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“A Study On Market Potential For Passenger Car Steel

Wheels Over Alloy Wheels‖

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Degree Certificate of

Masters in Business Administration (M.B.A.)


(Roll No. 161810010)

A Study Conducted for the Company:


International Institute of Management
Chinchwad, Pune-411033


This is to certify that Mr. / Miss Gaud Anand Rajveer who is a

Bonafide student of International Institute of Management Science,
Chinchwad, Pune, has worked on Project titled
“A study on Market Potential for Passenger Car Steel Wheels ”
and has successfully completed the project work in partial fulfillment
of award of Masters in Business Administration (M.B.A.)
This report is the record of Student’s own efforts under our
supervision and guidelines.

________________ _______________________
Internal Guide Prof. B.S. Kunte
Director In-charge
IIMS, Chinchwad


I am deeply indebted to many people for the successful completion of this project.

I would like to take this opportunity and go on record to thank them for their help and

I am thankful to the International Institute of Management Science for all the support
provided for this project.

I express my deep sense of gratitude and sincere feelings of obligation to my Project

Guide Ms. Asha Mahajan who helped me in overcoming many difficulties and who
imparted me the necessary conceptual knowledge.

I also wish to acknowledge the excellent support of my Company Guide Mr. Sandeep
Pawar for this work.

I wish to thank all my teachers and friends too, for their helpful inputs, insightful
comments, steadfast love and support.

Executive summary

As a student of MBA, I got the opportunity of summer training at Kalyani Maxion

Wheels, Pune. which is a wheel manufacturing company and a part of parent company
In the first part of the project report, the general information of the company has been
collected. Information is gathered through the primary and secondary source as well.
In the second part of the report, contains the specialized subject study. Objective of the
project is to understand the market potential for steel wheels at present & what might possibility
be the future of steel wheels so that it will be helpful for the company to understand and execute
marketing plan accordingly.
Goals indicate what a business unit wants to achieve; Strategy is a action plan for getting
the goals. Every business must design a strategy for achieving its goals, consisting of a
marketing strategy, and a compatible technology strategy and sourcing strategy.
Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited
resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive
advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered on the key concept that customer satisfaction
is the main goal.
My goal was to understand the wheel market from dealer‘s point of view, to know
customer inputs and to accumulate as much details as possible. It consists of dealers own
thoughts as well as to know what customers were looking for.
In the last decades, rapid industrialization growth was observed in India. The growth was
in many sectors like Automobile, Telecom, Steel and IT. And hence along with growth there are
competitors to. It was an attempt to understand what needs to be done to sustain in the industry
and what different can be done to be at the top. Thus information was collected from a structured
questionnaire by visiting passenger car showrooms in Pune.
Industry Profile
Indian Auto Ancillary Industry
Indian auto component sector Indian auto ancillary/auto component industry is one of the fastest
growing industries and is riding on the success of the auto sector. Indian auto industry is highly
competitive with the presence of a large number of global and Indian auto-companies.
The auto-components industry accounts for almost 7% of India‘s Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) and employs as many as 19 million people, both directly and indirectly. A stable
government framework, increased purchasing power, large domestic market, and an ever-
increasing development in infrastructure have made India a favorable destination for investment.

Market Participation

Auto sector alone contributes nearly 84.3% of the total turnover (OEM) and the rest belongs to
the replacement market. The auto component sector clocked a turnover of USD 35.1 bn in FY14,
recording a CAGR of 7.8% during the period of 20082014 and is projected to become the fourth
largest automobile producer globally by 2020 with a turnover over USD 150 bn by FY20,
according to Automotive Component Manufacturing Association of India (ACMA).
Over the last decade, the automotive components industry has scaled three times to US$ 40
billion in 2015 while exports have grown even faster to US$11 billion. This has been driven by
strong growth in the domestic market and increasing globalisation (including exports) of several
Indian suppliers.
According to the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), the
Indian auto-components industry is expected to register a turnover of US$ 100 billion by 2020
backed by strong exports ranging between US$ 80-US$ 100 billion by 2026, from the current US
$11.2 billion.

The cumulative Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows into the Indian automobile industry
during the period April 2000 – September 2016 were recorded at US$ 15.80 billion, as per data
by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).

Government Initiatives
The Government of India‘s Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-2016 has come a long way in
ensuring growth for the sector. It expected that this sector‘s contribution to the GDP will reach
US$ 145 billion in 2016 due to the government‘s special focus on exports of small cars, multi-
utility vehicles (MUVs), two and threewheelers and auto components. Separately, the
deregulation of FDI in this sector has also helped foreign companies to make large investment in
India.The Government of India‘s Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2016–2026 envisages
creation of an additional 50 million jobs along with an ambitious target of increasing the value of
the output of the sector to up to Rs 1,889,000 crore (US$ 282.65 billion).
Road Ahead

The rapidly globalising world is opening up newer avenues for the transportation industry,
especially while it makes a shift towards electric, electronic and hybrid cars, which are deemed
more efficient, safe and reliable modes of transportation. Over the next decade, this will lead to
newer verticals and opportunities for autocomponent manufacturers, who would need to adapt to
the change via systematic research and development.


Global automotive industry has been witnessing a high growth which is laying exponential
opportunities for the automotive parts industry. There are basically two types of market for auto
parts manufacturing namely Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) and aftermarket. In
OEM the auto parts manufacturing industry supply components to the OEMs which are the
automobile manufacturers. Generally the aftermarket supplies of auto parts manufacturing is
greater than its OEM supplies. The global automotive industry is in a state of flux with markets
like India and China driving growth. The annual sales figures in more mature markets are now at
pre-recession levels, signaling a new beginning for this sector. However, this transformational
phase is also laden with subtle uncertainties. The biggest challenge that the industry needs to
overcome this year is the unevenness of the global markets resulting from turmoil in stock
market levels, license restrictions on new vehicles, stringent emission controls and so on.

Auto Ancillary Industry

Transmission & Suspensions &

Engine &parts Equipment Electrical parts Others
steering parts braking parts

Brake and
Pistons and Starter Sheet metal
Gears brake Headlight
rings motors plant

Engine valves Body and

and part
Wheels Brake linings Halogen bulbs Spark plug

Fuel-injection Electric
Steering Shock
systems and Wiper motors ignition Fan belts
Systems absorbers
carburettors systems(EIS)

cooling Hydraulic
Dashboard Flywheel
systems and Axles Leaf springs
instrument magnetos
part instruments

Power train Other panel

Clutches instruments


Maxion Wheels and its subsidiaries have been supplying OEMs with the highest quality wheels
and most innovative technologies for over 100 years. During that time, they've acquired some of
the most recognizable names in the industry, including Kelsey Hayes, Lemmerz and Fumagalli.
Today, they put their combined expertise to work for nearly every OEM and vehicle market in
the world.

They're also backed by the strength and security of their parent company, Iochpe-Maxion, which
ensures that our customers can count on them for the long-term growth, infrastructure and
stability they need.

With an international network of strategically located engineering, technology and production

facilities, Maxion is one of the only wheel manufacturers who can deliver on a truly global
platform. This allows us to not only reduce logistical costs — it also allows us to eliminate
duplicate processes, and to streamline the complexities that come from managing variation in a
single vehicle platform. They‘re able to implement the same design, technology and controls
across multiple production lines, and to ensure a consistent and quality product whenever and
wherever you need it.

No matter where a Maxion wheel is made, it's made exactly right.



Be a Premier Automotive Supplier:

We focus on the Right Products, Right Costs, Right Geographic Markets and Right People. To
meet the challenge and deliver, we execute the following strategies:

Grow by Satisfying Customers:

We maximize continuous improvement, quality, technology, innovation and safety. At Kalyani

Maxion Wheels Pvt. Ltd., every individual plays a vital role in focusing on the Right Products
and the Right Geographic Markets. This ensures Company-wide customer service that is second
to none.

To be Low-Cost Producer:

The industry climate affects our customers and our Company. We are developing a position as a
low-cost producer, continuously seeking to eliminate waste and to develop cost-efficient
products and processes. Our focus is on the Right Costs.

Have the Best People:

At Kalyani Maxion Wheels Pvt. Ltd., we have a passion for people -- the Right People -- trained
and talented at all levels of the Company. Open communication, teamwork and individual
responsibility fosters a ―can-do‖ attitude at Hayes Lemmerz.

Code of Business Conduct and Ethics

Ethical conduct in all business-related activities is a key element of our business strategy and
development at IOCHPE-MAXION. Therefore, we do not want anyone to jeopardize these
standards of conduct, even when one thinks that his / her actions may favor or enhance IOCHPE-
MAXION's performance.



Since designing the first wooden-spoke wheels for the Model T, Maxion Wheels has been
responsible for nearly every major wheel innovation in automotive history. Over the course of
the last 100 years, we've grown to serve a worldwide customer base with a diverse and
comprehensive product offering. Today, we continue to innovate and add to our core product
offerings, while strategically expanding our manufacturing capabilities to match the growth of
our customers.

1908 - Clarence Hayes establishes Hayes Wheels and begins Production of Wooden Wheels for
the Ford Model T
1909 - John Kelsey and John Herbert establish K.H. Wheel Company
1916 - WK Prudden Wheel Company begins in Lansing, MI
1919 - Lemmerz begins producing wheels in Königswinter, Germany
1920 - WK Prudden Wheel Company becomes Motor Wheel Corporation
1921 - Johan Lemmerz invents a multi-piece removeable rim with 5 screws
1924 - Lemmerz begins production of original equipment disc wheels for Opel Laubfrosch
1927 - K.H. Wheel and Hayes Wheels Merge to Form Kelsey-Hayes Wheel Company
Goodyear Tire Company opens steel wheel plant in Akron, OH (Maxion Akron Plant)
1934 - Kelsey-Hayes invents the drop center steel rim wheel that becomes the industry standard
1939 - Lemmerz begins producing wheels square profile wheel discs
1940s - Kelsey-Hayes produces machine guns and equipment for tanks during World War
2 Kelsey-Hayes develops die cast of Magnesium Wheel for U.S. Military
1946 - Paul Lemmerz invents a 4 piece pressed high-load square-shoulder rim for commercial
1960 - Lemmerz establishes Lemmerz Espanola S.A. (Manresa Plant)
Kelsey-Hayes introduces the Integral Aluminum Wheel Hub and Rim - Cast Aluminum Wheel
1962 - Kelsey-Hayes supplies Chrome Plated Wire Wheels for Ford Thunderbird
Lemmerz establishes Lemmerz de Mexico (Tlainepantla, Mexico)
1968 - Lemmerz establishes Borlem S.A. Empriendimentos Industriais, a joint venture
established to manufacture steel wheels in Brazil

1970 - Fumagalli builds Limeira, Brazil Plant Motor Wheel introduces Polycast Wheels - styled
urethane fascia molded to a steel wheel
1970s - Introduced "Pierce After" and "SHAPE" Processes for Uniformity
1980 - Kelsey-Hayes acquires ET Mags, an aftermarket aluminum wheel producer Lemmerz
begins mass production of automotive disc wheels with sheet aluminum
1989 - Varity acquires Kelsey-Hayes
1992 - Fumagalli sells truck and agriculture wheel equipment to FNV (Maxion) Kelsey-Hayes
develops 1st Cylindrical Reverse Flow Formed Rim
Hayes Wheels International, Inc the wheel business of Kelsey-Hayes, completes an initial public
offering , Lemmerz enters into license agreement with Bharat Forge Ltd to produce steel wheels
in India
1993 - Hayes Wheels announces construction of an aluminum wheel plant in Gainesville, GA
Hayes Wheels acquires 45% interest in the steel wheel operations of Nova Hut in Ostrava, Czech
Republic and increase ownership to 100% in 1997
1994 - Hayes Wheels introduces first Chrome Clad Full Face Steel Wheel - Ford F-150
1995 - Hayes Wheels introduces first Full Face Fabricated Aluminum Wheel - Ford F-150
1996 - Hayes Wheels sells ownership in Central Motor Wheel Corp.
1998 - Hayes Lemmerz acquires 51% of Automotive Overseas Investments Ltd, the parent
company of NF Die Casting in South Africa
Hayes Lemmerz acquires 100% of Alumitech, a joint venture shared with Asahi Tech.
1999 - Hayes Lemmerz develops Full Face Dual Wheels
2000 - Meritor Group merges with Arvin group to form ArvinMeritor
Hayes Lemmerz introduces "Super Single" Wide Base Truck Wheels Fumagalli develops
"Integrated" wheel as competition to full face wheels
2002 - Hayes Lemmerz develops "Struktur" / VersaStyle Wheel in Hayes Lemmerz Germany
Hayes Lemmerz sells the System Service Division which operated tire and wheel assembly
2003 - Hayes Lemmerz begins aluminum wheel expansions in Thailand, Brazil, and Czech
Republic facilities
2004 - ArvinMeritor/Fumagalli develops theSuperSpoke Wheel In Limiera - Dodge Durango
acquires Hayes Wheels Aluminio, an aluminum wheel joint venture plant in Chihuahua.

2005 - Hayes Lemmerz sells its aftermarket brake controller business to Hayes Brake Controller
Hayes Lemmerz sells its Commercial Highway Hub and Drum business, including operations in
Berea, KY; Chattanooga, TN; and in Monterey, MX to Precision Partners Holding Co.
Hayes Lemmerz increases its ownership from 40% to 60% in its Turkish wheel joint venture
Hayes Lemmerz sells its Equipment and Engineering subsidiary in Au Gres, MI to a group of
private investors
Hayes Lemmerz announces capacity expansion of its commercial vehicle steel wheel facility in
Chakan, India
2006 - Hayes Lemmerz sells its Southfield, MI ductile iron components machining facility to a
group of private investors
Hayes Lemmerz enters into a technical license agreement with Tolyatinskiy Zavod Stalnih
Kolyos (TZSK) of Togliatti, Russia, a manufacturer of steel wheels
2007 - Hayes Lemmerz sells its aluminum suspension components facilities in Bristol, IN and
Montague, MI to Diversified Machine, Inc.
Hayes Lemmerz completes capacity expansion in Chakan, India and announces groundbreaking
of a new passenger car steel wheel facility in India
2008 - Iochpe-Maxion announces new commercial vehicle steel wheel plant in Nantong, China
2009 - Iochpe-Maxion acquires Fumagalli from ArvinMeritor
Hayes Lemmerz introduction of RRT Technology for Aluminum Wheels
2010 - Iochpe-Maxion acquires steel wheel manufacturing facility outside Mexico City from
Hayes Lemmerz develops the 4 Bolt/5 Spoke VersaStyle Wheel
2012 - Iochpe-Maxion acquires Hayes Lemmerz and creates Maxion Wheels from Hayes
Lemmerz, Maxion, and Fumagalli




The Maxion Wheels leadership team is responsible for ensuring that we continue to meet and
exceed the expectations of our many customers, and for driving our company forward to
continued success.

 Pieter Klinkers - CEO Maxion Wheels

 Roger Poulssen - Vice President and CFO
 Mustafa Zaim - Chairman of the Board Turkey JV
 Juan Lorenzo - President, Europe, Africa, Asia
 Don Polk - President, Americas
 William Wardle - Vice President, Global Sales and Marketing
 Steven Esau - Vice President, General Counsel
 Mark Sinar - Vice President, Global Human Resources
 Kai Kronenberg - Vice President, Business Development + Global Innovation
 Ralf Duning - Vice President, Global Engineering
 Giorgio Mariani - Vice President, Global Supply Chain
 Kelly Knepley - Vice President, CIO

Different types of wheels are made here, ranging from commercial truck wheels to passenger car
wheels. Militry wheels bus wheels are also made.

Wheel rims range from 5.5-16 to 8.5-20, drop centre wheel rims of 5.5 x 15 and 4.5E x 16 to
8.25 x 22.5 that are designed to reduced weight. The specially designed discs with a back
bending effect imparts more durability, while the 2 –piece design for HCV‘s give grip on the
gutter and are easier for removal and fitment. The 8 hole design improves cooling of the brake
drum –critical in hilly terrains.

Full Face/Integrated :

Maxion Wheels' most commercially successful product innovation in steel wheel technology is
our full face design. The wheel is constructed by incorporating the curb-side flange into the disc,
and then attaching it to the single flange rim with a 360 arc weld. Our proprietary attachment
joint yields the lightest, most mass-efficient steel wheels available in the market, and delivers
increased brake clearance as well as a bold appearance. Cladding can also be applied in-house, as
part of our production process, for a low-cost, lightweight alternative to chrome.

Drop Center :

Nobody has produced more well-attached steel wheels than Maxion Wheels. We combine
decades of experience with excellence in design and manufacturing to deliver the most mass-

efficient drop center designs available. We also offer a variety of trim and/or color topcoat paint
options for excellent cross-platform flexibility. By adding styling to the basic black steel wheel,
we can create signature wheels that add visual impact to any car line, as well as excellent cross-
platform flexibility. Styled well-attached steel wheels allow for minimal wheel trim and warranty

Bead Seat :

By attaching the disc, or wheel center, under the bead seat of the rim we‘re able to increase brake
clearance and style on any given wheel diameter. Bead seat steel wheels are an excellent choice
when brake clearance precludes the use of drop center steel wheels. We can easily design these
wheels for cross-platform usage, allowing our customers to decrease investment costs.

Clads :

Clad wheels are produced by permanently attaching a stainless steel or PC/ABS plastic plate to a
steel wheel. The cladding is frequently chrome-plated, but can also be painted or finished with
premium surfaces such as chrome shadow or platinum chrome, delivering a fresh appearance
without the need for revalidation.

VersaStyle :

The VersaStyle® (high vent) wheel is our newest innovation in the steel wheel market. This
technology allows us to achieve cast aluminum styling with steel construction, and to support our
customers' need for cross-platform standardization. The VersaStyle wheel is designed to couple
with a variety of claddings so that it can be used across multiple vehicle platforms. This allows
each vehicle to have its own "signature" style without the time and cost of developing individual
wheels. VersaStyle wheels also contribute to better performance by helping to cool the vehicle's
brake rotors.


Maxion Wheels serves every major automotive market in the world, and is proud to have
partnered with the most recognizable and respected names in the industry. We are proud to
include the following organizations in our list of partners:

The first and foremost step in any research procedure is problem formulation. It involves
developing and understanding of problem. This step consists of several interrelated tasks and
activities. It is perhaps the most critical stage in marketing research process. If the problem is not
defined or if the uses of research are not made clear then the research result may prove useless to
manager. This step requires a good dialogue between a decision maker and marketing researcher.
This step under goes following activities.
a) Problem Audit
It is the comprehensive and systematic examination of the marketing problem with objective of
understanding its origin and nature.
b) Background Analysis
This is an exploratory analysis devotes to placing the problem in perceptive and perhaps even
providing sufficient information for resolving the problem. It consists of situation investigation,
literature review, opinion sampling.
c) Determining The Researching Task
It includes to the specific set of marketing objectives. It specifies the particular information
needed to be met by research result.


In Today‟s competitive market, every company wants to know the reasons how one can have the
potential market, which factors enhance the sales & shape the buying motives of customer in a
car, typically its wheel.
The research objectives to be studied in this research are as follows:
1. To study market potential of Steel wheels to Alloy wheels
2. To study customer buying motive towards a particular wheel type.
3. To study the market share of Steel wheels.
The management decision process has become complex and requires an effective and full proof
management information system. During the year of growing competition, the management
needs more and more rigorous information to either boost sales process of their product or to
maintain the current position in the industry. Market research has today becomes an important
component of the marketing information system, to manage all areas of management in general
and to marketing management in particular.
“Marketing research is the collection, analysis and interpretation of facts and figures
pertaining to marketing management.”
Marketing management needs essential information regarding products, prices, market condition
of demand and supply, customer‘s need and desires, product awareness, competitive decision,
external marketing environment and other factors of marketing thus a systematic approach is
applied termed as research methodology.
Glaser has defined, ―Market research is the application of scientific method of the study of the
factors that affects the buying decision in a given market and the profitability of the business

There are two approaches to conduct a research:

Qualitative Approach- In Qualitative approach, the researcher analyzes the objective and study
it on the basis of a previous case study or a grounded theory. Usually in routine business
scenarios, this approach is used. Some of the most popular qualitative research methods are
Ethnographic, grounded theory, biological, case study, and phenomenological.

Quantitative Approach- On the other hand, this approach adopts experimental and
computational methods. The conclusion is derived after following the rigorous process of
observation made from experimentation performed on the object. Some of the most important
quantitative techniques are inferential, simulation and experimental.


A survey is a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in
a questionnaire or an interview. Surveys represent one of the most common types of quantitative,
social science research. In survey research, I have selected a sample of respondents from Pune
City and administered a standardized questionnaire to them. The questionnaire, or survey,was a
hand written document that was completed during the personal interview with the sales
Surveys can be divided into two broad categories: the questionnaire and the interview.
Questionnaires are usually paper-and-pencil instruments that the respondent completes.
Interviews are completed by the interviewer based on the respondent says. Sometimes, it's hard
to tell the difference between a questionnaire and an interview. For instance, some people think
that questionnaires always ask short closed-ended questions while interviews always ask broad
open-ended ones. But there are questionnaires with open-ended questions (although they do tend
to be shorter than in interviews) and there will often be a series of closed-ended questions asked
in an interview.


Once the capital of the Maratha Empire, Pune, literally meaning ―virtue‖ leads as ‗veritable
heartland‘ of Maharashtra. It is the second largest state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and largest
in Western Ghats and one of the most important IT hubs in India. Today, Pune is known for its
educational facilities and relative prosperity. Being the cultural capital of Maharashtra, Pune has
well-established manufacturing, and forging industries since the 1950-60s. The city is also
known for its various cultural activities and job opportunities that migrants and students from all
over India and abroad. This makes Pune a city of many cultures and communities.

The district is well connected with the state capital and surrounding district headquarters through
road and rail linkagaes. The road network consists of Express Highways, National Highways,
State Highways and Major District Roads. The rail network consists of both
broadgauge(Electrified and Non Electrified) double track as well as single track lines. The
district headquarter has connectivity through airways for transport and trade to major airports

within the country and to select international destinations. In spite of availability of perennial
river stretches, there is no significant utilization of waterways in the district.

Road Network & National Highways:

The district has total length of 13,642 km of roads(2001) of which 5394 km roads are
Bituminous surface, 3554 km roads of waterbound macadam surface and 4694 km of other
surface roads i.e. unmetalled road.The roads are classified according to their importance. Of the
total road length in the district, 331km road length is covered by National Highways and 1368
km by State Highways. The major and other district roads have a total length of 5388 km, which
passes through all the talukas. Almost all the villagesare well connected by waterbound
macadam road. The total length of village roads is 6555 km.
National Highway No. 4 (Mumbai-Banglore) - The NH-4 passes through following places in the
district: Khandala, Lonavala, talegaon, Chinchwad, Pune and Khed-Shivapur. It enters from
Raigad district and exits in Satara district.Total length of NH4 in the district is 120 km. National
Highway No. 9 (Pune-Solapur-Hyderabad )- The NH-9 starts at Pune district and passes through
Loni, Bhigawan and Indapur. It exits in Solapur district. Total length of NH9 in the district is
152km. National Highway No. 50 (Pune-Nashik) - The NH-50 originates at Pune and passes
through Chakan, Rajgurunagar, Manchar, Narayangaon, Aalephata and it exits in Nashik district.
The total length of NH50 in the district is 95km.

Automobile Industry In Pune:

Pune is the leading center for the automotive sector in India; as well as one of the top automotive
centers globally. In the past year alone, 3 massive new plants from General Motors, Volkswagen
and Mahindra & Mahindra were inagurated here. The Chakan-Talegaon Belt is becoming one of
the most dense automotive clusters in the world. The Pune facility manufacturers and assembles
a range of their well known luxury cars. Manufacturing plants like Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz,
General Motors, Volkswagen, Mahindra and Mahindra, fiat are already up and running. Though
little far from city these plant provide a huge market for passenger car wheels. The huge
Pune campus consists of corporate HQ, R&D Center and Manufacturing facility for many of the
cars and trucks OEM‘s.


Primary Data :
Primary data is collected through Survey method. Survey method involves collecting data by
administrating a structured. The questionnaires were prepared using very simple and non-
technical words. To serve the whole hearted co-operation without wasting more time of
respondents, the questionnaire was designed short and to the point covering questions to fulfill
all the objectives.
A questionnaire is a means of eliciting the feelings, beliefs, experiences, perceptions, or attitudes
of some sample of individuals. As a data collecting instrument, it could be structured or
unstructured.The questionnaire is most frequently a very concise, preplanned set of questions
designed to yield specific information to meet a particular need for research information about a
pertinent topic. The research information is attained from sales representatives, sales managers
and executives dealing with customers.

Secondary Data :
Secondary data is required for collecting information about the industry, manufactures and the
product itself – Wheel. This data is mostly collected from the internet (Google & various related
websites) and reports of automobile industry.

The sample size has been kept to 40 due to the limitations of time and limited number of OEMs
in the decided area. The sampling procedure is simple questionnaire in which questions are asked
and answers are recorded in google forms during the interview. After the sample size is decided,
the next step was to meet the respondent personally and to collect data from them through
personal interviews.
After conducting the personal interview of the respondents, the next step was to arrange the
collected data finally coded and tabulated to obtain the results. The present study used MS Excel
package for the purpose of tabulation, which allows all kind of elementary statistical calculation.
After tabulation the data was ready for calculations to draw necessary inferences.

The raw data collected from the survey through Questionnaire do not complete the study itself.
This raw data is collected, tabulated & then analyzed for giving some concrete suggestions and
recommendations. In this chapter, the findings of this survey & their analysis have been recorded
for facilitating analysis & interpretation but before that it is important to under data analysis and
hence explained as below:

Data Analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming and modeling data with the
goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions and supporting decision-making.
Data Analysis is defined by the statistician John Tukey in 1961 as "Procedures for analyzing
data, techniques for interpreting the results of such procedures, ways of planning the gathering
of data to make its analysis easier, more precise or more accurate, and all the machinery and
results of (mathematical) statistics which apply to analyzing data.‖

Thus, data analysis is a process for obtaining large, unstructured data from various sources and
converting it into information that is useful for −

 Answering questions
 Test hypothesis
 Decision making
 Disproving theories

Data Analysis is a process of collecting, transforming, cleaning, and modeling data with the goal
of discovering the required information. The results so obtained are communicated, suggesting
conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data visualization is at times used to portray the
data for the ease of discovering the useful patterns in the data. The terms Data Modeling and
Data Analysis mean the same.

The following are the questions which were the part of survey with its most appropriate
interpretation. The answers recorded in the survey are tabulated and represented in the form of
various graphs along with the interpretation.

Q.1 Which type of car is sold the most?

Type Count Percentage

Hatchback 21 52.5
Sedan 7 17.4
SUV 12 30
Grand Total 40 100

 Survey reveiled that majority of customers prefer Hatchback cars.

 It is due to various reasons like cost, requirement, etc hence it is sold the most.
 New OEMs can focus on Hatchback cars mainly at the start to enter Indian market.

Q.2 What is the percentage share for the car


Type Percentage
Hatchback 49
Sedan 22
SUV 29
Total 100

 This data shows the average type of cars the dealers sell.
 As the data shows most dealers sell hatchback cars, followed by SUV and then the

Q.3 What percentage of cars sold have steel


Wheel Percentage

Steel 52

Alloy 45

Total 100

 As per the survey it is found that from the total sales 52% are steel wheels whereas the
alloys of aluminium like the diamond cut constitute around 48 percent market share.
 In the study it is found that there are many variants of steel and alloy wheels in the
market and most of them are used not before than a decade in India.
 Steels exits from long ago but the quick rise in alloy wheels is changing the interest of the
customers and OEMs towards the combination of the alloy.

Q.4 Do customers have a preference for wheels


Options Count Percentage

Yes 24 60
No 14 35
May be 0 0
No Choice 2 5
Total 40 100

 Customers may or may not have a preference for the choice of wheels, its depends upon
many factors and OEMs.
 It is found in the study that first time buyers usually do not have any preference but the
those who already own a car do their research before buying and these type of customers
might have a preference depending upon what they conclude.
 Sometimes they do not have any option and hence they go for the available ones

Q.5 Which Wheel metal customers prefer?

Options Count Percentage
Alloy 24 60
Steel 14 35
No Choice 2 5
Total 40 100

 This shows that customers usually prefer Alloy wheels given a choice and not
considering other factors but due to some reason they go for steel wheels.
 This shows a clear customer preference towards alloys even when not many of them
know much difference between them.
 Only 5 percent said they do not have a choice since they were not aware of advantages
and disadvantages of either of the product.

Q. 6 What is the reason for the choice of a

particular wheel metal type?

Options Count Percentage

Price 16 38

Design 22 52

No Choice 4 10

Total 42 100

 During the survey it is found that customers want alloy wheels because of the good
design they have which enhances the overall look of the car and makes it look stylish.
 Customers go for steel wheels only because they are low cost or when their budget is

Q.7 Does it affect the dealer if steel or alloy

wheels are Sold?

Options Count Percent

Yes 0 0

No 40 100

Total 40 100

 Every dealer said that it doesn‘t affect them at all if customer goes for a steel wheel or for
alloy wheel, which means that they do not influence customers to buy any particular type
of wheel, it purely depends upon the customer.
 This implies that the OEM‘s don‘t have to worry about the negative marketing of their
product by the sales people or by their competetors.

Q.8 Which type of wheel would you choose

if you have to buy a car for yourself?

Options Count Percentage

Alloy 40 100

Steel 0 0

Total 40 100

 This is one of the very important questions of the survey since the sales representative are
the best person to understand and know the advantages and disadvantages of steel and
alloy wheels both.
 And in the study every dealer informed that if had to buy a car for themselves they
would go for Alloy wheels as they look stylish, provide more stability for driving, better
quality than steel wheels and a few more small reasons.

1) The Big Brands Vs Others :

It is found that Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai cars are the most selling cars in Pune, in which
Maruti Suzuki is highest, constituting approximately around 60 – 70 percent of the total market
share. Categorically, Hatchback Models are sold the more in comparision with the sedans or the
the big SUVs.
The other OEMs like Volkswagen, Tata, Fiat, Honda, Toyota, Ford, Mahindra and Mahindra,
General Moters etc do exist here but not as much as these two and are in far less in number with
a different customer base across the city.

2) Steel Usage :
According to the survey, it is found that most of the OEMs use steel Wheels in their cars and
mostly in the low end models as well as middle models. Also Maruti Suzuki and Tata mostly use
steel wheels in there cars. The reason for this is that they have a low budget customer base i.e
usually their customers are npt willing to pay much since these are either first time buyers or
second buyers but with low budget. Alloy wheels cost is very high as compared to the steels
wheels and hence they use steel wheels in most of their models.
The other OEMs use Alloy wheels mostly but because of their customer base and can switch
between steel and alloy according to the requirement of the customers.

3) The Demand :
As found in the study Alloy wheels are in demand in the modern market today. The reason for
this is that Aloy products comes in various different types, styles, shapes, design, etc whereas the
steel wheels have a limited scope in all these. Alloy wheels are made by mixing various different
metals along with Aluminium, which results in different properties as per requirement. In
addition to this, it enhances the look of the overall product.
Steel is used from past many years and with the changing world even this required a change.
Although it cannot be replaced from every field but passenger car segment is certainly on the rise
and an advanced version of steel, the alloys, are now looked as a replacement.

4) The Customers :
The customer here are divided in two categories if we look at the buying motives towards wheels
only. These first once are those for whom the price doesn‘t matter and are willing to pay
anything for a good product and the second are those for whom price matters a lot. It can be said
that customerus usually do not have a preference but sometimes due to either of these situations
they can tilt towards Steels or Alloys.
One thing is very clear irrespective of the affordability is that both of these want Alloy wheels in
their cars because of good looks & design.
But, according to the area of study the situation might vary, it can be different in diference cities,
states and even in countries.

5) The performance :
It is also found that, with the use of either type of wheels the performance of the cars does
change much. Both of them are equally good in terms of performance, they provide almost the
same braking support. Steel wheels proves just a little better in milege whereas Alloys provide
more handling. If we look at it overall there is not much difference between the two hence can be
replaced and used alternatively.

 COST : Since the sell of the product depends a lot on its price it is highly suggested that
the price of the wheels should not be increased any further and to increase the sell
manufactures can further cut down the price of the product.
 DESIGN : In the whole survey, one thing that was the highlight above all, was the design
of the Steel wheels and alloy wheels. So, steel wheels need a lot of modification in terms
of design and attractiveness (atleast like the new Versastyle wheels). It can be done in
two ways:
 Adding wheel caps: Attractive wheel caps can be added to the wheels
which enhances the overall look of the wheel.
 Adding wheel disc : Since disc are made separately, alloy wheel disc‘s
can be fixed over the wheels which works like a wheel cap but is more of
a permanent solution.


 It was somewhat difficult to get the questioners completely filled by the respondent as
most of the times they were busy and could not give sufficient answer and sufficient
information even though they have it and the information from respondents are very
important for the research.
 Some of the respondents were that not much serious about the answering questionnaire.
 Some of the respondent left some questions unanswered and as it was little difficult to
draw and generalize the conclusion from them.
 The findings entirely depend upon the willingness & mental condition of the respondents.
 Some respondents were unable to understand the question due to various problems like
language barrier, time constraint.
 Some of them might could not say the complete truth as it might affect their prestige or
brand value.
 A methodology relying on standardization forces the researcher to develop questions
general enough to be minimally appropriate for all respondents, possibly missing what is
most appropriate to many respondents.
 Surveys are inflexible in that they require the initial study design (the tool and
administration of the tool) to remain unchanged throughout the data collection.
 The researcher must ensure that a large number of the selected sample will reply.

 Project learning is a very important part of the project in MBA since it was our primary
objective. It is essential for the development of research skills, intelligent behaviours and
thinking strategies. In project work, I did undertake the creation, execution and finished
production of a survey. The nature of the project is dynamic as it goes through conception,
configuration, contradiction, confusion, reconfiguration and eventually culmination and
celebration. Occasions did arise where I have to deal with situations, to identify and solve
problems, to create new ideas, or to make difficult decisions.

 There were three stages in project work in general. In the first level of activities, you select a
project with the help of the teacher. After consulting the teacher for guidelines, you embark
on the initial stage of reading for background information, researching and taking notes,
building a reference list, interviewing experts, viewing films and videos, developing an
outline, talking with peers, surfing the Internet, checking and double-checking sources,
visiting sites, as well as gathering charts, maps and illustrations. Such activities lay the
groundwork for the inventiveness of the latter two stages.

 As a project enters the second phase, you begin to try to make sense of the information
collected. You may discover that some information is relevant and some is not. At this level,
you try to analyse whatever information you have, sort the information into meaningful
chunks, and synthesise it in order to move the project forward.

 At the third phase, you divide and prioritise tasks, check timelines, take any necessary
emergency measures and stay alert. You perform activities like model building, construction,
assembling, synthesising ideas, rethinking or re-conceptualising, finishing touches,
decorative details, evaluative testing, peer review, self-assessment, evaluation against
criteria, expert review, final submittals and celebrations.

 Certain intelligent behaviours are important for successful project work (e.g. curiosity,
openness, reality orientation, objectivity, precision, confidence, responsibility, consensus and
collaboration). When you undertake a project, you focus on not only what you know, but also

how you behave when you don‘t know. It is only when you are confronted with questions
and problems for which you do not know the immediate answer that you develop intelligent
behaviours which include persistence, decreasing impulsivity, listening to others, cooperative
thinking, flexibility in thinking, a sense of humour, drawing on past knowledge and applying
it to new situations, and risk taking.

 The important thing was to learn the management lessons along with work of a marketer and
understanding the automobile industry. After studing the theoretical aspects in MBA it was
important to apply the knowledge on the field.

 For a successful project learning experiment, it is essential for you to have not only a positive
‗I can‘ attitude, but also the ‗I enjoy‘ feeling. Only then will you want to undertake new
projects and to solve new problems; and without realising it, will voluntarily continue to
learn throughout a lifetime.

[Introductory questions]
1. Dealer Name
2. Contact Person
3. Area
4. Manufacturer

[Main questions]
1. Which type of car is sold the most?
 Hatchback
 Sedan
2. What is the percentage share for car types?
 Percentage ____
3. What Percent cars have steel wheels?
4. Do customers have a preference for a specific wheel type?
 Yes
 No
 Maybe
5. Which metal wheels customers prefer ?
 Alloy
 Steel
 Any
6. What is the reason for the choice of a particular wheel metal type?
 Price
 Design
 No choice
7. Does it affect the dealer if any of the steel or alloy are used?
 Yes
 No
 Maybe
8. What would you choose if you have to buy a car for yourself?
 Steel
 Alloy

3. › Team-BHP › BHP India
17. Costa, A.L. (1991). ‗The Search for Intelligent Life‘. The School as a Home for the Mind.
Arlington Heights, III.: IRI/SkyLight Training & Publishing, 19–31.
18. Fogarty, R. (1997). Problem-based Learning and Other Curriculum Models for the
Multiple Intelligences Classroom. Arlington Heights, III.: IRI/SkyLight Training &