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Electrical measurements

X-Ray of lungs of 86 year old female admitted acutely short of breath

Female had fine inspiratory crepitations (soft fine crackling sound heard in
the lungs through the stethoscope. Crepitations are not normally heard in
healthy lungs) to the mid-zones bilaterally
Electrical Impedence measurements

Spirometry

Strains mechanical properties

Measure electrical conductivity of skin

SUDOSCAN
SUDOSCAN PRINCIPLE

Normal subject Patient with


neuropathy
Electronics in health care

The artificial cardiac pacemaker


requires highly miniaturized
electronics

www.medtronic.com

Implantable cardioverter Defib


PACEMAKER IMPLANT
EEG, EMG and Brain Machine
Interfaces
Brain Machine interfaces
Class Evaluations
1. What was the most interesting thing you learned in
class today?

2. What are you confused about?

3. Related to today’s subject, what would you like to


know more about?

4. General feedback, comments, remarks, etc


Email: renujohn@iith.ac.in

SUB: feedback from Bioengineering class


Green fluorescent Proteins
(GFP)

Bioengineering the cells to express the fluorescence

Genes can be cut from human, animal, or plant DNA and placed inside
bacteria. Eg. A healthy human gene for the hormone insulin can be put into
bacteria.
Under the right conditions, these bacteria can make authentic human insulin
GFPs

Absorption: 395 nm

Emission: 509 nm

Aequorea Victorea ( Jelly fish) GFP structure


Fluorescence
Plasmids
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
Stem cells in tissue
engineering

+ biomaterial

cells

Regenerative medicine
Biomechanics

Cardiovascular biomechanics
Power engineers
contribute to health care?

Cochlear implant, a 24 electrode probe stimulates the auditory nerve

A coil outside the skin transmits adequate power to a coil under the skin.
Each electrode stimulates nerves responding to a different frequency
How can electronics and communication
Engineering contribute to Health care?

Brain Machine
Interfaces
Biosensors in daily life

Blood glucose sensor

Implantable glucose
monitor for automated
insulin pumping

Blood test stations


Biomicrofluidics
Medical Imaging
• Magnetic Resonance
-MR Imaging
-MR Spectroscopy

• Nuclear Medicine
-PET (Positron emission tomography)
-SPECT (Single photon emission CT)

• Optical Imaging
-Bioluminescence
-Fluorescence
-Raman Spectroscopy
-Coherence (OCT)

• X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT)


-Contrast-enhanced

• Ultrasound
-Micro-bubbles
Biomedical Imaging & Diagnostic
Size Scales
Cellular
Imaging
(microns)
Molecular
Imaging
(nanometers)

Tissue Molecular
Imaging Vibrational
Visible (centimeters) Imaging
Human
Project (Angstroms)

Whole-Body
Imaging
Goal for Technology:
(meters) Detect / Image / Diagnose
disease at the earliest stage
…and then treat.
Biomedical
Cellular and
molecular Biomaterials
engineering

Biomechanics

Medical
imaging
Bioengineering
Molecular
imaging

Rehabilitation
Engineering

Clinical
engineering
Biosensors/bio
MEMS
The Next Decade of Medical Device Technologies

Projected Developments

• computer-related technologies,

• molecular medicine,

• home- and self-care,

• minimally invasive procedures,

• device/drug hybrid products, and

• organ replacement/assist devices using both hardware and


tissue-engineered components.