Correlation between Impulsive Buying Behavior and

Cognitive Dissonance in Clothing Industry
Course: MKT 470
Section: 6
Semester: Summer 2017

Prepared for:

Mr. Mahfuz Mannan (MM1)
Lecturer, Department of Marketing & International Business
School of Business and Economics
North South University, Dhaka.

Prepared by:
Sl# Name ID#
1 Fariha Tasnim 1411495030

2 Tawsif Bin Reaz 1310410630

3 S.M. Ikthedar Ali 1330789630

4 Imam Tarik Hasan 1230578630

5 Mohammad Mashayer 1030788530
Rahman
6 Nusrat Farha Trina 1320073030
7 Md. Lutfar Rahman 1320714030

Date of Submission: 20th August, 2017

Acknowledgement

This project would have been impossible without the valuable contribution and limitless
help of several individuals. First of all we would like to give thank the Almighty Allah
for giving us patience and courage to finish this task on time. Then, we cordially thank
our respected course instructor, Mr. Mahfuz Mannan (MM1) for his continuous
guidance and support to make this report possible. He assisted us whenever any help
was needed. Without his support it would have been unmanageable to make this report.
Then we would like to thank our friends and participants in the survey who helped us
make this report perfect.
Last but not least we would like to thank our family and friends. Without their help,
kindness and love it was difficult to make this report perfect.

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Executive Summary

The following research paper is on finding out the relationship between impulsive buying
behavior and cognitive dissonance feeling a customer experiences after buying cloths from the
shops. This research paper discusses the correlation between the variables and the possible
factors those influence customers to behave impulsively and feel cognitive dissonance in their
mind.

A theoretical framework has been attached with the report, which represents the blueprint of
the research. Various independent variables are taken into consideration while conducting the
research. Major independent variables considered are Impulsive Buying Behavior and
Cognitive Dissonance.

Six statistical research methods are considered in the research paper. Independent sample T-
test was conducted based on gender, ANOVA was conducted on cognitive dissonance felt by
different age groups people, two regression analysis between the main variables, a Pearson
correlation test between impulsive buying behavior and cognitive dissonance and a reliability
test.

140 people were randomly selected from Basundhara, Shantinagar, Shegunbagicha, Khilgaon,
Uttara & Mirpur Area in Dhaka City to conduct the survey. Based on the responses from the
respondents, the major findings are that Credit Card Purchase, Window Display and Store
Ambience affect impulse buying behavior significantly. As for cognitive dissonance, the
significant factors are Negative Affect, Wisdom of Purchase and Concern over Deal. However,
in terms of making impulsive purchasing decisions, no significant difference has been found
between male and female. Difference in mean between all the age groups were visible;
however, it is not significant.

Finally, from the study, we have found that impulsive buying behavior and cognitive
dissonance after purchasing cloths are moderately correlated.

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Contents
1. Introduction: ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.1 Importance of the Topic: ................................................................................................. 6
2. Literature Review & Hypotheses ....................................................................................... 6
1st Regression Model ............................................................................................................. 6
2.1 Impulsive Buying Behavior ......................................................................................... 6
2.2 Store Ambience ............................................................................................................ 7
2.3 Promotional Approaches .............................................................................................. 8
2.4 Window Displays ......................................................................................................... 9
2.5 Credit Card Purchase ................................................................................................. 10
2nd Regression Model .......................................................................................................... 11
2.6 Cognitive Dissonance ................................................................................................ 11
2.7 Emotional Discomfort ................................................................................................ 12
2.8 Wisdom of Purchase .................................................................................................. 14
2.9 Concern over Deal ..................................................................................................... 15
2.10 Negative Effect ........................................................................................................ 16
3. Methodology ....................................................................................................................... 18
3.1 Sampling ......................................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Measures........................................................................................................................ 18
3.3 Table: Measures of Variables ......................................................................................... 19
4. Hypothesis Testing ............................................................................................................. 23
4.1 T-Test based on Gender ................................................................................................. 23
4.2 ANOVA on Cognitive Dissonance level felt by different age groups ............................. 23
4.3 1st Regression ................................................................................................................. 28
4.4 2nd Regression, ............................................................................................................... 30
4.5 Correlation ..................................................................................................................... 32
4.6 Pearson .......................................................................................................................... 35
5. Discussions .......................................................................................................................... 36
5.1 Theoretical Implications................................................................................................. 36
5.2 Managerial Implications: ............................................................................................... 37
6. Limitation of the Study: .................................................................................................... 38

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In this research paper. Wisdom of Purchase 9. A list of these variables are given below: 1. we have chosen two main factors and they are “Impulsive Buying Behavior” and “Cognitive Dissonance”. Credit Card Purchase 6. we wanted to find out whether there is a correlation between these two factors when people go out and try to buy clothing from shops. Impulsive Buying Behavior 2. we have chosen for this project.  Definition  Discussion  Argument  Empirical Findings  Hypothesis We have also conducted a few other tests using other variables. On the other hand. and discusses each of them respectively. Cognitive Dissonance 7. Emotional Discomfort 8. in this case by getting involved into an impulsive purchase.  An Independent Sample T-test on based on gender  ANOVA on Cognitive Dissonance level felt by different age groups 5 .1. Store Ambience 3. From previous research works. Impulsive buy is a sudden urge to buy something without even planning to do so in advance. we have come up with few variables those affects this two main factors. cognitive dissonance is a psychological inconsistent and unpleasant feeling one experiences in response to his/her behavioral decision. Introduction: This marketing research report discusses the correlation between impulsive buying behavior and consumer dissonance in customer’s mind. Negative Affect The literature review part of this report also includes the information about the variables. In order to find out the correlation between the variables. Window Displays 5. Concern over Deal 10. Promotional Approaches 4.

1987. 1993. We also wanted to find out why people make impulsive purchasing decisions and what are the reasons that might lead them having cognitive dissonance feeling at the end of their purchase. From the outcome of this research work. “impulse buying is prone to occur with diminished regard for its consequences” (Rook. 1990. Literature Review & Hypotheses 1st Regression Model 2. we wanted to understand what are the factors or variables and how they affect impulsive buying behavior and cognitive dissonance feeling while buying cloths. But. In this report. “It is described as more arousing. We also wanted to understand if gender play a vital part in the decision making of impulsive buying behavior and the feeling of cognitive dissonance. we would be able to clearly identify the factors behind people showing such impulsive behaviors. and more irresistible buying behavior compared to planned purchasing 6 . because of the culture of consumption.. such unplanned buy can lead a person into having anxiety and unhappiness. deliberate consideration of all information & choice alternatives” (Bayley & Nancorow. 1998. 1987). 1982). 1987).1 Importance of the Topic: Impulsive buying is a natural phenomenon these days and. people submit to temptation and purchase something without even considering the consequences of the purchase. Weinberg & Gottwald. This unpleasant and anxiety feeling create dissonance in customer’s mind. 1985). Moreover. Rook & Hoch. 2. It is characterized by “(1) relatively rapid decision making and (2) a subjective bias in favor of immediate possession” (Rook & Gardner. Rook. 1987. It is such hedonically complex behavior in which “the rapidity of the impulse purchase decision process precludes thoughtful.1 Impulsive Buying Behavior Impulsive buying occurs when a consumer experiences a sudden powerful and persistent urge to buy something straightaway where the impulse to buy is hedonically complex and may stimulate emotional conflict (Rook. This report is also designed to find out whether all age groups ends up feeling the same level of cognitive dissonance because of impulsive purchase or not. Thompson et al. Rook. less deliberate. All the necessary information will be obtained by carefully surveyed questionnaire among our respondents and interpreted using the all the statistical mechanism so far we have been taught in the class.1.

1980) and to risk aversion and parsimony. “High impulsive buyers are likely to be unreflective in their thinking. “It is useful to think of consumer impulsivity as a lifestyle trait” (Heslin & Johnson. 1980. 1985. Profiles of highly impulsive shoppers are identified by marketers so that promotions can be targeted at these individuals (Beatty & Ferrell. In this definition. “Impulse buying is presumably sensitive to consumers’ mood states” (Gardner. Thompson et al. perceived consequences and the influences of others (Kacen & Lee. Also. style or music may have immediate effects” on decision making than other advertising elements. Raju. the store itself can offer a unique atmosphere or environment that may impact the consumers’ buying behavior (Kotler. credit cards. Where retailers are facing an undeniably competitive market place and finding it more and more challenging to differentiate their stores. lighting. The “in-store elements such as color. It is easier than before for consumers to buy impulsively & further researches are done on explaining the details of how the marketing factors (e. Store image is additionally characterized as the total envisioned support that people partner with shopping at a specific store (Kunkel & Berry. 1998). 1986). 1972). 2002). 2002). “Recreational shopping is also presumably correlated positively with impulse buying frequencies” (Bellenger & Korgaonkar. “to personality traits such as variety and sensation seeking” (Hirschman. Tauber.behavior” (Kacen & Lee. 1982.. store layout is part functional attribute and part “Psychological attributes”. 1991. 1985). 1973). feeling of friendliness and the likes” (Mazursky & Jacoby. 1994).g. 1990). “Consumer impulsiveness is probably related to various aspects of general acquisitiveness and materialism” (Belk. risk avoidance. store ambience.2 Store Ambience Martineau defined store ambience as “the way in which the store is defined in the shopper’s mind. 1987). 1980. Store ambience has likewise been acknowledged to be one of the very 7 . 1985). “people vary in their impulse buying proclivities” (Rook. which refers to “things like sense of belonging. to be emotionally attracted to the object and to desire immediate gratification” (Hoch & Loewenstein. which are “not present at the point of purchase” (Baker & Parasuraman. 2. 1984. 1987). Rook. partly by its functional qualities and partly by an aura of psychological attributes” (1958:47). Many other aspects are also likely to interact with impulsiveness including hedonism. window displays) support impulsive purchasing and which ones influence the impulsive buying behavior strongly (Kacen & Lee.. 2002). 1968).

2017 Repl. In various studies. 1997). Millman (1986) argued that negative affect induced by price hikes might overturn spending by limiting purchase consideration whereas. 1983). Rook. Zimmer & Golden. food or services to be received. 1994). 1974). Unexpected price discounts cause a “generalized affective effect on consumers” (Janakiraman et al. Vol. 1987). Consumers experience a persistent urge for impulse purchases when they visually encounter cues such as promotional incentives (Dholakia. H1: Ambience of a clothing store has no influence on consumers’ buying clothes impulsively. rebate or other promotional device offered to induce a consumer to purchase goods. “social factors and design of the store had a positive impact on pleasure & ambience positively affected arousal” (Sherman et al. 2006). 1974. Conceptual & empirical research to date has identified store environment as component of store image which in turn influences consumer impulsiveness (Lindquist. Both managers and researchers have perceived that store ambience is an imperative marketing tool and that it impacts consumers’ buying decisions (Sherowski. 1994). Mazursky & Jacoby. “Mattila and Wirtz (2008) found that store environmental stimuli positively affect impulse buying behavior especially when the store environment is perceived as over- stimulating (excitement and stimulation)” (Muruganantham & Bhakat.)." (Ann.. H1a: Ambience of a clothing store significantly influences consumers’ buying clothes impulsively. it has been suggested that. Ambient elements in the store environment “provide cues upon which consumers base their quality inferences” (Baker & Parasuraman. Thus. 1997). This explains why shoppers as well as impulse shoppers have urge for impulse purchases. 2. or general attitude towards the store (Baker & Parasuraman. One feasible opportunity for consumers to purchasing impulse is point of purchase promotions (POP) which 8 . Studies reaffirm that “retailers should pay attention to consumer’s in-store emotional state (pleasure and arousal). food or services and for which (i) no direct consideration is given by the consumer or (ii) the consideration given is less than the value of the goods.many contributions to the consumer’s global store image. 2013). Impulse purchasing may occur as a result of marketers’ manipulations through free products and price discounts with other promotional incentives (Kotler. 2000. positive affect induced by price drops might increase spending by expanding consideration. 1986. because the emotions of consumers are important factors in buyer behavior” (Sherman et al. 1988)...3 Promotional Approaches The “promotional incentive” is defined as a "coupon.

4 Window Displays Window displays are traditional in “brick-and-mortar (B&M) stores to bring products to the attention of potential customers” (Breugelmans and Campo. “Impulse buyers are often drawn to a mysterious attraction of the product which motivates the buyer to purchase the item. 1987) “and less likely to thoroughly evaluate their purchase decisions than a typical informed shopper” (Jones et al. its products. and services (Sen et al.. H2a: Promotional approaches on clothing has significant influence on consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. 2003). East et al.. “Impulse buyers are less likely to consider the consequences of buying on impulse” (Rook. 2. 2004). and are more focused on the immediate gratification of purchasing the product due to the promotional approaches. 2002). Consumers become inclined to purchase since the showcasing in the window displays attracts them. 2017). 108). Dhar et al.. Thus.. “The windows are the first look a customer gets before she comes into a store” (Klokis. Window displays are a significant component of the retail mix as they are used to communicate information about the store. The mere purchase effect holds that promotions-induced purchases take place at a wide volume and increase future sales (Blattberg & Neslin. Studies have demonstrated strong experimental proof that by showcasing particular items (clothing/apparels). A reestablished confidence among retailers in the capacity of window displays to catch shoppers' attention and draw them into a store has created late enthusiasm for this specialized tool following quite a while of disregard. The emphasis of window display in instigating impulsive purchasing conduct of consumers has received impressive measure of significance in literature (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi..is conducive to manipulating consumers immediate decision making on purchasing (Madhavaram & Laverie. 1982). McKinnon et al.” (Rook. (Sen et al. window displays can boost sales due to increased impulse purchase of consumers (Bemmaor and Mouchoux 1991. 2002). H2: Promotional approaches on clothing has no influence on consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. 1983) and “first impressions of the store image is generally created at the façade level” (Karbasivar 9 .. 1991). 2001. p. 2011). And it is more frequent in impulse purchases of apparels. 1987) and this is believed to be more frequent in apparel industry. Since a consumer’s choice of a store is determined by the physical attractiveness or outlook of the store (Darden et al. Wilkinson et al. 1986.. 1990). They are more willing to accept spontaneous buying ideas (Hoch and Loewenstein. 2003.. 1981.

McKinnon et al... This presents an opportunity: if we can identify how to effectively arrest attention. H3: Window displays of a clothing store cannot influence consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. Window displays make a shopper step in the shop resulting in an impulse purchase in most cases.” (Edwards & Shackley. 1982). 1998) and it likely generates and accelerates the ‘development of impulse buying” (Robert & Jones. H3a: Window displays of a clothing store can significantly influence consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. 1992). The use of credit cards lowers the perceived cost and even from bigger to biggest future use (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi. The modern setting of display. ‘that credit card possession is related to buying higher priced items” (Deshpande & Krishnan. it can be concluded that window displays may influence at least to some extent consumers choice of a store when they do not go out with a very specific purpose of visiting a certain store and purchasing a particular item (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi. 2017). The most initial step to getting customers to buy or make a purchase is “getting them in the door” (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi. East et al. Thus. 2017).5 Credit Card Purchase “Credit cards are seen as a convenient and relatively painless way to spend” (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi. 2017). credit cards lead to higher profligacy (Karbasivar and Yarahmadi. According to the consumer researchers. Hence compared to cash. 2003. Furthermore. window displays attract passersby’s attention widely (Diamond & Diamond. 1992). 1996). Widespread usage of credit cards enlightens the fact that consumer preferences concerning “prearranged lines of credit” while technological advancements make it much more feasible for “creditors to offer revolving credit” (Durkin. while much of the rest is through hearing. 2017).. heavy credit card users are found to be less price conscious (Tokunga. 2017). Dhar et al. 1996). 1993). (Edwards & Shackley. 2001). Faster and feasible access to credit cards eradicates the immediate need for money to make a purchase which is conducive to overspending of consumers (Schor. Window displays are conducive for bringing customers in the door which in turn leads to an impulse purchase. 2017). 2000). 2. then window display has more likelihood of succeeding. light and color ultimately transforms passersby into impulse shoppers (Diamond & Diamond. 10 .and Yarahmadi. 2001. sales can be increased due to the increased amount of impulse purchases of consumers (Bemmaor and Mouchoux 1991. “It is estimated that 90 per cent of the stimuli consumers perceive come through sight. 1981. There are strong empirical evidences on how displaying specific products. Wilkinson et al. 1980)..

occupation and marital states” (Chien and Devaney. H4a: Opportunity of purchasing clothes with Credit Card can significantly influence consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. a concern prevails to examine and investigate the relationship between impulse buying behavior and credit card purchase. 1984).Since impulsive buying behavior may be instigated by the usage of credit cards.6 Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance is an emotional feeling which provides psychological discomfort (Carlsmith & Aronson. 1999. 1972). uncertainty or doubt (Menasco & Hawkins.. education.. Cognition dissonance generally occurs when an opinion is shaped or a choice is being made and provides cognitions to guide people to different directions (Festinger. 2001. puts a person into a mentally unpleasant state with anxiety. Dissonance is comparatively less related with inconsistency among acknowledgement. 2001. 1995. 2000. Montgomery & Barnes. rather it is strongly linked the expectations of undesirable outcomes (Cooper and Fazio. There is strong empirical evidence that possession of credit card and use of credit card is positively/directly correlated with the “anticipation and actualization of further usage” (Feinberg. Many researches and studies have investigated and examined the “effects of demographic and economic variable son credit card use. 1957) and emotions comprise of agonizing and intolerable sentiments. such as age. Mowen. In regard to that. It is a mentally unstable state created by conflicting cognitions. what might cause dissonance are the substantial amount of money and emotional cost a customer invests into a purchasing 11 . 2001. 1978). Min. 1999. 2nd Regression Model 2. 1993. Hayoe et al. 1963). Every purchase might not create dissonance within the customers. Kim. Robert and Jones (2001) also reinforced the assisting nature of credit cards on consumer’s impulse spending. Hayoe et al. Xiao et al. 1995) “and credit attitude” (Davis and Lea. 1986). Xiao et al. 1995) and generates regret or remorse in customers’ mind in response to salesperson’s advances (Insko & Schopler. income. beliefs and activities (Menasco & Hawkins. H4: Opportunity of purchasing clothes with Credit Card cannot influence consumers’ purchasing clothes impulsively. Thus. 1978. Cognitive dissonance is a conscious way of rationalizing or articulating the discomforting feeling which itself caused by the psychological disharmony and clashes between convictions. 1995). Kim.

Research has suggested that the reason behind the cognitive dissonance is that it is psychologically uncomfortable and difficult to hold a conflicting perceptions or distress following an impulse buying. H5a: Purchasing cloths impulsively significantly correlated with cognitive dissonance. Discomfort is basically an unpleasant psychological feeling one experiences when there is a discrepancy between what the buyer believes and the information that helped him taking the decision calls into question (Festinger. Evidences have been founded in favor of the researches (Sweeny et al. many researchers suggest that impulsive buying causes more cognitive dissonance than planned purchases. Lately.7 Emotional Discomfort Emotional discomfort is the psychologically unpleasant or distress emotion a person feels consequent to their purchase decision (Sweeny et al. 1995). 1991). consumer satisfaction level.decision (Cummings & Venkatesan.. 2. Emotional discomfort.. 1977).. 1995. 1994). 1963) and the feeling generally caused by anxiety. Highly involved customers have a greater ability to handle risks since more available information. Due to having lack of proper information about the product prior to the purchase. Cognitive dissonance has been characterized as a psychological discomfort (Carlsmith et al. 1976). their attributes and way of perceiving the deals or the arrangement have strong relationship with post-purchase cognitive dissonance. Satisfaction can be depicted as the disparity between expected performance of the product and corresponding product standard which was the customer supposed to get (Westbrook and Oliver. following an impulsive purchase.. wisdom of purchase and concern over the deal are the three most important factors behind causing cognitive dissonance in the customer’s mind. 2000) and it was concluded that. impulsive buying requires less involvement and data collection before making a purchasing decision. Satisfaction level is one of the fundamental factors behind the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. 12 . Since satisfaction is generated from intellectual judgement. a breach or confusion in such understanding can cause cognitive dissonance in customers (Dhabolkar. numerous researches has been conducted on cognitive dissonance and impulsive buying. 2006). 2000). Following the research path of Festinger’s early work (1957). On the contrary. Sometimes the feeling can be generated by being controlled by the salesman's persuading power and that may make inconvenience and also psychological disharmony inside the client's brain. H5: Purchasing cloths impulsively and cognitive dissonance are not correlated. Oliver. data collection and analysis are done by them (Smith et al. impulsive purchase is more likely to go wrong and cause cognitive dissonance (Rook and Fisher. research. uncertainty or doubt.

as a consequence. 1998). impulsive characteristics occur because of the absence of self-control (Strack and Deutsch. Generally. can bring down their confidence level and can have terrible effect on their interpersonal relationships (Hoch and Loewenstein. This condition can lead to post-purchase scenarios. Consequently. impulsive individuals with post-purchase emotional discomfort might end up feeling considerably higher level of cognitive dissonance than others. following and impulsive buying. Mostly. 1985) are likewise to be blamed because it causes an uncertain feeling among the buyers and. 1987). this occurs when the customers fail to find a legitimate reason or explanation behind their purchasing decision. broken confidence and low self-esteem (Kaplan and Kaplan. They said they encounter negative emotional feelings starting from guilt to disappointment for obtaining the item if they make the purchase despite their financial hardship (Rook.Impulsive buy conceptualizes the desire of acquiring a particular product or service. most buyer tend to think if their intellectual consistency and freedom of conviction are compromised to various selling approaches made by the seller (Cummings and Venkatesan. these outcomes and feelings can lead people to be mentally repentant. it was statically proven that buyer with higher impulsive characteristics tends to encounter more emotional discomfort and cognitive dissonance due to them putting lack of consideration their choice. 1976). initial research on compulsive buyers suggests that a significant number of customers show great deal of interest after they purchase the product (Faber et al. Thus. They can also feel they are tricked or deceived by the false-confirmation and manipulating skills of the salespersons. they settle on questionable decisions. Elliot and Devine’s research also explored the idea of this theory and empirically proposed a supportive proposition which discusses the strong relationship between having emotional discomfort and cognitive dissonance following an impulsive purchase. people with high impulsive characteristics might turn out to be more inclined to having emotional uneasiness and discomfort (Wood. Untrue fantasies. As a result. 13 . H6a: Emotional discomfort after purchasing clothes has significant positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. H6: Emotional discomfort after purchasing clothes does not have any positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. 1987). However. The characteristics of the customers can have a big influence on making impulsive decisions. In a post-purchase scenario. After making a purchase. 1987).. 2004).

A person acknowledges and gives the affirmation simply after effectively judging the quality of the product and accepting the wisdom of taking the right decision. this may bring down their satisfaction level on the product and generate psychological discomfort. Usually either anxiety or positive feelings is the psychological emotions they receive by doing that. A customer buys his desired product or service to avail the benefit and the utility out of it. 2003).. Subsequent to making an impulsive purchase. that he/she may not have needed the product or selected the appropriate or non- appropriate one in response to their demand (Sweeny et al. The abnormally high state of dissonance might cause them to have less level of perceived value of their purchased products and. If they feel they have made a wrong decision. they are less likely to experience positive satisfaction (Sweeny et al. the customers with high dissonance would confront greater difficulty in judging the quality and nature of the item. 14 . H7a: Wisdom of purchase after buying clothes has significant positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. Following their failed effort to find a suitable reason for their purchase can lead the customers into having cognitive dissonance (Shim and Drake. H7: Wisdom of purchase after buying clothes does not have any positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. These feeling encourages them to conceptualize the idea of acknowledging the purchasing decision they have made. However. the psychological feeling they will be receiving is positive. customer frequently questions their intention of buying the product and tries to discover proper justification behind the purchasing decision. as a consequence.” Assessing the quality and the nature of the product gives the purchaser assurance of determining whether he/she has settled on the correct decision or not (Pavlou. 2000)..2. after purchasing a product.8 Wisdom of Purchase Wisdom of purchase is the acknowledgment or the affirmation of a customer. those are asked by the buyer as soon as the purchase is conducted and they are “whether the correct decisions are made” and “whether the item was truly required. Wisdom of purchase is generally related with two inquiries. 1990). If the customer thinks he/she has made the right choice and will be able to make a good utility of it. the result might turn out to be reverse. 2001). This works when the buyer shows positive confirmation and post-purchase sentiment towards the product and their choice. dissonance and remorse in the customer’s mind (McCole and Palmer. 2000).

It could be concluded that concern over deals generally occurs because of the discrepancy of the available information about product characteristics and doubt over the deal with the salesperson. 2006). Generally. caused by the tension of having obscure results or outcomes. If there is any inconsistency in any of these variables. 1984). However. this inclination produces an unpleasant feeling within the buyers' mind as they believe they have been tricked or there is some kind of problem with the arrangement they got. “whether the product is the right choice” and “does this product capable enough to serve him/her with promised quality and service” are the questions they ask themselves. In most of the situations. for the most part. Customers also start scrutinizing their purchasing decision and wonder whether their consistency of cognitive decision making is compromised (Scrone et al. 1998). better relationship and utmost cooperation with the customers. people expect sellers to have higher level of trust.2. “Whether the product is really needed”.9 Concern over Deal Concern over deal generally occurs when a person believes or acknowledges that the purchase has been made by the influence or the skills of the salesperson against their own convictions and beliefs (Sweeny et al. judging the quality becomes over looked by the assurance and the selling skills of the salespeople (Bagozzi. customers begin to feel cognitive dissonance inside of their minds’ and they start having negative feeling about the deal itself. also a feeling of regret and apprehension is felt by them because of their impulsive buying decision (Cooper and Fazio. H8a: Concern over deal after purchasing clothes has significant positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. They also show their doubt towards the favorability of the deal by wondering whether they could have bargained a better deal out of it. Having concerns about the arrangements. This inclination will subsequently lead them to have lower level of satisfaction regarding the product and have less association with the brand.. concern over the deal has big impact on the perceived value of the customers and their satisfactions on the product. Customers also start to question the perceived value of the product and find it difficult to judge the quality of the product. concern over the deal comes in.. the customers start to have doubts and show their concern over the deals they have got. 15 . Recent research shows customers can frequently encounter both trust and distrust at the same time (Lewicki et al. Thus. Looking from the emotional perspective. Individuals do quality judgement before and after the purchase they make and try to find assurance to defend their decision. 2000). Such concerns are. H8: Concern over deal after purchasing clothes does not have any positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. 1994).

H9: Negative affect after purchasing clothes does not have any positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. it happens when the perceived actual performance is less than it was expected. In response to the product assurance and the selling skills of the sales representatives. 1956). This might create dissonance among the customer mindset and have negative feeling about the deal they have got. Post-purchase emotional state generally occurs when pre-purchase expectation is met or disconfirmed with the post-purchase service of the product (Oliver. 1965). If the actual performance is slightly greater or less than the expected performance. A slight distinction in expectation and reality is not enough to create distress and dissonance in customer’s mind (Anderson. Dissatisfaction can be conceptualized as a psychological state of mind resulting from the feeling of negative discomfort. 1980). difference in expectation and reality does not necessarily create dissonance in customer’s mind.2.10 Negative Effect Negative effect is the emotional or psychological distress people feel when their pre-purchase expectation does not match or coordinate with post-purchase expectation (Beatty and Ferrell. H9a: Negative affect after purchasing clothes has significant positive relation on cognitive dissonance of consumers. but it can be compromised if there is discrepancy between the expectation and the real service of the product. 1963). The theories of negative effects suggest that dissonance is generally involved with the difference between pre-purchase expectation and post-purchase perceived quality. then the discomfort or expectation mismatch might not occur (Erevelles and Leavitt. 1977). yet it can make a disconfirm in desire which may lead the purchaser to have lower satisfaction. Giving less consideration towards the utility and the reliability of the product or service can also create low satisfaction level after the purchase is made (Russell. 16 . This theory also proposes if there is low level of research effort and expectation involved in buying decision. Customers can frequently encounter this sort of unpleasant feeling because of both planned and impulsive purchasing. 2017). Contrast theory suggests that sufficiently large contrast amongst expectation and product performance leads the purchaser to notice and magnify the gap because of the unexpected impact of encountering unexpected differences (Spector. a purchaser can buy an item without giving any quality judgment. Perceived value is the positive outcome and utility a person anticipates from their buy. the buyer is going to experience less dissonance and it may likewise reduce their emotional discomfort (Cardozo. Generally. However. 1992).

Theoretical Framework T-Test based ANOVA based Store Ambience on Age Groups on Gender Wisdom of Purchase Promotional Approaches Emotional Discomfort Window Impulsive Buying Buyer’s Remorse/ Displays Behavior Cognitive Dissonance (IBB) Concern over Deal Credit Card Negative Purchase Affect Regression Model 2 Regression Model 1 (Variables: Scalar/Dummy (Variables: Scalar/Dummy coded) coded) 17 .

Promotional Approaches. Wisdom of Purchase & Concern Over Deal. Concern Over Deal and Emotional Discomfort respectively. Negative Affect. Store Ambience.3. Seven-point likert scales were used (1 = “strongly disagree”. 18 . Window Display. As for Negative Affect a three item scale was adopted from Beatty and Ferrell (2017). 7 = “strongly agree”) to conduct the survey. The self-administered survey was conducted from August 10th. Soutar and Johnson (1998) for Cognitive Dissonance. Credit Card. Shegun Bagicha. Methodology 3. Credit Card Purchase. For Store Ambience. Eckman and Yan (2017). Cognitive Dissonance. Emotional Discomfort. Sweeney. Khilgaon. Uttara & Mirpur in Dhaka city. across impulse purchasers of clothes who were residing in different locations in Dhaka city. along with their mean and standard deviation. a five item scales were adopted from Chang. Shantinagar. all of who were impulse buyers. A five item scale and three four item scales were adapted from Karbasivar and Yarahmadi (2017) for Impulsive Buying.1 Sampling Data were collected using the convenience method from Bashundhara. Wisdom of Purchase. Three three item scales and one ten item scale were adapted from Hausknecht. The following table lists all the items and their corresponding constructs. 3. 2017. A total of 140 respondents. participated in the study. and cronbach‟s alpha for each variable. The questionnaire presented the respondents with a set of statements regarding their impulse purchase of clothing and remorse/cognitive dissonance/possible dissatisfaction after the purchase. Promotional Approaches and Window Display respectively.2 Measures Variables in the model include Impulsive Buying Behavior.

761 Window Display WD1.179) WD2.44 1.45 2.984 0.79 1.If I see discount price.763 (Karbasivar and IB2.763 IB4. p.36 1.001 Approaches PA2. I make a purchase 4.06 1. 2017.I generally use Credit Card. Yarahmadi. 4.61 1.39 2.I tend to buy clothing if I really like it. 5.877 3. Yarahmadi. p. 5.49 2.603 3.I pay attention to shop’s window display. I buy clothes that 3. PA4.910 Yarahmadi. 3.I am interested in shopping at well-designed window shops.083 are not even necessary.89 1.sometimes I only visit shops because their 3.179) IB3. 2017.428 19 .When I have the Credit Card.Description Mean SD Impulse Buying IB1.117 Credit Card CC1.50 1.I get motivated to make a purchase when I see (Karbasivar and free product with it 4.784 4.3 Table: Measures of Variables Variable Item.097 (Karbasivar and CC2. 4.179) CC3.948 0. 4.179) PA3. 2017.I am less concerned with the price of the cloth.592 WD3.Sometimes I buy clothes to feel better.88 1. p.3.75 1. Cronbach’s Alpha: CC4.I buy clothing in shops with discount price.I buy clothing if I can get free product. Cronbach’s Alpha: IB5. 2017.61 1.I use Credit Card to buy clothing.964 Promotional PA1.93 1.99 1.A nice cloth can drive me to make a purchase Yarahmadi. p.862 (Karbasivar and window displays are beautiful.I buy clothes without giving second thought 4.18 2.Credit Card drives me to make a purchase 3.722 Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.823 3.

choice.996 a purchase SA3.After a purchase.After a purchase I wonder if the cloth I bought 4.I feel upset if my pre-purchase expectation does not match post-purchase performance 5.896 a purchase SA5. p.814 (Chang.125) kept on looking.759 does not match post-purchase performance Cognitive Dissonance CD1.01 1.Cleanliness of a store can drive me to make a 4.71 1.35 1.Bright colored shop can drive me to make a purchase Negative Affect NA1.587 (Hausknecht.64 1.A relaxing place to shop can drive me to make 4. p. I wonder if I should have 4.59 1.I feel distressed if my pre-purchase 5. expectation does not match post-purchase 2017.770 is worth the money I spent on it 20 .81 1.Sometimes I buy clothing in effect of shop’s 4.743 window display.181) performance 5.784 0.580 0.490 NA2. Sweeney.A pleasant place to shop can drive me to make 4.990 Cronbach’s Alpha: a purchase 0.84 1. Soutar and Johnson. p. Cronbach’s Alpha: CD3. Eckman and purchase Yan.Cronbach’s Alpha: WD4. I wonder if I made the right 4.240) SA2.494 Cronbach’s Alpha: NA3.817 (Beatty and Ferrell. CD2.604 1998. Store Ambient/Design SA1.06 1.Interior design of a shop can drive me to make 4.I feel irritable if my pre-purchase expectation 0. 2017.47 1.26 1.After a purchase.882 SA4.97 1.

836 (Hausknecht. I wonder whether I should 3.784 1998.750 3.686 2. I felt tasteless 3.After a purchase. fooled Soutar and Johnson.After a purchase.After a purchase.93 1.849 Concern Over Deal OD1.705 0. Sweeney. cloth Soutar and Johnson.035 (Hausknecht.825 cloth Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.After a purchase. OD2.04 1.04 1. I felt angry 3.07 1. I was in pain Cronbach’s Alpha: ED8.59 1. Sweeney.90 1.86 1.After a purchase.806 0.814 1998.17 1.937 ED9. myself Soutar and Johnson.81 1.125) deceived me Cronbach’s Alpha: OD3.783 ED5. I wondered if I had been 3.After a purchase. I wondered whether there 3.After a purchase.712 3. Sweeney. I wondered if they had 3.125) have bought any cloth at all WP3.After a purchase.After a purchase.After a purchase.After a purchase. ED2.After purchase.381) ED3.After a purchase.95 1. I wonder if I bought the right 4. I felt dissatisfied 3.29 1. I felt I had let myself down 2. I wonder if I really need this 4.94 1.743 2. I felt uneasy ED4.26 1.After a purchase.755 Wisdom of Purchase WP1. I felt furious with myself ED10. p.829 (Hausknecht.867 1998.94 1.Emotional Discomfort ED1. WP2. I felt depressed 3. p. I felt disappointed with 3.17 1. I felt annoyed ED6.17 2. p.893 was something wrong with the deal I got 21 .After a purchase.After a purchase.668 ED7.

22 .

05 significance level thus.2 ANOVA on Cognitive Dissonance level felt by different age groups Ho: All age groups result in the same level of Cognitive Dissonance after purchasing cloths.17.05. Cognitive Dissonance after purchase of clothes for male & female are the same. 23 . p-value= 0. F(Female)= 15. we cannot reject null hypothesis at 0.068 Since. 4. Hypothesis Testing 4.842.89.1 T-Test based on Gender Ho: Cognitive Dissonance after purchase of clothes for male & female are the same. t(138)= 1. M(Male)= 13. p-value is greater than 0. Ha: Cognitive Dissonance after purchase of clothes for male & female are significantly different.4. Ha: At least one of the age groups has significantly different cognitive dissonance level than any other group after purchasing cloths.

From the mean table. we can see that there is noticeable difference amongst the mean.Step-1: Infer from the mean difference whether ANOVA is justified. From 24 .

Step-2: Check for outliers. 25 . There is a small sample of outlier in the age group from 20-25. Therefore. we believe it is acceptable. So. From the outlier diagram. we can conclude that ANOVA testing is possible.plotting the means on an error bar. we see that a single parallel line cannot be drawn through all the 4 means. but that is really minimal and will not have any impact on the result. we see that there is no problem with the outlier issues with most of the age groups.

Step-4 Check for homogeneity of variance.136) = .Step-3: Check for normality.689.05 and it also suggests that we have passed the homogeneity of variance test. 26 . we see that most of the observation lies on the straight line suggesting the residual distribution is normal. Lavene’s Statistics (2. From the normal Q-Q plot. we see that the p-value is greater than 0. p-value = .504 From Lavene’s statistics.

05.05. 27 .136) = . F (3. this means people from all age groups result in the same level of cognitive dissonance after purchasing cloths.210. So.Step-5: Testing of the hypothesis.890 Since the p-value is greater than 0. we do not reject the null hypothesis at significance level . p-value = .

890) is greater than 0. 28 . Promotional Approaches. Since we see all age groups have the same level of cognitive dissonance. we see that the significance level (. we can say that there is no age group that has significant comparison compared to other groups. Store Ambience) explain significant variability in Impulsive Buying Behavior in purchasing clothes.3 1st Regression Proposed Regression Model Y= a+b1x1+b2x2+b3x3+b4x4 Here. Therefore. where.b4= co-efficient.b3. Window Display. Y= Impulsive Buying Behavior a= constant b1.Step-6: Conduct multiple comparison to find out which group differs from which one(s). Promotional Approaches.05 suggesting all age groups result in the same level of cognitive dissonance after buying cloths. b1= Credit Card b2= Promotional Approaches b3= Window Display b4= Store Ambience Hypothesis Ho: None of the four independent variables (Credit Card. no comparison test is needed for the ANOVA test. 4.b2. Window Display. Ha: At least of the four independent variables (Credit Card. From the ANOVA table. Store Ambience) explain any variability in Impulsive Buying Behavior in purchasing clothes.

we can see that the p-value (0. Promotional Approaches.315(Window Display) +0.490) is greater than 0.05 in the coefficient table. Window 29 .05. hence we reject null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis at 0.000) is less than 0.531 +0. Interpretation From the Anova Table.394(Store Ambience) The variable Promotional Approaches has been excluded because its p-value(0.241(Credit Card) +0.05 significance level.Extracted Model Impulsive Buying Behavior= 5. This means that at least of the four independent variables (Credit Card.

Ha: At least one of the independent variables (Negative Affect. Window Display and Store Ambience. Wisdom of Purchase.Display. 2nd Regression Proposed Regression Model. R-square= 0. Store Ambience) explain significant variability in Impulsive Buying Behavior in purchasing clothes. b3. Emotional Discomfort. Y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x3 + b4x4 Here. 30 . b2. b4 = Coefficients b1 = Negative Affect b2 = Emotional Discomfort b3 = Wisdom of Purchase b4 = Concern over Deal 4. Ho: None of the independent variables (Negative Affect.4% variability in Impulsive Buying Behavior in purchasing clothes can be explained by Credit Card. Concern over Deal) explains significant variability in cognitive dissonance after purchasing cloths. Y = Cognitive Dissonance a = Constant b1.534. Promotional Approaches. means 53. Wisdom of Purchase. Emotional Discomfort.4 2nd Regression. Concern over Deal) explains significant variability in cognitive dissonance after purchasing cloths.

Extracted Model.05. we can see that the p-value (.05 significance level. Emotional Discomfort. From ANOVA table.312 (Concern over Deal) Emotional discomfort variable has been excluded from the extracted model due to its p-value being greater than 0.154 (Negative Affect) + .302 (Wisdom of Purchase) + . This means at least one of the four independent variables (Negative Affect. This means we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis at 0.868 + . Wisdom 31 .000) is less than 0.05 Interpretation. Cognitive Dissonance = 5.

Concern over Deal) explains significant variability in cognitive dissonance after purchasing cloths.of Purchase. Wisdom of Purchase.411. Test of Pearson Correlation Assumption 01: Here. Concern over Deal. Ha: Purchasing clothes impulsively and cognitive dissonance after purchasing clothes are significantly correlated.5 Correlation Ho: Purchasing clothes impulsively and cognitive dissonance after purchasing clothes are not correlated. which means 41.1% variability can be explained in cognitive dissonance by Negative Affect. all the variables both dependent and independent from regression model 1 & 2 considered in study are scalar (continuous). Assumption 02: 32 . 4. R-Square = . Emotional Discomfort.

33 . we see a normal curve within which lies majority of the frequencies of both Impulsive Buying Behavior & Cognitive Dissonance explaining that the distribution is normal.Interpretation From both the histograms.

34 . Assumption 04: From the Scatter Plot Graph.Assumption 03: From the Scatter Plot Graph. Assumption 05: From the Scatter Plot Graph. we see that number of outliers are minimum. we see that most of the observation lies on the straight line suggesting that the relationship is linear. we see that most of the observations follow a pattern suggesting that the responses in reflective scales of all the variables are similar or close which explains that the data shows homoscedasticity or have equal variance.

6 Pearson N= 140. p-value= 0.422) suggests that the strength of correlation is moderate.422.05 we reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis at 0.000 Since. p-value is less than 0.05 significance level which explains that purchasing clothes impulsively and cognitive dissonance after purchasing clothes are significantly correlated. Correlation Co-efficient. Correlation Co-efficient. r (0. r= 0.4. 35 .

According to theories. does not. Theoretically.5. On the other hand. in turn. it has been found that. 36 . becomes conducive to conducting an unplanned purchase of cloth. Discussions 5. Moreover theories also imply that consumers whose mental activity is low. The bright and soothing colors insist a higher impulse purchase. From the study conducted among the participants in Dhaka city. after an impulse purchase of cloth. it is observed that credit card purchase. wisdom of purchase and concern over deal. people are more likely to yield to temptation of window displays. The possible reason behind such observations might be due to the small sample size and uneven participation of both genders. the store ambience of a clothing store generates consumers to yield in impulse purchase. emotional discomfort is proven to explain less effect in cognitive dissonance of participants compared to negative affect in consumers. The finding contradicts the existing theories since it has been proven that emotional discomfort after an impulse purchase results in cognitive dissonance of a consumer. This. From the findings of the study. window displays of a clothing store and store ambience play a vital role in insisting impulsive buying behavior of a consumer while promotional approaches which was another variable of impulsive buying behavior. store ambiences and buy clothes impulsively. cleanliness and pleasant environment of a store highly initiates a consumer to look around the clothing stores coupled with bright and colorful window displays which drives consumers to step in a clothing store.1 Theoretical Implications The suggestions for impulsive customer conduct give a clear impression. cognitive dissonance befalls which is further proven in the study conducted among the impulse cloth purchasers resulting in a moderate correlation between the impulsive buying behavior of consumers and possible dissatisfaction/remorse after the purchase or cognitive dissonance in clothing industries of Bangladesh. their emotions are impaired while making a purchase decision resulting in an impulse purchase. In most cases.

By taking necessary steps to reduce such feelings. we can see that impulsive buying behavior is influenced by a number of factors. As a consequence. Negative affect is the emotional or psychological distress people feel when their pre-purchase expectations does not match with the post-purchase service of the product. managers can first and foremost focus on improving store ambience. debit and credit cards. Since impulsive purchase from the customers generate sales and profit. Our survey was conducted based on the economical means of cash. Attractive and beautiful dresses grab attention of the people and make them interested to come inside the shop.2 Managerial Implications: Based on our research and analysis. Research on cognitive dissonance also suggest a few factors that influence the unpleasant and uneasy feeling of the customers. This research also suggests manager should also heavily focus on improving the window displays of their shops since it attracts a lot of customers into the shop and make them buy products. To drive up the impulsive buying behavior. A welcoming. managers from clothing stores can use this as their benefit. this might help the organizations to rack up more sales.5. By making the store look inviting and comfortable. To reduce that feeling. what the manager can improve on is they can also enable online purchasing ability and installment payment system to encourage people to make more purchasing decisions. attractive and friendly store atmosphere can certainly improve the sales and the manager should grab the opportunity to make the store visually more appealing to rack up more sales. By focusing on such factors. managers can improve the foot traffic and bring more customers in the shop. managers can make customers more loyal and content with the purchase customers make. Another factor manager can really focus on is making more means of availing products. Our research also suggests people mostly make impulsive buying decisions when they have excess supply of funds. managers should focus delivering the quality products as they promise to the customers and make sure the expectation level of the customer is matched. Focusing more on quality assurance and after purchase support can bring up the satisfaction level of the customers and reduce 37 . But. The sales person should give the customers to have sufficient amount of time to conduct quality judgement and they should also give assurance about the after purchase service of the product. managers can take the benefit of customer’s impulsive buying decision and generate more profit for the organizations.

As a result. such feeling can be easily reduced. Managers should also focus on getting the approval in favor of wisdom of purchase from customer’s mind. Finding prior research information about this project has been really difficult.  Available data required for this research work was also limited. To clear up any confusion regarding the purchase and how the product might serve its purchase. we could have got more accurate results. we believe we will be able to deliver a more accurate result regarding this research topic in the future. Limitation of the Study: The limitations we faced along the course of this research project are:  Very few referable work has been done regarding this topic in the past. 38 . the salespeople can talk it through with the customers. Since individuals like to do quality judgment on their own. the managers should suggest the salesperson to enforce less on the customers and not to do over explain them about exaggerated assurances. If the stated limitations are properly taken care of. 6.negative affect. This might help them to bring up their satisfaction level and it also might end up making loyal to the products. By taking more sample sizes from different organizations. Salespeople should be refrained from using aggressive marketing tricks that might force the customer to think there is something wrong with the product or the deal. the buyers become more content with their purchase and it might lead them to make recurring purchase more.  Measures of data collected were limited.  The sample size was considerably small. Concern over deal usually occurs when they believe the purchasing decision was made because of the influence and the marketing skills of the salesperson.  Time constraint was a major issue. By taking necessary measures. A research analysis on such a vast topic requires more time and resource investment. By providing a lot of information regarding the product can give a sense of justification and acknowledgement for the customers whether they have made the right choice or not. instead they should only answer to the queries which were made by the customers.

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.. 1....... 7 = Strongly Agree ) Strongly disagree. CC2 I use Credit Card to buy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 clothes.. PA3 I buy clothes in shops 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 with discount price. PA2 I get motivated to make a purchase when I see free 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 product with it. Appendix The following questionnaire asks questions regarding your opinions/experiences on impulse purchase of clothes and possible dissatisfaction after purchase. 44 .. Impulse Purchase: An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service...... I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 make a purchase.......... CC1 I generally use Credit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Card. IB3 Sometimes I buy clothes to feel better....... Please take your time and answer them truthfully as per your ability. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IB4 I am less concerned with 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the price of the cloth... ( 1 = Strongly Disagree......... PA4 If I see discount price..... This survey is completely anonymous and the data will not be shared with anyone other than the researchers themselves and the concerned researching bodies...... IB5 I buy clothes without 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 giving second thought.. CC4 Credit Card drives me to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 make a purchase. IB2 A nice cloth can drive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 me to make a purchase... WD1 I only visit shops because their window displays are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 beautiful.Strongly Code Statement agree IB1 I tend to buy clothing if I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 really like it. CC3 When I have the Credit Card I buy clothes that 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 are not even necessary. PA1 I buy clothes if I can get 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 free product.. made just before a purchase. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with the following statements regarding your impulse purchase of clothes and possible dissatisfaction after the purchase..

.. WD3 I am interested in shopping at well.... CD2 After a purchase..... CD1 After a purchase...Strongly Code Statement agree WD2 I pay attention to shop’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 window display... I wonder if I should have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 kept on looking.. 45 . SA1 Cleanliness of a store can drive me to make a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 purchase.... ED1 After a purchase.. ED3 After a purchase..... SA2 A relaxing place to shop can drive me to make a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 purchase.... WD4 Sometimes I buy clothes in effect of shop’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 window display. I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 disappointed with myself.... NA3 I feel irritable if my pre- purchase expectation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 does not match post- purchase performance.. ED2 After a purchase..... CD3 After a purchase...... SA3 A pleasant place to shop can drive me to make a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 purchase. I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 angry.... NA1 I feel distressed if my pre- purchase expectation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 does not match post- purchase performance... I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 uneasy..... NA2 I feel upset if my pre- purchase expectation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 does not match post- purchase performance... Strongly disagree. I wonder if the cloth I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 bought is worth the money I spent on it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 designed window shops. I wonder if I made the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 right choice..... SA4 Interior design of a shop can drive me to make a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 purchase..

ED7 After a purchase..... I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 dissatisfied.. ED6 After a purchase. I was in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pain. ED10 After a purchase.. ED9 After a purchase....... I wonder if they had 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 deceived me.. OD2 After a purchase..... WP1 After a purchase.. ED8 After a purchase. I wonder if I really need 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 this cloth... Gender: □ Male □ Female 46 . I felt I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 had let myself down... Strongly disagree....... Age: ....Strongly Code Statement agree ED4 After a purchase...... I wonder if there was 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 something wrong with the deal I got. I wonder if I bought the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 right cloth. I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 tasteless.. I wonder if I had been 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 fooled....... 2..... ED5 After a purchase............... I wonder whether I should 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 have bought any cloth at all... 3. I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 furious with myself... OD3 After a purchase. WP2 After a purchase........ I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 annoyed.... WP3 After a purchase.. I felt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 depressed... OD1 After a purchase..