing
capability is poor. Most hoppers are made of steel. Important Features of a
hopper in an Injection Molding are:

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 Raw material (Plastic) is introduced through hopper.

 Some machines can have several hoppers (colorants, other


additives)

Fig.6.2 Multi Hopper Fig.6.3 Single Hopper

BARREL

Barrel made of heavy steel cylinder to withstand the pressure and


temperature involved in melting the resin. The Barrel is the part of the
injection molding machine that heats the plastic material into a molten state.
This allows the plastic to flow through the barrel, where the screw inside the
barrel injects the plastic into molds.

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Fig.6.4 Barrel

RECIPROCATING SCREW

Reciprocating screw- similar to extruder screw but with unique


reciprocating action. Material flows under gravity from the hopper onto a
turning screw. The mechanical energy supplied by the screw, together with
auxiliary heaters, converts the resin into a molten state. At the same time the
screw retracts toward the hopper end. When a sufficient amount of resin is
melted, the screw moves forward, acting as a ram and forcing the polymer
melt through a gate into the cooled mold. To ensure the resin does not flow
backward, a check valve or nonreturn valve is attached to the end of screw.

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Fig.6.5 Injection Unit Cross Section Diagram

CLAMPING UNIT
Prior to the injection of the molten plastic into the mold, the two halves
of the mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. When the mold
is attached to the injection molding machine, each half is fixed to a large plate,
called a platen. The front half of the mold, called the mold cavity, is mounted
to a stationary platen and aligns with the nozzle of the injection unit. The rear
half of the mold, called the mold core, is mounted to a movable platen, which
slides along the tie bars. The hydraulically powered clamping motor actuates
clamping bars that push the moveable platen towards the stationary platen and
exert sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is
injected and subsequently cools. After the required cooling time, the mold is
then opened by the clamping motor. An ejection system, which is attached to
the rear half of the mold, is actuated by the ejector bar and pushes the
solidified part out of the open cavity.

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Fig.7.1 Injection molding machine - Clamping unit

LUBRICATION AND COOLING

Lubrication is provided by an auto lubrication unit situated on the front of


the machine. It is distributed to the tailstock mold plate bushes. The oil is
distributed through metering valves ensuring right volume of delivery and
preventing any back flow. The injection unit guide bars are grease
lubricated. If the injection unit Forward/Retract is in operation, then the
guide bars are to be lubricated daily with the grease gun.

 RECOMMENDED PROPERTIES
1. Viscosity Index – 90 or more.
2. Viscosity – 40 Degrees C (68 CST)

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MOLD
The injection molding process uses molds, typically made of steel or
aluminum, as the custom tooling. The mold has many components, but can be
split into two halves. Each half is attached inside the injection molding
machine and the rear half is allowed to slide so that the mold can be opened
and closed along the mold's parting line. The two main components of the
mold are the mold core and the mold cavity. When the mold is closed, the
space between the mold core and the mold cavity forms the part cavity that
will be filled with molten plastic to create the desired part. Multiple-cavity
molds are sometimes used, in which the two mold halves form several
identical part cavities.

Fig.9.1 Mold core Fig.9.2 Mold Cavity

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MOLD BASE

The mold core and mold cavity are each mounted to the mold base,
which is then fixed to the platens inside the injection molding machine. The
front half of the mold base includes a support plate, to which the mold cavity
is attached, the sprue bushing, into which the material will flow from the
nozzle, and a locating ring, in order to align the mold base with the nozzle.
The rear half of the mold base includes the ejection system, to which the mold
core is attached, and a support plate. When the clamping unit separates the
mold halves, the ejector bar actuates the ejection system. The ejector bar
pushes the ejector plate forward inside the ejector box, which in turn pushes
the ejector pins into the molded part. The ejector pins push the solidified part
out of the open mold cavity.

Fig.9.3 Mold base.

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MOLD CHANNELS

In order for the molten plastic to flow into the mold cavities, several
channels are integrated into the mold design. First, the molten plastic enters
the mold through the sprue. Additional channels, called runners, carry the
molten plastic from the sprue to all of the cavities that must be filled. At the
end of each runner, the molten plastic enters the cavity through a gate which
directs the flow. The molten plastic that solidifies inside these runners is
attached to the part and must be separated after the part has been ejected from
the mold. However, sometimes hot runner systems are used which
independently heat the channels, allowing the contained material to be melted
and detached from the part. Another type of channel that is built into the mold
is cooling channels. These channels allow water to flow through the mold
walls, adjacent to the cavity, and cool the molten plastic.

Fig.9.4 Mold Channel

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MOLD DESIGN

In addition to runners and gates, there are many other design issues
that must be considered in the design of the molds. Firstly, the mold must
allow the molten plastic to flow easily into all of the cavities. Equally
important is the removal of the solidified part from the mold, so a draft angle
must be applied to the mold walls. The design of the mold must also
accommodate any complex features on the part, such as undercuts or
threads, which will require additional mold pieces. Most of these devices
slide into the part cavity through the side of the mold, and are therefore
known as slides, or side-actions. The most common type of side-action is a
side-core which enables an external undercut to be molded. Other devices
enter through the end of the mold along the parting direction, such as
internal core lifters, which can form an internal undercut. To mold threads
into the part, an unscrewing device is needed, which can rotate out of the
mold after the threads have been formed

Fig.9.5 Mold – Closed View.

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Fig.9.6 Mold - Exploded view.

The mold consists of two primary components, the injection mold (A


plate) and the ejector mold (B plate). Plastic resin enters the mold through a
sprue in the injection mold, the sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the
nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten
plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold, also known as cavity. The sprue
bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that
are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. These channels allow plastic
to run along them, so they are referred to as runners. The molten plastic flows
through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity
geometry to form the desired part.

The amount of resin required to fill the sprue, runner and cavities of a
mold is a shot. Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are
ground into the parting line of the mold. If the trapped air is not allowed to
escape, it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and is
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squeezed into the corners of the cavity, where it prevents filling and causes
other defects as well. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and
burns the surrounding plastic material. To allow for removal of the molded
part from the mold, the mold features must not overhang one another in the
direction that the mold opens, unless parts of the mold are designed to move
from between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components
called Lifters).

Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The
axis of the cored position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down
movement of the mold as it opens and closes) are typically angled slightly
with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. Insufficient draft can
cause deformation or damage. The draft required for mold release is primarily
dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity, the more draft
necessary. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the
draft required. If the skin is too thin, then the molded part will tend to shrink
onto the cores that form them while cooling, and cling to those cores or part
may warp, twist, blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away.

The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains
on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens, and draws the runner and
the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. The part then falls freely
when ejected from the (B) side. Tunnel gates, also known as submarine or
mold gate, is located below the parting line or mold surface. The opening is
machined into the surface of the mold on the parting line. The molded part is
cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. Ejector
pins, also known as knockout pin, is a circular pin placed in either half of the

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mold (usually the ejector half) which pushes the finished molded product, or
runner system out of a mold.

The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water)


through a series of holes drilled through the mold plates and connected by
hoses to form a continuous pathway. The coolant absorbs heat from the mold
(which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps the mold at a proper
temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate.

To ease maintenance and venting, cavities and cores are divided into
pieces, called inserts, and sub-assemblies, also called inserts, blocks, or chase
blocks. By substituting interchangeable inserts, one mold may make several
variations of the same part.

More complex parts are formed using more complex molds. These may
have sections called slides that move into a cavity perpendicular to the draw
direction, to form overhanging part features. When the mold is opened, the
slides are pulled away from the plastic part by using stationary “angle pins”
on the stationary mold half. These pins enter a slot in the slides and cause the
slides to move backward when the moving half of the mold opens. The part is
then ejected and the mold closes. The closing action of the mold causes the
slides to move forward along the angle pins.

Some molds allow previously molded parts to be reinserted to allow a


new plastic layer to form around the first part. This is often referred to as over
molding. This system can allow for production of one-piece tires and wheels.
2-shot or multi-shot molds are designed to "over mold" within a single
molding cycle and must be processed on specialized injection molding

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machines with two or more injection units. This process is actually an
injection molding process performed twice. In the first step, the base color
material is molded into a basic shape. Then the second material is injection-
molded into the remaining open spaces. That space is then filled during the
second injection step with a material of a different color.

A mold can produce several copies of the same parts in a single "shot".
The number of "impressions" in the mold of that part is often incorrectly
referred to as cavitations. A tool with one impression will often be called a
single impression (cavity) mold. A mold with 2 or more cavities of the same
parts will likely be referred to as multiple impression (cavity) mold. Some
extremely high production volume molds (like those for bottle caps) can have
over 128 cavities. In some cases multiple cavity tooling will mold a series of
different parts in the same tool. Some toolmakers call these molds family
molds as all the parts are related.

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MATERIALS
There are many types of materials that may be used in the injection
molding process. Most polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics,
some thermosets, and some elastomers. When these materials are used in the
injection molding process, their raw form is usually small pellets or a fine
powder. Also, colorants may be added in the process to control the color of
the final part. The selection of a material for creating injection molded parts
is not solely based upon the desired characteristics of the final part. While
each material has different properties that will affect the strength and function
of the final part, these properties also dictate the parameters used in processing
these materials. Each material requires a different set of processing parameters
in the injection molding process, including the injection temperature, injection
pressure, mold temperature, ejection temperature, and cycle time. A
comparison of some commonly used materials are shown below:

Material Abbreviation Trade Description Applications


name names
Polycarbonate PC Calibre, Very tough, Automotive
Lexan, temperature (panels,
Makrolon resistance, lenses,
dimensional consoles),
stability, bottles,
transparent, containers,
high cost housings,
light covers,
reflectors,
safety
helmets and
shields

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Polyethylene - HDPE Eraclene, Tough and Chair seats,
High Density Hostalen, stiff, housings,
Stamylan excellent covers, and
chemical containers
resistance,
natural waxy
appearance,
low cost
Polypropylene PP Novolen, Lightweight, Automotive
Appryl, heat (bumpers,
Escorene resistance, covers, trim),
high bottles, caps,
chemical crates,
resistance, handles,
scratch housings
resistance,
natural waxy
appearance,
tough and
stiff, low
cost.
Polyvinyl PVC Welvic, Tough, Electrical
Chloride - Varlan flexible, insulation,
Plasticised flame housewares,
resistance, medical
transparent tubing, shoe
or opaque, soles, toys
low cost

Table 2: Raw Materials.

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MOLDING DEFECTS
Injection molding is a complex technology with possible production
problems. They can either be caused by defects in the molds or more often by
part processing (molding)

Molding Alternative Descriptions Causes


Defects Name
Blister Blistering Raised or Tool or material is too
layered zone on hot, often caused by a
surface of the lack of cooling around
part the tool or a faulty heater
Burn marks Air Burn/ Black or brown Tool lacks venting,
Gas Burn/ burnt areas on injection speed is too
Dieseling the part located high
at furthest points
from gate or
where air is
trapped
Color streaks Colour Localized Masterbatch isn't mixing
(US) streaks (UK) change of properly, or the material
color/colour has run out and it's
starting to come through
as natural only. Previous
colored material
"dragging" in nozzle or
check valve.

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Delamination Thin mica like Contamination of the
layers formed in material e.g. PP mixed
part wall with ABS, very
dangerous if the part is
being used for a safety
critical application as the
material has very little
strength when
delaminated as the
materials cannot bond
Flash Burrs Excess material Mold is over packed or
in thin layer parting line on the tool is
exceeding damaged, too much
normal part injection speed/material
geometry injected, clamping force
too low. Can also be
caused by dirt and
contaminants around
tooling surfaces.
Embedded Embedded Foreign particle Particles on the tool
contaminates particulates (burnt material surface, contaminated
or other) material or foreign debris
embedded in the in the barrel, or too much
part shear heat burning the
material prior to injection

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Jetting Deformed part Poor tool design, gate
by turbulent position or runner.
flow of material Injection speed set too
high.

Small lines on Caused by the melt-front


Knit Lines Weld lines the backside of flowing around an object
core pins or standing proud in a
windows in plastic part as well as at
parts that look the end of fill where the
like just lines. melt-front comes
together again. Can be
minimized or eliminated
with a mold-flow study
when the mold is in
design phase. Once the
mold is made and the gate
is placed one can only
minimize this flaw by
changing the melt and the
mold temperature.
Polymer polymer Excess water in the
degradation breakdown from granules, excessive
hydrolysis, temperatures in barrel
oxidation etc.

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Sink marks [sinks] Localized Holding time/pressure
depression (In too low, cooling time too
thicker zones) short, with sprueless hot
runners this can also be
caused by the gate
temperature being set too
high. Excessive material
or thick wall thickness.
Splay marks Splash mark Circular pattern Moisture in the material,
/ Silver around gate usually when
streaks caused by hot hygroscopic resins are
gas dried improperly.
Trapping of gas in "rib"
areas due to excessive
injection velocity in these
areas. Material too hot.
Stringiness Stringing String like Nozzle temperature too
remain from high. Gate hasn't frozen
previous shot off
transfer in new
shot
Voids Empty space Lack of holding pressure
within part (Air (holding pressure is used
pocket) to pack out the part
during the holding time).
Filling to fast, not

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allowing the edges of the
part to set up. Also mold
may be out of registration
(when the two halves
don't center properly and
part walls are not the
same thickness).
Weld line Knit line / Discolored line Mold/material
Meld line / where two flow temperatures set too low
Transfer line fronts meet (the material is cold when
they meet, so they don't
bond). Point between
injection and transfer (to
packing and holding) too
early.
Warping Twisting Distorted part Cooling is too short,
material is too hot, lack of
cooling around the tool,
incorrect water
temperatures (the parts
bow inwards towards the
hot side of the tool)
Uneven shrinking
between areas of the part

Table 3: Molding Defects.

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COSTING & ESTIMATION

MATERIAL COST

The material cost is determined by the weight of material that is


required and the unit price of that material. The weight of material is clearly
a result of the part volume and material density; however, the part's maximum
wall thickness can also play a role. The weight of material that is required
includes the material that fills the channels of the mold. The size of those
channels, and hence the amount of material, is largely determined by the
thickness of the part.

Generally for manufacturing a chair, around 2 to 2.5Kgs of raw material


is required per chair. Also as the factory only deals with recycled plastic for
raw material, the cost of raw material is significantly low. The cost of the raw
material depends on the number of times the plastic has been recycled.

TYPE OF PLASTIC COST PER KG

(IN RUPEES)

Recycled Polypropylene 48-60


Granules

Polypropylene Virgin 84-100


Granules

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Low Density 45-60
Polyethylene
Reprocessed Granules

High Density 65-75


Polyethylene
Reprocessed Granules

Table 4: Raw Material Cost

PRODUCTION COST

The production cost is primarily calculated from the hourly rate and the
cycle time. The hourly rate is proportional to the size of the injection molding
machine being used, so it is important to understand how the part design
affects machine selection. Injection molding machines are typically referred
to by the tonnage of the clamping force they provide. The required clamping
force is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure with
which the material is injected. The size of the part must also comply with other
machine specifications, such as clamp stroke, platen size, and shot capacity.

The cycle time can be broken down into the injection time, cooling
time, and resetting time. The resetting time depends on the machine size and
the part size. A larger part will require larger motions from the machine to
open, close, and eject the part, and a larger machine requires more time to
perform these operations.

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TOOLING COST

The tooling cost has two main components - the mold base and the
machining of the cavities. The cost of the mold base is primarily controlled
by the size of the part's envelope. A larger part requires a larger, more
expensive, mold base. The cost of machining the cavities is affected by
nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. The primary cost driver is the size
of the cavity that must be machined, measured by the projected area of the
cavity (equal to the projected area of the part and projected holes) and its
depth.

The quantity of parts also impacts the tooling cost. A larger production
quantity will require a higher class mold that will not wear as quickly. The
stronger mold material results in a higher mold base cost and more
machining time.

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CONCLUSION

For an engineering student a learning combination of theory and


practice is an valuable asset which helps in understanding the core practice
of business by the way of first-hand experience .This in plant training in
AMRUTHA POLYMERS PVT.LTD has given me such a great experience
about all the managerial functions, which is going in the company .It also
helped me to understand the exact mechanism of working of the various
departments.

After completing this in plant training I was be able to understand


much more about AMRUTHA POLYMERS PVT.LTD who are known for
their quality products.

The knowledge will help me well to establish myself in the


corporate world after completing my academics session.

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