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Design Procedure for Rectangular Section

The steps to be followed in the design of rectangular beam can be summarized as follows.
Supposed the design bending moment is M, beam section is b x d, concrete strength is fck and
steel strength is fyk, to determine the area of reinforcement, proceed as follows

1. 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝐾= 𝑀𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏𝑑2 𝐾𝑏𝑎𝑙= 0.167

2. If K < 𝑲𝒃𝒂𝒍, compression reinforcement is not required, and

 Calculate tension reinforcement:

3. If K > 𝑲𝒃𝒂𝒍, compression reinforcement is required and

 Calculate compression reinforcement:

4. Calculate tension reinforcement :


Design procedure for flange beam
Supposed the bending moment is M, beam section is bw x b x d x hf, concrete strength is fck and
steel strength fyk, to determine the area of reinforcement, proceed as follows,

1. Calculate 𝑴𝒇 = 0.567𝑓𝑐𝑘𝑏ℎ𝑓𝑑 −0.5ℎ𝑓

2. If M < 𝑴𝒇, neutral axis in the flange

3. If M > 𝑴𝒇 , neutral axis lies in web

4. If M < 𝑴𝒃𝒂𝒍, compression reinforcement is not required

5. If M > 𝑴𝒃𝒂𝒍, compression reinforcement is required


Design procedure

The following procedure can be use for determining vertical shear reinforcement.

1. Determining design shear force, 𝑉𝐸𝑑

2. Determine the concrete strut capacity for cot  = 1.0 and cot = 2.5
( = 22° and  = 45° respectively)

3. If 𝑉𝐸𝑑 > 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 cot  = 1.0 Redesign

4. If 𝑉𝐸𝑑 < 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 cot  = 2.5, use cot  = 2.5, and calculate the shear reinforcement as
follows

5. If 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 cot 𝜃 =2.5 < 𝑉𝐸𝑑 < 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 cot 𝜃 = 1.0

6. Calculate the minimum links required by EC2:CI 93.2.2(5)

7. Calculate the additional longitudinal tensile force caused by the shear


Concrete section that do not required design shear reinforcement

Where shear forces are small the concrete section on its own may have sufficient shear capacity
(𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐 ) to resist the ultimate shear force ( 𝑉𝐸𝑑) resulting from the worst combination of actions
on the structure, although in most cases a nominal or minimum amount on shear reinforcement
will usually be provided. The concrete sections that do not require shear reinforcement are
mainly lightly loaded floor slab and pad footing. In those sections where 𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 𝑉𝑅𝑑, then no
calculated shear reinforcement is required.

The shear capacity of the concrete, 𝑉𝑅𝑑, in such situations is given by an empirical expression :

With minimum value of :

Where:

𝑉𝑅𝑑, = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡 shear reinforcement

As1 = the area of tensile reinforcement that extends beyond the section being considered by at

least a full anchorage length plus one effective depth (d)

bw = the smallest width of the section in the tensile area (mm)


Limiting Span to Depth Ratio

The equations to calculate the basic span-effective depth ratios, to control deflection to a
maximum of span/250 are given in EC2as;

The basic ratios are modified in particular cases as follows:

i. For flange section where the ratio of the flange width to the web width exceeds 3, the
values should be multiplied by 0.8.
ii. For beam and slabs, other than flat slab, with spans exceeding 7 m, which support
partitions liable to be damaged by excessive deflection, the values should be multiplied
by 7/span.

iii. Where more tension reinforcement is provided ( 𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣) than that calculated

(𝐴𝑠,𝑒𝑞 )multiply the values by ⁄. (upper limit = 1.5)


4.1 ANALYSIS
Introduction

This chapter covers the analysis and design of concrete beams to EC2. A procedure for carrying
out the detailed design of beams is shown in Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1. This assumes that the
beam dimensions have previously been determined during conceptual design.

STEP TASK STANDARD


EN 1990 : Table 2.1
1. Determine design life, Exposure class & Fire resistance EN 1992-1-1: Table 4.1
EN 1992-1-2: Sec. 5.6
BS 8500-1: Table A.3
2. Determine material strength
EN 206-1: Table F1
EN 1992-1-1: Table
3. Select size of beam 7.4N
EN 1992-1-2: Table 5.5
Calculate min. cover for durability , fire and bond
4. EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 4.4.1
requirements
EN 1990 Table A1.1 and
5. Estimate actions on beam
A1.2
Analyze structure to obtain critical moments and shear
6. EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 5
forces
7. Design flexural reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.1
8. Design shear reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.2
9. Check deflection EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.4
10. Check cracking EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.3
EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 8 &
11. Detailing
9.2
Table 4.1 : Design Process for beam
n = uniformly distributed action on slab per unit area

Figure 4.1: Action from one-way slab (𝑙𝑦/𝑙𝑥 >2.0 )

Figure 4.2: Action from two-way slab (𝑙𝑦/ <2.0 )


4.2 & 4.3 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM
Introduction
Failure mode, bending moment and main reinforcement of a simply beam as shown in Figure

Figure 4.3: Simply supported beam

Simply Supported Beams

The effective span of a simply supported beam is defined in EC2: Section 5.3.2.2. This should be taken as

L = Ln + a1 + a2

Where;
Ln = clear distance between the faces of the supports
a1, a2 = min {0.5h; 0.5t}, where h is the overall depth of the beam and t is the width of
the supporting element.
Effective spans for different support conditions are given in Figure 5.3.

Non−continuous members Continuous members

Supports cinsidered fylly resrtained Bearing provided

Cantilever

Figure 4.4 : Effective span for different support conditions