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The steps to be followed in the design of rectangular beam can be summarized as follows.

Supposed the design bending moment is M, beam section is b x d, concrete strength is fck and

steel strength is fyk, to determine the area of reinforcement, proceed as follows

Design procedure for flange beam

Supposed the bending moment is M, beam section is bw x b x d x hf, concrete strength is fck and

steel strength fyk, to determine the area of reinforcement, proceed as follows,

Design procedure

The following procedure can be use for determining vertical shear reinforcement.

2. Determine the concrete strut capacity for cot = 1.0 and cot = 2.5

( = 22° and = 45° respectively)

4. If 𝑉𝐸𝑑 < 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 cot = 2.5, use cot = 2.5, and calculate the shear reinforcement as

follows

Concrete section that do not required design shear reinforcement

Where shear forces are small the concrete section on its own may have sufficient shear capacity

(𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑐 ) to resist the ultimate shear force ( 𝑉𝐸𝑑) resulting from the worst combination of actions

on the structure, although in most cases a nominal or minimum amount on shear reinforcement

will usually be provided. The concrete sections that do not require shear reinforcement are

mainly lightly loaded floor slab and pad footing. In those sections where 𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 𝑉𝑅𝑑, then no

calculated shear reinforcement is required.

The shear capacity of the concrete, 𝑉𝑅𝑑, in such situations is given by an empirical expression :

Where:

𝑉𝑅𝑑, = 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡 shear reinforcement

As1 = the area of tensile reinforcement that extends beyond the section being considered by at

Limiting Span to Depth Ratio

The equations to calculate the basic span-effective depth ratios, to control deflection to a

maximum of span/250 are given in EC2as;

i. For flange section where the ratio of the flange width to the web width exceeds 3, the

values should be multiplied by 0.8.

ii. For beam and slabs, other than flat slab, with spans exceeding 7 m, which support

partitions liable to be damaged by excessive deflection, the values should be multiplied

by 7/span.

iii. Where more tension reinforcement is provided ( 𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣) than that calculated

4.1 ANALYSIS

Introduction

This chapter covers the analysis and design of concrete beams to EC2. A procedure for carrying

out the detailed design of beams is shown in Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1. This assumes that the

beam dimensions have previously been determined during conceptual design.

EN 1990 : Table 2.1

1. Determine design life, Exposure class & Fire resistance EN 1992-1-1: Table 4.1

EN 1992-1-2: Sec. 5.6

BS 8500-1: Table A.3

2. Determine material strength

EN 206-1: Table F1

EN 1992-1-1: Table

3. Select size of beam 7.4N

EN 1992-1-2: Table 5.5

Calculate min. cover for durability , fire and bond

4. EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 4.4.1

requirements

EN 1990 Table A1.1 and

5. Estimate actions on beam

A1.2

Analyze structure to obtain critical moments and shear

6. EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 5

forces

7. Design flexural reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.1

8. Design shear reinforcement EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 6.2

9. Check deflection EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.4

10. Check cracking EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 7.3

EN 1992-1-1: Sec. 8 &

11. Detailing

9.2

Table 4.1 : Design Process for beam

n = uniformly distributed action on slab per unit area

4.2 & 4.3 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

Introduction

Failure mode, bending moment and main reinforcement of a simply beam as shown in Figure

The effective span of a simply supported beam is defined in EC2: Section 5.3.2.2. This should be taken as

L = Ln + a1 + a2

Where;

Ln = clear distance between the faces of the supports

a1, a2 = min {0.5h; 0.5t}, where h is the overall depth of the beam and t is the width of

the supporting element.

Effective spans for different support conditions are given in Figure 5.3.

Cantilever

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